VALLUVAR’S TIRUKKURAL AND KAMA SASTRA COMPARED (Post No.4539)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 24 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-35 am

 

 

Post No. 4539

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 5 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar ; in this Kamasastra is compared with Tirukkural along with other books.

 

Please read first four parts posted in the past few days and continue here:–

 

So far we have seen the comparison between Tiru Valluvar’s Tirukkural with Bhagavad Gita, Manu Smrti, Arthasastra of Kautilya/Chanaya, Kamandaki, Ramayana and Mahabharata. In this section we will look at the Parnellism between the Kamasastra in Sanskrit with Tirukkural

 

Following is from the book Studies in Tamil Literature by V R Ramachandra Dikshitar:

 

Book III of Tirukkural- Kaamattuppaal

 

There are two views with regard to this particular section. One is that Valluvar gives expression to purely Tamil aspect of Kama (sexual desire). According to this whole can be conveniently divided into Kalaviyal and Karpiyal, and these again are based on the five tinais peculiar to the Tamils.

 

But the celebrated commentator of the Kural, Parimel azagarwould again find correspondences between this subject of the subject and that in Sanskrit literature. According to that authority, Kalaviyal and Karpiyal correspond to the Samyoga and Vipralambha of the KAMASUTRA treatises.

 

In the Karpiyal section again Parimelaalagar would find corresponding terms for the different incidents like

Selavu =Pravasa

Arraamai= Viraaga

Viduppu = Ayogam

and Pulavi= Maanam.

The Sanskritists add the fifth incident Saapa.

As this is quite uncommon , says the commentator, Valluvar did not include it in his treatment of the subject. While the Chapter 116 Pirivarraamai is devoted to selavu, the chapters (117-126) deal with the Arraamai.

 

Viduppu is dealt within three chapters (127-129), while the last four chapters (130-133) are devoted to the incident of Pulavi.

 

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Porutpaal continued…………………

Kural 586 to 589 ( Spies/ Detectives)

 

As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,

A spy whatever men do must watchful mind display.

 

A spy must search each hidden matter out

And full report must render, free from doubt.

 

Spying by spies, the things they tell,

To test by other spies is well.

 

One spy must not another see: contrive it so;

And things by three confirmed as truth you know

 

The Arthasastra has the following:

The king shall send fraudulent and ascetic spies who have been tried for their loyalty and skill.

The class of officers who went by the name of Tiiksanas ascertained their outward conduct. The satri spies carried this information to the district quarters. The residential officers therein made it known to the headquarters through signs and cipher writings. This is to be done without the knowledge of the respective samsthas. If the information is corroborated by three independent sources, it is taken to be confirmed.

(Book 1, Chap.11 and 12)

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Kural 581 (Spies)

These two: the code renowned, and spies

n these let king confide as eyes

 

Tha Kamandaki saysA king should get at the movements of the adversary through the medium of his cautious and secret spies. That king one of whose eyes is caara or the spy is awake even in sleep (13-29)

 

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Kural 602 and 604 (Sloth)

Let indolence, the death of effort, die,

If you’d uphold your household’s dignity.

His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,

Who, sunk in sloth,  for noble objects doth not strive

 

The Bhagavd Gita gives similar ideas:

Know, og Bharata, inertia born of ignorance and the deluder of all beings, is bound by sloth, indolence and sleep (BG 14-8)

 

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Kural 628 and 630 (Fortitude)

He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;

Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes

 

Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire

The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.

 

The Gita says similarly,

You grieve for things not fit to be grieved for and yet indulge in wise sayings. The wise never grieve either for the living or for the dead.

 

He who sees his self in everything and looks upon pleasure and pain equally, is a perfect Yogi

–BG 2-11 and 6-32

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Kural 631 (Ministers)

A minister is who grasps, with wisdom large,

Means ,time, work’s mode and functions rare he must discharge

 

The Arthasastra says,

The ministers shall engage in the following five duties: commencing a work, finding out resources, fixing it according to place and time, protecting against possible dangers, and final consummation Book 1-15

 

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Kural 645 and 646 (Eloquence)

Speaking out your speech, when once it is past dispute

That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.

 

Charming each hearer’s ear, of others words to seize the sense

Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.

 

A good illustration of this maxim is found in the Mahabharata. Here the kingdom is threatened with a invasion, the king goes to the country and begs for war loans and benevolences by speaking out in sweet, soft and convincing style.

–Santi Parva 88,26,34

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Kural 669, 670 (Firmness)

Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,

And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.

 

The world desires not men of every power possessed,

Who powers in act desires not, crown of all the rest

 

is expressed in other words by the Bhagavad Gita:

Do not get vexed. This is unbecoming of one like yourself. Give up the detestable weakness of the heart and gird up, oh slayer of foes –BG 2-3; 4-20

 

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Kural 681, 682, 683, 684 (AMBASSADOR)

 

Benevolence, high birth, the courtesy kings love

These qualities the envoy of a king approve

 

Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things

Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.

 

Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be

Midst javelin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory

Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite

Who hath these three for envoy’s task is fit.

 

similar ideas are expressed by the law giver Manu:

The king shall appoint him an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who can read the gestures and signs, pure, skilled, of noble family

That ambassador, who is loyal, honest, intelligent of excellent memory, who acts according to time and place, of good physique, bold and possessed of good powers of speech is applauded – Manu 7-63/64

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Kural 685, 686, 688, 689, 690 (AMBASSADOR)

In the Kural

In term, concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word

An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord

 

An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye

Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency

In the Athasastra,

The message is to be delivered in toto, even at the cost of life……….When questioned by the enemy king as to the strength of the lord’s forces, pretend ignorance and simply say, you know better! – Book 1-16

 

Again in the Kural,

Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness;

Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.

 

His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,

Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king

 

Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;

The envoy gains assured advantage for his king

 

The Rajaniti Rantnakara quotes Sukra,

The ambassador, though a mlechcha, shall not be killed

Hence the duta/ambassador is the king’s eye. Even when the arms are raised aloft in the act of striking him, he should faithfully deliver his message.

 

From the words of the duta/amabassador who would think of his own defects and of enemy’s strength? For the duta  speak always anything he thinks – page 46 of Rajanitiratnakara

 

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Kural 698, 699, 700 (On Serving the King)

Say not, ‘He is young, my kinsman’ despising thus your king;

But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.

The following may be parallel,

A king should not be despised even though a child. he is a great divinity in the form of a man Manu 7-8

In the Kural, we have gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do

So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.

 

Wh think we are ancient friends, and do unseemly things;

To these familiarity sure ruin brings.

 

Similar ideas are found in the following discussion in the Arthasastra,

says Bhardvaja,

The king shall appoint as his ministers his classmates as he would have understood their honesty and tact. They could be easily trusted. No says Visalaksha, ‘as playmates they would not respect him. He shall therefore appoint those whose secrets are well known to him. Possessed of conduct and defects in common with the king those do not entertain harm lest their secrets should be divulged. This is very common, says Parasara, for the king may follow them in their good and bad actions lest his own secrets be divulged Arthasastra Book 1, Chap.8

 

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Kural 731, 732 (A Prosperous Nation)

The Kural defines,

Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,

Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land.

 

That is a land which men desire for wealth’s abundant share,

Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare

Baudhayana says:

A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass and garlands are plentiful, access to which is easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people and where Aryans (noblemen) form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers—Baudhayana 2-3-51

S B E Volume 14 pages 243/4

Kural 737 (Nation)

What the Kural says,

Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;

These make a land with fortress sure defence

 

is also mentioned by Kautilya

The fortress of rivers and mountains are sources of defence to the country parts.

Arthasastra Book 2-3

Chapter 74 of Kural entitled Nation corresponds roughly to the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

Durga= Fortress

Chapter 75 of Kural entitled Fortification corresponds roughly to the the chapter on Durgavidhaan in the Arthasastra Book 2-3

 

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Kural 751 (WEALTH)

Nothing exists, save wealth, that can

Change man of nought to worthy man

is tus explained in the Ramayana

To a man of wealth, there are friends, and relatives. He is the worthy man of the world, and becomes a Pandita. He is a man of prowess and wisdom. He is a great man of good qualities.

Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana chap.83-35/36

 

Kural 760

What the Kural says,

Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,

By them the other two are easily obtained

 

is explained thus by Vaatsyaayana,

Between wealth and kingdom, wealth is superior. Though the means of wealth, Lokayaatraa and Kaama are realised. This is the position of Trivarga.

–Kamasutra book 1-2-15/17

 

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Kural 861 (ENEMIES)

With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;

With weaker shun not, rather court the fray

Kautilya prescribes,

Court agreement of peace with equal and superior foes. Fight with the weaker.

–Book 7-3

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Kural 920 (PROSTITUTES)

According to the Kural:

Women of double minds, strong drink and dice;

to these given over,

Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.

 

In the Arthasastra,

Public censure and loss of wealth are due to Kama ( desire).

….Kama comprises hunting, gambling, women and drinking.

–Book 7-3

 

In the chapter on the Purusa vyasana varga, Kautilya referes to the four-fold vice under the category of Kama. These are hunting, gambling, women and drinking. The effects of these evil habits are discussed I detail. Tiruvalluvar, on the other hand devotes two chapters on the Vyasanas of women (91being ruled by the wife, 92 prostitutes) one chapter ( 93 ) on drinking and one chapter on (94) gambling. Apparently, the author of the Kural does not treat hunting as such a vice as the other three. In fact hunting is recognised as a valuable form of exercise to kings by Kalidasa in his Sakuntala. Nor is Kautilya unaware of its beneficial effects.

Arthasastra book 8-3

 

My comments:

V R R Dikshitar has done very good research in Tirukkural. I have not seen any such comparisons in any other book. One must be a good scholar in both Sanskrit and Tamil and well read. I have already given my comparisons of Dhammapada and Tirukkural, Panchatantra and Tirukkural in separate articles.

 

—SUBHAM–

Arthasastra,Ramayana and Tirukkural Compared (Post No.4534)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 23 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am

 

 

Post No. 4534

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 4 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4534).

 

In this fourth part, Arthasastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Kamandaka and Manu’s verses are compared.

 

 

In the first two parts Tirukkural, Bhagavad Gita and Manava Dharma Sastra are compared,

 

In the third part Kautilya’s Arthasastra is also compared with Kural

It is continued in the Fourth Part

 

Kural 471 (Forethought)

 

In the opinion of Valluvar,

 

The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,

The force of friends: these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.

 

On this Kautilya observes:

 

The conquering monarch shall acquaint himself with the comparative strength and weakness, of himself and of his enemy in regard to power, lace, time, season for march, season for recruiting the army, consequential advantages and difficulties arising from anger, diminution and loss and decide on expedition if he would feel assured of superiority in his force.

–Book 9, chapter 1

 

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KURALS 472, 476, 477 (Assessment of Relative Strength)

 

 

Who know what can he wrought, with the knowledge of means, on this

Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss (Kural 472)

 

Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise

Beyond the branch’s tip, with life the forfeit pays (476)

With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you, give!

That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live (477)

Kautilya says,

 

The power of mantra (counsel) is better. The king who possesses the eye of Sastraic knowledge can press his knowledge into service even with little effort. He can over reach the enemy with enthusiasm and power by means of conciliation, and application of strategic means. In this way success is due to enthusiasm, power, force of mantra/counsel of in the ascending order – Book 9, chapter 1

 

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Kural 481 and 482 (Right Time)

 

According to the author of Kural,

 

A crow will conquer owl in brad day light;

The king the foes would crush, need fitting time to fight.

 

The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made

Strictly observant still of favouring season’s aid.

 

Says the Kautilya, “That season is best which is suited to the manoeuvre of one’s own army and unsuited to ones enemny. The reverse is the worst. The ordinary season is the middling one. Book 9, Chap. 1

 

Time alone is better say some. For on this account the crow kills the owl in the day and the owl the crow in the night.

 

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Kural 493 and 494 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

Even weak ones mightily prevails, if place of strong defence

They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.

 

The foes who thought to trimph, find their thoughts in vain

If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain

 

According to Arthasastra, ‘one should endeavour the means to increase the strength of one’s own force. That desa is the best which is the ground for manoeuvre of one’s own army but disadvantageous to the enemy. Otherwise it is the worst. That which is common is neither best nor worst.- Book 9, chap.1)

 

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Kural 495, 497, 500 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide;

If this it leaves, it is slain by anything beside

 

Save their own fearless might they need no other aid, If in right place they fight, all due provision made

 

 

The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen

The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.

 

In the Arthasastra, it is said:

The ground is better, some say. On this account the dog on the ground can overreach even a crocodile, and the crocodile in the low ground the dog. –Book 9- Chapter 1

 

Thus we come across similar ideas both in the Arthasastra and Tirukkural. While the Arthasastra has dealt in one chapter all the three means of Sakti, Desa and Kala, the Kural devotes three separate chapters of the Kural Venbas each

 

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Kural 501(On choosing the right men)

 

How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life is at stake,

Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make

 

Says Kautilya:

 

The ministers shall be tested by the Upadhas which are in the nature of temptations. These are for kinds, the temptation of virtue, wealh, lust and fear- Book 1, chap.10

 

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Kural 510 On choosing the right men)

 

Trust where have you not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,

Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal

 

The Arthasastra says:

The Acaryas (teachers) have prescribed that the king should appoint government servants in their respective posts after the four-fold test according to the satisfaction afforded by such test.

–Book 1, Chapter 10

 

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Kural 518 and 520 (Employment of Chosen men)

 

As each man’s special aptitude is known

Bid each man make that special work his own

 

Let king search out his servants’ deeds each day;

When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way

 

is corroborated by the Arthasastra

 

Those who have come out successful from the Dharmopadhaa are to be appointed as judges and commissioners, from the Arthopadhaa to office of treasurer and he collector-general, from Kaamopadhaa to guarding frontiers, harem and sporting grounds and from the Bhayopadhaa in the king’s household.

 

Those who have gone through the four ordeals are to be chosen as ministers.

 

Having thus chosen his servants by the four fold tests, the king shall endeavour through his spies to get at their loyalty or otherwise –Book 1, Chapter 10

 

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Kural 517(Employment of Chosen men)

 

This man, this work halt thus work out, let thoughtful king command:

Then leave the matter wholly in his servant’s hand

 

Kamandaka says,

 

He whose capacity is too well known for a particular job is appointed to it, just like the different senses which are employed to perceive particular objects – Kamandaka 5-75

 

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Kural 541 (Just Rule)

 

Search out, to no one favour show, with heart that justice loves,

Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.

 

The Ramayana furnishes a parallel

If the punishment accorded to the offenders is meted out according to the laws of the land, it leads the monarch to heaven

–Ramayana 7-79-9

 

Kural 543 (Just Rule)

 

Learning and virtue of the sages spring

From all-controlling sceptre of the king

 

According to the Arthasastra,

That state which is disciplined by the established laws of the Aryas, which is rooted in the organisation of castes and orders, and which is protected by the three Vedas, progresses and never deteriorates – Book 1-3

 

Kural 545 (Just Rule)

 

Where king, who righteous law  regards, the sceptre wields,

There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields

 

A Parallel is furnished in the Ramayana,

The fields are rich with crops, the rains shower in proper seasons, and the soldiers are free from disease during Satrughna’s rule.

–Ramayana 7-70-10

 

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Kural 554 (On Tyranny, Oppression)

 

Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,

At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.

 

Manu rules,

 

The king who allows the kingdom to deteriorate owing to sheer neglect and lethargy will soon fall from his position and life with all his relatives -Manu 7-111

 

Kural 560 (Oppression, Tyranny)

 

Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry

And Brahmin’s sacred lore will all forgotten lie

 

 

The Mahabharata furnishes a parallel,

When Dandaniti is given the death blow and when the ancient Raja Dharma of the Kshatriyas become lost, the sacred lore gets extinct, as also all the dharmas including those dharmas pertaining to the asramas

–Santi Prava Chap.112-28

 

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Kural 562 and 569 (Penalties)

 

For length of days with still increasing joys on heaven who call

Should raise the rod with bow severe, but let it gently fall.

 

Manu furnishes a parallel,

The king should be harsh and mild according to the nature of the work. He endears himself to the people, being harsh and soft—Manu 7-140

 

Kural 569

 

Who builds no forth whence he may foe defy,

In time of war shall fear and swiftly die

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

The enemies do not wrong those resident in fortresses, as they do not attack the king who shelters under a fort – Manu7-73

 

 

to be continued……………………

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

 

 

31 Quotations from Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar (Post No.4438)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 27 NOVEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-28

 

 

Post No. 4438

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December 2017 ‘Good Thoughts’ Calendar

31 Quotations from Tamil Veda Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar, Great Tamil Poet.

 

Important Days- 2-Kartikai Deepam; 11-Bharati’s Birth Day; 25-Christmas; 29- Vaikunda Ekadasi

Auspicious Days- 7, 13

Ekadasi Fasting Days- 13, 29.

New Moon/amavasyai-17/18

Full Moon/ Purnima- 3

December 1 Friday

Just Rule: The world clings to the feet of the great leader who wields his sceptre with love for his subjects (Kural 541)

December 2 Saturday

Miracle: Rains and harvests are rich in the land ruled by the righteous sceptre of an able leader (Kural 545)

December 3 Sunday

Vigilance: He who is not forearmed against coming danger, shall repent his fault at the end (535)

December 4 Monday

Success: Concentrate the mind upon what you want to achieve; it becomes easy then to attain (540)

December 5 Tuesday

Sharing with Kith and Kin: The crow invites its kind to share its prey without concealing it; fortune abides only with men of a similar nature (527)

 

December 6 Wednesday

Employing: Entrust affairs to men of four virtues: loyalty, intelligence, clear vision and non-craving (513)

December 7 Thursday

Suspicion: Fortune forsakes the leader who suspects the loyalty of him that endeavours to carry out a design (kural 519).

 

December 8 Friday

Selecting and Entrusting: Apply four tests in choosing genuine officers:Virtue, wealth, pleasure and fear of death (501)

 

December 9 Saturday

Greatness: A man’s deeds are the touch stone of his greatness and littleness (505)

December 10 Sunday

TRUST: Never trust a man without testing him; when the test is over, decide what you can entrust him with (Kural 509)

 

December 11 Monday

Crocodile Tactics: In deep waters the crocodile overpowers all; out of waters, others overpower it. (495)

December 12 Tuesday

Elephant and Fox (BE TACTFUL) : A fierce elephant that has faced lancers, can be foiled by a fox, if it is stuck in a marshy grounds (Kural 500)

December 13 Wednesday

TACTIS: The sea sailing ship cannot move on land. The strong wheeled high chariot cannot run on water (Kural 496)

December 14 Thursday

Time of Action: The crow defeats the owl during daytime. The leader seeks right time to quell the enemy (481)

December 15 Friday

Right Time: One can even win the world if he chooses the proper place and acts in the right hour (484)

 

December 16 Saturday

Time and Ram: The quiescence of a strong man is like the step back of a fighting ram before charging (Kural 486)

December 17 Sunday

Heron and Time: In adverse time feign peace and wait like a heron; strike like its peck when the time is opportune (490)

December 18 Monday

Overloading (FORETHOUGHT): The axle of an over loaded cart breaks by adding even a gentle peacock’s feather (475)

December 19 Tuesday

Thrift (SAVE THE MONEY): His amassed wealth will quickly vanish who lavishes it without thrift, upon needless things (480)

December 20 Wednesday

To be or Not to be (TAKE DECISIVE ACTION, DON’T DELAY): It is ruinous to do what should not be done; and ruinous also to omit what should be done (466)

 

December 21 Thursday

Have Good Company:-Purity of heart and purity of action both come from good company (455)

 

December 22 Friday

Greatmen:-The leader who has worthy friends and acts ably, has nothing to fear from terrible enemies (Kural 446)

December 23 Saturday

Supporters:-There is no profit without capital; there is no stability for a leader without strong supporters (449)

December 24 Sunday

Self-Introspection: Let a man cure his faults and then scan others’. Who then can find fault with him? (Kural 436)

December 25 Monday

Boasting: Never extol yourself in any mood nor do any act that is good for nothing (439)

 

December 26 Tuesday

Wisdom: Wisdom is a weapon which defends against decline; it is the inner fortress that baffles the enemy’s entry (421)

December 27 Wednesday

Do in Rome as Romans do:- To live in conformity with the world is wisdom (426)

December 28 Thursday

Listen:- Listen to whatever is good, however little; little as it may be, it will bring you much greatness.

 

December 29 Friday

Depression:- Though a man has no learning, let him listen; like a staff , it will support him in his depression

December 30 Saturday

Wise discourses: Polite speech is difficult for those who do not listen to wise discourses (419)

 

December 31 Sunday

Lady without breasts: The unlettered man aspiring to speak (in public platforms) is like a lady without her two breasts courting love. (Tirukkural couplet 402)

January First 2018 Monday- HAPPY NEW YEAR

–Subham–

 

SHAKESPEARE IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL- Part 1 (Post No.4423)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 NOVEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-58

 

 

Post No. 4423

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WHAT IS TIRUKKURAL?

Tirukkural is a book of ethics in Tamil. Tirukkural means a ‘book of sacred couplets’. It has 1330 couplets divided into 133 chapters. It is divided into three sections dealing with Dharma (Virtue), Artha (wealth) and Kama (Love between man and woman). It was written by Tiruvalluvar, who lived approximately 1500 years before our time. The book is praised as Tamil Veda by his contemporaries. All the Hindu ideals are incorporated into the book. Some of the couplets can be compared with the sayings of Shakespeare.

 

Who is Shakespeare?

Shakespeare (1564-1616) was an English dramatist and poet. He wrote 37 plays and over 150 poems. His quotations are used very often in English essays and other literary articles. Tiruvalluvar and Shakespeare agree on many issues. When one reads them one thinks that the famous saying ‘Great men think alike’ is proved once again.

Here are some comparisons culled out from various books:

Compassion and Mercy

Tiruvalluvar says

Those who are merciful are really the men of virtue

because they have compassion for all living creature (Kural 30)

In the Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare say that people with mercy are the real sages of the world.

 

The quality of mercy is not strain’d,

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven

Upon the place beneath: it is twice blest;

It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:

‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes

The throned monarch better than his crown;

His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,

The attribute to awe and majesty,

Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings;

But mercy is above this sceptred sway;

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,

It is an attribute to God Himself;

And earthly power doth then show likest God’s

When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,

Though justice be thy plea, consider this,

That in the course of justice, none of us

Should see salvation. We do pray for mercy;

And that same prayer doth teach us all to render

The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much

To mitigate the justice of thy plea;

Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice

Must needs give sentence ‘gainst the merchant there.

 

(Portia in The Merchant of Venice, Act 4, Scene 1)

Chastity

Tiruvalluvar says

Of what avail is watch and ward? A woman’s will

is the best safeguard of her honour (Kural 57)

Prison walls, pad-locks and chastity belts are absolutely of no use to ensure a woman’s chastity. Her own conscience and inner strength will alone keep her really pure.

Sakespeare says,

“My chastity is the jewel of our house bequeathed down from many ancestors”

DIANA.
I see that men make hopes in such a case,
That we’ll forsake ourselves. Give me that ring.

BERTRAM.
I’ll lend it thee, my dear, but have no power
To give it from me.

DIANA.
Will you not, my lord?

BERTRAM.
It is an honour ‘longing to our house,
Bequeathed down from many ancestors;
Which were the greatest obloquy i’ the world
In me to lose.

DIANA.
Mine honour’s such a ring:
My chastity’s the jewel of our house,
Bequeathed down from many ancestors;
Which were the greatest obloquy i’ the world
In me to lose. Thus your own proper wisdom
Brings in the champion honour on my part
Against your vain assault.

All is well that ends well, Act 4, Scene 2

 

Wife,The Helpmate

Tiruvalluvar says,

If a man’s wife does not bring him credit and honour, he cannot walk

with proud leonine gait in the face of his distractors- (Kural 59)

 

Shakespeare says,

‘A light wife doth make a heavy husband’

-The Merchant of Venice, Act 5, Scene 1

 

It is a sarcastic remark.

It’s a pun (a play on words to make a joke) because “light” and “heavy” have many meanings.

“A light wife” is an adulteress.
We also say someone is “heavy” if they carry an emotional burden, e.g. an unfaithful wife.

Light and heavy most commonly refer to the weight of something and are opposites, as are husband and wife, as are an unfaithful and faith spouse.

Enter BASSANIO, ANTONIO, GRATIANO, and their Followers.
  Bass.  We should hold day with the Antipodes,
If you would walk in absence of the sun.
  Por.  Let me give light, but let me not be light;         145
For a light wife doth make a heavy husband,
And never be Bassanio so for me:
But God sort all! You are welcome home, my lord.
  Bass.  I thank you, madam. Give welcome to my friend:
This is the man, this is Antonio,         150
To whom I am so infinitely bound.

 

–to be continued

 

–Subham–

Great Men Praise Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar and Tamil Veda Tirukkural! (Post No.4152)

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 12 August 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 9-18 am

 

Post No. 4152

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

(Don’t cut the name of the writer and blog if you are reusing it. Give respect to the writers and get respect. Be honest and your spouse and children will be honest to you; if you cheat me, they will cheat you.)

Great Men Praise Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar and Tamil Veda Tirukkural! (Post No.4152)

TIRUVALLUVAR TEMPLE IN MYLAPORE, CHENNAI

Tirukkural, written by Tamil Poet Tiruvaluvar, is considered as the Tamil Veda. It consists of 1330 aphorisms grouped into 133 chapters of ten couplets each. These fall into three sections Dharma (virtue), Artha (wealth) and Kama (love).

 

Tirukkural literally means a ‘book of sacred couplets’

We can ungrudgingly compare it to the Confucian Analects, Plato’s Dialogue and Aristotle’s Ethics. Western scholars who have scrutinised it in translation are unquestionably impressed by its universal content and appeal.

xxx

Tirukkural is neither a scripture nor an epic, but an extraordinary treatise on the art of living, which delves deep into the unshifting foundations of human life and attempts to provide guidelines, not for the society in general but for the individuals – the ascetic, the family member, the father, the son, the ruler, the minister, the ambassador, and in general to the individuals in society with responsibilities to themselves and others  — Dr V C Kulandaiswamy

xxx

 

“There hardly exists in the literatures of the world a book of such lofty maxims”- Albert Schweitzer

xxx

 

M.Ariel (Journal Asiatique-1848)

“The Kural is the masterpiece of Tamil literature:- one of the highest and purest expressions of human thought.”

 

xxx

Dr Graul (1856)

“No translation can convey an idea of its charming effect. It is truly apple of gold in a net work of silver.”

xxx

Dr G.U. Pope (1886)

“The Kural owes much of its popularity to its exquisite poetic form. The brevity rendered necessary by the form gives an oracular effect to the utterances of the great Tamil ‘Master of Sentences’. They are the choicest of the moral epigrams. Their resemblance to gnomic poetry of Greece is remarkable as to their subjects, their sentiments, and the state of society when they were uttered. Something of the same kind is found in Greek epigrams, in Martial and Latin elegiac verse. There is a beauty in the periodic character of the Tamil construction in many of these verses that reminds the reader of the happiest efforts of Propertius”.

xxx

Dr Barth (Religions of India)

“The Kural is that admirable collection of stanzas in the Tamil language, which is instinct with the purest and most elevated religious emotion……………………… What philosophy he teaches seems to be of the eclectic school as represented by the Bhagavt Geeta.”

 

xxx

 

Frederic Pincott

“There are two books in India which have taken entire possession of the hears and minds of the people; the first of these is the Ramayana of Tulsidas, which is known to every peer and peasant in Northern India, and the other is the Kural of Thiruvalluvar which is equally well-known throughout the South of the Indian Peninsula. The authors of both these works were essentially moralists and monotheists, and their poems have moulded the characters and guided the lives of many generations of their countrymen.

xxx

Rev.Elijah Hoole D.D.

“Some of the sayings (of Cural) are probabaly as old as the earliest writings of the Old Testament. The Cural of Tiruvalluvar is a poetic work on morals, of great merit as literary performance”

 

xxx

Rev.W .H.Drew (1840)

“Called the first of works, from which, whether for thought or language, there is no appeal, the Cural has a strong claim on our attention as a part of the literature of the country, and as a work of intrinsic excellence”.

xxx

Rev. E.J. Robinson

“We may regard Valluvar… as Tamil Solomons, Ezras or Tuppers, who collected and arranged the ‘proverbial philosophy’ of primitive times”.

xxx

G.U. POPE’S POEM ON TIRUVALLUVAR

‘’Sage Valluvar, priest of the lowly clan,
No tongue repeats, no speech reveals thy name;
Yet, all things changing, dieth not thy fame
For thou art bard of universal man;

And still thy ‘book’ above the waters wan’
Virtue, true wealth, and joy, and being’s aim,
In sweetest mystic couplets doth proclaim
Where winds sea-wafted palmy forests fan.

Haply undreamed of ‘visions’ glad thine eyes
In reals beyond thy fabled ‘seven fold birth’,
And clouds of darkness from thy spirit roll;

While lands far off have heard with strange surprise
Faint echoes of thy song. Though all the earth
Men hail thee brother, seer of spotless soul’’
—Written by Dr G.U. Pope

xxxx

Tirukkural Commentaries

Tradition says that there were ten commentaries on the Kural in medieval times. Of these only five have been bought to light, namely those of Parimel alagar, Manakkudavar, Kalingar, Parithiyar and Paripperumal. Parmellagar was the most popular and authoritative commentary on the book. He was a native of Kanchi, where he lived and taught about 600 years ago. His style is almost as terse and vigorous as the original and all students of Kural are greatly indebted to him for his clear and convincing exposition of the couplets. His criticisms of the various readings current in his day are incisive and dignified.

Manakkudavar differs from him in many places and he often adopts a different renderings of the same text.

xxx

Tiruvalluvar’s Age

Tiruvalluvar hailed from Mylapore in Chennai and he lived at least 1500 years ago. Though the Tamil Nadu government publications place him around 31 BCE, linguistically he can be placed in the fourth or fifth century CE only. His style, language and grammatical constructions show him that he lived in the post- Sangam age. Sangam Age covers the first three centuries of modern era.

–Subham—

 

Sacred Cow in Tamil Veda ‘Tirukkural” (Post No.4057)

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 6 July 2017
Time uploaded in London- 19-59     
Post No. 4057

 
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Hindu culture has been practised by the people of India from the Northern most Himalayas to the southernmost Kanyakumari for thousands of years. Sacred cow is mentioned in the Sangam Tamil literature in several places. One of the post Sangam books is Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar. Like the Vedas always pair the Brahmins and Cow, Tiruvalluvar also does.

 

“Go brahmanebya subamastu nityam lokas samasto sukino bhavantu” is the daily prayer of the Hindus. From the Brahmins and cows all living beings must live happily is the meaning. The reason for placing Brahmins and cow in the beginning is that they are pure and selfless. This pairing continued from the Vedic days and we see that in the oldest part of Tamil Literature – Purananuru verse 9. Poet Nettimaiyar sang this poem in praise of the ancient Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi. His epithet is that one who did innumerable Yagas (Fire sacrifices). The poet says before waging any war, he will first request that Brahmins, Women, Cows, invalids, sick people and those who has not given birth to child must keep away. Kannaki, the Tamil heroine of Silappadikaram also did the same. Before burning the city of Madurai she commanded the God of Fire (Agni Deva) not to burn the Brahmins, women and cows. Tamil Miracle boy and one of the four Tamil Saints Jnana Sambandar also sang Long Live the Brahmins, Long Live the Cows.

Tamil Purananuru verse lists the worst sins and one of them is killing the cow (verse 34 by Alathur Kizar)

 

Now let me quote two couplets from Tirukkural, considred Tamil Veda by the Tamils (actually it was one of the poets who sang the praise of Tiruvalluvar, used these words Tamil Veda).

“If the guardian of the country neglects to guard it, the produce of the cows will fail and the men of six duties (shad karmana: = brahmins) will forget The Book (Vedas)” (Kural 560).

Here we see the Go+Brahmna pairing.

 

in another couplet (1066) “It is most heinous to beg for a bucketful of water even to quench the feverish thirst of a sinking cow”.

 

Being cow the most sacred animal, Tiruvalluvar used the cow here. feeding the cows, worshipping the cows are part of Hinduism. In Tamil Nadu, Go Puja (worship of cow) and Gaja Puja (worship of elephant) are done in all the temples and mutts in the early morning.

 

In front of the temples, cows are tied to the poles and the devotees used to feed them with the Agathi leaves (Agathi grandiflora) to earn good merits (Punya).

Of late the picture of wish fulfilling cow Kamadhenu’s picture is displayed in many houses and shops as a symbol of good luck.

–Subham–

 

 

A Brief Introduction to Tamil (Post No.3420)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 5 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-53

 

Post No.3420

 

Pictures are taken from the Conference booklet;thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

1981 World Tamil Conference Procession in Madurai -Part 1

 

MOTHER TAMIL

Tamil is one of the classical languages of the world. It is the most ancient language among all the languages of the Dravidian family. It is endowed with rich vocabulary, beautiful diction, rhythm and melody. The  ancient Tamils, who have been fascinated by the greatness, grandeur and glory of their mother tongue, have personified her as Mother Goddess and showered all praise and honour on her.

 

It is a convention to describe some of the classical epics of Tamil language as the ornaments worn by the Mother Goddess Tamil. Silappathikaram is hailed as her anklet, Valayapathi as her bracelet, Manimekalai as her waist belt studded with gems, Chintamani as her necklace, Kuntalakesi as her ear-ring and Chutamani as the jewel worn on her forehead. She is also portrayed as a queen holding in her hand Thirukkural as the sceptre the symbol of her righteous rule.

 

The Tamil poets of yore have glorified their mother tongue as the first language of the human race. Its ancient grammatical treatises such as Tholkappiyam and  Irayanar Kalavijal bear testimony to its rich legacy of literature and continuity of literary tradition from a hoary past. Here is a tableau which depicts Tamil language as Mother Goddess.

 


THIRUVALLUVAR

Thiruvalluvar was a profound scholar, philosopher and poet, who lived in Tamil Nadu two thousand years ago. His magnum opus THIRUKKURAL or the sacred couplets, is an ethical work which speaks about the greatness of righteousness (Aram), polity and economy (Porul) and domestic happiness (Inpam) in 1330 couplets. This work is a great human heritage which has transcended the linguistic, racial and religious barriers in its presentation of the ethical codes. Among the Indian classics it is the only book which has been translated into nearly two and a half dozens of languages. The modern Tamil year is calculated beginning with the birth of Thiruvalluvar. Since agriculture formed the basis of the economy of the ancient Tamils, Thiruvalluvar has devoted one chapter to this noble profession. The float depicts an agricultural scene, so well portrayed by Thiruvalluvar.

 


AVVAIYAR

In the portrayal of various internecine and intertribal wars which were waged for various political motives, the Sankam literatures introduce Avvaiyar, a poetess of the Sankam age, as a peace maker between two warring kings. Thontaiman plans a war against Athiyaman. Avvaiyar, wishing to stop the war, meets Thontaiman. Contrasting his decorated weapons with those of Athiyaman, so frequently used in battles, she brings home to Thontaiman, the latter’s superiority in warfare. A war is thus averted.



KANNAKI
in SILAPPATHIKARAM

Silappathikaram is the earliest among the available Tamil epics. Kannaki came to Madurai along with her husband Kovalan to sell her anklet and start a new life. But, her husband was unjustly accused of stealing the anklet of the Queen and was killed under the orders of the King. To prove the innocence of her husband, and expose the heinous crime of the Great Pandya King, Kannaki went to his court with one of her anklets. She accused the King of having ordered the death of her husband without conducting proper trial. The Queen’s anklet had pearls whereas the anklet of Kannaki had gems inside. She broke her anklet in the presence of the king and proved that her husband  Kovalan was not guilty. She is worshipped in Tamil Nadu as the Goddess of Chastity. The scene where Kannaki accused the King and broke her anklet is depicted in this tableau.

 

to be continued………………………

HANGING JUSTIFIED

hanging

Article No. 2034

Written by London swaminathan

Swami_48@yahoo.com

Date : 1st August  2015

Time uploaded in London : – 14-44

“It is very hard, my lord”, said a convicted person at the bar to judge Barnet, “to hang a poor man for stealing a horse.”

“You are not to be hanged, sir” answered the judge, “for stealing a horse; but you are to be hanged that horses may not be stolen.”

XXXX

Allen, the Quaker, waited upon the Duke of Sussex to remind him of his promise to present a petition to abolish capital punishment. The Duke did not seem to like the job, and observed that the scripture has declared,

“Whoso, sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed.”

“But please note,” replied the Quaker, “that when Cain killed Abel he was not hung for it.”

“That is true,” rejoined the Duke, “but remember Allen, there were not twelve men in the world then to make a jury”.

Xxxx

When Lord Bacon was chancellor of England, a witty criminal was brought before him. “Your Honour should let me go,” he observed. “We are kin. My name is Hogg, and Hogg is kin to bacon.

“Not until it’s hung,” said Bacon.

Xxxx

Joan

Jokes apart, ancient Sanskrit and Tamil literatures are full of death sentences by different methods. Chopping the head was the most used method by the kings. Sanskrit dramas describe the scene of criminals dragged or paraded along the streets in coloured attire, mostly red or black, to the place of execution.

Famous Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar says it is the duty of the king to weed out the criminals:-

“When the king imposes the severest penalty on a cruel murderer, it is like weeding the field to protect the crops” – Tirukkural 550

Rajaji, the First Governor General of Independent India, said that capital punishment for grievous offences is like the weeding of fields, necessary for protecting the food crops.

Indians knew that hundreds of freedom fighters were hanged by the British for being patriotic. They did it in all the places they colonised. During French revolution over 1000 people were guillotined and at the end, the person who invented the Guillotine was also guillotined. In the United States after a long discussion they came to the conclusion that the most humane method of execution is by lethal injection.  Electrical chairs are also used.

joanstampwoman

The British burnt alive thousands of women dubbing them as witches. Whoever did not believe in Christianity and practising pagan religions were called witches throughout Europe. Joan of Arc was the most famous woman who was burnt alive in France. The English clergy burnt her body three times to make sure that she is charred to ashes.

புறநானூற்றில் பகவத் கீதை- பகுதி 2

Please read the First Part and then read it for better understanding.

வினையே ஆடவர்க்கு உயிரே

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (3-5, 3-8):எவனும் ஒரு வினாடி கூட  கருமம் செய்யாமல் இருக்க முடியாது. நீ விதிக்கப்பட்ட கடமையைச் செய். கருமம் செய்யாமையினும் கருமம் செய்தல் சிறந்தது அன்றோ. கருமம் செய்வதற்கே உனக்கு அதிகாரம். அதன் பற்றில் அல்ல(2-47)

பாலை பாடிய பெருங் கடுங்கோ (குறு.135) கூறுகிறார்: தொழில் தான் ஆண் மக்களுக்கு உயிர். இல்லத்தில் வாழும் பெண்களுக்கு கணவனே உயிர்.

வினையே ஆடவர்க்கு உயிரே வாணுதல்

மனையுறை மகளிர்க்கு ஆடவர் உயிரே

அகம் 33: வினை நன்றாதல் வெறுப்பக் காட்டி

மேலும் சில: குறள் 615

 

செல்வத்தின் பயனே ஈதல்

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (3-13): எவர்கள் தமக்கெனவே சமைக்கிறார்களோ அவர்கள் பாவிகள். அவர்கள் பாவத்தையே உண்கிறார்கள்.

(புறம் 189 நக்கீரனார்):

உண்பது நாழி:உடுப்பவை இரண்டே;

பிறவும் எல்லாம் ஓரொக்கும்மே;

அதனால் செல்வத்துப் பயனே ஈதல்

புறம் 182( இளம்பெருவழுதி)

இந்திரர் அமிழ்தம் இயைவது ஆயினும், இனிது

எனத் தமியர் உண்டலும் இலரே

இதுவுமது: குறு. 143, குறள்-322, 85, 335, 333

கொடுப்போர் ஏத்தி கொடார்ப் பழிப்போர் (தொல்காப்பியம்)

 

சர்வ பூத ஹிதே ரதா: (எல்லா உயிர்க்கும் இன்பம்)

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான்(12-4): எல்லா உயிர்க்கும் இன்புற்றிருக்க நினைக்கும் அன்பர்கள் என்னையே வந்தடைவார்கள்.

இதுவுமது:  கீதை 11-55,9-29,5-25,6-40

சாஸ்வத்ஸ்ய சுகஸ்ய (கீதை 14-27): யாண்டும் இடும்பை இல (குறள்)

தொல்காப்பியரும் “எல்லா உயிர்க்கும் இன்பம்” என்று கூறுகிறார்.

ஐங்குறுநூற்றில் ஓரம் போகியார் :(இவர் வேத, உபநிஷத மந்திரங்களை அப்படியே மொழி பெயர்த்துள்ளார். இந்தக் கருத்து கீதையில் பல இடங்களில் வருகிறது)

நெற்பல பொலிக பொன்பெரிது சிறக்க

விளைக வயலே வருக இரவலர்

பால் பல ஊறுக பகடு பல சிறக்க

பகைவர் புல் ஆர்க பார்ப்பார் ஓதுக

பசியில்லாகுக பிணிகேண் நீங்குக

வேந்து பகை தணிக யாண்டு பல நந்துக

அறநனி சிறக்க அல்லது கெடுக

அரசு முறை செய்க களவில்லாகுக

நன்று பெரிது சிறக்க தீதில்லாகுக

மாரி வாய்க்க வள நனி சிறக்க

 

(பிராமணர்கள் எங்கே பூஜை செய்தாலும் முடிவில்– ஸ்வஸ்தி ப்ரஜாப்ய பரிபாலயந்தாம்– என்ற மந்திரத்தையும், –காலே வர்ஷது பர்ஜன்ய: –என்ற மந்திரத்தையும்– ஸர்வேஷாம் சாந்திர் பவது/ மங்களம் பவது –என்ற மந்திரத்தையும் சொல்லி வாழ்த்துவார்கள். இதை –வாழ்க அந்தணர் வானவர் ஆனினம்– என்ற பாடலாக ஞான சம்பந்தரும் மொழி பெயர்த்துள்ளார். சைவர்கள் இதையே –வான்முகில் வளாது பெய்க—என்ற பாடலில் கூறுவார்கள். ஆனால் ஒரம் போகியார் பல மந்திரங்களைத் தொகுத்து அழகாக சுருங்கச் சொல்லி விளங்கவைத்து விட்டார்.

 

உள்ளுவதெல்லாம் உயர்வுள்ளல் (குறள் 596)

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (கீதை 6-5):உன்னை நீயே உயர்த்திக் கொள்ளவேண்டும்; உன்னை நீயே தாழ்த்திக் கொள்ளக் கூடாது, உனக்கு நீயே நண்பன், நீயே பகைவன்.

(கீதை 11-33) எழுந்திரு ! புகழடை!! உத்திஷ்ட ! யசோ லப !!

புறம் 214 (கோப்பெருஞ் சோழன்): யானை வேட்டைக்குப் போகிறவன் வெல்வான். குறும்பூழ் வேட்டைக்குப் போவோன் அது இல்லாமலும் திரும்புவான். உயர்ந்த குறிக்கோளுடன் கூடிய உயர்ந்தோனாக விளங்குக. இமயம் போல் புகழ் அடைக.

யானை வேட்டுவன் யானையும் பெறுமே

குறும்பூழ் வேட்டுவன் வறுங்கையும் வருமே

அதனால், உயர்ந்த வேட்டத்து உயர்ந்திசினோர்க்கு

………….

இமயத்துக் கோடுயந்தென்ன தம்மிசை நட்டு

புறம் 190 (நல்லுருத்திரன்): எலி, திருடிச் சேமித்துத் தின்னும். புலி இடப் பக்கம் விழுந்த பன்றியை விட்டு வலப்பக்கத்து விழுந்த யானையையே சாப்பிடும். அப்படிப்பட்ட உயர்ந்த நோக்கம் கொண்டோருடன் சேர்வாயாக.

 

கடல் நிரம்பாத அதிசயம் (கீதை 2-70)

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான்: எங்கும் நிரம்பியதும் நிலை குலையாததுமான கடலில் நதிகள் போய் சங்கமிப்பது போல ஆசைகள் எல்லாம் எவனை அடைகின்றனவோ அவன் அமைதியை அடைவான். ஆசையைத் தொடர்பவனுக்கு அமைதி இல்லை.

பரணர் கூறுகிறார்: கடல்களில் எவ்வளவோ நதிகள் கலந்தாலும் அது நிரம்பி வழிவதில்லை. கடலிலிருந்து எவ்வளவு மேகங்கள் நீரை உறிஞ்சினாலும் அது வற்றுவதில்லை.

மழைகொளக் குறையாது புனல் புக நிறையாது

விலங்கு வளி கடவும் துளங்கிருங் கமஞ்சூள் –(பதிற்றுப் பத்து 45)

 

உவமை

பிறர்க்கு உவமம் தான் அல்லது

தனக்கு உவமம் பிறர் இல் (உலோச்சனார், 377)

உரவோர் எண்ணினும் மடவோர் எண்ணினும்

பிறர்க்கு நீ வாயின் அல்லது

நினக்குப் பிறர் உவமம் ஆகா (ப. பத்து, அரிசில் கிழார்)

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (கீதை 6-32:) எவன் எங்கும் சுகமாயினும் துக்கமாயினும் தன்னை உபமானமாகக் கொண்டு சமமாகப் பார்க்கிறானோ அந்த யோகிதான் சிறந்தவன் என்பது என் முடிவு

உவமை, உவமேயம் ஆகியன சம்ஸ்கிருத சொற்கள். ஆயினும் சங்கப் புலவர்களோ தொல்காப்பியரோ அவைகளை அப்படியே பயன் படுத்த அஞ்சியதில்லை!

இதுவுமது: புறம் 377,மது 516,பதி73-7, தொல்காப்பியம்-உவமவியல்

 

சம தர்சனம்-ஓடும் பொன்னும் ஒக்க நோக்குவர்

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (5-18) : பசு, பார்ப்பனன், யானை, நாய், நாயை உண்ணும் புலையன் ஆகிய எல்லாவற்றிலும் ஆத்ம ஞானிகள் சம தர்சனம் உடையவர்கள். இன்ப துன்பத்தில் சமமாக இருப்பவனும் ஓடு,கல்,தங்கம் ஆகியவற்றைச் சமமாகப் பார்ப்பவனும் உயர்ந்தவன்.(14-24). புலன்களை வென்று மண், கல், தங்கத்தை சமமாகப் பார்ப்பவன் யோகி.(6-8)

கனியன் பூங்குன்றன் (புறம் 192) பக்குடுக்கை நன்கணியார் (194)

யாதும் ஊரே; யாவரும் கேளிர்;

தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர் தர வாரா;

நோதலும் தணிதலும் அவற்றோரன்ன;

சாதலும் புதுவது அன்றே; வாழ்தல்

இனிது என மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலமே; முனிவின்,

இன்னாது என்றலும் இலமே:

பொருள்: எல்லா ஊர்களும் எம் ஊரே, எல்லாரும் எம் உறவினரே. தீமையும் நன்மையும் யாரும் தருவதில்லை. நம்மால்தான் வருகிறது. இறப்பது புதிய செய்தி அல்ல.வாழ்வதால் மகிழ்ச்சியோ அல்லது அதை வெறுப்பதோ இல்லை பெரியாற்று வெள்ளத்தில் மிதவை அடித்துச் செலவது போல எல்லா உயிர்களும் முறையாகக் கரை சேரும் என்பது துறவியர் கண்ட உண்மை.ஆகையால் பெரியோரை மதிக்கவும் சிறியோரை இகழவும் தேவை இல்லை. அவரவர் ஒழுக்கத்தையே கருத்திற் கொள்வோம் ( ஒன்றாகக் காண்பதே காட்சி என்பதை அழகாகச் சொல்லிவிட்டார்)

 

நன்கணியார் (194) கூறுகிறார்: என்ன உலகம் இது? ஒரு வீட்டில் சாவுக் கொட்டு. மற்றொரு வீட்டில் திருமண மேளம். ஒரு வீட்டில் மகளிர் அழுகை. இன்னொரு வீட்டில் மகளிர் பூச்சூடல். இவ்வாறு இன்பமும் துன்பமும் சேர படைத்துவிட்டானே கருணையே இல்லாத பிரம்மா! இதை உணர்ந்து அல்லாதவற்றை ஒதுக்கி இனியவற்றை மட்டும் கண்டு மகிழுங்கள் (“ இன்னாது அம்ம இவ் உலகம்; இனிய காண்க, இதன் இயல்புணர்ந்தோரே”)

(190 முதல் 198 வரை எல்லாம் தத்துவப் பாடல்கள்)

போரின் கொடுமைகள்

போரின் கொடுமைகள் பற்றி புறம் 62ல் கழாத்தலையார் பாடுகிறார். இதையே கீதையின் முதல் அத்தியாயத்தில் அர்ஜுனனும் கூறுகிறான்.

 

ஆணின் ஆறு பண்புகள்

நற்றிணை 160: நீதி, நட்பு, இழிசெயலைக் கண்டு நாணுதல்,பிறர்க்கு பயன்படல், (பரோபகாரம்), நற்குணங்கள், பிறை தன்னை அறிந்து ஒழுகும் பாங்கு ஆகிய 6 பண்புகளை நான் கடைப் பிடிக்கிறேன்.

அகம் 173 பாடலில் முள்ளியூர் பூதியாரும் அறநெறியில் ஒழுகவேண்டும், பிறர் துன்பத்தைத் துடைக்க வேண்டும் என்று கூறுகிறார். கீதையின் 12ம் அத்தியாயத்தில் கண்ணன் பல நற்பண்புகளை விவரிக்கிறார். கீதை முழுதுமே நூற்றுக் கணக்கான இடங்களில் இத்தகைய கருத்துக்கள் வருகின்றன.

 

இம்மை, மறுமை—அற நிலை வணிகன்

கீதையில் கண்ணன் கூறுகிறான் (2-42/43): வேதத்தின் பெயரால் சொற்சிலம்பம் ஆடுவோர் அழகான வார்த்தைகளால் சுவர்க்கத்தை மனதிற் கொண்டு காரியம் செய்வார்கள்.

மேலும் சில: கீதை 2-49; 17-20,21,22

ஆய் பற்றி முடமோசியார் (புறம் 134)

இம்மைச் செய்தது மறுமைக்கு ஆம் எனும்

அறநிலை வணிகன் ஆய் அல்லன்

கீதையிலும் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்திலும் நூற்றுக் கணக்கான இடங்களில் வருவதால் இனியும் கூறத்தேவை இல்லை

சிலப்பதிகாரத்தில் இளங்கோ கூறிய கீதைக் கருத்துக்கள்:

”தெய்வம் தெளிமின் தெளிந்தோர்ப் பேணுமின்
பொய்யுரை அஞ்சுமின் புறஞ்சொல் போற்றுமின்
ஊனூண் துறமின் உயிர்க்கொலை நீங்குமின்
தானம் செய்ம்மின் தவம்பல தாங்குமின்.
செய்ந்நன்றி கொல்லன்மின் தீநட் பிகழ்மின்
பொய்க்கரி போகன்மின் பொருண்மொழி நீங்கன்மின்
அறவோர் அவைக்களம் அகலாது அணுகுமின்
பிறவோர் அவைக்களம் பிழைத்துப் பெயர்மின்
பிறர்மனை அஞ்சுமின் பிழையுயிர் ஓம்புமின்
அறமனை காமின் அல்லவை கடிமின்
கள்ளும் களவும் காமமும் பொய்யும்
வெள்ளைக் கோட்டியும் விரகினில் ஒழிமின்
இளமையும் செல்வமும் யாக்கையும் நிலையா
உளநாள் வரையாது ஒல்லுவ தொழியாது.

இன்னும் பல தலைப்புகளில் ஒற்றுமை உள்ளது. அவைகளை எல்லாம் GREAT MEN THINK ALIKE என்று விட்டுவிடலாம். ஆனால் ஒன்று மட்டும் உண்மை. இந்திய சிந்தனையில் ஆரிய திராவிட என்ற பிரிவினவாதத்துக்கு இடமே இல்லை. இமயம் முதல் குமரி வரை அற்புதமான ஒரே சிந்தனை!! அதிசயமான ஒரே அணுகுமுறை. படிக்கப் படிக்கத் தெவிட்டாது!!

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