Tamil Hindu Encyclopaedia 23 (Havis =ஹவிஸ், ஆவுதி; Yupa யூபம்)—Post 11,436


Post No. 11,436

Date uploaded in London – 11 November 2022                  

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We have already seen the Yagas and Yagnas (Also written Yajna) performed by the Sangam Age Tamil Kings.  Of the Yagas, Rajasuya Yaga done by the Choza king Peru Nar Killi is very significant one. The other two Tamil Kings Cheara and Pandya came in person and acknowledged the superiority and seniority of the  Choza. When the great Tamil poetess Avvaaiyar saw them on the same stage together for the first time in her life she was wonder struck. Tamils are notorious for fighting with each other, killing each other, setting fire to others’ towns. Tamils were the longest fighting ethnic group in the world. They fought among themselves for at least 1500 years non stop. When Sundara pandya did the historic blunder of inviting Muslim invaders into Tamil Nadu, Tamil Kingdoms heard the death knell. Then they had to wait until the great Vijaya Nagara Empire rise and save them. Avvaiyaar praised Tamil Unity and wished them to live ever united .

Those who read the Rajasuya performed by Yudhisthra in Mahabharata would understand the significance of the great Yaga.

In Puram 367 Miss Avvaiyaar gives rare information about Brahmins as well in addition to the above compliments.

They/Brahmins are ONE Principled- always trying to see Brahman/God (Brahmana in Sanskrit)

They have TWO Births= Dwija in Sanskrit; Iru Pirappalar in this poem)

They hold THREE Agnis= The fires were known as Dakshinagniyam (Semi Circular altar), Garhapatyam (Circular altar) and Ahavaneeyam (Square altar). In Vedic yajna all these three types of fire are needed. After erecting the yajna hall, the three fires are installed on its three sides. On the west was placed the Garhapatyam/ domestic fire, on the east the Aahavaniya fire (invokable), and on the south the daksinagni /southside fire.

Brahmins carry fire creating Arani Wood equipment. When one wood churns the other wood fire is created. That is what they called invokable fire. They do it while reciting the relevant Mantras.

Since Ms Avvaiyaar saw with her own eyes she described Brahmins with numbers ONE, TWO, THREE.

The second thing Avvaiyar saw on that day was the Brahmins were given Golden Flowers and Gold Coins as Dakshina (fees for performing). While the king was giving, he has to pour water on it to show that as donation. Avvaiyaar described it as well.

The poem in Tamil is given below.

புற நானூறு 367

நாகத்து அன்ன பாகு ஆர் மண்டிலம்

தமவே ஆயினும் தம்மொடு செல்லா;

வேற்றோர் ஆயினும் நோற்றோர்க்கு ஒழியும்;

ஏற்ற பார்ப்பார்க்கு ஈர்ங் கை நிறையப்

பூவும் பொன்னும் புனல் படச் சொரிந்து,           5

பாசிழை மகளிர் பொலங் கலத்து ஏந்திய

நார் அரி தேறல் மாந்தி, மகிழ் சிறந்து,

இரவலர்க்கு அருங் கலம் அருகாது வீசி,

வாழ்தல் வேண்டும், இவண் வரைந்த வைகல்;

வாழச் செய்த நல்வினை அல்லது        10

ஆழுங் காலைப் புணை பிறிது இல்லை;

ஒன்று புரிந்து அடங்கிய இருபிறப்பாளர்

முத்தீப் புரையக் காண்தக இருந்த

கொற்ற வெண் குடைக் கொடித் தேர் வேந்திர்!

யான் அறி அளவையோ இதுவே: வானத்து      15

வயங்கித் தோன்றும் மீனினும், இம்மெனப்

பரந்து இயங்கு மா மழை உறையினும்,

உயர்ந்து மேந் தோன்றிப் பொலிக, நும் நாளே!

திணை பாடாண் திணை; துறை வாழ்த்தியல்.

சேரமான் மாரிவெண்கோவும், பாண்டியன் கானப்பேர் தந்த உக்கிரப் பெருவழுதியும், சோழன் இராசசூயம் வேட்ட பெருநற்கிள்ளியும், ஒருங்கு இருந்தாரை ஒளவையார் பாடியது.


AAHUTHI (Offering)

In Many Sangam poems we come across the word AAKUTHI (also aaVuthi). Every Yaga or Yagna is concluded with Puurna ahuthi. Ghee, cooked rice and Gold coins and silk clothes were placed in the Fire/ Agni by reciting the final mantras. Aahuthi is the offering of Ghee and Food and Valuables to God. Agni as a messenger of God carries them to heaven.

Here are some lines with Aavuthi/ Aakuthi:

Puram 15-19;99-1; Pathitru.21-5/7 also21- 13;

Madu – line 494;Paati. Lines 55, 200.



Havis is also used to specify the offering, which is usually ghee+ cooked  rice. It is tamilized as AVI. ஹவிஸ் = அவி =நெய்யும் சோறும் கலந்த உருண்டை

Puram 377/5; 363-12;

Pari .5-40/41; 6-11; 8-80; 10-84; 16-53

All these poems and later Tirukkural show that Brahmins in Tamil country and the Kings did offer to Gods regularly.


Strict Rules

When the Fire ceremonies were performed Brahmins followed strict rules. Nakkirar in Murugu confirms it in lines 95-96

Those who perform Vedic Fire Rituals have to observe vow (vrata, fasting) which is detailed in Pathitru. Verse 74

Tamils believed that by performing Yagas and Yagnas one would go to Heaven (Madurai. Lines 494-495).

We have already seen how the poet Paalai Gauthamanar disappeared with his wife during the tenth Yaga when the Chera King organised ten Yagas according to poet’s wish. It is a great miracle reported in Pathitruppaththu.


YUPA= யூபம் Tall Post or Pillar in the Fire Place.

The Rig Vedic Sanskrit word was used verbatim by Tamil poets. I have written 3 articles on YUPA pillar. Please see the links below:

·         AMAZING RIG VEDIC YUPA IN SANGAM … – Tamil and Vedas

·         https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/07/05 › amazing-rig-…


·         5 Jul 2018 — 2000-year-old Tamil Literature used the same Sanskrit word in several places in two meanings; sacrificial pot or just a post.

Yupa Post in Sangam Tamil Literature and Rig Veda (Post No …

https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/04/23 › yupa-post-in…

23 Apr 2018 — The Rig Vedic Sanskrit word YUPA is used in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature without any change i.e. same Sanskrit word Yupa is used.

List of Yupa Inscriptions – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › list-of-yupa-inscriptions

5 Jul 2018 — Posts about List of Yupa Inscriptions written by Tamil and Vedas.

Missing: Hari ‎| Must include: Hari

Tamil References:

ஆவுதி மண்ணி மா விசும்பு வழங்கும் பெரியோர் போல- மதுரைக் . 494/95


கேள்வி கேட்டுப் படிவம் ஓடியாது வேள்வி வேட்டனை – பதிற்று


மந்திர விதியின் மரபுரி வழா அந்தணர் வேள்வி – முருகு 95/96


நற்பனுவல் நால்வேதத்து
அருஞ்சீர்த்திப் பெருங்கண்ணுறை
நெய்ம் மலி ஆவுதி பொங்கப் பன்மாண்
வீயாச் சிறப்பின் வேள்வி முற்றி
யூபம் நட்ட வியன்களம் பலகொல்?



Tags- Ahuti, Avuthi, Havis, Three Fires, Rajasuya, Yupa pillar, ஆவுதி, ஆகுதி, ஹவிஸ், யூபம், யாகம், யக்ஞம், ராஜசூயம்

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