Tamil Hindu Encyclopaedia – 22 (தமிழ் மன்னர் செய்த யாகங்கள் Yagas by Tamil Kings)- Post 11,428

Prince Charles (now king) doing Yaga in Rishikesh


Post No. 11,428

Date uploaded in London – 9 November 2022                  

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com



 Amazing information about the Yagas and  Yagnas  performed by ancient Tamil Kings is available from the Sangam Tamil Literature, coins, inscriptions and Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa.

Kalidasa of the first century BCE is the first poet in India to connect Pandya Kings with Agastya and the Yagas. We know that Kalidasa was well versed with history from South India to Persians in Iran. We also know that Kalidasa was the first poet to describe the geography of a vast area in Asia. His depiction and description were confirmed by the Yupa Stamba coins, Asvamedha coins of Pandyas and the Mula varman’s Sanskrit inscription in the deepest forests of Borneo in Indonesia.

Following the oldest Pandya king Mudu Kudumi Peru Vazuthi , Mula varman (muula) also installed a Yupa pillar in the virgin forests of Indonesia in Fourth Century CE. He also did the 16 Dhanas mentioned in Hindu scriptures. No wonder Hindu Yagas spread up to Indonesia in 4th century CE itself. Varman suffix is found even Mahabharata and later Pallavas

The Pandya King Mudu Kudumi had the epithet “Pal Yaaga Saalai”, meaning King who performed simultaneously Many Yagas. One of the Sangam poets wonder how come he was able to erect so many Yupa pillars throughout Pandya country. Two more poets also praised him for the Yagas. Coins with his name Peru Vazuthi has Yupa post and Horse which confirmed he did Asvamedha Yaga. This is confirmed by the greatest poet of India Kalidasa of first century BCE (please see Penguin Book by Chandra Rajan and great Sanskrit scholars to confirm his First century date).

During Indumati Swayamvara all the kings of Akhanda Bharat/ Greater India were introduced to Princess Miss Indumati by her girl friend.  Coming to Pandya King she said,

विन्ध्यस्य संस्तम्भयिता महाद्रेर्निःशेषपीतोज्झितसिन्धुराजः|
प्रीत्याश्वमेधावभृथार्द्रमूर्तेः सौस्नातिको यस्य भवत्यगस्त्यः॥ ६-६१

vindhyasya saṁstambhayitā mahādrerniḥśeṣapītojjhitasindhurājaḥ |

prītyāśvamedhāvabhṛthārdramūrteḥ sausnātiko yasya bhavatyagastyaḥ || 6-61

6-61. vindhyasya mahA adreH= of Mt. vindhya, great, mountain; sa.mstambhayitA= one who stalled [its upward growth]; niHsheSha= completely; pIta= drunk; ujjhita= spoted; sindhu rAjaH= rivers, lord of – ocean – one who drank ocean and spouted it out; agastyaH= sage agastya; ashva medha= hose, ritual; avabhR^itha= a sacrted bathg on completing that ritual; Ardra mUrteH= wet, with body – when his body is still wet after the sacred bath; yasya= in whom; prItyA= friendlily, not by pity; sausnAtikaH= sukhena snAtaH iti pR^icChantaH – or – sushobhanam snAtam susnAtam pR^icChati; pR^icChatau susnAtAdibhyaH – those about whom enquiries are made if they have had a bath in due form after Vedic ritual

“Sage who stopped the upward growth of the great Vindhya mountain, who quaffed off and spouted out entire ocean, that sage Agastya will be the catechiser of this king when this Pandya king’s body is still wet after the concluding sacred bath of Ashvamedha ritual enquiring, ‘…have you performed the ceremony of ablution after Vedic-ritual ashvamedha properly….’ [6-61]

Greatest proof for Agastyaa- Pandyaa friendship and the clearest proof for Mudukudumi Peru Vazuthi’s Asvamedha yaaga comes from Kalidasa’ss Raghu vamsa. Sangam poets never praised any other Pandya in 3 or 4 places all mentioning his Yagas or Yupa posts.

Agastya belittling Vindyas= First man to cross Vindhyas through road route via the hills. Others used coastal routes to South India

Agastya drinking ocean= First man to cross Bay of Bengal/ Indian ocean with a huge Pandya army to establish Hindu Empire in 7 South East Asian countries which survived for 1500 years till Muslim invaders destroyed it.

One Pandya king has the epithet “who died in ocea”n and he was the one who sang about Indra’s Amrita in Tamil. And the oldest Sanskrit inscription found in Vietnam is from a Pandya King called Sri Maaran. No other king in India has Maaran suffix. Mula varman also confirmed it from Indonesia.


Now let us look at the details in Sangam Poems:

Purananuru verse 224 : Yaga by Karikal Choza

Poet Karungkuzal Aathanaar sings this after the death of Karikalan, the Greatest of the Choza kings. He says his wives were deprived of auspicious jewellery 9hinduwomen wont wear jewellery after husband’s death). Poet also mentioned among other the things the Yaga performed by Karikaalan.

The Yaga altar was inside the circular brick area. There was also an eagle shaped altar with a tall Yupa post.

The remarkable thing in the poem is Eagle Shaped Fire Altar and  Tall Yupa post.

Those who watched Californian Sanskrit scholar Johan Frederik “Frits” Staal (3 November 1930 – 19 February 2012) organising 12 day Agnicayana ritual in Panjal village of Kerala would know how this eagle shape altar was constructed.

Purananuru – Part 224

அருப்பம் பேணாது அமர் கடந்ததூஉம்;

துணை புணர் ஆயமொடு தசும்பு உடன் தொலைச்சி,

இரு பாண் ஒக்கல் கடும்பு புரந்ததூஉம்;

அறம் அறக் கண்ட நெறி மாண் அவையத்து,

முறை நற்கு அறியுநர் முன்னுறப் புகழ்ந்த5

தூ இயல் கொள்கைத் துகள் அறு மகளிரொடு,

பருதி உருவின் பல் படைப் புரிசை,

எருவை நுகர்ச்சியூப நெடுந் தூண்,

வேத வேள்வித் தொழில் முடித்ததூஉம்;

அறிந்தோன் மன்ற அறிவுடையாளன்:           10

இறந்தோன் தானே; அளித்து இவ் உலகம்!

அருவி மாறி, அஞ்சு வரக் கருகி,

பெரு வறங் கூர்ந்த வேனில் காலை,

பசித்த ஆயத்துப் பயன் நிரை தருமார்,

பூ வாள் கோவலர் பூவுடன் உதிரக்                15

கொய்து கட்டு அழித்த வேங்கையின்,

மெல் இயல் மகளிரும் இழை களைந்தனரே.

  சோழன் கரிகாற் பெருவளத்தானைக் கருங்குழலாதனார் பாடியது.

Translated by George L. III Hart

He won his victories in war, never sparing strong fortresses!
Together with his friends, he threw down whole pots of liquor!
He offered his shelter to the large families of bards!

Surrounded by his faultless women extolled for their purity,
for their immaculate nature, he performed the Vedic sacrifices
in the court of Righteousness where justice is well practiced
after those conversant with proper custom stand up and show
their knowledge, within the circling many-layered wall where
the towering post of sacrifice rises next to the kite/eagle to be fed!

He who had all that knowledge, how wise a man he was
who has died now and how this world is to be pitied!
Like venkai trees that cowherds strip of their branches,
cutting them with sharp swords to feed their precious
herds who are hungry in the fearful drought of summer
when the waterfalls dry up and as the branches of flowers fall,
the vigor of the trees is shattered,
so the sweet and tender women shed their ornaments!


In Puram. Verse 15 , we come across Rig Vedic Sanskrit word Yupa and Tamilizad word of Sanskrit Havis (aavuthi in Tamil) ; it is cooked rice offered into fire with ghee

Ancient poet Nettimaiyaar sings in praise of Pandya king Mudu Kudumi Peru Vazuthi

நற்பனுவல் நால்வேதத்து
அருஞ்சீர்த்திப் பெருங்கண்ணுறை
நெய்ம் மலி ஆவுதி பொங்கப் பன்மாண்
 வீயாச் சிறப்பின் வேள்வி முற்றி
யூபம் நட்ட வியன்களம் பலகொல்?

— புறநானூறு 15


Raajasuuya Yagna of Choza Perunarkilli

Poet Paandarankannanaar praises the Choza king Perunarkilli . He compared the king to valorous Lord Muruga (Skanda /Kartikeya)

To be continued…………………

 tags- யாகம், ராஜசூயம், அஸ்வமேத, முதுகுடுமி, பெருவழுதி, காளிதாசன், பெருநற்கிள்ளி, ஆவுதி, ஹவிஸ் 

Leave a comment

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: