WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

Date: 18 JULY 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 7-14 AM

Post No. 6645

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I have already covered the first 8 chapters of Manava Dharma Sastra, also known as Manu Smrti. Ninth chapter is used by Anti Manu lobby saying that Manu was anti women. But the lobbyists chose the slokas they like and hide the more important statements of Manu. There is no book in the ancient world that supports women like Manu.

Even in this chapter he compared women to Goddess Lakshmi (Goddess of Prosperity) and praised them as Lamps of Houses.

Manu’s statement in this chapter is translated by Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar in one or two couplets. Manu’s description of women as lamps is translated by Sangam Tail poets as well.

Manu’s words against bad women are found in all literatures and scriptures of the world. In fact we see such warnings even in the teachings of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa in his warning about Kamini- Kanchana (temptation of women and gold).

Throughout Kamba Ramayana (in Tamil) also we read anti women statements. And in the verses of Arunagirinathar and Pattinathar we see more of such statements.

All those who criticised Manu hide all his praises for women:

“All body parts of women are pure.

If a woman cries in a family that family will be destroyed completely.

Brothers must buy their sisters clothes and jewels and keep them ever happy.

Husbands can’t do any rituals without wives.

Killing women is never allowed”.

There are many more such praises heaped on women by Manu. So one must read the slokas and interpret them in the right context. Following sloka/verse is oft quoted by anti Hindu politicians and socalled scholars.

पिता रक्षति कौमारे भर्ता रक्षति यौवने । 
रक्षन्ति स्थविरे पुत्रा न स्त्री स्वातन्त्र्यमर्हति ॥ 9-३ ॥

pitā rakṣati kaumāre bhartā rakṣati yauvane | 
rakṣanti sthavire putrā na strī svātantryamarhati || 9-3 ||

The father guards/protects her during virginity, the husband guards/protects her in youth, the sons guard/protect her in old age; WOMEN SHOULD NEVER BE LEFT UNGURADED/UNPROTECTED (literal translation- the woman is never fit for independence.—(9-iii)).

In the above verse ‘Rakshati = protected’ is used thrice. That shows that a woman should never be left un protected, should not be left in the lurch.

In fact, Tamils go further and say that the same man should be her husband in her following births.

(One Facebook friend joked on this- Oh my God; I have trained him all these years; that should not go waste; Please make him my husband in the next birth also!)

Tamils also say that a chaste woman who worships her husband can command nature. If a woman goes to bed later and gets up before her husband and worship him like God, she can command rain.(Tirukkural 55)

This is an echo of Manu 5-155

Tirukkural couplet 56 in Tamil is a translation of Manu 9-12

Now let us look at the verses in order and I will highlight the important ones.

MANU -Chapter- 9

9-1. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty, whether they be united or separated.

2. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their families, and, if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control.

9-3. Her father protects her in childhood, her husband protects her in youth, and her sons protect her in old age; a woman is never left without support.

4. Reprehensible is the father who gives not his daughter in marriage at the proper time; reprehensible is the husband who approaches not his wife in due season, and reprehensible is the son who does not protect his mother after her husband has died.

5. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling they may appear; for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on two families.

6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands must strive to guard their wives.

7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves the purity of his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his means of acquiring merit.

Son is husband’s replica

9-8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes an embryo and is born again of her; for that is the wifehood of a wife (jaya), that he is born (jayate) again by her.

9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore carefully guard his wife, in order to keep his offspring pure.

10. No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded by the employment of the following expedients:

11. Let the husband) employ his wife in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping everything clean, in the fulfilment of religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils.

9-12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not well guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard over themselves, are well guarded. (Tirukkural 56 in Tamil say the same)

Six causes for women’s ruin

13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), and dwelling in other men’s houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women.

14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age; thinking), ‘It is enough that he is a man,’ they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly.

15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they may be guarded in this world.

Women are frail; men must protect them

16. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, every man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them.

17. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women a love of their bed, of their seat and of ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct.

18. For women no sacramental rite is performed with sacred texts, thus the law is settled; women who are destitute of strength and destitute of the knowledge of Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a fixed rule.

19. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women); hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins).

20. ‘If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may my father keep that seed from me,’ that is the scriptural text.

21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband, the (above-mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity.

(Verses 20,21 are based on Grhya sutras and Srauta sutras)

22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according to the law, such qualities even she assumes, like a river united with the ocean.

Lowest caste woman became the most respected woman in the world

Arundhati is the most praised woman in Sangam Tamil literature and Puranas. She was known as Akshamala

9-23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi, (being united) to Mandapala, became worthy of honour.

24. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities of their husbands.

25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage which regulates the relations between husband and wife; hear (next) the laws concerning children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death.

Women are lamps of houses; women are Goddess Lakshmi

9-26. Between wives (striyah) who are destined to bear children, who secure many blessings, who are worthy of worship and irradiate their dwellings, and between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the houses of men, there is no difference whatsoever.

Another translation of 9-26

There is no difference at all between the Goddesses of good fortune who live in houses and women who are the lamps of the houses, worthy of reverence and greatly blessed because of their children.

27. The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the daily life of men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause.

Wife is foundation

28. Offspring, the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend on one’s wife alone.

29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi)

30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men, and (in her next life) she is born in the womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the punishment of her sin.

31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion, salutary to all men, which the virtuous (of the present day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning male offspring.

32. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with respect to the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts differ; some call the begetter (of the child the lord), others declare (that it is) the owner of the soil.

Men are seeds- women are fields

33. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil, the man is declared to be the seed; the production of all corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the soil with the seed.

34. In some cases the seed is more distinguished, and in some the womb of the female; but when both are equal, the offspring is most highly esteemed.

35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed), the seed is declared to be more important; for the offspring of all created beings is marked by the characteristics of the seed.

36. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field, prepared in due season, (a plant) of that same kind, marked with the peculiar qualities of the seed, springs up in it.

37. This earth, indeed, is called the primeval womb of created beings; but the seed develops not in its development any properties of the womb.

38. In this world seeds of different kinds, sown at the proper time in the land, even in one field, come forth (each) according to its kind.

39. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha-beans, barley, leeks, and sugar-cane, (all) spring up according to their seed.

9-40. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen; whatever seed is sown, (a plant of) that kind even comes forth.

41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life, cohabit with another’s wife.

42. With respect to this (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, to show) that seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another.

43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made by another), is shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower).

Prithivi/ husband  and Pruthu/ wife

9-44. Sages, who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu; they declare a field to belong to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer to him who (first) wounded it.

45. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), his wife, himself, and his offspring; thus (says the Veda), and (learned) Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise, ‘The husband is declared to be one with the wife.’

46. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband; such we know the law to be, which the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made of old.

47. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden given in marriage, (and) once does (a man) say,’ I will give;’ each of those three (acts is done) once only.

48. As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, buffalo-cows, she-goats, and ewes, it is not the begetter (or his owner) who obtains the offspring, even thus (it is) with the wives of others.

49. Those who, having no property in a field, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in another’s soil, do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which may spring up.

Bull and Calves Simile

50. If (one man’s) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man’s cows, they would belong to the owner of the cows; in vain would the bull have spent his strength.

51. Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed in the soil of others, benefit the owner of the woman; but the giver of the seed reaps no advantage.

52. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner of the field and the owner of the seed, the benefit clearly belongs to the owner of the field; the receptacle is more important than the seed.

53. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing, then the owner of the seed and the owner of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers of the (crop).

Seed and Field Simile

54. If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody’s field and germinates (there), the (plant sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field, the owner of the seed does not receive the crop.

55. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows, mares, slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, and ewes, as well as of females of birds and buffalo-cows.

56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been declared to you; I will next propound the law (applicable) to women in times of misfortune.

–to be continued



Research Article by London Swaminathan
Date: 26 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 13-54
Post No. 5837

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River ordeal or Water ordeal and Fire ordeal are found in Vedic literature and later books. We read about Sita’s Fire Ordeal in Ramayana and Fire walking in Jaiminiya Brahmana. It is interesting to see the Babylonian king Hammurabi also listed River ordeal as one of the punishments.

As I have explained in my article posted yesterday, Manu lived before Hammurabi (1792 BCE). Manu is in the oldest book Rik Veda. The following sloka not only showed Manu lived during the days of flowing mighty Sarasvati River but also water ordeal was one of the punishments or atonements.

In chapter 2 Manu says

“The country that the gods made between the two divine rivers, the Sarasvati and Drsadvati, is what they call  the Land of the Veda”- Manu 2-17

In chapter 11 he says,

A priest killer……………

“Throw himself three times, head first, into a blazing fire -11-74

Or he may eat food fit for an oblation and walk the length of the Sarasvati river against the current”-11-78.

Manu lived before 2000 BCE; later the river dried up according to the latest scientific discoveries.

Water Ordeal in Code of Hammurabi


(2)If a man has laid a charge of witchcraft against another man but cannot substantiate his guilt, the person against whom witchcraft is alleged shall go to the river and jump into the river.

And if the mighty river overpowers him, the one who laid the allegations against him shall take possession of his house.

But if the river cleanses him of the guilt, he shall go away restored.

The one who laid a charge of witchcraft against him shall be put to death; the one who jumped into the river shall take possession of the house of the one who made the allegations against him

Tamil Periya Purana

Fire and Water ordeal figured also in the Pariyapurana which gives the life stories of 63 great Saivite saints.

When the politically motivated Jains set fire to the Brahmin boy Sambandar’s residence he came out without any harm. Later the Jains challenged him in various ways. One of the tests they held was Fire ordeal. Both the Jains and Sambandar placed the palm leaf manuscript with their holy Mantras. Sambandar’s palm leaf remained intact whereas the Jains’ one burnt to ashes. Then the water ordeal took place. Both of them placed their palm leaf manuscripts in the Vaigai River. Jains’ palm leaf was washed away; but Sambandar’swent against the river current and reached the banks 12 miles away Madurai. That place is called Thiru Edu Akam (Thiruvedakam). This water ordeal is at least 1400 year old.

River Ordeal in Mahabharata

Bandi was a Vedic scholar in the court of King Janaka . He used to hold learned discussions and debates on Vedic scripture s with visiting scholars who after being defeated, were thrown into river. One such unfortunate loser was Kahoda. Later Kahodas son Ashtavakra mastered all the scriptures by the age of twelve. He defeated Bandi and he was thrown into a river. But being the son of god Varuna , no harm came to him and he ended his earthly existence. Kahoda was restored to life. Later Ashtavakra bathed in the River Samang and his crooks in the body straightened out. This shows the miraculous powers of the river or water. Ashtavakra got eight crooks in his body when he was in the womb of his mother and his father Kahoda spelt the Vedas with mistakes.

What is Water Ordeal?

In Mesopotamia, from the old Babylonian period on, if the sworn testimony by the parties in a legal dispute conflicted or if for some reason the case was not solvable by rational means , it was usual to refer the decision to the river god; in other words to decide by means of a river ordeal . This solemn expedient was in effect a form of divination and the judgment would then be declared in the name of Id, the Divine River, or Shazi, son of the Divine River or Ea, Enki.

It seems likely that one of the litigants, selected by lot, underwent the ordeal. He had to submerge himself in the river at a special location in the presence of the authorities, and possibly swim to a certain distance. If he came out safe he was cleared. If he was overcome by the current and sank, he was guilty and had to return to court for sentencing—- fine or execution. It was not intended that he should drown.

Sometimes a holy river was specified. Daban, Diyala, Hubur , all rivers outside Babylon.


Hammurabi’s Laws, M E J Richardson, Sheffield Academic Press
Who is who in the Mahabharata, Subash Mazumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay
Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, British Museum
Manu Smrti





Date: 19 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-08  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5129


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Manu Smrti- Third Chapter continued….

My Comments

1.Hospitality is a unique feature of Hindu culture. It is found in Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures with equal emphasize only among the ancient languages. Sita of Ramayana and Kannaki of Tamil epic Silappadikaram worried about their inability to feed and honour the guests. The concept of feeding complete strangers to get religious merits is unknown in other ancient cultures. This shows that Hindus are the sons of the soil and they developed the culture in their own land. This explodes the theory of Vedic Hindus coming from outside.

Another aspect coming to light in the slokas is that the culture and the values were same from Kanyakumari Kashmir. It is equally empahsized in both Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures.

2.Manu Smrti is the oldest law book, older than Hammurabi’s (I have pointed out the reasons for my conclusion already). Here is one more point: The Vedic deities are mentioned in the slokas quoted here. If it is composed in second century BCE we would not have come across Vedic Kuhu and Anumati

  1. The five sacrifices given to five groups include trees, dogs, crows and people of Four Castes. That shows Manu is compassionate towards all living beings. Feeding dogs and crows as part of religious sacrifice is unknown in other cultures. This shows the uniqueness of Hindu culture. Feeding the crows and watering the plants as sacred thing is found in ancient Tamil books; it is one more proof to show that the culture in one from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.
  2. Sacrificing to goblins along with Vedic deities is also strange. But when we consider trees, crows and dogs are included in the list, it is not strange.


5.Manu asked the Hindus to give four things: Mat, Water, Room and KIND WORDS. It shows his high thoughts.

6.His definition of a GUEST is good; those who stay one night only are considered guests; he asks everyone to feed all the four castes; This does not correlate with the 40 or odd slokas/couplets which the Dravidians and Marxists use for their Anti Manu propaganda. They are later interpolations.

  1. Another strange thing is ‘newly married’ get priority in eating; he wants them to enjoy life fully!

8.Manu says the householder can eat only after feeding kinsmen, servants and the guests! This is unknown in any part of the world except the Hindus from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

  1. Ancient Tamil literature also confirm all the oblations to manes who live in SOUTHERN Direction. So Tamils were ardent Hindus as others in the North. It is in Tirukkural and Purananuru. This explodes the theory of half -baked theories of Vedic Hindus coming from outside India. No other ancient culture has such belief about SOUTH or daily oblations to manes with WATER. Use of water in every ceremony shows that it is a tropical culture.
  2. He who prepares food for himself is a sinner is in Manu and Bhagavad Gita.
  3. Last but not the least, Manu asks to honour people who comes once a year! Good Advice!!


Third Chapter continues……………………..

Sacrifice to Vedic Deities

3-83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at the Sraddha which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that occasion any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.

3-84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:

3-85. First to Agni, and next to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods Visve Devah, and then to Dhanvantari,

3-86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well).

  1. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).


To the Trees

3-88. Saying, ‘Adoration to the Maruts,’ he shall scatter some food near the door, and some in water, saying, ‘Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw some on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, ‘Adoration to the trees.’

  1. Near the head of the bed he shall make an offering to Sri fortune, and near the foot of his bed to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.


Goblins- Ghosts

3-90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and in the day-time one for the goblins roaming about by day, and in the evening one for the goblins that walk at night.

  1. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains from these offerings in a southerly direction for the manes.


To the Crows

3-92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Candalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.

  1. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).
  2. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student.


Equal to Cow Donation/ Go Daana

3-95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher.

  1. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even a small portion of food as alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit.
  2. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.
  3. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.
  4. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.
  5. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.

Give Four Things!

  1. Grass, room for resting, water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.


One Night Stay is a Guest

  1. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).
  2. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where there is a wife, and where sacred fires are kept.
  3. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food.
  4. A guest who is sent by the setting sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at supper- time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.

Hospitality to Guests

  1. Let him not eat any dainty food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.
  2. Let him offer to his guests seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour while they stay, to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.
  3. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, the householder must give him food according to his ability, but not repeat the Bali offering.

Non Brahmin Guests

  1. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).
  2. But a Kshatriya who comes to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher.
  3. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.


Feed all the Four Castes

  1. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.
  2. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished with seasoning according to his ability, at the same time with his wife.

Newly Married Get Priority

  1. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.
  2. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.
  3. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.
  4. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.
  5. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. (It is in Bhagavad Gita)


Once a Year!

  1. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year has elapsed since their last visit.
  2. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule.

to be continued………………….




Date: 12 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-11  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5103


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Professor Bency Kumar Sarkar of Calcutta (Kolkata) has written an article about the political ideas of Cendeswara who has dealt with political thought under sixteen topics. When I read that I did my own quick research with the political thoughts of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar. It is not a comprehensive one but touches all the 16 topics. Ilango of Tamil epic Silappadikaram also make several statements reflecting Tamil political thought.

Candesvara was the author of Raajaniiti Rantnaakaara. He lived in the fourteenth century and served as a minister under king Harisimha deva of Mithila (North Bihar). He was a student of law and so wrote this book. But he never claimed any originality, but collected materials from several ancient authors and produced them as a digest. So his work Rajaniiti Ratnaakara is a digest. In addition to collection Candesvara made comments as well.


Unfortunately, we have no law book in Tamil to compare with Sanskrit law books which are umpteen in number. But Sangam Tamil literature has several verses which deal with the law. Post Sangam works such as Tirukkural and 17 other minor works and Tamil epic Silappadikaram deal with law, but not separately. Tirukkural, a didactic work, may come nearer to a law book and Silappadikaram by Ilango is also useful to compare some points.

It is very interesting to see Tirukkural- a single book of the Tamils, covers almost all the topics except Coronation.

The author of the original article B K Sarkar has given the 16 topics and showed how many times Candesvara quotes the books or authors. I will use it as the base for my research and show how many times Tamil poets touched those topics (only a rough figure):-


Kulluka Bhatta Rajaniiti Kamadhenu (twice); Guru (Brihaspati or Candesvara’s Guru), Yajnavalkya- thrice; Narada Niti aand Mahabharata- twice, Mahabharata – twice, Manu (4 times); Yasa, Naradiya Smrti, Harita

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapters 70, 39, 55, 56 (Total 40 couplets)




Manu (4), Yajnavalkya, Vysa, Amarakosa, Mahabharata, Harita, Nardas smriti.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 64 (Ten couplets)



Vyasa, Manu (2), Yanjavalkya (1)




KaatyaayanaBrihaspati, Pallavakara Lakshmidhra, Harita, Vyasa, Manu, Narada.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 12, 108




Manu, Harita, Brhaspati

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 99, 100


Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapters 74,75




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 45



Manu, Yajnavalkya, Pallava

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 76+ couplet 247




Manu (7 times), Kamandaka, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78



Manu, Mahabharata, Rajaniti

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78



Manu, Sukraniti, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata, Pallava, Kamandaka

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 69




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Maya Maitra

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapter 39, 49, 50, 55, 56




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Pallava

Chapters 57, 55,44



Manu, Kandaki, Harita, Narada, Vyasa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brihaspati, Katyayana



Manu, Amarakosa, Ramayana, sukraniti, Padmapurana, Lakshmidhara, Narada, Pallavakara

Pathitrupaththu (one of the 18 Major works of Sangam Period)



Candesvara cites 42 authors or books under this topic.

He quoted Manu 38 times

Yajnavalkya 19

Mahabharata 14

Narada 13

Kamandaka 2

Pallavakaara 8

Lakshmidhara 7

Katyayana 6 Times

Candesvaea did not consider Arthasastra as a dharma sastra. It is not a Law book but a book on politics and economics.

Tirukkural , Naladiyar and 16 other didactic works are called 18 Minor Works. They contain lot of law points.








WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 


Date: 13 April 2018


Time uploaded in London –  20-27  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 4911


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We will continue with the Second Chapter of Manu Smrti and look at some more interesting matters

Manu warns the teachers not to be harsh with the students.

The second interesting advice is: if anyone praises you, consider it as poison; if anyone criticises you, take it as nectar.

The third interesting what gives one respect: for the Brahmins- knowledge, for the rulers- heroism, for the Vaisyas- wealth and for the fourth Varna- age. So everyone commands respect.

The fourth interesting point, if a young person is learned, he is given the respect like a father. He gives us an interesting episode; Kavi, son of Angiras, taught the elders the Vedas. While teaching them, he addressed them My Little Sons! The aged people were very angry and filed a case at the Supreme court of Indra loka The petition was rejected straight away and the judgement came in favour of the little boy Kavi. Very Interesting!

In slokas 157 and 158, good similes are used!

So many interesting points are dealt with Manu in this section of the Second chapter. Please read the original translation below:–


From the Second Chapter:-

2-148. But that birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda, in accordance with the law, procures for him through the Savitri (Gayatri Mantra) , is real, exempt from age and death.

2-150. That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed duties becomes by law the father of an aged man, even though he himself be a child.

2-151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras, taught his relatives who were old enough to be fathers, and, as he excelled them in sacred knowledge, he called them ‘Little sons.’

  1. They, moved with resentment, asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods, having assembled, answered, ‘The child has addressed you properly.’
  2. ‘For a man destitute of sacred knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him the Veda is his father; for the sages have always said “child” to an ignorant man, and “father” to a teacher of the Veda.’
  3. Neither through years, nor through white hairs, nor through wealth, nor through powerful kinsmen comes greatness. The sages have made this law, ‘He who has learnt the Veda together with the subsidiary subjects is considered great by us.’

2-155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from sacred knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain and other goods, but that of Sudras alone from age.



  1. A man is not therefore considered venerable because his head is grey; him who, though young, has learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.
  2. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those three have nothing but the names of their kind.
  3. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who does not know the Rig Veda
  4. Living beings must be instructed in what concerns their welfare without using violence (smacking them) , and sweet and gentle speech must be used (not scolding) by a teacher who desires to abide by the sacred law.
  5. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta.
  6. Let him not, even though in pain, speak words cutting others to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter speeches which make others afraid of him, since that will prevent him from gaining heaven.
  7. A Brahmana should always fear adulation/ praising as if it were poison; and constantly desire to suffer scorn as he would long for nectar.
  8. For he who is scorned nevertheless may sleep with an easy mind, awake with an easy mind, and with an easy mind walk here among men; but the scorner utterly perishes.
  9. A cultured person must study the whole Veda together with its ancillary subjects, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules of the Veda.
  10. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of the Veda is declared to be in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana.


2-169. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of a Hindu is from his natural mother, the second happens on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and the third on the initiation to the performance of a fire sacrifice.

2-172. He who has not been initiated should not pronounce any Vedic text excepting those required for the performance of funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda.

2-174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred thread, girdle, staff, and lower garment are prescribed for a student at the initiation, the like must again be used at the performance of the vows/ rites.





Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 18 JANUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London  6-18 am




Post No. 4631

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Hatred to oneself leads to death;

to another person loss of wealth;

to the king to destruction and

to a Brahmin to the destruction of the family

–Chanakya Niti, chapter 10, sloka 11

aatmadveshaad bhavenmrtyuh paradveshaad dhanakshyah

rajadveshaad bhavennaaso brahmadveshaat kulakshayah


We know that if someone hates oneself, it leads to one’s suicide; if one hates others it leads to conflicts and clashes resulting in destruction of life or property.


The message is any form of hatred creates problems.

Buddha in Buddhist Veda Dhammapada and Tiruvalluvar in Tamil Veda Tirukkural deal with this topic. It shows the importance of the topic.

The opposite of hatred is Love.


Chanakya dealt with hatred in only one couplet/ sloka.


Tamil poet Tiru valLuvar deals with this topic in ten couplets!


Valluvar says,

Out of hatred arise all evils; out of love comes the glory that is called discreteness- Kural 860

“The evil of hatred is the grief of griefs. If it is rooted out, you can enjoy the joy of joys (854)

Nip in the bud the feeling of hostility and you prosper well. FOr one is fast ruined by fomenting hatred – Kural 858


Buddha said,
For hate is not conquered by hate; hate is conquered by love. This is a law eternal (Dhammapada1-5)


Valluvar said,
The best punishment for those who do evil to you, is to shame them by returning good for evil (Kural 314).


Manu hates Hatred!

Manu, the author of the world’s first book on law—Manu Smrti deals with hatred in more places than the Buddha.


In the very beginning he says law book is ‘only for those who are without passion or hatred’!


“Learn the religion that is constantly followed by learned men, good men who have neither passion nor hatred”- Manu 2-1

“If someone speaks wrongly and someone questions wrongly, one of them will die or incur other’s hatred “ 2-11

“By obstructing his sensory powers, destroying passion and hatred, and doing no violence to living beings, he becomes fit for immortality”- 6-60


“The man who is deluded to hate the king will certainly be destroyed, for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy him” – Manu 7-12


“ A husband should wait for one year for a wife  who hates him; but after a year, he should take away her inheritance and not live with her”- 9-77

“Satva Guna is traditionally regarded as knowledge, Rajo Guna as hatred and passion, Tamo Guna as darkness and ignorance”– Manu 12-26

Duryodhana was an embodiment of hatred and jealousy; Yudhishthira was a symbol of love and righteousness. Duryodhana destroyed himself; Yudhishthira survived! This is a lesson from the Mahabharata.

If you want to live without problems, don’t hate anyone.






Manu’s Most Beautiful 12 Couplets (Post No.4504)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 


Date: 16 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London-  17-59



Post No. 4504

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All the Hindu scriptures we have today, except Vedic literature and Bhagavd Gita, are updated versions. Hindus always update their scriptures and so there is scope for interpolations. For instance, Narendra Modi became the 14th Prime Minster of India on 26 May 2014. Pauraniks will write it in a different language:


“In the Kaliyuga there will come a man with the name of Indra from the land of Somnathji and he would rule India from Indraprastha for long. He is fond of a flower that grows in water. He would not be from the Brahmana or Kshatria castes. He would paint the land with saffron colour. He will be flying high in yantra Pakshis (mechanical birds)”


Even the events that had already happened, they would put in future tense as if it was written in 1000 CE or before. It is a style or genre.


In the same way lot of materials are added to Manu Smrti during the time of Brahmin rule- the Sunga Dynasty. All those were put in the mouth of Manu or Bruhu. Lot of things against shudras were added. But how can one know which is new which is old. It is very easy if one reads the whole book without any bias. Most of the anti-shudra materials are at the end of the chapters. So any one could have added them easily or amended them easily. Another touch stone is there. We can easily find out what sort of man Manu was by reading the full book.


Here is a proof to show that he was genuinely a man of honesty and integrity. In the second chapter, there are 12 slokas or couplets which show that he held Vedas in high esteem. After upholding the Vedas he gives free hand to every one. He says if anyone has doubts or conflicts of interest they can always follow the tradition that is followed by the elders. Then one can follow what gives one real pleasure. This means one should not act against his or her conscience.


All adults know what is right and wrong; all of us know which gives one permanent happiness that which never affects others. If something gives us happiness, but pricks our conscience then that is not true happiness. If one cannot do a thing in public, then it is not happiness. So he give the four marks to identify the Dharma or right things or righteousness:

Here are the first 12 Slokas of Second Chapter of Manava Dharma Shastra or Manu Smrti, the Hindu Law Book, in fact the oldest Law book in the world:


1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned in the Veda and assented to in their hearts by the virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection (passion).


2. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that desire is not to be found in this world: for on that desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions, prescribed by the Veda.


3. The desire for rewards, indeed, has its root in the conception that an act can yield them, and in consequence of that conception sacrifices are performed; vows and the laws prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit.


4. Not a single act here below appears ever to be done by a man free from desire; for whatever man does, it is the result of the impulse of desire.


5. He who persists in discharging these prescribed duties in the right manner, reaches the deathless state and even in this life obtains the fulfilment of all the desires that he may have conceived.


6. The whole Veda is the first source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the Veda further, also the customs of holy men, and finally self-satisfaction.


7. Whatever law has been ordained for any person by Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that sage was omniscient.


8. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should, in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts, be intent on the performance of his duties.


9. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in this world and after death unsurpassable bliss.


10. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be called into question in any matter, since from those two the sacred law shone forth.


11. Every twice-born man, who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with contempt those two sources (of the law), must be cast out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda.


12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one’s own pleasure, they declare to be visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law.


My Views:-

Most beautiful points are

1.Four fold Mark of Religion

Vedas, Law Book, Customs of virtuous men, One’s own pleasure (Self Satisfaction)


2.No one acts without desire. If anyone does anything without desire, one reaches the highest stage

3.Good men are those who have neither hatred nor passion.

The rules Manu insists for the twice born are very strict. If someone follows those strict rules, the concessions he gives to learned Brahmins are justified.

Two recent things that happened in the British courts point in this direction.

(1).A girl who is an Oxford University student hit her boy friend in drunken state. But the judge spared her the prison sentence saying that since she was very studious having higher education, he did not want to send her to prison.

Here we see those who have knowledge are given concessions.

(2). The second incident was about a doctor. Because of his status the judge exempted him from coming to the witness box.

(3). In the Soviet Union, even the most dictatorial government in the world did not send Sakharov, the father of nuclear science, to concentration camps. He was given lot of concessions.

This is the reason that Buddha and Manu said even if the Brahmins kill their own father and mother, destroy a king and the kingdom no sin would touch them.(Please read my earlier articles on this topic)




MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL: Rev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459)

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL: Rev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459)

Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 4 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London-  21-07



Post No. 4459

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Rev. G U Pope, a Tamil scholar and Christian preacher published The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in 1886 with his English translation. Throughout the book he had used his predecessors’ views. He had used Italian Jesuit priest Constantine Joseph Beschi’s Latin translation of Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda and also the translation of Ellis. They have compared some of the Kural couplets with the Manu Smrti, also known as Manava Dharma Shastra.

I will give their list below:



Role of a King

Valluvar says in his Kural Couplets,

The world clings to the feet of the great leader who wields his sceptre with love for his subjects (Kural 544)

The leader saves his subjects from enemies and flawlessly punishes wrong doers (549)

The judge gives capital punishment to wicked killers like removing weeds from a flourishing field (550)



Manu says in the Seventh Chapter,

  1. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.
  2. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.
  3. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice.
  4. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly perish; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man).


Oppression of a Tyrant

Valluvar says in his Kural Couplets,

The leader who does not injure and adopt proper measures each day – his kingdom will perish day by day (Kural 553)


Let them that want their greatness to continue begin with sternness and punish within measure (562).


Manu says in the Seventh Chapter,

  1. Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the offender), let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly.


  1. Let the king, having carefully considered (each) affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.



Valluvar says,

Kural Couplets 581-590

The reports given by one spy must be tested and verified through another spy (Kural 588)

The spies must be sent one by one, apart; if three spies agree, the information shall be confirmed (589)

Able spies watch keenly the officers, kinsmen and the enemies and all for information (584)


Manu says in the Seventh Chapter

  1. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.
  2. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).
  3. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect).

xxxxxxxx Subham xxxxxxxxxxxxx





Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 16 NOVEMBER 2017


Time uploaded in London- 21-09



Post No. 4402

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Manu said that if anyone can recite the Rig Veda, even if he destroys the three worlds, he incurs no sin!

Buddha said that even if a Brahmin killed a king, his father and mother, he incurs no sin! It may look strange. But one must read between the lines.


What is the message they want to give us?

A true Brahmin who has mastered Rig veda can’t think of anything like hurting anyone; leave alone destroying the three worlds.

A true Brahmin, according to Buddha, is equal to a saint, i.e. one with saintly virtues. So, he can’t think of hurting anyone.


Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar also said that “A Brahmin is kind to all creatures” (Kural 30)



“A Brahmin by retaining Rig Veda (RV) in his memory incurs no guilt, though he should destroy the three worlds”– 11-261

Manu on the Veda

“The Veda is the eternal eye of the ancestors, gods and humans; the teachings of the Veda are impossible to master and impossible to measure; this is an established fact”–Manu 12-94

The same verse is translated by Monier Williams as follows:-

“The Veda is of patriarchs and men

And even of gods, a very eye eternal

Giving unerring light; it is beyond

All finite faculties, nor can be proved

By force of human argument—this is

A positive conclusion”–  Manu 12-94



Buddha Says:–


“And a saint, a Brahmin, is pure from past sins; even if he had killed his father and mother, had murdered two noble kings, and had ravaged a whole kingdom and its people”

–Buddha in Dhammapada, Sloka 294


Because he has put away evil, he is called a Brahmin; because he lives in peace, he is called a ‘samana’; because he leaves all sins behind, he is called a ‘Pabbajita’, a pilgrim.

–Buddha in Dhammapada, Sloka 388

Ons should never hurt a Brahmin; and a Brahmin should never return evil for evil

–Buddha in Dhammapada, Sloka 389


It is important that we should never quote anything out of context; more important is that we should understand the meaning behind the words.

Foreigners who quoted Vedic hymns always used them out of context and took literary meaning. So we must be careful when we read anything written by foreign and non-Hindu hands.

–Subham, Subham-

Manu and Longfellow: Great Men think Alike (Post No.4074)

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 12 July 2017
Time uploaded in London- 18-24
Post No. 4074

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Tamil saint Tiru Jnana Sambandar says we can lead a good life on the earth; there is no paucity of good things (good ways)here (mannil Nalla vannam Vaazalaam…..)


Manu said this first in the Manava Dharma Sastra:

“On the path on which his fathers and grandfathers have walked, on that path of good man let him walk, and he will not go wrong” 4-178

H W LONGFELLOW (1807-1882) said,





Art is long, and Time is fleeting,
And our hearts, though stout and brave,
Still, like muffled drums, are beating
Funeral marches to the grave.

In the world’s broad field of battle,
In the bivouac of Life,
Be not like dumb, driven cattle !
Be a hero in the strife !

Trust no Future, howe’er pleasant !
Let the dead Past bury its dead !
Act,— act in the living Present !
Heart within, and God overhead !

    Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime,
And, departing, leave behind us
Footprints on the sands of time ;

    Footprints, that perhaps another,
Sailing o’er life’s solemn main,
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,
Seeing, shall take heart again.

Let us, then, be up and doing,
With a heart for any fate ;
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labor and to wait.


Bhagavad Gita 3-21

Whatever a great man does, the same is done by others as well. Whatever standard he sets, the world follows.

Dr Radhakrishnanan comments on this sloka:

“The Gita points out that the great men are the path makers who blaze the trail that other men follow. The light generally come through individuals who are in advance of society They see the light shining on the mountain heights while their fellows sleeps in the valley below”.


Swami Chinmayananda says,

“The moral rejuvenation of a society in any period of history can take place only because of the example set up by the leaders of that nation. Students can be disciplined only when teachers are well behaved; the minor officials cannot be kind and honest when the rulers of the country are corrupt and tyrants. Children’s behaviour depends entirely upon , and is ever controlled by, the standard of purity and culture of their parents.