Hindu House Warming- Gruha Pravesa-Part 2 (Post No.3287)

kallidaikurichi-agraharam

Compiled  by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 25 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 9-43 AM

 

Post No.3287

 

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Yesterday I gave an excerpt from Arthur Miles’ book. Today I give a detailed description of Gruha Pravesa from  Rev. J E Padfield’s book The Hindu At Home, Year 1908

Good Period to occupy a House

“I shall now proceed to state the considerations necessary, from a religious point of view, before the householder venture to occupy the house which he is supposed to have built. The first thing that has to be considered is the proper time of year for taking up residence in the new abode. On this point there is a little difference of opinion amongst Hindu authorities.

 

According to some persons, if a house is newly occupied in Vaishakham, the owner will be blessed with many sons; if in Jyéshtam, he will have abundance of joyous festivities, such as marriages and the like if the house is newly occupied in Phalgunam, the owner will be blessed with wealth. if in Magham he will have good crops and much happiness. On the other hand, there are those who maintain that, although all the other months in the vernal equinox (Uttarayanam) during which the sun is north of the equator, are good for newly entering into a house, Magham is not a propitious month. This difference of opinion is chiefly between the Tamils, who reckon by the solar system, and the Telugus, who go according to the lunar. All, however, are agreed that it is most un propitious to enter a new abode for the first time during any month of the second half of the year.

 udayalur-agraharam

Decoration of the House

A suitable day for entering having been duly fixed upon, the house is adorned in various ways, chiefly by smearing saffron and kunkuma on the lintels and door posts of all the doors in the house, and tying over them a garland of flowers and leaves of the mango or of the neredu tree (eugenia jambos/rose apple tree). A company assembles consisting of the members of the family relatives, friends and a number of Brahmin pundits, band of native musicians and a group of dancing girls may also be in attendance, all of course in proportion to the means of the householder. A procession is formed from the house then inhabited by the owner to his new abode. As the company passes along, the band plays and every now and then the company will stop before the house of a friend or that of some great person, when the dancing women will go through their performance of dancing and singing to the sound of a kind of harp and cymbals, and beating of the tom-tom. The thing is so arranged that the procession arrives at the house at the propitious moment, before fixed upon, when they all enter walking over grain that has been spread in the door way and all along to the western side of the central portion of the house.

 

Worship is then performed to Ganésha, Vastu- purusha, Venkatéshvara and other gods, after which the family priest makes the following declaration in the name of the house-owner, concluding with a prayer The declaration is:

 

On an auspicious day, under a lucky star,

At a fortunate moment of time, (He must enter) his new and beautiful home, (It being) decorated with flowers and tender leaves.

He must enter accompanied by relatives, Brahmins and others,

(And worship) Vignésh vara and all other gods, With hymns of praise.”

Sudine suba nakshatre suba lagne subamsake

Nutane svagruhe ramie pushpapallavaranjite

Praviset bandhu mitrascaiva brahmane parivaritah

Vignesam sarvadevamsca svasti vachanapurvakam

 

The prayer is

 

“O God of gods! O great God Be gracious unto us, o supreme God!

Preserve us, O preserve us,

Lord of the universe!

Yea ever more preserve us

Home happiness and domestic joys

Do thou ever increase unto us

 

Devadeva Mahadeva prasida paramesvara

Raksha Raksha jagannatha savanasmanirantaram

Gruhasaukyam kutumbasya mamavardhaya sampratam

 

After this is over, presents of cloths and jewels, a cording to the ability of the house-owner are given to the chief workmen who have been engaged in the erection of the building. It is now quite a custom in India for chief workmen to be thus rewarded, and even some Europeans follow the ideas of the country so far as to give a jewel or two to the chief workmen after any important building work is finished. The ceremonies of the day are concluded with a blessing after the following manner. A metal dish with coloured rice is produced, and some of the attendant Brahmins take a handful of this and having repeated mantrams, cast the rice into the cloth of the house-owner who holds up a corner of it for the purpose. This blessing consisting of quotations from the Vedas is a very long one. The concluding portion only is here given. The translation, in this case, is a rather free one :

May thy life continue for a hundred years, and may thy mental and physical powers remain perfect for a hundred years.

Satamanam bhavati. Satayuh purushah. Satendriya. Ayushyevendriye. Pratishtati.

 

The family priest then takes the rice, by handfuls, and pours it on the heads of the house-owner, his wife his children and any relatives who may be present. On the following day there is a feast in the new house and, if the guests are numerous, an awning may be put up in the yard to accommodate them. When the owner is not a Brahmin, his Brahmin guests will receive their portion of the feast in an uncooked form, and this they will take away with them to cook in their own houses.

on an occasion of this kind, all castes,even Brahmins, will give food to all sorts of people, but the principal guests are relatives and friends. With this feasting the house-warming is concluded.

 

There are various things that cause a house to become defiled. Some of these are only trifling, such as bees settling in the house, or an owl, or a certain kind of kite settling upon it or flying into it, or any fungus growing anywhere inside. These necessitate a minor kind of purification. The great defilement is caused by death. If any other than one of the chief members of the family is at the point of death, his relatives carry him out of the house into the outer verandah, or some such place. The reason for this may be seen from the following idea. There are twenty-seven lunar mansions (nakshatram), of which fourteen are disastrous and thirteen auspicious. Should a person die inside the house during any one of the fourteen inauspicious periods, the house must be abandoned by the whole family and left vacant for two, three, or six months, according to the particular star then in the ascendant. If, however, the death takes place outside the house, in the outer verandah for instance, only that portion must be divided off and abandoned for the set period. If the death takes place during any of the auspicious periods, the house only has the ordinary contamination of the family and is, with them, purified on the eleventh day after the death It will be thus seen that it is a very risky thing for anyone to die inside a house, as the good or bad periods are only known though in the case of the heads of the household the risk is usually run, sometimes the dying patient will ask to be taken outside to avoid possible trouble to the family.

agraharamuthamadanapura 

Defilement and Purification

After any defilement the house is purified in the following manner, portions of the ceremony or the whole being performed according to its relative importance.

 

The most important purification is when, after temporary abandonment, the family again comes into residence. The house is thoroughly cleaned up and probably white washed. The family assemble, with their family priest and several other Brahmins or friends. Ganésha, under the name of Vighnesha, is worshipped. Water is poured into a vessel (kalasam), which is adorned with flowers, sandal, and the like, and this having been worshipped and all the gods having been invoked, the water is sprinkled by the priest over the various parts of the house and over the people present.

 

Food is then cooked and partaken of by the company. The following are specimens of the slokas or verses repeated by the priest in the worship of the kalasam; they are a declaration and a prayer.

The declaration is

“This puny havachanam rite Is holy and destroys sin.

It is for the purification of a house, the body and other things

And also for that of the mind

The Ganges with all other holy rivers,

And all the gods, rishis, and ancients,

Also the Vedas and sacrifices

Having been invoked into these vessels (now before us),

Which is having adorned and worshipped

With sandal flowers and coloured rice.

He must pray to the supreme God

That all his desires may be fulfilled

 

Punyahavachanam karma pavitram papanasanam

Gruhadehadi sudhyartham atmasudhyarthameva ca

Gangadi punyatirthani devan sarvan rsin pitrun

Avahya kalasamgresu vedan yajnan visodhakan

Gandhapushpakshatairevam alankrutya prapujya ca

Prarthayetparamatmanam sarvabhista palaptaye

The prayer is

I am a sinner ;all my deeds are sinful.

I am of a sinful mind; I am born in sin.

O God in mercy save me!

Thou who art merciful to those who flee to thee

There is no sinner equal to me:

There is no deliverer like unto thee.

Ever knowing me to be a sinner,

As is thy pleasure, so do.

Papoham papakarmaham papatma papasambavah

Trahimam krupaya deva saranagatavatsala

Matsama patako nasti tvatsamo nasti mocakah

Papinam mam sada njatva yatheccasi tatha kuru

 

A purification ceremony is gone through if the well becomes ceremonially contaminated

There are various other occasions calling for purification. A robber might break into a house and go into the kitchen, and as he would probably be a low caste man, the full purification ceremony would be

Necessary. If a dog or any other unclean animal were to die in or near the house, the place must be purified by sprinkling water mixed with cow dung, or with cow’s urine. This is a minor purification which is often resorted to for lesser defilements.

 

Doubtless home life, true domestic happiness, is much influenced by the immediate surroundings; but, after all, habit and custom are much if not everything in such matters, and certainly many an Indian home is happy in spite of what may seem to us its dullness and monotony.

 

The old English proverb which says that “Home is home be it ever so homely” expresses a truth that can be applied in many ways it is the hearts that make the home. What must be deplored, however, is the hard bondage to superstition that is so evident in every page of this description.

–subham–

 

 

HINDU HOUSE WARMING CEREMONY: Gruha Pravesa!- Part 1 (Post No.3285)

house-on-hill-line-art

Compiled  by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 24 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 18-10

 

Post No.3285

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks. They are used for representational purpose. They may not have direct connection to the article below.

 

 

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Vastu Purusha
“In the district round Calicut, when a house is completed it must be handed over to its owner with due ceremony Vastu Purusha, a supreme being lying on its back with its head to the north and its legs to the south, supports the earth. The forests of the earth are this being’s hairs, the oceans its blood, the wind its breath. When the earth is dug, and the trees are felled, the being is bound to be disturbed, wherefore it must be propitiated or it will wreak vengeance on its disturbers.

house

53 columns of Rice Flour!

A ceremony must be performed immediately a house built, or the owner of the building will have untimely deaths in his family. A square is marked off in the centre room by fifty-three columns made of rice flour, and red and black powders are sprinkled over the columns. Leaves, containing grain and pieces of cocoanut, are placed on the top of each column. The architect and the carpenters perform puja (worship) with flowers, incense and lights. Troublesome demons are propitiated with toddy, and the blood of a fowl is offered to the boy satan (Kutty Satan). Then all the workmen who have been engaged in the building break cocoanuts on the walls, and howl to drive away evil spirits.

 

The house is handed over to a third person by the chief carpenter, and there are few who are willing to assume the responsibility for the owner, since if a demon should be left in the building it would for ever pursue the person who takes over. A man is sought who is supposed to bring good luck, and who has no trouble in his family. He is frequently a poor man, who cannot resist the bribe of money and rice. He is dressed in new clothes, taken to the centre room where the columns have been erected, and made to stand facing the door with each foot on a banana leaf. The others thereupon all leave him, and stand on the outside. The man opens and shuts the door three times, and the carpenter calls out to him:

“Have you taken charge of the house?”

The man replies “Have all the workmen received their wages?”

The carpenter, without answering, asks again. “Have you taken charge of the house?” There must be no direct answers, or questions, for about ten minutes.

 

Finally, the man inside says: “I will take charge of the house,” and picking up the two banana leaves on which he has been standing, he runs away as fast as he can, without looking back. The workmen pelt him with bananas and cow-dung as he runs, and sprinkle cow-urine in his path. After this, the workmen are fed with boiled milk and rice which have been prepared in the new house, and the owner may move in.

 

This is from the book The Land of the Lingam by Arthur Miles; I will give another detailed version from an older book tomorrow.

 

To be continued………………….

 

Snake bite cure in Atharva Veda(Post No.3268)

garuda-snake

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 19 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 18-47

 

Post No.3268

 

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snake-cobra

Following Prayer is found in the Sixth Kanda of Atharvana Veda:-

Prayers for purging Snake poison

“Just as the Surya knows the heaven well,I am well acquainted with the story of the birth of the snakes. Just as the sun removes the darkness of the night, I remove the snake poison from your body.

 

The Brahmanas , the sages and gods knew how to purge snake poison. The learning has come down to us from the past and will be used in future as well. I cleanse you of snake poison with that learning.

 

I sprinkle you with waters of the rivers and mountains. I sprinkle you with the waters of the rivers Parushni and Shipala. May peace descend upon your face. May peace descend on your heart”.

 

(The Parushni is now identified as the Iravati or the Ravi. It is not possible to identify Shipala. The Shipala probably simply meant a stream in which the aquatic plant shaivala grew.)

 

Snake Bite Miracles

 

Hindu literature has got many stories of snake bite cure miracles.Hindu poets use the similes such as “even the snakes obey/ listen to the Mani Mantra Aushada” meaning snakes are controlled by the Mantra or Gem stones or herbs.

 

It is interesting to note that Manu Smrti advised people to wear gemstones to counter the poison.(Manu 7-218)

 

Tamil poet Kamban and Sanskrit poet Kalidasa used similes saying that the snakes listen to mantras and behaves.

When the King Dilipan tried to shoot an arrow at the lion that attacked his divine cow, his hands became numb like the snake benumbed by the mantras and the herbs.( Raghu Vamsam 2-32)

 

Kamban says the demoness Ayomuki misbehaved with Lakshmana like a bad snake who  did not obey the command of mantras.  (Aranyakas Kandam)

 snake-2

Tamil Miracles

There are several miracle stories in Tamil and Sanskrit literature where saints cured their disciples bitten by the snakes. They say the verses sung by the saint poets revived the dead. Two famous saints lived in Tamil Nadu 1400 years ago. One of them was Sambandar, a Boy Wonder who did many miracles before he died at the age of sixteen. A woman who eloped with her boyfriend was staying at a choultry in Tirumarukal. He was bitten by snake at the dead of night and died at once. When the woman was crying loudly Sambandar came there and revived him by singing the praise of Lord Siva. Lord Siva wash known as Neelakandan– The Blue Necked– because he swallowed poison and his wife Parvati stopped it at his neck. His neck became blue because of the poison.

 

Sambandars contemporary was another saint by name Appar. He visited Thingalur, a town where there was a water distribution centre named after him. During summer, Hindus used to distribute drinking water as a charity. When Appar asked people there, without revealing his identity, who the gentleman was that named the centre after Appar alias Tirunavukkarasu. When he was taken to the owner of the charity centre, Apputhi Adikal, Appar pretended as if he was someone else, and criticised Apputhi Adikal for using the name of a non entity like Appar.

 

Apputhi became furious and reeled out the glorious deeds of Appar and asked how dare he criticised him as an unknown person. At that point, Appar revealed his true identity and Apputhi was in ecstasy. He insisted that Appar must stay for dinner which he agreed whole heartedly. It is customary for the Tamils to eat on banana leaves. When Apputhi’s son went into the garden to cut some leaves from the plantain tree he was bit ten by a snake and he died on the spot. Apputhi and his wife decided to hide him from Appar. When they were about to serve the food, Appar insisted that Apputhi’s son also should join them. With great grief and much hesitation they told Appar what happened. Immediately Appar sang ten verses praising Lord Siva and the boy came alive. 

Pandaripura Miracle

We read about similar incidents in Maratti language also. There were two true devotees of Pandaripuram Panduranga. Kamalakar and his wife Sumati heard about the visit of great Saint Namadeva. When he came to the town, the couple wanted to feed all the people in his group. Sumati asked her son Padmakar to fetch some fuel wood from the backyard. When Padmakar did this he was bitten by a snake and died. The couple decided not to upset the guests, and she hid the body, wrapped in an old cloth. When Namadeva insisted all the family members should sit with him in the dinner, the couple revealed the tragedy. Namdeo sang in praise of Lord Panduranga and the boy came alive as if woken form sleep.

snake-nandhu-fb

In such stories we see the power of divine words. Coupled with the power of the Saints, miracles do happen. But not all the people are lucky to be alive like the above; we hear about hundreds of deaths every year due to snake poison. God’s devotees are saved if they are at the right place at the right time with the right people!

 

Tamil Poet Kamban and Snakes

There are two anecdotes about Tamil poet Kamban. He came to launch his new book about agriculturalists. One of the important guests was Chedirayan from Pondicherry. Unfortunately a snake suddenly came from nowhere and bit him. Moreover, it wound in his feet. Kamba  sang some verses and then the snake left the place.

 

On another occasion, a snake bit one of the Chidambaram dikshitars’ son. Kamban sang a few verses from the Nagapasa verses in the Ramayana and the boy was revived.

-Subham-

 

 

`

‘Blood Thirsty Dravidians’! (Post No.3265)

kutia_kondh_woman-jpgwiki

Pictures of Kondhs from Wikipedia

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 18 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 16-48

 

Post No.3265

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks. (Picture is used only for representational purpose; no connection with the current article.)

 

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(People Like Bishop Caldwell, Arthur Miles and other foreigners have projected Dravidians as primitive, uncultured, uncivilized brutes in their Hindu castes articles. All those who have black skin are described as Dravidians and Shudras. This is wrong. Tribes existed along with the civilized people in the North as well as South. In every society we see people with good and bad customs. But generalizing them as Dravidians is absurd. Foreign writers dubbed them as speakers of Dravidian languages. That is also wrong. They use both Tamil and Sanskrit words. The tribes have been living in India for at least 30,000 years and the proof lies in the Bhimbetka Cave paintings in Madhya Pradesh, India).

 

Following is an excerpt from Arthur Miles’ book The Land of the Lingam:-

 

“The Kondhs, judged by their type, are Dravidians. They are found in Orissa, Ganjam, Bengal, and the Central Provinces. They call themselves differently, according to their district. In the Telugu country they are named Kotuvardlu in and near Vizagapatam Konda Dora, or Konda Kappu The word Kondh, deriving from Telugu, denotes a hill mountain. The Kondhs’ character varies according to their location; those of the plains are said to compare unfavourably with the mountain people. They cultivate grains and vegetables, and breed animals. Their most valuable crop is turmeric which requires two years to mature. This crop is responsible for many of the blood sacrifices; it being believed that blood gives its turmeric its colour and causes to flourish.

dongria-khondh

The bloodthirsty earth goddesses, Pari Pennu and Bera Pennu, are not happy to-day because the Government has forbidden the Kondhs to worship them with human sacrifices. Very reluctantly they accept the blood of buffalos, goats, and sheep. Round about the year 1860, however, the altars of these goddesses were drenched with human blood, and three human beings were sacrificed at a time upon them. One offering was to the sun, one to the east and the other to the west end of the village.

 

In the “meriah” rite a wooden post about six feet long, with a cross-bar near the top was sunk into the ground, and to it the sacrificial victim was tied by his long hair. A narrow grave was dug under the post, and four men held the arms and legs of the human offering, who was suspended horizon- tally over the grave. The officiating priest repeated a long invocation, while with his knife he hacked pieces out of his victim’s back. There is one of these meriah posts, very much eaten up by white ants, in the Madras museum.

 

The goddess was implored to eat the offering, and in return give the Kondhs swords, guns, gunpowder, and victory over other castes. There was always a special prayer for the preservation of the caste from the tyranny of kings and governments. The priest addressed the victim after the poor, unfortunate was almost cut to pieces, and consoled him something after the following manner: “ Do not be grieved, the parents, the goddess  will eat you at once. We purchased you from your parents, who knew we intended to sacrifice you, and therefore there is no on our heads, but on the heads of your parents.  After the priest had finished speaking, he decapitated the victim. The body slipped into the grave, and the head was left on the post until the wild beasts devoured it. The knife was then stuck into the post, until required for the two sacrifices that followed.

nara-bali

When their frenzy reached a certain pitch, the watching Kondhs did not wait for the priest to carry out the rite. They surrounded the victim, and beat him violently on the head with brass bangles made for the occasion. If this inhuman treatment did not kill the wretched man, they finished him off by strangulation with a piece of slit bamboo. The priest, with that, hacked the body to pieces and distributed the fragments, and the Kondhs dashed with their precious treasure to the stream which irrigated their fields, and suspended the piece of flesh on a pole over the water. The mangled remains of the corpse were finally buried, and funeral obsequies were performed.

 

The meriah agents say (see manual of  Vizagapatam district) that there was reason to believe that the Raja of Jeypore, when he was installed on the death of his father, sacrificed a girl of thirteen at the shrine of the goddess Durga in the town of Jeypore. While, officially, goats and buffaloes are now sacrificed by the Kondhs, the belief in the superior of the human sacrifice dies hard. During the Rampa rebellion of 1880 several cases of human sacrifice were discovered, while the same year two persons were convicted of attempting the meriah rite near Ambadala in Bissamkatak. In 1888 a man was found murdered in one of the temples of Jeypore, in circumstances pointing to the meriah. In 1886 a formal inquiry showed ample grounds for the belief that were being kidnapped for sacrifices in Bastar, and as recently as 1902 a petition was presented to the District Magistrate of Ganjam, asking him to sanction a human sacrifice.

 

Female infanticide was so common in Jeypore country as to be farmed out as a paying business. The Raja is said to have made money out of it in one of the caste’s larger divisions. The custom was to consult the priest concerning the fate of the child before it was born. If the priest decided it was to be killed, the parents had to pay the headman of the division a fee for the privilege of killing it, and the headman paid Raja three hundred rupees a year for renting the the privilege to murder.

kondh-implements

Sacrificial Post of the Kondhs

From Macpherson’s manuscripts we learn that the portion of the Kondh country where female infanticide was known to prevail, was estimated at 2000 square miles. The population numbered about 64,000 and, approximately, 1200 to 1500 infants were destroyed annually.

 

Infanticide has existed among the Kond from time immemorial. Their belief is that the sun god created everything good, and the earth goddess introduced evil into the world. These two powers are supposed to be always in conflict. Certain divisions of the caste worship the sun god, and make no sacrifices, but by far the greater number hold that the earth goddess must be propitiated with blood. The divisions which practised infanticide believed that the sun god deplored the birth of females because the feminine creation had caused all the trouble in the world. Men were charged to rear as few females as possible, and only to refrain from murdering them from the sheer necessity of keeping the race going.

 

The Kondhs believe that souls return over and over again in the same families, and if they are not welcome in female form, they will acquire sense enough to return as males. In many houses, even now, one finds no female children. The divisions however, addicted to infanticide did not practise adult sacrifice. One division, indeed, is said never to have performed it; the reason being that during the first attempt the knife was crooked and dull, and the sacrificers made such a bad business of it that it was abandoned.

 

Twenty-five descendants of persons reserved for sacrifice at a former meriah rite, but who were rescued by Government officers, returned themselves as meriah at the census of 1901.

gourd-mask-1

 

Picture of Kondh Mask

The Maliahs of Goomsur (Kondhs) sacrificed annually to Thada Pennoo, their earth goddess. Several settlements contributed to the purchase of a victim, no criminal or prisoner being acceptable to the goddess. Unless the victim was paid for, the goddess would ignore the sacrifice, and grown men were the most esteemed, because they were more expensive. When children were purchased, they were reared by the family who purchased them until they were old enough to be sacrificed. They were kindly treated, and kept under no restraint when young. When they were older, and could appreciate the fate that awaited them, were watched and guarded. Grown victims were often captured by the traders in human flesh, and sold to some family wishing to offer a sacrifice. The price was paid in money, cattle, or corn.

 

For a month before the sacrifice the celebrants feasted and danced round the meriah in an intoxicated condition. On the opening day of the gruesome rite, the victim was stupefied with toddy or opium, and made sit leaning against the post. The assembled multitude then danced round him chanting: oh, Thada Pennu, we offer you this sacrifice. Give us good crops and health. Afterwards the unhappy victim dragged home.

 

The second day, having been intoxicated, the victim was anointed with oil, and each individual present touched the part and wiped the oil on his own body. The crowd then formed a procession and walked round the village, carrying the victim, together with the post which had been dug up from the earth. To the top of the post was attached a tuft of peacock feathers. When the procession returned to the meriah ground, the priest cut a piece of flesh from the victim and buried it under the village idol. He then presented each of the villagers with a piece of flesh. Taking the bloody prize, they ran with all haste to their land, to bury it before sunset. The priests and his assistants there upon killed a pig and, after allowing the blood to first flow into the grave, they buried the victim.

 

On the morrow a buffalo calf was brought to the post. Its fore feet were cut off, and it was tied to the post until the following day. On this, the last day, drunken women, dressed in male attire and armed with sticks, danced and sang round the dying calf.

 

Mr. Arbuthnot, collector of Vizagapatam, not so long ago reported the following facts: “Of the hill tribe Codooloo there are said to be two distinct classes, the Cotia Codooloo and the Jethapoo Codooloo. The former class is that which is in the habit of offering human sacrifices to the god called Jenkery, with a view to secure good crops. This ceremony is generally performed on the Sunday preceding or following Pongal (Tamil word for cooked rice) feast. The victim is seldom carried by force, but procured by purchase, and there is fixed price for each person, which consists of forty articles such as a bullock, a male buffalo, a cow, a goat, a piece of cloth, a silk cloth, a brass pot, a large plate, a bunch of plantains etc.

 

dongria-kondh-tribe-membe-006

The man who is destined for sacrifice is carried before the god and a small quantity of rice coloured with turmeric is put upon his head. The influence of this is said to prevent his attempting to escape, even though set at liberty. It would appear, however, from the moment of his seizure till he is sacrificed, he is kept in a continued state of stupefaction or intoxication.

 

He is allowed to wander about the village, to eat and drink anything he may take a fancy to, and even to have connection with any of the women whom he may meet.

 

On the morning set apart for the sacrifice he is carried before the idol in a state of intoxication. one the villagers acts as priest, who cuts a small hoe in the stomach of the victim, and with the blood that flows from the wound the idol is smeared. Then the crowds from the neighbouring vllages rush forward,and he is literally cut into pieces.

 

Each who is so fortunate as to procure it carries away a morsel of the flesh and presents it to the idol of his own village.

 

 

Colonel Campbell, during his services among the hill tribes of Kondhistan, ordered his men to destroy the effigies of elephants on which human offerings had been made. The colonel in some of his writings, described the method of the sacrifice. Human beings were tied to the proboscis of the elephant effigies and whirled around until, at a given signal from the priest, the crowd rushed in. the crowd seized the victim, and with their knives chopped off every bit of flesh from the shrieking wretch, whose remains were then cut down, and as the colonel expresses it, “the horrid orgies were over”.

(This is how the foreign writers described the customs of the Dravidian Kondhs)

kondh-priestess

–SUBHAM–

 

 

Breast Milk is Best: Atharva Veda and Akbar! (Post No.3262)

banglabatik

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 17 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 21-05

 

Post No.3262

 

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breast-india

There is an interesting story in a hundred year old book:-

On a fine evening Akbar and his minister Birbal went through an avenue of trees in Delhi, enjoying the delicious breeze. The conversation turned on various topics. They talked of the glories of the tropical sky, of the grandeur of the sunset, as it would appear when it viewed from one of the highest palaces, of the calm repose of the huge trees whose foliage rustled by a little by gentle breeze and of the birds of the variegated plumage which were seeking their night shelter. They reflected on the goodness of the Creator who was the author of the sky and the rainbow coloured clouds.

 

As they walked along a gurgling gushing brook attracted their attention. On approaching it they were charmed by the weird, twisted picture of the sky, clouds and trees which the brook in its tortuous course mirrored forth. They sat for a while on its bank inhaling its cool air laden with the fragrance of thousand forest flowers.

 

Then as they were leaving this pleasant spot, Akbar asked Birbal to name to him the best milk the best milk, the best leaf, the best flower, six things, the best fruit, the best king and the best sweetness.

babay-mother

Birbal stood up and answered,

“Mother’s milk is the best as the child grows to be a great man on it. The pan (betel leaf) is the most useful among leaves as everyone eats it. Of the flowers, that of the cotton plant claims the foremost rank as it clothes everyone. A dutiful son is indeed the best fruit as the virtues of the ancestors continued to live in him.

 

Indra is the most benevolent among kings as he sends down rain which nourishes the whole earth. Sweetness of kind words is the most pleasing, as one wins the affection of people thereby without spending any money!”

breast-paint

Breast Milk in the Atharva Veda

Atharva Veda is dated around 1000 BCE. So the earliest reference to breast milk comes from it.

In the famous Bhumi Suktam (Hymn to the Earth), we find,

“Earth, in which the Asvins measured out and Vishnu strode,

Which Indra, Lord of Might,

Made free from foes for himself

May she pour out milk for me – a mother to her son”.

(sa nobhumirvi srujatam mata putraya me payah)

bronze-woman

Famous classical poet Kalidasa, refers to breast milk, in several places in his dramas and poems. He says in his epic poem Raghu Vamsam,

Devadaru tree was adopted as a son by Shiva. “Just as a son is brought up with the feed of milk issuing from the mother’s brests, similarly, Pravati reared the tree (the adopted son) by water issuing from gold pitcher (Raghu Vamsam 2-36)

Manaikkavasagar, one of the Four Great Tamil saints, describes the kindness of Lord Shiva to the breast feeding mother. He says that Siva is kinder than a mother who breast feeds the baby time to time, without it asking for it.

Hindus considered the breast milk as the best milk available to human beings. The second position was given to the cow’s milk.

 

 

breast-1

–subham–

Why are Tamils so famous? (Post No.3261)

south-india-map

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 17 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 19-30

 

Post No.3261

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks. (Picture is used only for representational purpose; no connection with the current article.)

 

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

valluva-nayanar

“The Tamils are famous because they have lived and thrived in their own country for eons and ages in the accredited cradle of human race.

They are famous, because they have been truly, goldly, impartial, munificent, hospitable and heroic at a pinch.

They are famous, because they have ruled a vast continent submerged long ago in a most exemplary manner worth the admiration of the remotest posterity and patronised learning and leaned coterie with a generous heart and liberal hand.

They are famous, because they own a language which is sweet in its name and a literature which has stood cataclysms of every description political, moral religious and philosophical.

 

They are famous, because their religion is rational, their morality is practical and their philosophy is spiritual.

They are famous, because their songs and psalms are replete with highest truths. They are sung by all, the young and the old, the rich and the poor, the high and the low, inspiring love, reverence and holiness.

 

They are famous, because, their boys and girls, their sons and daughters, have been and are imbued from their cradle with divine wisdom enshrined in the three classic Books of Golden Maxims embodying the quintessence of the libraries of Neethi Sastras culled from rewards of human experience, Englished by me and published in this tiny volume.

 

They are famous, because, they have looked upon the soul and the body as equally sacred, one being the temple of the other and have acted uniformly in high principle of a sound mind in a sound body, mens sana in corpora sano.

dance-in-shade

They are famous, because their Saint Valluvar has enriched the world with his pithy couplets on Virtue, Wealth and Pleasure rendered into a number of modern languages in the West as in the East, because their Grandma sage Auvaiyar has opened the gates of Heaven and Eternity in her three hundred and ten high toned and succinct Kurals, and because their devout Savant Meykandan has in his duo Decalogue or 12 Sutrams, laid bare, in a clearly logical and analytical strain, his infinite heavenly riches in a little room, virginibus puerisque, to be easily gulped down and permanently retained in the mind for ever.

 

They are famous, because, their Siddhars or Supermen have preached human brotherhood and sisterhood, sans per sans reproche, against the rampant alien caste system and social tyranny and vigorously denounced formalism in religion and asceticism in practice of the degrading and self -mortifying kind.

 

They are famous, because their system of medicine and therapeutics, called Siddhic, has provided the human race with ambrosia, nectar, elixir and the philosopher’s stone for the rejuvenation and prolongation of human life, not merely with the help of rare herbs abounding in their environment but with the aid of metals scientifically calcined and sublimated, not as in the case of metalloid therapy for external application but as curative health powders to be taken in mixed with honey, being fully aware of the metallic ingredients in the composition of the human organism, a system and a process quite new to the modern medicos who, lost in wonder at first, have slowly began to appreciate and realise it.

kolam-kizavan-kizavi

And above all, they are famous, because , what their forbears had conceived and wrought successfully with divine grace twenty ,thirty and more centuries ago, in every art and craft are still marvellous and mysterious to the rapidly advancing modern scientist in the West, whose unenviable candour and indefatigable research at the cost of millions of pounds or dollars, it is hoped, proclaim in the course of a few years, the glories of Tamilaham and sing the paeans of the wonderful Tamilan achievements in medicine and therapy in the hoary past, pre-diluvian times. May our echoes roll from soul to soul and grow for ever and ever”.

BIBILOTHECA

Munnirpallam                                                                    M.S.P.

15th November 1936

MSP= M S Purnalingam Pillai

 

தலாக்கிற்கு தலாக் தலாக் தலாக்! (Post No.3256)

talaq-debate

Written by S. NAGARAJAN

Date: 16 October 2016

Time uploaded in London: 6-00 AM

Post No.3256

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks

 

Contact :– swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

By ச.நாகராஜன்

 talaq2

இந்தியத் திரு நாட்டில் இஸ்லாமியப் பெண்மணிகளுக்கு விடிவுகாலம் பிறக்கப் போகிறது. இது அவர்கள் விரும்பியது, கேட்டது. அவர்களின் மதகுருக்களால் தொடர்ந்து மறுக்கப்படுவது.

வாயால் மூன்று  முறை தலாக் தலாக் தலாக் என்று சொன்னால் போதும், புனிதமான மண உறவு அறுந்து போகும். ஷரியத் சொல்கிறதாம் இப்படி!

அந்த தலாக்கிற்கே ஒரு தலாக் தலாக் தலாக்!

 

உண்மையில் குரான் ஆண்களுக்கும் பெண்களுக்கும் சம உரிமையை அளிக்கிறது. இறைவன் படைப்பில் இருவரும் சமம் என்கிறது.

ஆனால் சுயநலவெறி பிடித்த இஸ்லாமிய மதகுருமார்கள் குரானைத் தவறாகச் சித்தரித்ததை வெளிச்சம் போட்டுக் காண்பிக்கின்றன இஸ்லாமிய மகளிர் அமைப்புகள்.

14-10-2016 அன்று தொலைக்காட்சி நிகழ்ச்சி ஒன்றில் ஆர்னாப் கோஸ்வாமி நடத்திய விவாதத்தில் முஸ்லீம் அமைப்பைச் சேர்ந்த காஷ்மீரி முஸ்லீம் தலைவர் ஒருவர் நான் முதலில் ஒரு முஸ்லீம் பிறகு தான் இந்தியன் என்கிறார்.

அரசியல் அமைப்புச் சட்டத்தின் 25வது பிரிவு மத சுதந்திரத்தை வலியுறுத்துகிறது. அதை வரவேற்று  மத சுதந்திரம் என்ற பெயரில் தான் நினைத்ததை எல்லாம் சொல்லும் அந்த இஸ்லாமியர் முதலில் நான் ஒரு இந்தியன் என்று சொல்லாமல் முதலில் நான் ஒரு முஸ்லீம் என்பது சரியா?

விவாதத்தில் கலந்து கொண்ட ஒருவர் பொது சிவில் சட்டம் வேண்டாம் என்று சொல்கின்ற நீங்கள் பொது கிரிமினல் சட்டத்தை மட்டும் ஏன் எதிர்க்கவில்லை. குற்றம் செய்யும் முஸ்லீம்களை ஷரியத் சட்டத்தின் படி கையை வெட்டி விடலாமா என்று கேட்டார்.

வெட்கம்! பதிலே இல்லை!

மூன்று முறை ஒரு சொல்லைச் சொல்லி விட்டு ஒரு பெண்ணை நிர்க்கதியாக விடும்படி அண்ணல் நபிகள் நாயகம் (ஸல்) சொல்லி இருப்பாரா? மாட்டார் என்கின்றனர் இஸ்லாமிய மகளிர்.

ஏன் இந்திய அரசு அழைக்கும் போது விவாதத்திற்கே வர பயப்படுகின்றனர்.

அவர்களிடம் உண்மை இல்லை, அதனால் தான்! பெண்களை அடிமைகளாகவும் போகப் பொருளாகவும் கருதும் அவர்கள் எண்ணம் தவிடு பொடியாகி உரிய சுதந்திரத்தை இஸ்லாமிய மகளிர் பெறும் நன்னாள் நெருங்குகிறது என நம்புவோமாக!

கீழே கொடுக்கப்பட்டுள்ள ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரை இஸ்லாமிய மகளிர் அமைப்பினர் எழுதி ஆங்கில பத்திரிகைகளிலும் இணையதளத்திலும் வெளி வந்த ஒன்று.

படித்துப் பார்த்தால் உண்மைகள் புரியும்!

உண்மையில் இஸ்லாமிய மகளிருக்கு ஆதரவாய் இருப்பவர் ஹிந்துக்களே!

என்றும் உள்ள ஹிந்துக்களின் நல்லெண்ணம் தொடரும்.

அவர்களின் உண்மையான எதிரிகள் யார் என்பதை அவர்கள் இப்போது உணர்ந்து விட்டனர்.

ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரை இதோ:

நன்றி : இணையதளத் தொடுப்புகள்

 talq

Reform in Muslim Personal Law: Triple ‘talaq’ is un-Quranic and must be banned

Zakia Soman and Noorjehan Niaz  Updated: Apr 10, 2016 09:59 IST

Legal reform in personal laws has been one of the critical yet neglected areas in Indian democracy. This reform is for the dignity and equality of women citizens and thereby all Indians — irrespective of religious background. The Sachar Committee appointed by the Prime Minister in 2005 said that Muslims (who comprise the largest minority) live in poverty, economic and educational backwardness. The findings also suggest that on an average only four out of 100 Muslims are graduates.

Now out of these four, how many are women, is open to questioning. On the one hand, Muslim women are excluded educationally and socio-economically owing to government neglect. On the other hand, they suffer from the near absence of any legal framework in matters of family, marriage, divorce, custody of children etc.

An overwhelming 88.3 percent women are opposed to triple ‘talaq’. Image from PTI, for representation only

Unlike those from other communities, Muslim women are denied their legal rights in the personal realm despite Quranic injunctions. Practices such as triple talaq and halala persist in our society despite there being no sanction to these in the Quran.

This situation has arisen thanks to the way the Muslim personal law is understood and practised in India. The whole arena is mired in ambiguity, obfuscation and gross apathy owing to the stranglehold of conservative patriarchal elements who have hegemonised this space forever. Fourteen hundred years ago, the Quran gave clear rights to women in marriage, family, society and public life but in reality there has been a persistent denial of these rights. So much so, that a perception has arisen, that in Islam, men have superiority over women.

Within several conservative sections the dominant belief seems to be that Muslim women need to live a life of subjugation within the four walls of a home. The hegemony of the patriarchal forces has continued post-1947 till date. The attempts by Muslim women such as Shayara Bano and several others is a cry for justice and for a halt to rampant violations of their rights in marriage and family.

The absence of a comprehensive codified personal law in our country has resulted in Muslim woman suffering in matters of divorce, halala, polygamy, guardianship and custody of children, share in property etc. The Shariat Application Act, 1937 is silent on all these matters. It is claimed that Indian Muslims are governed by Shariat. But the Shariat as practised currently in different parts of the country is undefined and unwritten. It is subject to multiple interpretations and misinterpretations — which more often than not, are unfair to women.

Often the injunctions of the Holy Quran are violated in the name of Shariat; widespread incidence of triple talaq is the commonest example. Unfair practices pertaining to age of marriage, mehr, divorce, alimony, child custody, property are all passed off in the name of Shariat. It is anybody’s guess as to how many ordinary Muslims understand the spirit of the Holy Quran or its underlying principles of gender justice!

It is not difficult to guess as to what is the perspective and understanding of some of those men dispensing justice in Shariat courts across the country! Most times, the verdicts in family matters end up being unfairly pro-men and entirely anti-women. This can hardly be said to be based on Quranic injunctions!

A comment on the role of various elected governments and this continued injustice is in order. In our country, Muslim women’s quest for justice is viewed with skepticism or even hostility. By recognising only the conservative religious voice as the sole voice the democratic state has failed in enabling fair representation for all sections of population including women. The conservative sections are unaware and unconcerned about the issues of Muslim women and therefore, they cannot continue speaking for them.

A national study done by us revealed that Muslim women are fed up of this oppression and want immediate redressal. We found that 55 percent of the women surveyed were married before the age of 18 years, 47 percent women don’t possess their own nikahnama and 82 percent women have no property in their name. An overwhelming 95.5 percent women have not heard about the AIMPLB — the all-India Muslim Personal Law Board. More than 40 percent women received less than Rs 1000 for mehr and 44 percent women did not receive the mehr at all. Most respondents were not aware of the empowering provisions about mehr and that it is their right to decide the amount.

An overwhelming 91.7 percent women spoke out against polygamy saying that a Muslim man should not be allowed to have another wife during the subsistence of the first marriage. Of the divorced women, 65.9 percent were divorced orally, 7.6 percent were divorced though a letter, 3.4 percent women were divorced on phone, 3 on email, 1 via SMS. In all, 78 percent women were divorced unilaterally.

The study indicates that an overwhelming 88.3 percent women are opposed to triple talaq and want the legal divorce method to be the talaq-e-ahsan method spread over a period of 90 days and involving negotiation and avoiding arbitrariness. An overwhelming 83.3 percent women felt that their family disputes can be resolved if the law is codified. 89 percent wanted the government to intervene in helping codify the Muslim personal law. Over 86 percent women wanted religious leaders to take responsibility for enabling Muslim women to get justice in family and they wanted these leaders to support in bringing about a gender-just law.

It needs to be mentioned here that patriarchal forces are attempting to project that “court interference” is a violation of the Constitutional right to religious freedom of the Muslim minority. This is a lie; actually the prevalent practice of triple talaq is a violation of Quranic injunctions and therefore violates the right to religious freedom of Muslim women. And this violation is being done by self-appointed custodians of religion.

Shayara Bano and other Muslim women are seeking an end to this violation of their Quranic rights. It is the Muslim conservative forces who are violating the Islamic principles of gender justice and the Muslim women are forced to go to courts. It is only incidental that they are in violation of the Constitutional principles too. Lack of legal recourse and discrimination is a very important aspect that calls for correction while addressing the Quranic rights as well as the citizenship rights of Muslim women.

Zakia Soman and Noorjehan Niaz are co-founders of Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan which seeks reform in Muslim personal law

*******************

 

 

 

 

Human Sacrifice (Nara Bali) in India (Post No.3244)

nara-bali

I have taken this picture from an old book; I dont know whether it is a drawing or something that happened long long ago.

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 12 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 5-55 AM

 

Post No.3244

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

We have references to Nara bali/ human sacrifice in the following sources in India:-

 

1.Siruthondar (from Tamil Periyapuranam):

One of the 63 Saivite saints of Tamil Nadu. He lived in the period of Mahendra Pallava, 1400 years ago. One Bairagi came and asked for human meat. Siruthondar, who was the commander in Chief of the Pallava army, was forced to cook his own son for the Siva devotee. But at the end, the boy came alive and the Bairagi disappeared and they came to know that it was Lord Siva who came as a meat eater to test his devotion.

Whatever be the end of the story this shows that there a sect who asked for human sacrifice. They were very few in number and hated by the true devotees.

 

2.Adi Sankara

Adi Shankara who lived 2000 years ago weeded out the bad elements in Hinduism. Knowing that he was against unruly elemtnts in the Hindu religion A Kabalika asked for his body to be sacrificed to the god. He agreed because an ascetic never cares for the human body. But one of his disciples took the form of Narasimha (Man lion form of Vishnu) and torn the Kabalika into pieces.

3.Purushamedha Yajna (from the Vedic literature)

We hear about it only name sake in the Vedas. There was one instance where a boy was tied to a pole (may be for sacrifice)  and he was released by the revolutionary Vedic Poet Visvamitra. No body objected to it. But there are other references that only human or animal figures made out of rice flour were sacrificed in the fire.

 

Other Nara Bali Episodes:–

4.Indus Valley Civilization; 5.Navakandam; 6.Mahabharatam:–

Please see my earlier post; link at the bottom

 

7.From Khond (Dravidian Human Sacrifices) Sources:–

Bera Pennu

“Vegetation goddess in Nothern India.

Worshipped by the Khonds in Bengal.

She was the recipient of human sacrifice to ensure good harvest, particularly of the spice turmeric, and as protection against disease and infirmity. The sacrificial victim or meriah was youthful, often kept as a holy person before death and was always either the offspring of a previous sacrificial victim, or purchased from impoverished families for the purpose. He or she was generally strangled, sometimes in the fork of a tree, after days of festivities. In other instances, the victim was cut alive.

 

Boora Pennu

God of light. Indian Khond.

A local deity in Orissa province who created the earth goddess Tari Pennu as his consort and through her engendered the other great gods. Until recently this deity was the subject of sacrifice in notorious meriah rituals which involved violent human sacrifice.

Tari Pennu

Chthonic goddess. Indian (Khond). Created by the sky gods Boora Pennu and Bella Pennu so as to conceive the rest of the pantheon she is identified as a malevolent deity, the subject of regular propitiation human sacrifices in the notorious meriah rituals in the Orissa province”.

(Pennu= light is explained in my other article posted on 7th October; please see the link at the bottom)

(Encyclopedia of Gods by Michael Jordan)

 

8.Egypt, Mayan, Middle East (Bahrain), Sumer etc

 

My earlier Posts:-

Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt

31 October 2012

Human Sacrifice practised by the Khonds, 7 October 2016

The Todas: Strange Dravidian Tribe!( Post No.3234)

vv-anni-5

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 9 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-03

 

Post No.3234

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

The reason I am posting several articles on the Tribes of India is to show that they have nothing to do with the civilized Dravidians. They have been living in the forests and hills of India even when the Vedic City Civilization existed; even when the Dravidian City civilization existed. We have ample proof from the Bhimbetka Rock paintings, Mahabharata ,Ramayana and Silappadikaram. But foreigners cunningly divided the Hindus by dubbing all the dark skinned people as Dravidians and others as Aryans. Anyone who reads all about the tribes will find out they have nothing in common amongst themselves. Some of their customs may be traced to the civilized Hindus. To dub all their primitive, uncultured and violent rituals as Dravidian is an insult to the civilized Dravidians—London Swaminathan

 

Here is a piece from Arthur Miles’ book:–

“The Todas, an aboriginal tribe of the Nilgiri hills, seem to interest foreigners more than any of the other tribes. The  interest may be explained by the fact that many attempts have been made to connect the Todas with tribes that have been lost. Despite the hypotheses of many writers that the Todas are derived from one, or several, of the races of the Malabar, their origin is buried with the secrets of the past.

 

They speak a language that belongs to Dravidian family.

vv-aani-4

Certain Todas of the older generation might  easily belong above the to some rather magnificent lost people, being above the average height, well-proportioned, with regular features and fine teeth. Their hirsute development distinguishes them from the other hill tribes. The hair on their heads is usually curly and abundant, their beard is luxuriant, and a dense growth of hair covers their chest and abdomen. Hair is, also, thick on the upper and under surfaces of their arms, on the shoulder blades, the thighs, the knees, and the entire end of the legs. Their eyebrows unite across the forehead and thick tufts of hair grow in and round the ears. All the men have scars on the right shoulders, which are produced by burning the skin with hot sticks (sacred fire sticks). It is believed that these scars enable them to milk their buffalos.

 

Venereal Disease given by Foreigners!

The men of the present generation, however, are stunted and decrepit, the result of syphilis contracted outside their tribe.

 

They consider it beneath their dignity to cultivate land, and when some years ago they were granted a number of acres, they turned it over to the Badagas an continued to herd their cattle. When they find it necessary to seek employment on the estates of coffee and tea planters, they never take the slightest interest in their work.

 

The tribe maintains herds of semi domesticated buffalos on whose milk and products they largely depend. Since the establishment of bazaars at ootacamund and Canoor,the tribe’s income  has been augmented by the sale of sale of milk and curds.  Wealth with them is judged by the number of buffalos one possesses, and a story is told by the people, that when the King visited India, the Todas wanted to know how many buffalos he possessed .

toda_men_women_1871

The Toda women have no idea of sexual morality. Toda women are extremely ugly and degenerate, even in early middle-life into slovenly hags. The odour of their person, caused by the rancid butter with which they anoint themselves, keeps one at a distance. They are often tattooed with circles and dots, seldom with more ambitious designs. The circles and dots are marked on the skin with lamp black and pricked out with a porcupine quill. Ornaments made of shells and beads are worn, and the lobes of their ears are pierced and brass ear rings inserted. They wear a cloth draped round their bodies. Greater numbers of Todas have been converted to Sivaism than to Christianity, however, Many Todas worship now in the Siva temples, observing the Siva rites even to marrying their girls before puberty. Toda women are all extremely lazy, and sometimes spend most of the day buttering and curling their hair. Since the opening of the bazaars, they have done a little embroidery, which they try to sell. But it is very crude, and not greatly in demand.

 

It is said that the female Todas have been debauched by Europeans, who have introduced the diseases from which they suffer. This, however, is a statement difficult to believe considering their unprepossessing appearance and filthy habits.

 

There is no way of knowing how the diseases that have ravaged the Todas were introduced; but the fact remains that these people, once lusty of physique and temperate of habit, are suffering from some form of syphilis, and have gone over to lax and filthy practices. They deny the use of aphrodisiacs, but both men and women mix dogs’ testicles into a paste with milk, and eat the concoction to give them strength. Their food consists of rice boiled in milk, wild vegetables, wild raspberries, tree parasites, and ground orchids. Like the Chinese, they eat the tender shoots of the bamboo in the form of a curry. They are very fond of a soup which they make of the roots and flowers of thistles.

 

toda3

Buffalos and Dairy Products

 

The Todas use matches freely, except in their dairies. No one is permitted to light a match in the dairy. It was some time before these people would consent to use matches they have many superstitions about fire. They use different woods for different purposes certain woods to warm themselves by, other woods for cooking, and still others for sacred objects.

 

Each of their villages is composed of huts, a dairy, a cattle- pen and a temple. The huts are covered with pent-roofing, which slopes down to the ground so that a tall person must stoop to enter them. One room is sufficient for the family, whether the household consists of two or twenty. A platform built on one side of the room is strewn with buffalo and deer skins, and is used as a sleeping-place. On the opposite side, are the fire and cooking pots. No man or woman need be sensitive at undressing in full view of any others upon the platform, since the entire family tumbles into bed with clothes on and arises in the morning all ready for the day. The women may do a little hair-buttering when the men go out, but washing, unless one is going to be married, is not to be thought of.

 

The dairies are divided into two compartments — one the contains the butter, milk and curds, and the other is dwelling-place of the palol (dairy priest). Two paths lead to the dairy from the huts, for the use of men and women respectively. Women are permitted to go as far as the dairy door, to receive butter-milk. The dairy priest is not permitted to visit any of the huts while he holds office, and in some cases he is not supposed to visit his home or to go to another village. If it is necessary for the priest to cross water he must not pass by a bridge but must use a ford. He should be a celibate

 

but if he has a wife he may turn her over to his brother during his official term.

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Superstitions

Todas will not use river water, for fear of arousing the wrath of the river goddess. A pregnant woman, like the dairy priest, must not cross water ford and she is not permitted to ford a stream. Any Toda, after wading through water, apologizes to the water goddess for disturbing her. The Paikara is their sacred river, and there is a legend to account for its origin. An uncle and nephew went out, so the story goes, to gather wild honey. The uncle was unsuccessful in his search, but nephew gathered two portions.

 

He secreted them in a crevice among the rocks, and told his uncle that he had found nothing. was The following day he went to the spot where the honey was hidden, and he found that it had leaked down over the rocks and had transformed itself into the Paikara river.

 

Polyandry

The Todas’ organization is divided into two classes, which cannot intermarry. If polyandry means that a woman is accessible to her husband’s brothers and relatives, then the Todas practise it. One usually thinks of polyandry, however, as a system in which women have some choice in the selection of husbands, but the Toda woman simply acquires them with her marriage ceremony. I have heard, none the less, people refer to the Toda marriage-system as polyandrous. A few years ago the Todas, in a petition to Government, asked permission to legalize their marriages. The Government decided that such legalization was not necessary, and that Toda who wished could register his marriage.

 

When a girl reaches puberty she goes through an initiation ceremony with a man. There is a ceremony performed during the seventh month of pregnancy, to decide who is the father of the child. The man who undertakes the honour presents the expectant mother with a bow and arrow. If the husbands are all brothers, the eldest presents the gifts, but the other brothers are also regarded as fathers. If the husbands are not brothers, the ceremony becomes a social occasion, and after much discussion one of the husbands decides to become the father. He becomes not only the father of the coming child, but of all succeeding children. And the woman still considers him the father of her children, even if he has been several years.

 

Until recently the Todas practised female infanticide which custom still exists to some extent though strenuously denied. An old woman used to take the female child when it was born and close its nostrils, ears.  Shortly after, its head would droop and it would die of suffocation. The old woman received four annas (four pence) for the deed.

toda_tribal_hut_5008551878

Picture of Toda Hut

 

Violent Funeral Ceremony

Several funeral ceremonies are arranged for a deceased Toda. The first occurs when the body is burnt; the second may be a month or two months later while subsequent services may be held at any time agreed upon by the relatives and friends of the deceased. To the second and later ceremonies visitors are invited. Everyone goes to the spot where the body was burnt, and the women, usually relatives of the deceased, work themselves up to the necessary pitch of lamentation. They commence with moaning, but finally reach a stage of what appears to be genuine grief and actually cry. In spite of this lachrymose exhibition, they will turn and beg if any foreigner approaches, and after acknowledging the coin, will return to the mourning. Sometimes the bones are taken out of the ground, where they have been buried after the cremation. The skull is placed on a cloth, and everyone makes obeisance to it. It is then anointed with ghee.

 

A buffalo is usually sacrificed to conclude a funeral ceremony at which Todas from all the surrounding villages (or mands, as they call their settlements) have assisted. Boys are sent out to search for the required animal, which is frequently half dead and bleeding from the nose when they finally drive it to the place chosen for the sacrifice. Sometimes a bell is tied on its neck, and its horns are smeared with butter, before it is finally despatched by a blow, or a series of blows, from a club. When the buffalo is sacrificed before the cremation, the deceased may be placed upon the animal, his face resting on the rump and his feet on the head. If this is done, the manifestations of grief become frantic, and the uproar can be heard for miles. Sometimes the hair is cut from the head of a corpse, to be wrapped round the skull after cremation before the bones are interred.

todatemple1

Toda Children

The Toda children are fond of games, and will burlesque any sacred rite when they feel inclined. They will mimic marriage and funeral rites, and sometimes even the puberty ceremony. The men are fond of sport, especially if they can exhibit their strength, and running, wrestling, lifting heavy weights are favourite diversions. Bets are made when weights are lifted, and arguments may be started, which end in blows. It has been my experience that Indians cannot bear to lose in a game, and lack entirely the real quality of the sportsman, that of being a good loser. Quite recently an Indian tried to bribe the King’s Royal Rifles to acknowledge defeat by the Calcutta Customs in a game of football. The lance-corporal and the goal-keeper were approached by the Indian, who offered them one hundred rupees each if the Royal Rifles lost the game. They were to receive a small sum in advance, and the rest when the game had been lost. The two men made an appointment with the Indian to receive the first instalment, and in the meantime informed their trainer of the affair. The police were on hand to witness the handing over of the money and an arrest was made. Later, the man was released on bail”.

 

from the Land of the Lingam by Arthur Miles, 1933

800px-kandelmund_toda_1837

My comments

In the Nilgris and its surroundings we see Irulas, Todas, Badagas and Kurumbas. Though all of them are classified as Dravidians, they have different marriage, funeral customs and different gods. This shows that they are NOT driven out of Indus valley and they all don’t belong to the same group. The fact of the matter is they have been living in the forest from Vedic days leading an independent life. Till the foreigners invaded and occupied India they were not at all disturbed. When the Christian preachers went into the jungles to convert them, the problems started. After foreigner’s intervention they contacted sexually transmitted diseases. Todas have very strange customs. Some of them may be compared with modern day city dwelling Hindus. Even foreigners couldn’t explain their customs. Todas and Irulas must have been living from time immemorial along with other tribes of India. Ramayana and Mahabharata have lot of information about the tribes and it shows that they lived at the time of city civilization. Even theTamil epic Silappadikaram describes both city and forest life of the tribal people. Silappadikaram gives a long list of articles they brought to the Chera King Seran Senguttuvan whose capital saw lot of Roman gold. So foreigners are wrong in saying that these people were driven out of Indus cities. In fact, these tribes have been here even before the Indus valley civilization began. Mahabharata gives a list of products that Yudhisthira got from the tribal people.

 

Sacrificing buffalos at the funeral is spread up to Celebes island of Indonesia. They think that the more the buffalos they sacrifice better it would be for the dead person in the afterlife!

 

My earlier post on Todas:-

Edwin Arnold’s Visit to Toda Tribal Hut in 1885 (Post No.2867), posted on 4 June 2016

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

 

 

Tamils are Devil Worshippers: Caldwell’s Bluff- Part 2 (Post No.3230)

robert_caldwell

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 8 October 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 6-58 AM

 

Post No.3230)

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 Please read the first part of this article posted yesterday and then continue here.

 

“This teaches us two things. First, that demonolatry may surround deities that were originally good, — human passions and fears may change a good into an evil spirit. Second, the true meaning of the word Pey or Pennu is not ‘devil’ but ‘light’.

 

But Dr Caldwell asserts that the word is neither Sanscrit nor related to Sanscrit. This is a strange error. Before Caldwell wrote, it had been frequently noted  that the Dravidian Pe or Pey is identified with the root pi-sacha, meaning a devil, a malevolent being. The words are interchangeable. There is no reason to suppose  that the Tamil word is derived from Sanscrit or vice versa, yet the roots are identical.  But Sanscrit authorities ascribe Pi-sacha to a root pis, to adorn, and this, as given by Benfey, has the parallel form pimsa from the root pims to shine.  This exact coincidence in both Dravidian and Sanscrit forms proves their identity beyond a doubt. The Sanscrit forms just quoted  probably belong to  the great cluster of important roots that has its centre in Bha, to shine. Thus the Tamil Pey and the Khond Pennu find their exact equivalents  in the Greek Phao and phaino from the root pha. The same derivative appears in the gods Pjanos and Phaethon.

 

But the Dravidian tongues do not need these foreign analogies to show Pey, a devil, comes from a root meaning light. In Madi pey-al, in Rutluk piy-al, in Madia biy-ar, I Tamil pag-al, in Tuluva pag-il, all mean day, the light time.  Al and il are merely substantive terminations. In ancient Tamil pi-rei was te moon and vey-il is the sunlight. In another dialect peymaro is the light. A hundred other examples may be given, proving beyond doubt that the Tamil pey originally meant the bright one, that is, the deity. As some Khond tribes made Pennu the god of light a devil, so some of the Tamils, when cut off from the better teaching of the fathers of their races, degenerated in their worship and degraded their deity to match their superstition.

 

It has always been easy to change a god into a devil.  The last word used in an illustration, for devil is a clear derivative from deva, and is closely related to Deity? Opposing nations have ever called the gods of their adversaries, devils. But enemies are needed for this change. Ignorant sinful man must ever look upon god as a being to be propitiated rather than loved, and when such propitiation becomes an instrument in the hands of ignorant and poor but greedy priests, it pays well to make the deity as dreadful as possible, that offerings may be the more readily made to appease it. Out of Hinduism came the devilry of sakti. Kali the protector and avenger is now Durga the devil.

 

The name of the devil god of Tinnelvelly, when thus carefully examined, proved the exact of what Caldwell would learn from it. He asserts, — “of elementary worship there is no trace whatever in the ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, in the usage of any portion of the Tamil people.”. the word shows, in reality, that the demonolatry is corrupted from an early worship of the element light. In the Khond country all the elements are worshipped.  Caldwell asserts tha the Tamils are not related to the Aryan race, and adduces the name and the worship of devils as evidence.  The name proves that the deity is Aryan, and there is every reason to elieve the worship to be but one example of a process that happened in many Ara races. Caldwell employs the facts under notice to prove the Turanian origin of the people. Their evidence is on the other side, though by no means conclusive either way.

 

The composer, teachers and generally the singers of the songs belongs to distinct class in the Hindu society”.

benu_sml

MY COMMENTS

1.Letters M and V are interchangeable in Tamil and other Indian languages (E.g.Muzi, Vizi= pupil in the eye) at least in the spoken form. I have given several examples in my research papers posted here. If you apply the same rule deVan can easily change into demon. It goes with E Gover’s argument (pey, Deva all meant Light in the beginning). Even the word ASURA in the Vedas is used with good and bad connotations. Even today we use in Tamil he has the strength of an Asura (Asura Balam) in good contexts. This is to show in course of time spellings and meaning change.

 

2.Pennu in Khond context means Light. Mani Smrit and Tamil Purananuru describe Pennu (woman) as the light of the house. So Pen in Tamil might have meant light. Pen in Tamil may mean one who raises/supports (PENU) the family.

 

3.Bishop Caldwell has done many blunders in his work. Even the Tamil fanatics in their commentaries on Tolkappiam had refuted Caldwell’s staements. I have already written about in this blog.

EGYPT-KHOND CONNECTION!!!

3.Pennu in Khond Gods mean light. Bella Pennu is Sun God. This gives support to my argument that civilization moved to West from India. All the key words in old languages can be traced to Sanskrit or Tamil (Eg. Numbers Eight and One are same in Tamil Ettu, Onnu). In the word Bella Pennu Bella is Tamil Vella=White’ linguists know that B and V are interchangeable; Eg. Bengal=Vanga; Bihar=Vihara/Buddha)

To my surprise I found the word BENU in the Egyptian God Lis with the same meaning LIGHT, SUN GOD!

Following is the excerpts from the book Encyclopedia of Gods by Michael Jordan:

 

Boora Pennu

God of light. Indian, Khond.

A local deity in Orissa province who created the earth goddess Tari Pennu as his consort and through her engendered the other great gods. Until recently this deity was the subject of sacrifice in notorious ‘meriah’ rituals which involved violent human sacrifice.

 

Even in this passage Tari is TARAI in Tamil, DHARANI in Sanskrit, TERRA in Greek and other languages; all mean the earth, floor.

Even the word Meriah is derived from Mrt=Mortal=Death.

Mrt is the Sanskrit word for death.

So all the words in ancient languages can be traced to Tamil and Sanskrit. This even will show the missing link in the old languages.

fenix_bennu

4.Now compare it with the Egyptian God:-

BENU:

Transmuted bird like form of a Sun God.

Egyptian (Upper); a deity mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (circa 25th century BCE) and linked with the sun god of Helio polis (corrupted form of the Sanskrit word Surya Puri), Atum (corrupted form of Sanskrit word Sun=Aditya in Sanskrit and Adhavan in Tamil).

 

He is also said to have been self-created from the primeaval ocean and is sometimes a symbol of rebirth and after life. Benu may have augumented the Greek classical tradition of the Phoenix . he appears in the Old Kingdom as a yellow wagtail but later becomes a heron, wearing the conical white crown of Upper Egypt with two slender feathers pointing backwards from its crest.

 

(This can be compared with the Bird Suparna in the Vedas which became the Vahana of Vishnu in the later period)

 

We may conclude that the word Bennu meaning Light travelled from India to Egypt.(It must be seen in the background of my other articles Connecting Egypt and India)

Egyptians also use lot of symbolism like the Hindu Vedic seers.

Also read my article:

Very Important Date 23rd October 4004 BC, posted on 30 January 2014.

 

–Subham–