பர்த்ருஹரியின் கடவுள் வாழ்த்து! (Post No.5432)

Painting of Bhartruhari meeting his wife

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 15 September 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 17-32 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5432

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

 

பர்த்ருஹரி நீதிசதகம்-1

பர்த்ருஹரியின் 300 பாக்கள் அடங்கிய நீதி சதகம்,  வைராக்ய சதகம், சிருங்கார சதகம் ஆகிய மூன்றும் சுமார் 150 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னரே ஆங்கிலம் உள்பட பல ஐரோப்பிய மொழிகளில் மொழி பெயர்க்கப்பட்டுவிட்டது. இதைத் தமிழில் வந்த விவேகா சிந்தாமணி முதலிய பல நூல்களில் தனித் தனிப் பாடலாக மொழி பெயர்த்துள்ளார்கள். அதற்குப் பின்னர் இவைகளைத் தமிழ் பாக்கள் வடிவிலும் மொழி பெயர்த்து விட்டனர்.

 

பர்த்ருஹரியின் காதல் கதை மிகவும் சுவையானது; சோகமானது. முன்னரே எழுதிவிட்டேன். கீழே அதற்கான தொடர்புக் குறிப்பு உளது.

நான் புதிதாக எழுத என்ன இருக்கிறது?

 

இதைப் பல தமிழ் அறிஞர் பாடல்களுடன் ஒப்பிடுவதே எனது நோக்கம்.

 

दिक्कालाद्यनवच्छिन्नानन्तचिन्मात्रमूर्तये ।
स्वानुभूत्येकमानाय नमः शान्ताय तेजसे ॥ 1.1 ॥

 

 

இதோ முதல் பாடல்

திக்காலாதயனவச்சின்னானந்த சின்மாத்ர மூர்த்தயே

ஸ்வானுபூத்யேகமானாய  நமஹ சாந்தாய தேஜசஹ 1-1

 

 

கடவுள் வாழ்த்து பற்றி தொல்காப்பியர் குறிப்பிட்டாலும் தொல்காப்பியத்தில் கடவுள் வாழ்து கிடையாது! ஆனால் திருக்குறளில் உளது. சங்க இலக்கியத்தை சுமார் நாலு அல்லது ஐந்தாவது நூற்றாண்டில் நமக்கு தொகுத்து அளித்த மஹாதேவன் (பாரதம் பாடிய பெருந்தேவனார்) சிவ பெருமானைப் புகழ்ந்து பாடி, புறநானூறு முதலிய நூல்களில் முதல் பாடலாகச் சேர்த்துள்ளார். சிலப்பதிகாரம் போன்ற நூல்களில் வேதத்தில் உள்ளது போல இயற்கைச் சக்திகளே கடவுள் வாழ்த்தாக அமைந்துள்ளது. இளங்கோ அடிகள் சூரியன், சந்திரன், மழை ஆகியவற்றைப் பாடிப் பரவுகிறார். சம்ஸ்க்ருதத்தில் காளிதாசனின் காவியத்தில் இறைவனைத் துதிபாடியே துவங்குகிறார்.

 

நற்றிணையின் கடவுள் வாழ்த்து விஷ்ணு ஸஹஸ்ரநாம ஸ்லோகம் ஒன்றின் மொழி பெயர்ப்பாக அமைந்துள்ளது சுவையான செய்தி.

 

இதோ திருவள்ளுவரின் கடவுள் வாழ்த்தை பர்த்ருஹரியுடன் ஒப்பிடுவோம்:

 

பர்த்த்ருஹரி சொல்கிறார்:

காலத்திற்கும் பரந்து விரிந்த இடத்துக்கும் அப்பாலுள்ள ஒளி மயமான அமைதியான, சாந்தமான இறைவனை வணங்குகிறேன். அந்த இறைவனை ஒருவனுடைய சுய அனுபவத்தாலேயே  அடைய முடியும்; அளக்க/ அறிய முடியும்.

 

மிகவும் கருத்துள்ள பாடல்; இந்துக்கள் மட்டுமே கடவுளை காலத்துக்கும் இடத்துக்கும் அப்பால் வைப்பர். ஐன்ஸ்டைன் போன்ற பேரறிஞர்கள் காலம், இடம் பற்றிய கொள்களை முன் வைத்தனர். ஆனால் அதற்கும் முன்பாக இந்தக் காலம் பற்றிப் பேசியவர்கள் இந்துக்களே. ஐன்ஸ்டைன், ஒளியை மிஞ்சிய பொருள் ஏதும் இல்லை என்பார். ஆனால் இந்துக்களோ மனதின் வேகம் ஒளியைவிட அதிகம் என்பர். அதைப் பயன்படுத்தி நாரதர் முதலானோர் அண்டம் விட்டு அண்டம் பயணம் (Inter Galactic Travel) செய்தனர்.

Image of Surya Deva in Delhi Airport

விஷ்ணு ஸஹஸ்ரநாமத்தின் முதல் பாட்டிலேயே பூத, பவ்ய, பவத் காலம் — நீயே இற்நத காலம், நிகழ் காலம், வருங்காலம் — என்று துதிக்கின்றனர். கடவுளையும் காலத்தையும் தொடர்புபடுத்தி ‘அவன்’ அதற்கு அப்பாற்பட்டவன் என்று மொழிவது இந்துக்களின் மிக முன்னேறிய விஞ்ஞான அணுகு முறையைக் காட்டுகிறது.

ஏனையோர் எல்லாம் ஒரு பாடலோ, இரண்டு பாடலோ பாடி கடவுள் வாழ்த்தை முடித்துக்கொண்டனர். ஆனால் வள்ளுவனோ பத்துப் பாடல்கள் பாடி கடவுளைத் துதித்துள்ளான். இது உலக மஹா விந்தை. உலகிலேயே தமிழன்தான் கடவுளைத் துதிப்பவர்களில் முதல்வன் என்பதை இது காட்டுகிறது. அது மட்டுமல்ல உருவ வழிபாடே சிறந்தது என்பதையும் வள்ளுவன் விண்டுரைக்கிறான். கடவுளின் திருப்பாதங்கள் பற்றி ஏழு குறள்களில் செப்பிவிட்டான். இதனால்தான் திருக்குறளை தமிழ் வேதம் (மறை) என்று ஒரு புலவர் திருவள்ளுவர் முன்னிலையிலேயே பாடிவிட்டார் (காண்க- திருவள்ளுவ மாலை)

 

 

பர்த்ருஹரி, அவரவர் அறிவு, அனுபத்துக்கு ஏற்ப இறைவனை உணரலாம் என்றார். வள்ளுவன் இதைப் பல சொற்களால் விளக்குகிறான். . கடவுள் என்பவன் தனக்குவமை இல்லாதான், அறவாழி அந்தணன், வால் அறிவன், நெஞ்சத் தாமரையில் வீற்றிருப்பவன், சம்சார சாகரத்தை கடக்க உதவுபவன், உலகிற்கே முதல்வன், வேண்டுதல் வேண்டாமை இலாதான், ஐம்புல உணர்வுகளுக்கு அப்பாற்பட்டவன், எண்குணத்தான் (சிவ பெருமானின் அடைமொழி) என்றெல்லாம் வருணிக்கிறான். கடவுள் வாழ்த்துக்கு அப்புறமும் இந்திரன் பிரம்மன், லெட்சுமி, நஞ்சுண்ட கண்டன் (சிவன்), பல்மாயக் கள்வன் (கிருஷ்ணன்) யமன் போன்று பல தெய்வங்களைப் பல குறள்களில் பாடுகிறான்.

 

நான்கு வேதங்களிலும் வரும் மிகவும் சக்தி வாய்ந்த மந்திரம் காயத்ரீ மந்திரம். அந்தணர்கள் நாள் தோறும் சூரிய ஒளியைப் பார்த்து தேஜோ மயமான இறைவனை நினைக்கும் மந்திரம். பர்த்ருஹரியும் இறைவனை தேஜோ மயமானவன்- ஒளி மயமானவன் என்று போற்றுவது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.

Old Articles in my blog:–

 

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Posts about திரிமூர்த்தி written by Tamil and Vedas. about; Fatness Anecdotes … பர நாரி … பரத்ரவ்ய ஹர: …

  1. பர்த்ருஹரிநீதி சதகம் | Tamil and Vedas

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Posts about பர்த்ருஹரி நீதி சதகம் written by Tamil and Vedas

 

–subham–

 

COMPARISON BETWEEN TAMIL POET AND ROMAN POET HORACE (Post No.5427)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 13 September 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 21-22 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5427

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

Two thousand years ago Muranchiyur Mudingarayar sang about Tamil Chera King Uthiyan Cheralathan. Around that time Roman poet Horace who composed poems in Latin also sang about kings. P Arunachalam compared both the poets and published an article in 1898. Before you read the comparison, I wanted to make some points on the same poem (verse 2 in Purananuru).

 

Muranchiyur Mudinagarayar’s poem is part of the oldest part of Purananuru, one of the 18 books of Sangam Tamil literature.

There are some interesting historical information as well as similes. This poem explodes all the Aryan- Dravidian myths. There was no such division.

1.The poet’s name is in Sanskrit Mudi Nagarajan. ‘The one who has snake on the head’- is the literal translation. It may be Lord Shiva or just Naga king. Since we have many Purananuru poets with pure Sanskrit names such as Damodaran,Valmiki, Brahama, Lochana, Parana, Kannadasan (Dayan Kannanar) and Maha chitran, it was not uncommon in those days.

2.Poet Nagarajan refers to Four Vedas and Brahmin’s Three Fires (Garhapatya, Ahavaniyam and Dakshinagniyam) which shows Vedic culture was strongly rooted in Tamil Nadu ( we have other refences to Yupa pillar everywhere, Rajasuyam, eagle shaped fire altar of Karikalan)

  1. The poem reflects Kalidasa’s description of the Himalayas in Kumarasambhavam and other works. The deer are taking rest in the Ahramas of seers where they enjoy the warmth of Sacred fire.

4.Another very interesting point is the reference to Pancha  bhutas. We see it in the Vedas. And the ancient Sanskrit literature always compare the Pancha Bhutas with five qualities of a King. It shows that the thought process was the same from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

5.There is a debatable reference to Mahabharata war. Chera King praised as one who provided food for the combatants during the great war. The Tamil word used in the poem is ‘Perun Choru’ (Big food or feast). The word is not found nowhere else. Since Mudi Nagarajan was part of Second Tamil Sangam, commentator thought that the king lived during very old time. Linguistics or historic chronology wouldn’t allow any such interpretation. Language is very simple and it cannot be as old as 3102 BCE. If Uthiyan Cheran lived around that time we need a long list of Chera kings to fill the time gap. We didn’t  have such a king list. Chera king Uthiyan cheral was also sung by Mamulanar, another popular poet.

 

Then what is Big Rice or Big Food or Big Feast

Actually, on the death anniversary of big leaders,  people are fed to keep their memory or sacrifice alive It is just an Anna Dana like Saivite Guru pujas. Since the word is not used anywhere else in Tamil, no one could say whether it is right or wrong. But the language of the poem and the history of Tamil kings provide us enough clues.

 

6.The order of or the origin of Five elements (Pancha Bhutas) is in ‘Andhati’ style. Not only the style, the matter agrees with the Sanskrit scriptures.

 

  1. The golden Himalayas (Kanchan Srnga which is called Kanchen Janga now) is mentioned in Kalidasa’s work. Elsewhere I have given it as a proof for Kalidasa’s age. He lived before Sangam Tamil period.

8.There are references to bad omens: a)milk becoming sour b) day time becoming dark (solar eclipse; eclipses are considered bad omens)

 

9.Last but not the least there is an indirect reference to Agastya in the poem. Why did the poet compare Himalayas and Pothiya Hills? Pothiya Hills is the southern residence of the great seer Agastya who was sent by Lord Shiva to codify a grammar to Tamil language. Researchers say that it happened around 1000 BCE or 700 BCE. So the comparison between Pothiya and Himalayas is a veiled reference to Agastya Muni. Kalidasa refers to Pothiyam and the Himalayas in his Ragu vamsam.

 

Following is taken from a magazine published in 1898:-

 

 

–subham–

TAMIL BOY WHO COMPOSED POEMS WHILE PLAYING MARBLES! (Post No.5423)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan

 

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 12 September 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 19-16 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5423

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

The are many unsung heroes among Indian poets and one of them was Murugadasa Swamigal of Tamil Nadu. He composed about 100,000 poems. Among them is a remarkable work called ‘Pulavar Purana’ meaning a Purana of Poets. He composed 2828 stanzas on 72 Hindu Poets of Tamil Nadu. He was born in Tirunelveli in 1838 and lived for 60 years. His family gave all the manuscripts to Tamil Pundit of Madras (Chennai) who published all his poems on 72 Tamil poets starting from the legendary Vedic seer Agastya.

 

Krishnmachari in his first part published in 1901, introduced Murugadasa swamikal with two interesting anecdotes :-

“ Though trustworthy information respecting the gifted poet is wanting, yet the date of his birth in Tirunelveli about 1838 harmonises with what is known of his career and death in the Tamil Vilambi year (1898). The young poet seems to have been a popular favourite and a leader of sports where he resided, but study and writing of poetry were nevertheless more attractive to him than play. He is a remarkable instance of intellectual precocity for he always carried with him his iron pen or stylus and palm leaf ready for use. It is said that he composed, at intervals of play at marbles, before he was ten years old, a short poem ‘Pannirumaalai’ in praise of the 12 powerful arms of the war god Subrahmanya.

 

When Murugadasa was old enough to leavehome,he visited all famous shrines in India and Sri Lanka and met many religious leaders in  monasteries.

 

Krishnamachari adds,

“ He was cultured and thoughtful and his delicate tact, piety and prudence well fitted him for the task of a biogrpaher. He covered imporatant Saivite and Vaishnavite poets andshowed no hositility towards any sect.He gave the history of Hindu poets leaving out Buddhist and Jain Tamil scholars.

 

He is known to have visited Madras before he was twenty years old and to have astonished a earned audience in Kandaswami Temple by his elquent exposition and ready powers of versification.

 

He is said to have composed no less than a lakh of verses consisting mainly of hymns and sacred legends of gods. I have given the list of Tamil Books in my Tamil version of this article). His greatest and most original work is ‘Pulavar Puranam’ (Legend of the Poets). It may be placed as a monumental work by itself, charming in all freshness and vivecity.

 

In short Murugadsa seems to have offended none and instructed many till his demise in sixtieth year in his clay built cloister in a little village of Tiruvamaattur in South Arcot.

Metrical Biographies of Tamil Poets

V Krishnamachariar published all the 2828 veses in three volumes from 1901 to 1906. Here is the list of all the 72 poets covered in his work:-

 

 

 

 

–subham–

 

Shelley’s Sky Lark in Tamil (Post No.5355)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 23 August 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 7-09 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5355

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

Translated by M Gopalakrishnan of Madurai 100 years ago!

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY PROFILE

SHELLYEY, English Poet, Novelist and Essayist

Born August 4, 1792

Died July 8, 1822

Age at death 29

P B Shelley was one of England’s greatest Romantic poets. He was born into a wealthy noble family. He was educated at Eton college, where his radical views on politics and religion earned him a nick name ‘Mad Shelley’. While still at Eton and aged just 18, he published his first book, a gothic horror novel called Zastrozzi. In 1811 he was expelled from Oxford University for writing an anti-Christian pamphlet.

 

The same year 19 year old Shelley shocked his family even more by secretly marrying 16 year old Harriet Westbrook. This was the start of Shelly’s adventurous life of elopements and restless travels. Three year later Shelley eloped with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, who became Mary Shelley and who wrote the famous novel Frankenstein. Harriet killed herself in 1816, and Shelley married his new love. Mary and Shelley moved around constantly; they travelled around Europe and lived in many different towns in England. Shelley wrote his poetry in short bursts of intense creativity. His poems such as Alastor and Ozymandias, overflow with intense emotion and radical ideas that were not always appreciated by readers of his time.

 

In 1818 Shelley and Mary left England to live in Italy. He completed some of his greatest poetry there, including his masterpiece Prometheus Unbound. A few years later, on a short sea voyage along the Italian coast, Shelly’s small sail boat was caught in a storm and he was drowned. He was just 29 years old, but he had written poetry hat established him as one of the greatest English poets.

Publications

1810 Zastrozzi

1813 Queen Mab

1816 Alastor

1818 The Revolt of Islam

1818 Ozymandias

1819 The Cenci

1820 Prometheus Unbound

1821 Adonais

Published after he died

1824 The Triumph of Life

 

Shelley was Tamil Poet Bharatiyar’s favourite poet.

 

பாரதியாரைக் கவர்ந்த ஆங்கிலப் புலவன் ஷெல்லியின் வானம்பாடிக் கும்மி. தமிழில் தருபவர் மதுரை எம். கோபால கிருஷ்ண அய்யர்

 

 

 

 

 

 

–subham–

 

 

 

Rev. G U Pope Blasts Bishop Caldwell’s Theories (Post No.5320)

 

Picture of G U Pope

Compiled  by London swaminathan

Date: 14 August 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –18-08 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5320

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

“During Bishop Caldwell’s time, Sanskrit enthusiasts argued that Sanskrit was the mother of Tamil language. They showed extraordinary proportion of words of Sanskritic origin in Dravidian vocabulary as a proof. But they did not take into account the dissimilarity of the Dravidian grammatical forms to the Sanskritic forms. Bishop Caldwell had no difficulty in demolishing that theory  but he installed in its stead the equally untenable Scythic theory which it took many years of discussion to dislodge from its position. Subsequent workers in the field discovered serious errors in his work. Dr G U Pope is one of the critics.

 

Dr G U Pope was a distinguished missionary, well versed in Tamil language and literature and he did not accept Caldwell’s theories; and in a series of articles in in the Indian Antiquary he suggested enquiry as to whether in these theories “certain things have not been taken for granted rather too suddenly in regard to the Dravidian dialects. He was the first to point out that the law of harmonic sequence of vowels did not obtain in most of these dialects. He was further of opinion,

 

1.”that between the languages of Southern India and those of the Aryan family there are many deeply seated affinities;

2.that the differences between the Dravidian tongues and the Aryan are not so great as between the Celtic (for instance) and the Sanskrit; and

3.that, by consequence, the doctrine that the place of Dravidian dialects is rather with the Aryan than with the Turanian family of languages is still capable of defence. He illustrated these positions by means of copious illustrations and pointed out that the resemblances (appeared) most frequently in the more cultivated Dravidian dialects and that the identity was most striking in the names of instruments, places and acts connected with a simple life.

 

He also promised to consider derivative words in a future paper and to show that the prefixes and affixes were Aryan; but no such papers have been published.

Scythian and Dravidian

The Scythian affinities referred to are the affinities asserted to exist in the Dravidian languages by Bishop Caldwell, who following the Danish philologist Rask, use the term Scythian in the sense of what we have been generally called Turanian – non Aryan and Non Semitic languages. But the editors of Linguistic Survey of India and most of the scholars have rejected this affinity.

 

Professor J Kennedy wrote that rice, peacock etc. were known to Greeks in the fifth century BCE by their Dravidian (Tamil) names. This was due to Caldwell’s writing who said that these are Tamil words.

 

Bishop Caldwell was indeed a great magician! He pronounced a spell and there sprung up a vision of Phoenician sea men voyaging with Solomon’s servants down the West coast of India to Ophir once in three years to bring gold, silver, algum, peacocks and apes. This vision still fascinates some Dravidian scholars, though it had been pointed out that Hebrew ‘algum’ was not wanted for its scent, but to be used as props and pillars for which sandalwood was wholly unfitted, that peacocks could be had in plenty in Gujarat, and that there was no gold or silver for export from India. The whole vision rests on Bishop Caldwell’s opinion that ‘oryza’ (rice) algum and tawas (Tuki=Tokai= tawas=peacock) are derived from Tamil words. It is time that the spell is broken”.

 

–R Swaminatha Aiyar, Dravidian Theory, Motilal Banarsidass, 1975

Linguists’ bluffing blasted by Tamil Language (Post No.5252)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 24 JULY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 7-19 am  (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5252

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

Following is the question and answer from The Guardian Newspaper of London and my comments are added at the end

 

How do YOU know the correct way to pronounce a dead language?

“Old languages don’t die. They just fade into new languages (at least most of them do). While the entire sound system of ancient language rarely survives intact, fragments can usually be found scattered around its various daughter languages.

 

For example, many traits of Latin pronunciation are directly observable in Italian French Spanish and Romanian. The job of linguistic historian is to try to piece these various bits together. The most tried and tested technique is comparative reconstruction, which focuses on the systematic sound correspondences that emerge when we compare the same words in different sister languages. Where this exercise turns up different sounds, it is usually possible to trace them back to a common historical source.

For example, many English words beginning with ‘t’ correspond to words beginning with ‘ ts’ ( Spelt z) , in sister language German; compare English ten, to, time with German Zein, zu, zeitgeist.

 

On the basis of this and many similar correspondences, we can reconstruct a Common Germanic parent language in which the older sound in this particular instance is the knowledge that each type of sound change takes place in one direction only. On the strength of what happens in many other languages, we know that ‘t’ at the beginning of a word can turn into ‘ts’ but not vice versa. The more  widely we cast our comparative net, the further we can reach back into the mists of time. The ‘t’ of early Germanic itself derives from an even older ‘d’ — contrast English two and tooth with, say, Italian ‘due’ and ‘dente’. Ultimately we arrive at the sound system of an ancient Indo-European tongue, the common ancestor of languages as apparently diverse as English, French, Russian, Irish, Greek and Urdu.”

John Harris, Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University college, London

 

FROM NOTES AND QUERRIS, GURDIAN NEWSPAPER, VOLUME 5, 1994

 

MY COMMENTS

Compare changes in Tamil

IN TAMIL also we see ‘S’ of Sanskrit change into ‘T’ in Tamil

I will give some examples though there are hundreds of such words

Purushan– Purutan
Visesham– Visetam
Sishya — Seetan
Joshyam — Jothitam
VishaM —  Vitam
Koshtam — Kottam
Pushpam — Putpam

In my earlier research articles, I have  Exploded all the OLD theories about similarities or changes in Indo- European languages. In fact, those changes or similarities are found even in Pacific Ocean and Mayan languages. In short, all the bluffing of ‘D’ of Aryans changing into ‘L’ after contacting Dravidians, are wrong. Once they study the similarities between Tamil and Sanskrit or other languages they will know all those are nothing but SHEER bluffing.

 

 

Tamil and Sanskrit: Rewrite Linguistics Theory

tamilandvedas.com/2014/12/20/tamil-and-sanskrit…

Tamil and Sanskrit: Rewrite Linguistics Theory … But this D/L or R/L changes are natural. They are in Tamil … in Tamil itself. In Sanskrit language Sandhi .

Ja and Ya in Indian languages | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/tag/ja-and-ya-in-indian-languages

Posts about Ja and Ya in Indian languages written by Tamil and … with other languages will rewrite linguistic … this change lies in Tamil and Sanskrit …

 

 

Origin of Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/…/origin-of-tamil-and-sanskrit

They believed that Siva’s drum Damaruka gave Sanskrit from one side and Tamil from another side. … //tamilandvedas.com/2014/11/13/origin-of-tamil-and-sanskrit/

 

  1. Vowels = Life, Consonants = Body; Hindu concept of Alphabet …

tamilandvedas.com/2015/06/27/vowels-life…

Research paper No 1958 Written by London swaminathan Date: 27 June 2015 Uploaded in London at 20-15 I have been arguing in my earlier posts that the Western …

 

Sanskrit Alphabet | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/tag/sanskrit-alphabet

Posts about Sanskrit Alphabet written by Tamil and Vedas

 

  1. Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older? | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/2014/07/16/tamil-or-sanskrit…

Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older? … my pet theory is Tamil and Sanskrit originated from a common source on the … comparative reconstruction pays no attention to …

  1. Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com/tag/tamil-and-sanskrit

Posts about Tamil and Sanskrit written by Tamil and Vedas. … (for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR … Tamil and Sanskrit, Tamil Grammar. Posted by Tamil …

 

–SUBHAM–

உண்மைத் தமிழருக்கு ஒரு க்விஸ்- கேள்வி பதில் (Post no.4883)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 5 April 2018

 

Time uploaded in London –  5-42 am (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 4883

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

 

 

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU

 

 

கீழ்கண்ட பொருள் பொதிந்த — அர்த்த புஷ்ட்யுள்ள – அக்ஷர லக்ஷம் பெறும் வாசகங்களை யார் சொன்னார்கள்? எந்த நூலில் உரைத்தார்கள்; செப்பு! செப்படா, தமிழா!

 

1.வேதங்கள் பாடுவள் காணீர் – உண்மை

வேல்கையிற் பற்றிக் குதிப்பாள்

ஓதருஞ் சாத்திரம் கோடி – உணர்ந்

தோதி யுலகெங்கும் விதைப்பாள்

xxx

2.இருமலும் சோகையும் ஈளையும் வெப்பும்

தருமம் செய்யாதவர் தம்பாலதாகும்

xxxx

3.மக்கள் மெய் தீண்டல் உடற்கின்பம்

xxx

4.ஊன நாடகமாடு வித்தவா

உருகிநானுனைப் பருகவைத்தவா

ஞானநாடகமாடு வித்தவா

நைய வையகத் துடைய விச்சையே

xxx

5.எங்கள் வாழ்வும் எங்கள் வளமும்

மங்காத தமிழென்று சங்கே முழங்கு!

xxxx

6.வாணியன் பாடிட, வண்ணான் சுமக்க, வடுகன் செட்டி

சேணியன் போற்றக், கடல் பள்ளிமுன் தொழ தீங்கரும்பைக்

கோணியன் வாழ்த்தக், கருமான் துகில்தனைக் கொண்டு அணிந்த

வேணியன்  ஆனவன் தட்டான் புறப்பட்ட வேடிக்கையே

xxx

7.இனி பாடுநரும் இல்லை; பாடுநர்க்கு ஒன்று ஈகுநரும் இல்லை

xxx

8.முத்தமிழ்த் துறையின் முறை போகிய

உத்தமக் கவிஞர்களுக்கு ஒன்று உணர்த்துவென்

xxx

9.பதினோர் ஆடலும், பாடலும் கொட்டும்

விதிமாண் கொள்கையின் விளங்க அறிந்து- ஆங்கு

xxxx

10.விளக்கிருக்க மின்மினித் தீக்காய்ந்தவாறே

xxx

 

விடைகள்

1.பாரதி, பாரதியார் பாடல்கள்; 2. திருமூலர் எழுதிய திருமந்திரம்; 3. திருவள்ளுவர் எழுதிய திருக்குறள்; 4. மாணிக்கவாசகர், திருவாசகம்; 5. பாரதிதாசன் பாடல்கள்; 6. காளமேகம்,  தனிப்பாடல்கள்; 7. சங்க கால அவ்வையார் ,புறநானூறு; 8. கம்பன், கம்ப ராமாயணம்; 9. இளங்கோ, சிலப்பதிகாரம்; 10. அப்பர் தேவாரம், நாலாம் திருமுறை

 

 

 

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4615)- Part 3

 

IS SILAPPADIKARAM A BRAHMANA KAVYA? (Post No.4612)- Part 3

 

 

Research Paper Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 14 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  7-04 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4615

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WARNING: DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND  BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU.

PART 1 AND PART 2 WERE PUBLISHED HERE IN THE PAST TWO DAYS.

 

 

14.Matavi and Manimekalai

Matavi having heard all the tragic news shaved her hair and entered the Buddha Vihara. These people died because they heard this news from me; therefore I come to bathe in the holy waters of Ganges ( in order to purify myself). Long live you, O king of kings!

When Matalan finished, Senkuttuvan asked what happened to the Pandya kingdom.

 

Thus Matalan was used to give all the news about all the important characters in the epic.

 

15.One Thousand Goldsmiths Executed!

Matalan continued, “O King, you destroyed  in a day the nine umbrellas of nine enemy kings who joined together in an alliance against your brother in law Killivalavan. Listen! The victorious Ver Celiyan residing at Korkai offered a human sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths in a day to the divine Pattini who had twisted off one off her breasts.

When Matalan gave all this information the sun set and then the court astrologer said, “ Long live the ruler of the earth. It is now thirty two months since we left Vanci.

 

  1. Fifty Tula Gold to the Brahmana!

When Senkuttuvan asked about the succession in the Cola kingdom, Matalan praised the Colas whose forefathers destroyed the three fortresses suspended in the sky (mythological story), who gave flesh to a kite to save a dove (mythological Sibi Story) would never move away from the righteous path , Senkuttuvan became very happy and said to the Brahmana,

“O Brahmana Matalan, please accept the gift of fifty Tulams of pure gold” equal to Senkuttuvan’s own weight (Tula Bharam).

 

17.BRAHMIN’S ADVICE TO SENKUTTUVAN!

Matalan in Natukar Katai

“Then a Cakkayan, a dancing expert from Paraiyur, which was famous for Brahmans versed in the four Vedas, exhibited for king’s pleasure, the dance known as Koticetam danced with Uma as part of Himself by the mighty Siva, while the anklet worn on his  beautiful feet tinkled.

In the Natukar Katai Matalan speaks:

“O King wearing a long garland of victory and possessing a huge army! O Lion of kings, who knows all that can be known from great men, dismiss your wrath! Ruler of the earth, may the days you have yet to live become more numerous than the particles of sand in the cool river An Porunai.

Pray do not dismiss my words! Even after passing through fifty years of your protection on this earth you do not perform religious sacrifice but continue to perform the sacrifice at the battle. Among your ancestors in this city one king distinguished himself by destroying the Katampu of the seas, another exhibited great prowess by carving the bow emblem on the Himalayas, another enabled a Vedic Brahmana in return for composing some poems, to ascend bodily to the higher world, another commanded the messenger of death not to take away lives indiscriminately but only in particular order; another Cera penetrated the golden region of the high mountain in the fertile kingdom of the Barbarous Yavanas. After adding two more ancestor king’s adventures Matalan says, “It is not necessary to point out to men of wisdom that youth will not last for ever. The goddess of wealth abides in your chest, for you see your own body covered with grey hairs. Even good souls in divine bodies may, it is just possible, enter human frames on earth. Souls of those who are born as men now may by chance be reborn as animals. Men are but actors on a stage, and will have no  enduring embody in only one fixed form. That life after death will depend upon deeds done in a previous birth is a significant statement which is not untrue”.

 

“O King of the powerful sword! I have chosen not to solicit rare gifts from you. I cannot suffer to see a good soul wrapped within a good body travel the path trodden by the common people of this vast world. O king who has crossed the limits of learning! you should therefore do that great and fruitful yajna with the help of sacrificial priests learned in the four Vedas in order you may gain that superior path which Gods extoll.

 

“If you say that good deed can be done tomorrow it may chance that your good soul trained in Vedic lore will leave your body even today.”

 

When the learned to tongue of the Vedic Brahmana, thus ploughed and sowed the seeds of divine wisdom in the kings’ ears, those seeds sprouted forth in right time.

 

With a desire to enjoy the fruits of the harvest of virtue, the king with the resounding anklets, commanded the presence of those sacrificial priests who had completed their studies by listening to teachers belonging to a group of traditional interpreters of the four Vedas. They were asked to commence the festival of sacrificial rituals in the manner instructed by Matalan.

 

 

18.Matalan’s Last appearance in Varantaru Katai

 

Brahmana Miracle!

In the chapter Varanataru Katai there is a long anecdote where Devanti gives the history of Manimekalai, daughter of Kovalan and courtesan Matavi. Then Devanti was possessed by Pasanatan Cattan.

It is said that there are three girls in the crowd—twin daughters of Arattan Cetti and a little daughter of Cetak Kutumpi, a temple priest. If Matalan sprinkled the water of a divine pool on those girls, they would reveal their past births. Devantikai gave that water to Matalan which kept in his string-bag (Uri).

 

Seeing all this Senkuttuvan was lost in wonder and turned towards Matalan when he said with good cheer: ‘Hear this O King! Let all your ills disappear.

 

Then Matalan sprinkled the water on the three girls. They recited their previous births. Senkuttuvan looked at the face of Matalan, wearing the sacred thread on his chest, he blessed him: O King of Kings! Long may you live. These three were, in previous births, attached to the devoted wife of Kovalan, who seized the mad elephant’s tusk to release a Brahmana from the clutches of the mad elephant.

 

Matalan finished his speech with a good advice:

“It is not strange that people who do good things attain heaven and people who have worldly minds are reborn and that good and bad deeds have their own reward and those born should die, and those dead should be re born. Those are ancient truths ( Bhagavad Gita echo: Jaatasya hi dhruvo mrtyuh dhruvam janma mrtasya ca)

 

Matalan continues:

You (Senkuttuvan) were born through the grace of Him who rides on the sacred bull (Lord Shiva) and have won distinction as a king in this wide world, saw, clear as an object held in the palm of your hand, the fruits of righteous deeds and the forms of holy people. Long live from eon to eon protecting the earth! Live long gracious monarch!

 

Pleased with what the Brahmana Matalan said, the king endowed grants to the temple of the ever youthful Pattini who had twisted off her breast and there by raised flames which enveloped the noisy Kutal (another name for Madurai) of the great Pandyan Kingdom, much celebrated in poetical themes. He further ordered the conduct of daily festivals by instructing Devantikai to offer flowers, perfume and incense.

The monarch of the world circumambulated the shrine thrice and stood proffering his respects. Many kings including the Gajabahu of sea girt Sri Lanka participated in the festival.

 

Kannaki too when she burnt Madurai down asked the Agni Deva (Fire God) to spare Brahmins, old people, cows, chaste women, invalids and all good people.

19.Chief Duties of the Lady of the House

The chief duties of the lady of the house were giving of gifts to the deserving, the serving of the Brahmins and the entertaining of the ascetics and guests, as evidenced by Kannaki’s own words in canto XVI.II 71-3 Kolaikkala Katai

 

  1. Brahmin Ambassador and Brahmin Actors

There are more references to Brahmins throughout the epic

A Brahmin ambassador by name Kausikan delivered the message of Matavi to Kovalan and took back his message to his parents – Purancheri Irutta Katai

Brahmin actors (Kuutta Chakkaiyar) staged a show in front of Senkuttuvan- Natukar Katai

Keeranthai, a Brahmin, told his wife that Pandyan king would protect her when he went out of the city and that led to Porkai Pandya Story (Pandya with a Golden Hand)—Katturai Katai

Ilango says that Pandyan kings always hear the Vedic recital but never the justice bell (katturai Katai)

A Brahmin poet by name Palaik Kautamanar going to heaven with his body- Natukar Katai

 

Madurai is full of smoke from the Vedic Fire altars—Naatu Kaan Katai

Conclusion:

Hundreds of lines were attributed to Brahmin Matalan and he gave us lot of information to fill the gaps in the epic. Miraculous incidents happen in front of the Brahmana and the king Senkuttuvan. He commands the king to do Yagas and yajnas and the king readily obeys. Kannaki lamented that she could not feed the Brahmins and saints. She spared Brahmins when she burnt down Madurai. Parasaran- Dakshinamurthy anecdote showed the condition of Vedic education in Tamil Nadu. Kovalan could read s Sanskrit manuscript. Brahmins are praised as great scholars in Tamil (Vandamiz Maraiyor in Katturaik Katai; it speaks of the Brahmin who composed a poem on Chera king in Patitrup Pattu and went to heaven with his wife in his human body).

Why did Ilango do it?

Why did Ilango do it? did he write a Brahmana Kavya? My opinion is that he did not exaggerate anything. He described the real condition of second century CE Tamil Nadu where Brahmins commanded great respect. They could command great and mighty kings like Senkuttuvan. They could guide them what to do for the welfare of the community. Through Parasran-Dakshinamurthy anecdote, Ilango not only showed that even a child in a remote village of Tamil Nadu could recite Vedas perfectly, but also Brahmins were unselfish and could donate their wealth for the Vedic children. Ilango was the first poet in Tamil to show the weddings conducted by the Brahmins in front of fire.

 

Silappadikaram was the most popular epic. It was the only epic which based its story on a pure Tamil theme.

Paranar and other poets of Patitrup Pattu, one of the 18 books of Sangam Tamil literature, confirmed all that was said by Ilango. There is no doubt that the history second century Tamil Nadu was a golden period in the history of Tamil Nadu.

 

References:

The Cilappatikaram,Prof. V R Ramachandra Dikshitar,The South India Saiavasiddhanta Works Publishing Society, Tinnelvelly Limited, Madras,600 001, 1978

Akananuru, Varthamanan Pathippakam, A Manikkanar,Chennai- 600 017,1999

Srimad Bhagavad Gita, Anna, Sri Ramakrishna Mutt, Chennai-600 004,1965

 

 

–Subahm–

 

 

 

காப்பிகுடித்தால் 100 ஆண்டுகள் வாழலாம்! (Post No.4608)

Einstein image in Coffee!

 

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 12 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London  6-32 AM

 

 

 

Post No. 4608

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

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பிரான்ஸ் நாட்டின் கல்வி நிபுணர், நூல் ஆசிரியர் பாண்டநெல் (Fontenelle) என்பவர் ஆவார். அவருடைய முழுப் பெயர் பெர்னார்ட் லெ பொவியர் தெ பாண்டநெல் என்பதாகும். அவர் 1657 முதல் 1757 வரை வாழ்ந்தார்.

 

பாண்டநெல் மிகவும் காப்பி குடித்ததால் டாக்டர்களுக்கு மிகவும் கவலை. அவருக்கு 80 வயதானபோது டாக்டர்கள் அவரைச் சந்தித்தனர். அவருக்குப் புரியும்  வகையில், மெதுவாக, அழகாக டாக்டர்கள் பேசினர்.

 

“அன்பரே, இந்தக் காப்பி இருக்கிறதே. அது ஒரு விஷம்– உமது உடலை மிகவும் பாதிக்கும்; விஷம் என்று சொன்னால் போதாது. அது ‘மெதுவாக’க் கொல்லும் விஷம்– என்றெல்லாம் விளக்கினர்.

 

அவர் இதைப் புரிந்து கொண்டாரா, இதைப் பற்றி அவர் என்ன நினைக்கிறார் என்று அறிய டாக்டர்கள் அவருடைய முகத்தை உற்று நோக்கிப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டு இருந்தனர்.

 

அவர் மெதுவாக வாய் திறந்தார்– சரியாகச் சொன்னீர்கள்; மெதுவாகக் கொல்லும் விஷம் என்று; கொஞ்சம் தப்பு விட்டு விட்டீர்கள். அது மெதுவாகக் கொல்லும் விஷம் இல்லை; ‘மிக மிக மிக மெதுவாகக் கொல்லும்’ விஷம்! பாருங்கள்! தினமும் எவ்வளவு காப்பி குடிக்கிறேன்;  80 வயது வரை நன்றாக இருக்கிறேனே! என்றார்.

டாக்டர்களுக்கு உப்புச் சப்பில்லாமல் போய்விட்டது. ஈதென்னடா, செவிடன் காதில் சங்கு ஊதிய கதை ஆகி விட்டதே என்று எண்ணி வெளியேறினர்.

 

டாக்டர்கள் சொன்னது பிழை ஆகிவிட்டது. அதற்குப் பின்னரும் பாண்டநெல் 20 ஆண்டுகள் வாழ்ந்தார். நூறு வயதை நெருங்க ஒரு மாதம் இருக்கையில் உயிர் நீத்தார்.

 

காப்பி குடிப்போருக்கு எவ்வளவு மகிழ்ச்சியான செய்தி!

 

காப்பி  குடியுங்கள்! நன்றாகக் காப்பி குடியுங்கள்! குடித்துக் கொண்டே 100 ஆண்டுக் காலம் வாழுங்கள்! நோய் நொடி இல்லாமல் வாழ்க!!

((தமிழ் திருடர்களின் குலம் வேருடன் அழியாமல் இருக்க அன்பான வேண்டுகோள்!! உங்கள் குலம் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், தமிழ் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், இந்து மதம் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், எனது பிளாக் (blog)கில் உள்ள கட்டுரைகளப் பகிர்வோர்ப் எழுதியவர் பெயரையும் பிளாக்கின் பெயரையும் நீக்காமல் வெளியிடுக.))

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நீண்ட காலம் வாழ சுருட்டு குடியுங்கள்!

 

பிரிட்டனில் பிரதமராக இருந்தவர் ஜோசப் சாம்பர்லைன் (Joseph Chamberlain): 70 வயதிலும் இளமை ததும்பும் எழில் மிகு தோற்றம்! அவர் மேனி அழகின் ரஹசியத்தை அறிய பலருக்கும் ஆசை. அவரை நெருங்கினர்; தைரியமாகக் கேட்டனர்.

 

“ஐயன் மீர்! உங்கள் மேனி அழகின் ரஹசியம் என்னவோ?”

 

இந்தக் கால நடிகைகளாக இருந்திருந்தால் அவர் என் மேனி அழகிற்கு நான் பாவிப்பது  xyz –  சோப்புதான் என்று சொல்லி இருப்பர்.

 

ஆனால் சாம்பர்லைனோ சற்றும் தயக்கம் இன்றி பதில் கொடுத்தார்.

 

இளமைத் துடிப்புடன் வாழ வேண்டுமா?

 

அதிகம் நடக்காதீர்கள்; எங்கெங்கெல்லாம்  காரில் செல்ல முடியுமோ அங்கெல்லாம் காரிலேயே செல்லுங்கள் நடந்து தொலையாதீர்கள்!!!

சுருட்டு குடிக்கும் வழக்கம் இருந்தால் இரண்டு சுருட்டுகளில் எது சக்தி வாய்ந்ததோ, எது நீளமானதோ அதைக் குடியுங்கள்; அது மட்டுமல்ல அனாவசியமாக நடக்காதீர்கள்; எங்கெங்கெல்லாம் காரில் போக முடியுமோ அங்கெல்லாம் காரில் செல்லுங்கள்– என்றார்.

கேட்க வந்தவர்களுக்கு ஏனடா கேட்க வந்தோம் என்பது போல ஆயிற்று!

 

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மாக்ஸிம் கார்க்கி

சோவியத் ரஷ்யாவின் புகழ் பெற்ற  எழுத்தாளர் (Maxim Gorky) மாக்ஸிம் கார்க்கி. அவர் சோஷலிஸ அறிஞர். அவரை அமெரிக்காவுக்கு அழைத்த நண்பர்கள் அவரை (Coney Island) கோனி தீவிலுள்ள ஒரு கேளிக்கைப் பூங்காவுக்கு அழைத்துச் சென்றனர். அங்கே வீர தீர சாஹசச் செயல்கள் நடந்தன. இவருக்கு எல்லாவற்றையும் நன்கு காட்டிவிட வேண்டும் என்று எண்ணி பாதாள அறை, நிலத்தின் மேலுள்ள மண்டபம் ஆகியவற்றுக்கு எல்லாம் அவரது நண்பர்கள் அழைத்துச் சென்றனர்.

 

 

அவர் பார்க்காத சர்கஸ் காட்சிகளே இல்லை; அந்தர் பல்டி, குட்டிக்கரணம், வேகப் பாய்ச்சல், மேலிருந்து கீழே குதித்தல் தாவுதல் எல்லா வற்றையும் நண்பர்கள் காட்டினர். கார்க்கியின் நண்பர்களுக்குப் பரம த்ருப்தி.

கார்க்கிக்கு????????

 

எல்லோரும் ஓய்வெடுக்கும் நேரம் நெருங்கியது. மாக்ஸிம் கார்க்கியிடம் அவருடைய நண்பர்கள் வினவினர்.

அன்புடையீர், எங்களுக்கு எல்லாம் இன்று உங்களுடன் இருந்தது மிகவும் பிடித்து இருந்தது; உங்களுக்கும் மகிழ்ச்சிதானே?

 

அவர் உடனே பதில் தராமல் சற்று நேரம் யோசித்தார்; பின்னர் சொன்னார்.

 

அட தோழர்களே; நீங்கள் எல்லோரும் எவ்வளவு துயரத்துடன் வாழ்கிறீர்கள்!!

((தமிழ் திருடர்களின் குலம் வேருடன் அழியாமல் இருக்க அன்பான வேண்டுகோள்!! உங்கள் குலம் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், தமிழ் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், இந்து மதம் வாழ வேண்டுமானால், எனது பிளாக் (blog)கில் உள்ள கட்டுரைகளப் பகிர்வோர்ப் எழுதியவர் பெயரையும் பிளாக்கின் பெயரையும் நீக்காமல் வெளியிடுக.))

சுபம் —–

Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar (Post No.4513)

Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dikshitar (Post No.4513)


WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 18 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  21-18

 

 

Post No. 4513

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

In 1886 Rev G U Pope published the translation of Tamil Veda Tirukkural. Before Dr Pope, Ellis has published a translation. Father Beschi translated it into Latin before them. Dr Pope has compared the Bhagavd Gita and Tiukkural. In our time C Rajagopalachari did compare both Gita and Kural.

 

Dr G U Pope in his appendix with notes gives the following comparisons:

Tirukkural couplet No.1 = Bhagavad Gita 10-33

Chapter 2 Rain= B G 3-14

Chapter 4 = B G Chapter 18

Tirukkural 35= BG 16-21

Tirukkural 126 = BG 2-58

Tirukkural 133= BG 3-35, 18-47

Tirukkural 341-350= BG II chapter

Tirukkural 360= B G II -62,63

Tirukkural 605 = BG 14-8

Tirukkural 622 = 18-70/74

 

Did Valluvar copy Manu, Gita and Kamasutra?

V R Ramachandra Dikshitar (lecturer in Indian History, University of Madras) says that Tiruvalluvar might have used several materials from Manu Smrti, Bhagavad Gita and Vatsayana’s Kamasutra, in his book Studies in Tamil Literature in 1936

 

Dikshitar says,”If Parimelalagar’s views could be adopted, then the author of Kural must have been familiar with Sanskrit literature, especially the Dharmashastra and the Arthshastra literature. If this position can be accepted, it is reasonable to assume that Tiruvalluvar follows mainly in his Arathupal the most popular Dharmashaastra of Manu, in his porutpal, the well known Arthashaastra of Kautilya, and in his Kamathu pal, The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana. To these may be added Ramayana and Mahabharata and allied literature. Whether Valluvar’s Muppaal (another name for Tirukkural) is an independent growth or is indebted to Sanskrit literature, it is for future research to determine conclusively. As it is there is a remarkable Parnellism between the Kural and the Sanskrit books above referred to

 

He had dealt with this more elaborately than DR G U Pope. Here is the list according to Dikshitar:

 

Kural 1

A, as is first of letters, every speech maintains;

The Primal Deity is first through all the world’s domains

The Bhagavad Gita (10-33) expresses similar ideas; ‘I am the letter A among the alphabets’ (10-33)

 

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Kural 4

His feet, who over the full blown flower hath past, who gain

In bliss long time shall dwell above this earthly plain.

The Gita (18-61) says, ‘Arjuna! The Lord lives in the hearts of all creatures, making them move about machine like Maya.

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Kural 11

By the continuance of rain the world is preserved in existence; it is therefore worthy to be called ambrosia.

The Bhagavad Gita (3-14) furnishes a parallel: Man depends for his existence on food, and the source of foodstuff is rain.

 

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Kural 24

He who controls his five senses by his will

gains heavenly bliss

The Gita furnishes a parallel (2-61): Having restrained the five senses and brought them under control and having fixed one’s mind on me, one attains the divine knowledge.

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Kural 34

To be of pure, spotless mind is real virtue; all else is of no avail.

The Gita (16-1) has the following: Fearlessness, spotless purity, stability of knowledge and yoga gift, peace of mind, sacrifice and learning constitute real tapas/penance.

 

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Kural 41

The men of household virtue, firm in way of good, sustain

The other orders three that rule professes maintain

The Manu Dharma Shastra says: As the members of the three asrmas are maintained by one householder everyday by Janna and food, the asrama of the householder is said to be the best. Manu 3-78 and 6-89.

 

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Kural 43

 

The paramount duty of a house holder is to cherish daily the manes, God, guests, kindred, self.

In the Manusmrti (3-72), ‘he who does not cherish the God, guests, servants, manes and self, is dead  though he physically  lives.

 

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Kural 51

A wife of excellent virtues who is capable managing the household within the means of her husband is a real household help in home life.

 

The Dharmashastra has the following idea: A wife should always be joyous, skilled in domestic duties, helpful and economic in expenditure.

 

to be continued…………………