Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar (Post No.4513)

Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar (Post No.4513)


WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 18 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  21-18

 

 

Post No. 4513

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

In 1886 Rev G U Pope published the translation of Tamil Veda Tirukkural. Before Dr Pope, Ellis has published a translation. Father Beschi translated it into Latin before them. Dr Pope has compared the Bhagavd Gita and Tiukkural. In our time C Rajagopalachari did compare both Gita and Kural.

 

Dr G U Pope in his appendix with notes gives the following comparisons:

Tirukkural couplet No.1 = Bhagavad Gita 10-33

Chapter 2 Rain= B G 3-14

Chapter 4 = B G Chapter 18

Tirukkural 35= BG 16-21

Tirukkural 126 = BG 2-58

Tirukkural 133= BG 3-35, 18-47

Tirukkural 341-350= BG II chapter

Tirukkural 360= B G II -62,63

Tirukkural 605 = BG 14-8

Tirukkural 622 = 18-70/74

 

Did Valluvar copy Manu, Gita and Kamasutra?

V R Ramachandra Dikshitar (lecturer in Indian History, University of Madras) says that Tiruvalluvar might have used several materials from Manu Smrti, Bhagavad Gita and Vatsayana’s Kamasutra, in his book Studies in Tamil Literature in 1936

 

Dikshitar says,”If Parimelalagar’s views could be adopted, then the author of Kural must have been familiar with Sanskrit literature, especially the Dharmashastra and the Arthshastra literature. If this position can be accepted, it is reasonable to assume that Tiruvalluvar follows mainly in his Arathupal the most popular Dharmashaastra of Manu, in his porutpal, the well known Arthashaastra of Kautilya, and in his Kamathu pal, The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana. To these may be added Ramayana and Mahabharata and allied literature. Whether Valluvar’s Muppaal (another name for Tirukkural) is an independent growth or is indebted to Sanskrit literature, it is for future research to determine conclusively. As it is there is a remarkable Parnellism between the Kural and the Sanskrit books above referred to

 

He had dealt with this more elaborately than DR G U Pope. Here is the list according to Dikshitar:

 

Kural 1

A, as is first of letters, every speech maintains;

The Primal Deity is first through all the world’s domains

The Bhagavad Gita (10-33) expresses similar ideas; ‘I am the letter A among the alphabets’ (10-33)

 

xxx

Kural 4

His feet, who over the full blown flower hath past, who gain

In bliss long time shall dwell above this earthly plain.

The Gita (18-61) says, ‘Arjuna! The Lord lives in the hearts of all creatures, making them move about machine like Maya.

xxx

Kural 11

By the continuance of rain the world is preserved in existence; it is therefore worthy to be called ambrosia.

The Bhagavad Gita (3-14) furnishes a parallel: Man depends for his existence on food, and the source of foodstuff is rain.

 

xxx

Kural 24

He who controls his five senses by his will

gains heavenly bliss

The Gita furnishes a parallel (2-61): Having restrained the five senses and brought them under control and having fixed one’s mind on me, one attains the divine knowledge.

xxx

Kural 34

To be of pure, spotless mind is real virtue; all else is of no avail.

The Gita (16-1) has the following: Fearlessness, spotless purity, stability of knowledge and yoga gift, peace of mind, sacrifice and learning constitute real tapas/penance.

 

xxx

Kural 41

The men of household virtue, firm in way of good, sustain

The other orders three that rule professes maintain

The Manu Dharma Shastra says: As the members of the three asrmas are maintained by one householder everyday by Janna and food, the asrama of the householder is said to be the best. Manu 3-78 and 6-89.

 

xxx

Kural 43

 

The paramount duty of a house holder is to cherish daily the manes, God, guests, kindred, self.

In the Manusmrti (3-72), ‘he who does not cherish the God, guests, servants, manes and self, is dead  though he physically  lives.

 

xxx

 

Kural 51

A wife of excellent virtues who is capable managing the household within the means of her husband is a real household help in home life.

 

The Dharmashastra has the following idea: A wife should always be joyous, skilled in domestic duties, helpful and economic in expenditure.

 

to be continued…………………

 

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