Post No. 10,603

Date uploaded in London – –    27 JANUARY   2022         

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.,

This is the second part of my article ‘Were Greeks Asuras? Strange information in Upanishad’ posted yesterday.

Hindus were great civil engineers long before any other civilization in the world. This is proved by continuous references to architectural matters in our literature. In Ramayana we come across building a bridge over sea. In addition, we hear about the spatial palace of Ravana.

In Mahabharata , we hear about the Wax Palace (House of Wax- Lakshagriha= House of Lacquer) with tunnels. But the description in the Sabha Parva about the palace built by Maya Danava at Indraprstha is extraordinary. What period was it? 3000 years ago or 5000 years ago? Or is it just later interpolation?

If one puts all the building references from Hindu scriptures in chronological order, we know that it is not an interpolation.

Rig Veda has references to 1000 Pillar Hall. But they did it with wood not stone. 2700 years ago, Panini wrote Ashtadhyayi, first grammar book in the world. Interpreting on some Sutras( pithy rules) later commentators add owl shaped buildings, eagle shaped buildings etc. (Please see the links below)

Later we come across in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature that Mauryans laid road route in mountainous area to come to South India. That should have happened during Maurya Chandra Gupta time (3rd century BCE).

Before that, Agastya laid a road route though the Vindhya Hills to South India. The Puranas describe it Agastya subduing the arrogance of Vindhyas.

We also saw two great River diversions in the stories of Bhageeratha and Agastya. Bhageeratha diverted River Ganges and Agastya diverted River Kaveri. Greatest engineering feats in the ancient world.

If we arrange all the great engineering feats then we know that the description of a Glassy / Crystal Palace in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata is neither imaginary nor a later day interpolation.

Danavas/Asuras/Daityas is the community who specialised in this area. They were part of Hindu society according to our scriptures. It looks like they lived in the heart of Uttar Pradesh during Mahabharata time.

Two important words in the World Dictionary entered because of them

Maya- Mayan- Great builders of South and Central America came from the building community whose chief was Maya. He was the one who built the most famous building in the epic. Immediately Dhritarashtra also wanted one such building with 1000 Pillars. The 1000 pillar halls in many Tamil Nadu and Andhra temples today are engineering wonders of the world. This is also in the Rig Veda; but in those days it was constructed with wood; during Nayak period they did it with stone.

The second word the world dictionary got is Gondwana Land. It is a geological term now. Actually, it was Khandava Vana land. (Khandavavana= Gondwana)

The burning of Khandava Vana near Delhi was a historical event. That lead to a big clash between the Kuru Dynasty and the Nagas who were living in the forest. Maya who was also living in the Khandava forest was rescued by Arjuna and Krishna. Here is the discussion they had after the Forest burning incident.

Mahabharata Palace

We come across thousand pillared buildings in the Rigveda, in the second book of which we read,

“Those two kings…..take their seat in the supremest house , the thousand pillared, firmly based.” R V 2-41-5; 5-62-6.

In another place we read of Varuna’s house with 1000 pillars: RV 7-88-5

In a third place we have a reference to a hundred stone built towns RV 4-30-20

This reference is very important, as showing stone built towns were known even in the Rigveda times. .


In the Apastamba Sutra 2-10-25

The king is directed to build a Royal Town and a palace House for himself, so that the palace shall stand in the heart of the town and in front of it, there shall be a hall, called the Hall of Invitation.

In chapter 228 of Adiparva of Mahabharata, called Maya darshana parva, we are told while Khandava forest was being burnt an Asura, by name Maya came out of the dwelling of Takshaka and begged Arjuna to protect him.

The words in the epic,

Then Madhusudana Krishna saw an Asura named Maya, running away from the dwelling of Takshaka. Then fire, with wind for its charioteer, wanted to burn him. So he assumed a body and putting on matted hair he thundered like a cloud. Knowing that he was Maya, who was the best of chief Dana and the best of Architects. Vasudeva stood with a chaktra lifted up.

Arjuna saved him.

Maya tells Arjuna,

I am the all doer, a great sage of the Danavas. O Pandava, I desire to do something for you

Aham hi visvakarma vai danavanam mahakavihi

Soaham vai tvatkrute kartum kinchit ichhami

Then Arjuna answers

O Danava I do not want to frustrate your intentions; do something for Krishna, so that I shall myself requited.

Krishna says to Maya,

O Best of Architects, if you desire to do me a good turn, O then, Daitya build such a hall for Yudhisthira that no one in the whole world will be able to imitate it.

Then Maya who was pleased accepted his word and made Pandavas beautiful hall of the form of a balloon.

In Vasa’s words

Pratigruhya tu tatvakyam samprahrusto mayasthatha

Vimanaprathimam chakre pandavasya Subham sabham

Then Maya began to build the palace hall.

According to the intention of the Pandavas and the high minded Krishna, the illustrious did auspicious acts. Then having satisfied thousands of Brahmins with sweet drinks and giving them various kinds of wealth , that strong one measured the ground, 10000 arms square , which was beautiful, heaven like, full of merits in all seasons.

Further up we are told that the throne hall was built in 14 months.


Katha Sarit Sagara,a later work by Somadeva of 12th century, described Maya as a devotee of Lord Shiva. Rishi Kasyapa blessed him with some boons.

Passages quoted by Curtius and Strabo from Megasthanes show big buildings, pavilions,gardens, palaces belonging to the court of Chandtagupta in Pataliputra.

In Mahabharata there is a beautiful description of Indraprastha, city of the Pandavas,

It was adorned with a ditch as deep as the sea, and was surrounded by a rampart wall, which reached the skies. It shone with doors as be

as the wings of Garuda bird and with tall houses. it was closed by gates which reached the sky and resembled Mandara mountain. It was shining with several white mansions. It resembled heaven and called Indraprastha.

There all architects came to reside. On all sides of the town there were delightful gardens. It shone with houses as pure as looking glasses, with vine pavilions of various kinds, with picture houses and artificial mounds. Beautiful lotus ponds of various kinds, covered over with lotuses were there. And also many large and delightful lakes.

All of us know how Duryodana and his brothers visited the palace and mistook glassy floors for water ponds and water ponds for glassy floors. When they fell in one of the ponds Pandva brothers except Yuthisthira laughed. Whether Draupadi was there and laughed or not is still debated.

In the Sabha parva, 49th chapter ,we read

Dhriarashtra says,

Let architects quickly build for me a large, pretty and beautiful hall with one thousand pillars and one hundred doors. Another passage adds

With pictures of gold and lapis lazuli, with crystal festoons.

We can imagine Indraprastha and Hastinapura were with thousands of Taj Mahal like buildings. I

LINKS TO MY OLD ARTICLES (If the links dont work please go to and try or Copy and paste it in google)

Vedic Origin of Thousand Pillar Halls in Indian and Mayan … › 2014/07/05 › vedic-origin-…

5 Jul 2014 — One of the architectural wonders of the world is Thousand Pillar Mandap (hall) in South Indian Temples. It originated in the Rig Vedic …

Mayas and Tamils › tag › mayas-and-tamils

28 Apr 2012 — Posts about Mayas and Tamils written by Tamil and Vedas. … 1000 pillar mandap is mentioned in Vedas and it is found in Madurai and other …

BEAUTIFUL SRIMUSHNAM TEMPLE (Post No.4844) – Tamil … › 2018/03/23 › beautiful-sri…

23 Mar 2018 — … Tiruvannamalai, we have 1000 pillar Mandap/hall here. … 16 pillar mandap; here we have one Purushasukta mandap where Vedic recitation …

NAZCA LINES- Part 1 (Post No.8847) | Tamil and Vedas › 2020/10/23 › hindus-solve…

23 Oct 2020 — WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN Post No. 8847 Date uploaded in London – –23 OCTOBER 2020 Contact – Pictures are taken from …

NAZCA | Tamil and Vedas › tag › nazca

24 Oct 2020 — That is a few hundred years before the date of Nazca lines and figures. So now the mystery is solved. Like the army engineers and …

Peru | Tamil and Vedas › tag › peru

24 Oct 2020 — Now I will explain that and add more points from Paninian grammar and Hindu Salagrama worship in South America. When we look at these together …

Vedic Origin of Thousand Pillar Halls in Indian and Mayan … › 2014/07/05 › vedic-origin-…

5 Jul 2014 — One of the architectural wonders of the world is Thousand Pillar Mandap (hall) in South Indian Temples. It originated in the Rig Vedic …

Mayas and Tamils › tag › mayas-and-tamils

28 Apr 2012 — Posts about Mayas and Tamils written by Tamil and Vedas. … 1000 pillar mandap is mentioned in Vedas and it is found in Madurai and other …

BEAUTIFUL SRIMUSHNAM TEMPLE (Post No.4844) – Tamil … › 2018/03/23 › beautiful-sri…

23 Mar 2018 — … Tiruvannamalai, we have 1000 pillar Mandap/hall here. … 16 pillar mandap; here we have one Purushasukta mandap where Vedic recitation …

NAZCA LINES- Part 1 (Post No.8847) | Tamil and Vedas › 2020/10/23 › hindus-solve…

23 Oct 2020 — WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN Post No. 8847 Date uploaded in London – –23 OCTOBER 2020 Contact – Pictures are taken from …

NAZCA | Tamil and Vedas › tag › nazca

24 Oct 2020 — That is a few hundred years before the date of Nazca lines and figures. So now the mystery is solved. Like the army engineers and …

Peru | Tamil and Vedas › tag › peru

24 Oct 2020 — Now I will explain that and add more points from Paninian grammar and Hindu Salagrama worship in South America. When we look at these together …


Tags- 1000 pillar Hall, Palaces, Mahabharata, architecture, Vedic, Halls



Post No. 8850

Date uploaded in London – –24 OCTOBER 2020   

Contact –

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge;

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.,

In the first part of the article posted yesterday we saw the mystery behind Nazca figures and lines. The latest discovery of a huge cat figure last week added one more thing to the mystery. I wrote that there is only one precedence to such huge figures and that is in the oldest and longest epic in the world- Hindu’s Mahabharata. Now I will explain that and add more points from Paninian grammar and Hindu Salagrama worship in South America. When we look at these together with the Mayan civilization’s Hindu connection, we can see the whole of South America and Central America was civilized by the Hindus thousand years before Christopher Columbus. Despite Christian destruction, still we get more and more proofs from dense forests and rom below the earth. (Please read my articles on Mayan civilization – Hindu Naga connection written by me several years ago in this blog).

The strangest and biggest proof comes from Paninian grammar, which itself is a literary wonder . Katyayana’s Vartika on it says that there were owl shaped buildings and owl shaped army formations. When Katyayana commented on Panini’s sutra 4-1-55, he added some examples such as

Uluuka pakshi saalaa- a building constructed in the shape of an owl

Uluuka puchi sena – army formation in the shape of owl tail.

Here I would like to point out a few more interesting facts. Owl is derived from uluka in Sanskrit; budgie is derived from pakshi/bird in Sanskrit.

More interesting coincidence is here Katyayana speaks about Visha puchi – scorpion with poisonous tail. And in South America we have Machu pichu- fish tail. The most famous archaeological site in Peru. We have same Machu pichu in the Himalayas as well . Correct spelling is Matsya Pucha- Fish tail.

So the Sanskrit connection is seen in Matsya Pucha/ Machu pichu in Peru.

In the first part I mentioned the god of the Incas of Peru is Viracocha. Actually he has several titles but the Spaniards gave us only one name.


Viracocha is called

‘Ilya Tiqsi Wiraquoca  Pacaya caciq’ which means

‘Ancient Foundation, Lord, Teacher of the World’.

He was the supreme Creator Deity of the Incas Actually all these titles go with Lord Vishnu, Brahma and Siva, Hindu Trinity. Incas also has the flood story and creation of human beings from clay. We see such stories in Hindu Puranas.

Vyuhas in Mahabharata

There are at least 18 types of Vyuhas in Mahabharata. To form such huge army formations in bird shapes, geometrical shapes, you need a blueprint/drawing with mathematical precision. Then you execute it in mega scale. Katyayana also speaks of Owl Shaped buildings and army formations that existed before 2400 years ago. That is a few hundred years before the date of Nazca lines and figures. So now the mystery is solved. Like the army engineers and mathematicians of Mahabharata period, Nazca architects or civil engineers did a blueprint/drawing on paper and then made it bigger. They don’t need to fly high at every point to construct such figures.

In short, we may even say that they learnt it from us. Or our people went there and taught them. To support it, I have more evidence from their Saligrama (Fossils with Vishnu’s Chakra figures) worship. Before that let us look at the shapes of Vyuahas/army formations in Mahabharata War:-

Army Formations in Mahabharata

The Mahabharata lists the following 18 battle formations or Vyuhas:

  1. Krauncha vyuha (Heron formation)
  2. Makara vyuha (Crocodile formation)
  3. Kurma vyuha (Tortoise or Turtle formation)
  4. Trishula vyuha (Trident formation)
  5. Chakra vyuha (Wheel or Discus formation)
  6. Kamala vyuha or Padma vyuha (Lotus formation)
  7. Garud vyuha (Eagle formation)
  8. Oormi vyuha (Ocean formation)
  9. Mandala vyuha (Galaxy formation)
  10. Vajra vyuha (Diamond or Thunderbolt formation)
  11. Shakata vyuha (Box or Cart formation)
  12. Asura vyuha (Demon formation)
  13. Deva vyuha (Divine formation)
  14. Soochi vyuha (Needle formation)
  15. Sringataka vyuha (Horned formation)
  16. Chandrakala vyuha (Crescent or Curved Blade formation)
  17. Mala vyuha (Garland formation)

Please go to for pictures and day to day strategic formations in 18 day war.

My research shows that there were more strategic formations; I have already shown the owl shaped strategic formation from 2400 year old Vartika of Katyayana.

Saligrama – Bana linga Worship

Hindus worship different shaped stones in their Panchayana Puja. In many houses they have Saligrma in their Puja rooms. According to geologists they are ammonite fossils, millions of years old, with different shapes of marine animals. Incas and Tibetan Lamas also worshipped such stones. From Kanyakumari to Amarnath Ice Cave and Kailash in China we see linga shape worshipped for thousands of years. Siva Linga, mostly made up of stone, is the worship of God without form. That is the meaning of round shaped stones.

Nazca people called them Wakas.

Tibetans worshipped smooth black jet stones as Karmapas. We can see many stone piles in the Himalayas even today. Banalinga , Salagrama, crystals are worshipped in orthodox Hindus house even today. In Nazca culture they called them  Wakas. But that is not the only name; they have three different piles of stones . We may not have the same sound as we have in Sanskrit today in their Quecha and Aymara languages. They called them Quontu, Tiyano (Dhyana in Ssnskrit), altipano.

When the villager explained it as the’ place to sit and think’, we understand he meant Dhyana/meditation.

They called the malevolent spirits in mountains as Acasila; achala in Sanskrit means mountain as in Himachala, Venkatachala, Vindhyachala etc.

Household gods were called Conopas (like Sanskrit Ganas or Ganapathy)

One has to study the words in their contexts. We should not just look in dictionary and see the similarities in sound and meaning. When we study them in their contexts, we get full meaning.

My 25 year study

I bought a book on Nazca Lines on 31-3-1994 in a London shop and started marking the similarities when I read other books . Following are my remarks:-

Varuna’s vahana

Varuna ‘s vehicle is a dolphin or fish; we see it among 300 figures in Peru .

Varuna is said to travel on white Makara in the Vedas. It may be a white whale like we see in Moby Dick or a dolphin.

The 140 feet long spider drawing on the Pampa de San Jose is seen on Mycenae pots as well. In fact, lot of similarities are found in Mycenean and Nazca figures, particularly on pots.

Spirals and animals are characteristic deigns of the early phases of Nazca style pottery. More than a hundred spiral patterns are found on potteries.


The long lines are called ceques- pronounced as sikh-is. The holy stones called wakas were placed on those lines in an order. Those places were like holy stopping places, to be venerated by all. Hindus also follow an order when they do Parikrama/going round places in a circular route. In Kurukshetra 48  holy places have to be covered. In Kanyakumari district and other places they cover 12 towns running from one place to another within 24 hours. Probably Nazca people also did such Parikramas/Visiting places in a circle. Traditionally Hindus do Rameswaram to Kasi trip in an order.


Pampa in India and South America

Pampa is a word common in all Indian languages. It refers to rivers in South and North India. And in Tamil it is used for vast dry land. Probably that is the sense in which Incas used the word. Pampa means flat space in their language.


Capuchin monkey figures are seen in Nazca culture; capi/ kapi is a Sanskrit word for monkey.

Christian Atrocities

Christian preachers destroyed most of the old-world artefacts and holy objects. But they have some drawings or descriptions of the things they destroyed or melted if it is made up of gold.

In the early seventeenth  century  the Spanish church in Peru instructed its priests to destroy any symbol of ancient religion, especially the wakas or sacred shrines.

One account from the time of the Viceroy Montesclaros says that 600 idols from Huarochiri were burned in Lima’s public square and an Indian idolater was flogged in viceroy’s presence.

In the years 1617 and 1618, idols and witch hunts were legion. Records show that in one coastal area alone 6000 people confessed to idolatry, 679 sorcerers were discovered and 603 principal wakas were removed with 3418 Conopas.

Conopas are small pebble like things like Banalingas, salagramas of Hindus, worshipped inside the houses.

At the same time Christian priests confiscated 617 mummies as evidence of ancestor worship. All over Peru , the Spanish clergy arrested the native worshippers. Those who refused to become Christians were killed or punished severely. This is from one single report. We have hundreds of reports like this. In short, they destroyed every bit of Nazca culture. South Americans were all called Indians because of their appearance and their idol worship.

A lot of scope is there to compare the Hindu- South American link. Most of the facts are in Spanish and Portuguese books. Some objects and drawings are still available.


Thousands of years before Nazca culture Hindus also formed huge animal figure shaped formation in battle fields; they built animal shaped buildings. The yaga kundas (Fire Altars)  were constructed with 10,800 bricks in eagle shapes in Vedic periods. Saligrama, Banalinga worship of South Americans also is also another proof for Hindu connection. Above all Sanskrit words are seen in South American languages in corrupted forms.




Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 8 JANUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London-11-08 AM


Post No. 4595

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.


1.We all know that Vyasa muni wrote Mahabharata with the help of Lord Ganesh. What is the full name of Vyasa?

2.Ashtavakra was the Rishi (seer) who was born with eight bends in his body because of the bad sound effect; his father recited the Vedas with mistakes; who told this story to Yudhisthira?

3.Who was the rishi that visited the Pandavas in the Dwaitya forest and advised them to surround themselves with Brahmanas?

  1. What is Dronacharya’s father’s name?

5.Which Muni (saint) gave Dronacharya the Agni Astra (fire weapon)?


6.Who was the one who told Yudhisthira the story of Nala and Damyanti in the forest?

7.Who was the chief priest of Pandavas who advised them on religious ceremonies?

8.What is the name of the Rishi who gave boons to Kunti for serving him?

9.Name the rishi learned in astrology and astronomy who visited Balarama during the Mahabharata war.

10.Name the Inter Galactic traveller (rishi) who advised Dhritarashtra  to keep Duryodhana in check.

11.Parikshit, posthumous son of Abimanyu, was cursed by whom for throwing a dead snake on a seer?

Kalakshetra Picture




12.Who was Shrungi’s father on whose neck the dead snake fell?

  1. Who taught Sanatsujatiyam to Dhritarashtra to come out of ignorance or wordly attachment?




14.Who performed the Pattabisheka (coronation ceremony) of Lord Rama?


15.where did Sita Devi live when Lakshmana left her in the forest?

16.Who taught Rama the famous Surya Hymn Aditya Hrudaya ?

  1. When young who gave the miraculous Bala, Abala mantras to Rama Lakshmana?

18.Who did Putra Kameshiti Yajna for Dasaratha?

19.Rama met a seer before going to the Ashrama of Agastya. He Gave all his taposakti (austerity earned by doing penance). Who was he?

20.Who was the Guru of Janaka?

21.Who was the seer who turned down the invitation of Indra and entered fire after worshipping Rama?

22.Who gave a big feast to the army of Bharata by his power earned through penance?

23.Anasuya gave lot of jewels to Sita/ Who was her husband?

24.Rama’stouch turned Ahalya into a woman from stone. What is the name of Ahalya’s husband?

25.Who wrote Ramayana in Sanskrit?



1.Krsihna Dwaipayana, 2. Lomana rishi, 3. Bakadalbhya, 4. Bharadwaja, 5 Agnivesha Muni, 6. Brihadashwa, 7.Dhaumya Rishi, 8. Durvasa, 9. Gargacharya, 10. Narada 11.Shrungi, 12. Shamika, 13. Sanatsujata, 14.Vasishtha, 15.Valmiki’s Ashram/hermitatge, 16. Agastya, 17.Viswamitra 18.Rishya shrnga 19. Sutikshna, 20.Sadananda 21.Sarabhanga, 22.Bharadwaja,  23.Atri,  24. Gautama and 25. Valmiki






Interesting Geographical Details in the Mahabharata-4 (Post No.4203)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 11 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 14-48


Post No. 4203


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



(This is the fourth and the last part)



My comments: The geographical details in the MBH gives lot of scope for research; it is amazing that Vyasa or his disciples have accumulated so much information in an epic. Modern approach will give a better picture. We can divide them into different categories such as 100% sure, 755 certain etc.

Janapadas of the East

1.ANDHAKA: Mathura area

2.ANGA: area between Videha and Magadha;modern Bihar

3.ANTARGIYA: Badri-Kedara region

4.ATREYA: Garwala region

5.BHADRA:Bhadranagara of Rajasthan

6.BHARGA: State of Vatsas; between Vaisali and Sravasti

7.BHARGAVA: West of Assam

8.GAYA: modern Bihar

9.KALAKUUTA:Kulinda region

10.KASI:Region between rivers Ganga and Gomati

11.KIRATA:Ladakh area

12.KUNTI: Gwalior area

13.KURU:Meerut area

14.KOSALA: Sarayu river area.

15.MATSYA:Bharatapura, Jaipura area

16.MALLA:Deoria district of UP

17.MAGADHA: Patna area; Bihar

18.MALADA: Malda of West Bengal

19.MAADHYAMIKA: Nagari area of Chittoor

20.MANAVARJAKA:Vardhamana in West Bengal

21.NAIMISA: Sitapura of UP

22.PATACCARA: Pataidi near Gugaon

23.PRAYAGA: Allahabad, Triveni Sangam


25.PRAGJYOTISA: Gauhati in Assam area

26.PUNDRA: Rangpur, Rajasahi, Bogra in Bangladesh

27.STRI RAJYA: Western tip of the Buddhist Majjimadesa

28.SUHMA:Tamralipti and Medhinipura of Bangladesh

29.SASAKA: Murshidabad of West Bengla

30.Surasena: area around Mathura

31.TAMRALIPTA:Midnapur District of West Bengal

32.VANGA:Dacca and Mymensingh of Bangladesh

33.VATSA: Allahabad area

34.VAHIGIRYA:Mussori, Nainital areas

35.VIDEHA: Mithila area of Bihar





1.APRAANTA:also Kuttapraanta Kalyana, Supara districts

2.ARBUDA: Abu mountain area

3.AANARTA:  Southern part of Ahmedabad, Baroda

4.AABHIRA: Ophir of the Bible; Averia of the Greeks;Sindhu delta

5.AARATTA: pancanada state

6.KAAKSA: Inner Narmada area; Bharukacca port

7.KUKKURA: western Vindhyas

8.KONKANA: Ratnagiri district

9.KOLVAGIRYA: Colaba area of Mumbai

10.KSUDRAKA:Montgomery area


11.GOPARAASTRA: area around Nasik

12.JANGALA: Bikaneer area

13.TUNDIKERA: Chindwada area of MP

14.TUMBUMA: Guna District of MP

15.DVAIPEYA: Island Diu

16.NAVARAASTRA: Maharashtra state

17.BRGHU: around ancient AAnarta

18.MARU BHUMI: Desert area of Jodhpur

19.MAAHEYA: river Mahi basin

20.SUUDRA: identified with State Abhira

21.LAATA: modern Gujarat

22.VITIHOTRA:  south of Avanti

23.SURASSTRA: Kathiawad region

24.SAMUPTA NIKUTA: island area of Kathiawada

25.SAARASWATA: river Saraswati basin, west of Ahmedabad

26.SINDHU: river Indus area

27.SAUVIRA modern Rodj in Pakistan




Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 10 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 10-41 am


Post No. 4199


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.






The countries of the Vindhya mountain region along with the south, south east and south west have been dealt in this chapter. The peculiar point is that Lanka has not been mentioned anywhere. It means the city of Lanka was submerged long before. But Simhala (Ceylon or Sri Lanka) is mentioned.


The second unique description is the knowledge of the western horizon up to the northern Atlanti ocean, Roma, Antioch and Yavananampuri according to Pande Syam Narayan, the author of the book


1.ANUPA: Nimar district; on the northern bank of Narmada; also known as Haihai country.


2.AVANTI: Malwa region; capital Ujjaini; Panini called it Ujna.


3.ASMAKA: District of Ahmednagar and Bodhan are of Andhrapradesh; capital Prathistanapura; Asmaka, son of Kalmasavad founded the city of Paudanya.

4.ANDHRA: Aitareya Brahmana refers to it; region between the mouths of Godavari and Krsna rivers.

5.BALIRASTRA: MBG mentioned only four countries with RASHTRA ending:Aadirashtra, Pamsurashtra, Goparashtra and Balirashtra.It is Bali island of Indonesia. Mahabharata mentioned that Rama spent ten years in this area.

6.BHOJA: modern Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh; Aitareya Brahmana mentioned title of Bhoja of the monarchs of the south.

7.COLA: districts of Thanjavur and Trichy; There was a king named Sagraaha Cola whose capital was Kanchi.


8.CUCUKA: Cecu near Hyderabad in Andhra.

9.DASAARNA: erastern part of Malwa country; capital- Vidhisa.


10.DANDAKA: East of Nasik up to Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra.Rama spent ten years here.


11.DRAVIDA: Sahadeva conquered this country according to MBH. region from Madras upto Rangapattam

and the peninsula of Kumari; another opinion country north of Kaveri up to Ailamalaya and Nilgris.

12.DEVAPRASTHA: region between Amarakantaka and Kanchipura

13.GANDAKA: Ahemedabadregion

14.HAIHAI: modern NIMADA; northern banks of Narmada

15.KARNATAKA:modern Karnataka

16.KAARUUSA: modern Baghelakand area

17.KUNTALA: Solapura and Bijapura area in river Bhima basin


18 and 19. KUMAARA and KUMAARIKAA: towards Kumari peninsula


20.KERALA: modern Kerala

21.MAHISAKA: modern Bellari, Citradurga and Shimoga;

22.MAALAVA:Nakula conquered the country during his dikvijay towards west.Greeks refereed to them Maloi; they lived on the baks of Ravi 2400 years ago.

23.MEKALA: region stretching from Riva to Khairagarha from where the rivers Narmada and Sona originate.

24MUSAKA: also known as Suutika and Musika. near Hyderabad on the river Musi.

25.NISHADA: modern Gwalior region

26.NALAKAANANA: Bellari-Anantpur regions

27.PANDYA: Ramnad, Madurai, Tirunelveli areas Sahadeva conquered it. There were Agastya and Kumari pilgrimages.

28.RSIKA: Khanadesa of Madhya Pradesh

29.SIMHALA: modern Sri Lanka

30.SABARA: Ganjam and Vizagapatnam districts on river Sabari.

31.TALAJANGHA: north of Narmada near Haihai country. Haihai wre divided into five groups: Talajangha,Tundikera,Vitihotras, Bhojas, Avantis

32.TALAKATA: western side of river Ganga

33.UDRA: modern Odisah(Orissa); Utkala, Kalinga

34.VANAVASAKA: modern Vanvasi; Kannada and Karwar areas on river Tungabadra

35.VIDARBHA: garuda, Vaidharna; region near origin of the tributaries of Godavari, tapti, Penganga; modern Vidharba

36.VINDHYA VIPULA: southern foothills of Vindhya- Satpura mountains; inhabitants were called Vindhya culika or culaka or muuliiya.


to be continued………………………….


Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 9 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 11-54 am


Post No. 4196


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.






A verse quoted by Nagesa provided a clue for dividing the northern region from that of the eastern. The river Sarasvati is said to be the dividing line in that verse. Amarakosa has also given such direction. It included Kamboja North eastern Punjab the mountainous union or Parvatiya sang indicated by Panini. MBH describes them as Parvatiya (mountainous), Girigahvaravaasi (those living in the caves of the mountains). The following 62 janapadas have been identified in the group:

ABHISARA: south of Kasmira the PunchaRajanr; Greeks called the north western districts of Peshwar – abisaris

AMBASTA: Lower parts of the Chenab river; Panini mentioned Ambasta and AAmbasta; it corresponds with the Greek—Sambastai and Avastanoi

AAHUKA: Kabul basin in Afghanistan

AUDUMBURA: federal state of Udumbura

BARBARA:situated in Oxus valley; Panini named a pot named Barbarika near Karachi in Pakistan

BODHA:they are identified with Yaudheyas; Bayaanaa and Johiaakara region of Bharatapura


BHARADWAJA:Western part of Assam

CARMAMANDALA: may be Samarakhandika

CINA: Modern Sinkiang or Chiense Turkestan

DARADI: Dardistan area of Giljit

DAARVA: Daggar Jammu area

DASAMAALIKAA: area between River Jhelam and Bias (Vyas)

also Dasanaamika; Girivraja capital

DASERAKA:Marwara region of Rajasthan

GRAMANIIYAKA:Panini also mentioned them; they are militant. Cave dwellers organised under leader GRAMANI.

GANDHARA: It has been famous from Vedic days; region stretching from Taxila to River Kabul; modern Khandahar in Afghanistan; Pushkalavati Takshsheelam capitals


GIRIGAHVARAVAASINAH: militant race organised under Gramani. also known as Gauri. they are called Parvatiya (mountainous)

17.HAMSAMARGA: name of the Hunja region. janapada of the Parvatiya sanga ( unio of mountainous group)


18.HARAHUNA: Harmurtika, land of black grapes; janapada in Herat.

19.HAIMAVATAH: living in the Himalays; north of Sikkim

20.HUNA:the race shifted to one place to another.Kalidasa points them towards Persia; lived near Oxus and its tributaries


21.JAGUDA: Gazni area of Afghanistan

  1. KAMBOJA:Pamir region; they say sa va to go according to Mhabhasya;its used in Galcha dialect; Dwaraka capita. some identifies with Kashmir.
  2. KASMIRA: Sarada country; blessed by Goddess of learning city-Adhistana; present Kashmir.

24.KALATOYAKA- near Suleman hills

25.KEKAYA: associated with the country of Dasamalika; Ramayana locates it near Ghandhara

26.KHASA:Baltistan; mid-oxus

27.KULINDA:region in the Himalayas

28.KULUUTA: Bhima killed Ksemamuurti, King of Kuluutas; ii is in modern Kulu

29.KURUJANGALA: region between river Sarasvati and Ganga; Haryana

30.LOHITA: Rohela of Afghhanistan

31.LAMPAKA:North of Kabul Laghamanas attacked Satyaki in the Jarasadha Vadha; alinagar valley

32.MADRAKA: capital- sakala; modern Sialkot; associated with princess Savitri and Vedic teacher Sakalya

33.MADREYA:Madri is from this country; same as madraka; janapadas of noth Punjab

34.MAULEYA: modern Malwa region

35.PRASTHALA: near Patiala

36.PANCABHEDA: five rivers=Punjab

37.PAHLAVA: who came from the tail of Vasistha’scow; Parthian’s of Iran; samarkhand to Iran

38.PARATAKA:Hingula region of Pakistan


40.PISACA: neighbours of Lampaka janapada; Pasai Kafirs were the inhabitants

41.PULINDA: Panini called them SAALVAAVAYANA. part of salva janapada

42.RAMATHA: near Ghazni in Afghanistan

43.SUKUTTA: Suket estate

44.SAIRANDHRA: Sirhind region

45.SAKA: Modern Seistan in Iran

46.SAAKALA: modern Sialkot; Panini referred to it.

47.SAATVAKA: Mandi on the northern bank of Sutlej

48.SALVA:Panini mentioned threeSaalva, Saalveya and Saalvaavayana. Near Matsyas

49.SIVI:Rik Veda mentioned them; country ath the confluence of Jhelam and Sindhu in Pakistan.

50.TANGADA PARATANGANA: country of Mleccas; Bhota country;Kullu Kangda region; mountainous

51.TRGARTA: Panini mentioned people of this country lived on arms. There was a union of six countries in Trgarta: Kaundiparatha, Dandika, Krautsika, Jaalamani, Brahmagupta and Jaanika

52.TUSAARA:Tokharistan (former USSR) They were present at Rajasuya Yajna of Yudhidthira

53.TOMARA:Tibetan region near Bhutan

54.UTSAVASANKETA: Ramapura, Basahara region of valley of Satluj

55.URAGA:Hazara district; between the Rivers Sindhu and Jhelum

56.VANAYU: Wana valley of Waziristan in Pakistan

57.VAATADHAANA: region east of Pancanada between Rivers Satluj and Ravi

58.VAAHLIKA: Balkh; Bactria of the Greeks; Skanda Purana mentioned this country out of 72 regions including 400,000 villages.

59.VAHIKA: according to Panini it is a synonym of Usinara; durin Panini’s times whole of Punjab was called Vahika.

60.VAIYAMAKA:identified near DARADI

61.YAVANA: The Greeks were called Yavanas with yellow coloured bodies; part of Jambudwipa; north west India

62.YUGANDHARA:Yugasila country near Dehradun of UP on the bank of River Yamuna


In the third and  part we will look at southern regions.

………………….to be continued


ABOUT SIN: from Tamil and Sanskrit Literature! (Post No.3653)

Picture of Hell with sinners


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 20 FEBRUARY 2017

Time uploaded in London:- 11-05 am

Post No. 3653

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



A sin committed does not, like a cow, bear fruit soon; one sees it sons and grandsons, it not in oneself; a sin necessarily bears consequences like a heavy (indigestible) meal in the belly –Mahabharata 1-75-2

naa dharmas carito raajan sadyah phalati gaur iva

putresu vaa naptrsu vaa n aced aatmani pasyati

phalaty eva dhruvam paapam gurubhuktam ivo dare

-Mbh 1-75-2


Tamil Veda Tirukkural on Sin


There may be forgiveness for any sin but not for ingratitude (Tirukkural 110)


For those who harmed the cows, who did abortions, who harmed Brahmins, there is atonement; but for those who have been ungrateful, there is no atonement- Alathur Kizar in Purnanauru verse 34


Harming Brahmins is a sin: Puram34, 43



Deeds forbidden by the wise – who dare to do them? –even if they succeed, suffer grief and troubles (Tirukkural 658)


Though he sees his mother starving, let him not do those actions which are condemned by the wise (Tirukkural 656)


Never do a wrong for which you repent afterwards. Once done repeat it not (Tirukkural 655)


All profits, that make others weep, depart with tears. Even if lost, blessings flow from good deeds(Tirukkural 659)


Even in adversity, men gifted with an unfaltering vision, never do actions that are disgraceful (Tirukkural 654)


Picture 2 of Hell


Manu on Sins


Five Great Sins/ Pancha mahaapaataka


Killing of Brahmana- Brahmahatya

Consuming liquor- suraapaanam

Stealing- Steyam

Misbehaving with teacher’s wife- Gurvanga naagamah

Having association with the above – Samsargi


Brahmahatyaa suraapaanamsteyam gurvanganaagamah

Mahanti paatakaanyaahustasamsargi cha panchamah

–Manu smrti 11-54


If one mainly practises virtue [punya] and to a lesser extent vice [påpa], one obtains bliss in a heavenly realm, clothed with those very elements. 12:20.


But if one primarily practices vice and less virtue, one suffers, deserted by the elements, the torments inflicted by Yama. Having endured those torments of Yama, one again enters, free from taint, those very five elements, each in due proportion. 12:21-22.


He who has committed an offence and has repented, is freed from that offence, but he is purified only by [the resolution of] ceasing [to sin and thinking] ‘I will do so no more.’11:231.


He who, having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed, desires to be freed from [the blame of it, must not commit it a second time. 11:233.


Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death, one should always be good in thoughts, speech, and actions. 11:232.


The penances for transgressions [made public] have been thus declared according to the law; learn next the penances for secret [transgressions]. 11:248.


Sixteen suppressions of the breath [Prå±åyama] accompanied by [the recitation of] the Vyåhritis and of the syllable Om, purify, if they are repeated daily, after a month even the murderer of a learned priest. 11:249.


Even a drinker of [the spirituous liquor called] Sura becomes pure, if he mutters the hymn [seen] by Kutsa, ‘Removing by thy splendour our guilt, O Agni,’ &c., [that seen] by Vasishtha, ‘With their hymns the Vasishthas woke the Dawn,’ &c., the Mahitra [hymn] and [the verses called] Suddhavatis. 11:250.


Even he who has stolen gold, instantly becomes free from guilt, if he once mutters [the hymn beginning with the words] ‘The middlemost brother of this beautiful, ancient Hotri-priest’ and the Sivasaºkalpa sûkta. 11:251.


But if one fasts for three days, bathing thrice a day, and reciting [while standing in water] the Aghamarshana sûkta (Rig Veda10-190), is [likewise] freed from all offences causing loss of caste. 11:260. 5


Picture of Punyaloka/Heaven

Sin in Bhagavad Gita


What pleasure can be ours, O Krishna, after we have slain the sons of Dhritarashtra? Only SIN will accrue to us if we kill these malignant.

Alas, what a great SIN have resolved to commit in striving to slay our own people through our greed for the pleasures of the kingdom.1-36, 45


But if thou doest not this lawful battle, then thou wilt fail thy duty and glory and will incur SIN.

Treating alike pleasure and pain,gain and loss, victory and defeat, then get ready for battle. Thus thou shall not incur SIN. 2-33, 38

But by what is a man impelled to commit sin, as if by force, even against his will, O Krishna? 3-36

The All pervading Spirit does not take on the SIN or the merit of any. Wisdom is enveloped by ignorance; thereby creatures are bewildered. 5-15

But those men of virtuous deeds in whom SIN has come to an end, freed from the delusion of dulaities, worship Me steadfast in their vows. 7-28

The gateway of this hell leading to the ruin of the soul is threefold, lust, anger and greed. Therefore, these three one should abandon 16-21



Man is never punished FOR his sins but BY his sins. To dissipate our energies through the sense organs is the vulgar hobby of the thoughtless mortal.

–Swami Chinmayananda

Sin and mercury are hard to digest- Ramakrishna Paramahamsa




Five Karma Candaalaah


Five lowest category of people are:

Atheist – naastikah

Wicked -pisunah

Ungrateful- krtaghnah

Sinner- dirgha dosakah

By birth- janmatah

Naastikah pisunashchaiva krtaghno diirghadosakah

Chatwaarah karmachandaalaa janmataschaapi panchamah





You can tell Lies in Five Places:Mahabharata


Written  by London swaminathan

Post No.2257

Date: 19 October 2015

Time uploaded in London: 16-13

Thanks for the pictures.

Don’t use pictures. Don’t reblog for at least a week.


Earlier I wrote about the views of the greatest philosopher Adi Shnakara and the Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar on lying. Both Shankara and Valluvar allow us to tell lies under certain circumstances (See at the bottom of this article.)

Na narmayuktam vachanam hinasti na strishu raajan na vivaahakaale

Praanaatyayee sarvadhanaapahaare panchaanrutaanyaahurapaatakaani

–Mahabharata (Adi Parva) 82-16

It is said that if you tell lies under the following five circumstances, it is not considered a sin:

Strii: You can tell a lie to women

Narmayukti: As jokes

Vivaahakaala: During marriage (to bring a boy and a girl together)

Praanaatyaya: When your life is threatened

Dhanaapahaara: Loss of wealth.

Vyasa wrote Mahabharata in the beginning of Kaliyuga; he knew that lies can’t be avoided completely. But the end justifies the means. So if anything leads to a good end or a beneficial effect, then lying is justified.

Some simple examples:

A husband tells a small lie to his wife when he overpaid for the thing he got it for his wife such as flowers or sarees or gold ornaments. Men are not as shrewd as women in bargaining.

A lot of us crack jokes with children, women and friends and naturally we tell them lies to see the suspense or disappointment in their faces. We, in western countries, tell lot of lies to our children about Santa Claus bringing all the Christmas gifts through the chimney.

To bring a boy and girl together, a lot of lies are told. In Tamil there is a proverb that says ‘you can tell 1000 lies for a marriage to happen’. The boy is told that the girl looks like a film actress. When he sees her he realises that it is not true. Then all extra information is fed: though she is not that beautiful you will not get such a girl because she sings like koel (cuckoo) and cooks like Nala or Bhima (which is also not true). The girl is also told that the boy is like Manmatha (Cupid) and he earns a big fat salary, which may not be true.

To save one’s life, lying is allowed. If a robber is chasing a good man and he hides in our house, naturally we will tell him a lie to save the good man.

If someone tries to rob you off everything and your family will be ruined because of that, you can tell a lie to save whatever money you can save.


Following is my article posted in 2014

When can you tell a lie? Adi Shankara’s Advice

By London Swaminathan
Post No. 838 Date. 13-02-2014

Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar and India’s greatest philosopher Adi Shankara give us guidelines about lying. Both of them allow us to tell lies if they can bring immense good. We have some anecdotes in Mahabharata where in there was a dilemma to tell the truth or not.

We are taught by the Vedas ‘satyam vatha’=speak the truth. That is the first command. The emblem of Government of India and the Government of Tamil Nadu has the Upanishad dictate ‘Satyameve Jayate’= truth alone triumphs. There is no contradiction in it when we say we are allowed to tell lies for the good of the humanity. Bhagavad Gita and other Hindu scriptures lists Honesty and Truth as very important qualities.

Upanishads has a beautiful story about a boy named ‘Truth Seeker’ =Satyakaman. When he came to Gautama for learning the Vedas he asked his caste and clan. He said that his mother’s name was Jabala. He asked him to go back to his mum to find the name of his father. She plainly told him that she did not know it. He went straight to Gautama and told what his mum said to him. Immediately he accepted him as a student saying this was the quality of a Brahmana. The meaning is whoever speaks truth, he is a Brahmana.

In spite of these high moral standards, Shankara and Valluvar allow us to tell a lie if it can do some good. In Tamil, there is a proverb that ‘one can do a marriage by telling one thousand lies’. We can easily read between the lines. Uniting two people in marriage is a good thing. So ignore minor things. Very often they ask ‘Is the boy handsome? The answer we get is ‘Yes he is very handsome’ Is the girl beautiful? Yes the girl is very beautiful. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Beauty in body is different form beauty in behaviour. So what they say is true.

coin satya

Story of Kausika

Sometimes truth may be worse than a lie. There is a beautiful story in the greatest and the longest epic in the world Mahabaharata. Kaushika was a Brahmana who made a vow of always speaking the truth. One day robbers were chasing a group of travellers in the forest. When they passed by Kaushika, he also noticed them. The robbers came to Kaushika and asked him whether he had seen the travellers. He told them where the travellers were hiding. The robbers went there, tortured and robbed the travellers. Kaushika had to go to hell for speaking the truth.

That is why Valluvar puts a sub clause when he said ‘yes, lying is allowed’:
Even untruth might attain the value of truth, if it is productive of UNMIXED GOOD, without the least blemish (Tirukkural 392)

Valluvar probably knew the story of Kaushika in Mahabharata. So he makes it clear in one of the verses:
“If one’s speech does not wrong any living creature, while being factually correct, that is truthfulness (Kural 291)”


Shankara’s View

Adi Shankara in the Prasna Uttara Ratna Malika (Gem Garland of Questions and Answers) hymn says
There are 67 verses in question and answer format. In the 46th verse he puts one question ‘Who is not to be trusted?’ The answer is ‘one who as a rule utters lies’.
In the next verse (47), one of the questions is ‘on what occasions even a lie is sinless?’ ‘That which is uttered for the sake of protecting righteousness (Dharma)’.
One should not harm anyone while telling a truth and one can tell a lie if it can bring some good to someone.

Plato’s View

SM Diaz in his commentary on Tirukkural adds:
“The eminent Greek philosopher Plato, of a date prior to Thiruvalluvar , has discussed in his Republic, the concept of the Noble Lie, which statesmen may use under certain circumstances as an instrument of state-craft or education. G.C.Field who discusses this matter in his book entitled The Philosophy of Plato quotes as example, Mr Churchill’s ‘ terminological inexactitudes’, used during World War II, as a means of deceiving the enemy, in the national interest.”
“ In the Mahabharata, Dharmaputra’s true statement, drowned in noise and made to appear false, in order to produce a certain good result, was also considered to come under this category. In Tamil Nadu the proverb that Even a thousand lies would be worthwhile to bring about a marriage, is based on the same principle of Plato’s Noble Lie.”

“Shakespeare projected an allied thought when he wrote,
If I do lie and do

No harm by it, though the Gods hear, I hope they will pardon it.
But this does not satisfy Valluvar’s acid test. Only truth should be accompanied by harmlessness; untruth should be productive of positive good to qualify for being classed with truth. Untruth which is just harmless may be fun but not truth.”

Aswaththama Hatha: Narova Kunjarova: (Aswaththama dead; whether man or elephant)
Krishna had arranged to have an elephant named Aswatthma sacrificed in the battle. Yudhistra confirmed that Aswatthma had been killed adding in a lower tone Aswaththama ‘the elephant’ or man which had been killed. This news shattered Aswatthma ‘s father Drona who threw down his arms in despair. Un armed Drona was killed by Dhristadymna . Like story of Kausika, this is also from the Mahabharata.

(In Indian coins and stamps, the National Emblem with the words TRUTH ALOE TRIUMPHS + Satyameva Jayate is is inscribed)


This is Heaven! Beautiful Description in Mahabharata!!


by S.Nagarajan

Post No 1633; Dated 8th February 2015


In Vana Parva of Mahabharata , Heaven is described very beautifully. (Chapter 262 Mahabharata in Tamil) . Given below is a brief description of the chapter.


Once the great Sage Durvasa came to meet Rishi Mudgala. Mudgala received him with great reverence and offered him food. While they were talking a celestial messanger appeared before Mudgala and invited him to come along with him in his chariot to go to Swarka loka.


Mudgala asked him what constitutes happiness in heaven and what are the disadvantages thereof?


The celestial messenger was wonderstruck with these questions because everybody will jump on to his chariot once they are invited whereas this rishi is asking about the merits and demerits of heaven!


He addressed him as an unwise person and described him about the Heaven as follows:


” The region called Heaven exists there above us. Those regions tower high and are furnished with excellent paths and are always ranged by celestial cars.  Atheists  and untruthful persons and those that have not practiced ascetic austerities and those that have not performed great sacrifices cannot come there.

Only men of virtuous souls and those of subdued spirits and those that have their faculties in subjection and those that have controlled their senses and those that are free from malice and persons intent on practice of charity ; and heroes and men bearing marks of battle after having with subdued senses and faculties, performed the meritorious rites attain those regions.

There are established separately myriads of beautiful shining and replendent worlds bestowing every object of desire owned by those celestial beings, the gods, the sadhyas, the Vaiswas, the great sages, Yamas, the Dharmas, the Gandharvas and the apsaras.

There is that monarch of mountains the golden Meru extending over a space of thirty-three thousand yojanas.


There are sacred gardens of celestials with Nandana at their head where sport the persons of meritorious acts.


And neither hunger, nor thirst, nor lassitude, nor fear, nor anything that is disgusting or inauspicious is there.


And all the odours of that place are delightful and the breezes delicious to the touch.


And all the sounds there are captivating to the ear and heart.

And neither grief, nor decrepitude, nor labour, nor repentance also is there. That world  obtained as the fruit of one’s own acts is of this nature.


Persons come there by virtue of their meritorious deeds. And the persons of those that dwell there look resplendent solely by virtue of their own acts and not owing to the merits of  their father or mothers.

golden himalayas

Who are Ribhus?


There is neither  sweat, stench nor urines.


There no one could soils one’s garments. And their excellent garlands redolent of divine fragrance never fade. They yoke such cars as the one I have brought now. Men live very happily there devoid of envy, grief , fatigue, ignorance and  malice.

Higher and higer over such regions there are others endued with higher celestial virtues – of these the beautiful and resplendent regions of Brahma.

Rishis  sanctified  by meritorious acts come to that  Brahma regions .

And there dwell certain beings named Ribhus. They are the gods of the gods themselves.


Their regions are supremely blessed and are adored even by the deities. These shine by their own light and bestow every object of desire.

They sufer no pangs that women might cause and do not possess worldly wealth and are free from guile.


The Ribhus do not subsist on oblations nor yet on ambrosia. They are endued with such celestial forms that they cannot be perceived by the senses. And these eternal gods of the celestials do not desire happiness for happiness’ sake, nor do they change at the revolution of a Kalpa.


For them there is neither ecstacy, nor joy, nor happiness. They have neither happiness nor misery. The number of those deities is thirty-three. Wise men come to these regions, after observing excellent vows or bestowed gifts according to the ordinance.


– Disadvantages of  the Heaven ,in the next article.

நேராகப் படித்தால் ராமாயணம்; தலைகீழாகப் படித்தால் மஹாபாரதம்!


நேராகப் படித்தால் ராமாயணம்; தலைகீழாகப் படித்தால் மஹாபாரதம்!


Written by S Nagarajan
Post No.1104; dated 13th June 2014.

ராமாயண, மஹாபாரதம்
ஹிந்து தர்மத்தின் அற்புதமான இதிஹாஸங்களாக இலங்குபவை ராமாயணமும் மஹாபாரதமும். வேதத்தின் சுருக்கமே ராமாயணம் என்றும் ஐந்தாவது வேதம் தான் மஹாபாரதம் என்றும் தொன்று தொட்டு இந்த நாட்டில் போற்றப்பட்டு வருகிறது.உலகில் முதல் முதல் எழுந்த காவியம் என்பதால் ஆதி காவியம் என ராமாயணம் கருதப்படுகிறது. 644 ஸர்க்கங்களில் 24000 சுலோகங்களில் ஏழு காண்டங்களில் தர்மத்தின் திரு உருவான ராமனின் கதையை சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் மஹரிஷி வால்மீகி தருகிறார்.

18 பர்வங்களில் (100 உப பர்வங்களில்) ஒரு லட்சம் சுலோகங்களில் 2314 அத்தியாயங்களில் மஹரிஷி வேத வியாஸரால் மஹா பாரதம் இயற்றப்பட்டுள்ளது.

காலம் காலமாக இந்த இரு இதிஹாஸங்களும் உலகின் எல்லாப் பகுதிகளிலும் ஏராளமானோரை பல்லாயிரக்கணக்கில் கட்டுரைகள், நூல்கள் மற்றும் காவியங்களை வெவ்வேறு மொழிகளில் இயற்ற ஊக்குவித்திருப்பதை உலகமே அறியும்.

தைவக்ஞர் சூரிய கவி
ஆனால் பாரதத்தைச் சேர்ந்த மூன்று அதிசயக் கவிஞர்கள் இந்த இரு இதிஹாஸங்களை வைத்து ஒரு அற்புதமான அதிசயமான செயலை சம்ஸ்கிருத மொழியில் சாதித்துள்ளனர்.
தைவக்ஞர் சூரிய கவி என்பவர் பெரும் சம்ஸ்கிருத விற்பன்னர், கவிஞர்! அவர் 36 ஸ்லோகங்கள் அடங்கிய ராமகிருஷ்ண விலோம காவ்யம் என்று ஒரு காவியத்தை இயற்றியுள்ளார். இதில் ஸ்லோகத்தை முதலிலிருந்து படித்துக் கொண்டு போனால் ராமாயணக் கதையைக் காணலாம். ஸ்லோகத்தின் பின்னாலிலிருந்து திருப்பிப் படித்துக் கொண்டு போனால் வருவது இன்னொரு ஸ்லோகம். அதில் மஹாபாரதக் கதையைக் காணலாம். விகடகவி, தேருவருதே போன்ற சொற்களில் வரும் எழுத்துக்களைத் தலைகீழாகத் திருப்பிப் போட்டாலும் அதே சொற்கள் வருவது ஒரு சொல் அலங்காரம். இதை ஆங்கிலத்தில் Palindrome என்கிறோம்.

ஒரு ஸ்லோகம் அல்ல, பல ஸ்லோகங்கள் அடங்கிய ஒரு காவியமே இப்படி அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது என்றால்..! வியக்க வைக்கும் இந்தக் காவியத்திலிருந்து உதாரணத்திற்கு இரு பாடல்களை இங்கு காணலாம்.


கௌசிகே த்ரிதபஸி ஷ்ரவ்ரதி யோத்ததாத் த்விதநயஸ்வமாதுரம் I
ரந்துமாஸ்வயன தத்தித்தாதயோ தீவ்ர ரக்ஷஸி பதத்ரிகேஷிகௌ II
-ஆறாவது ஸ்லோகம்

இதன் பொருள் : எல்லா உயிரினங்களின் ஆசைகளை நிறைவேற்ற உறுதி பூண்ட தசரத மன்னர், (மனோ வாக்கு காயம் ஆகிய )மூன்று விதத்திலும் தவம் செய்த ரிஷி விஸ்வாமித்திரருக்குத் தன் செல்வங்களான ராமர், லக்ஷ்மணரைத் தந்தார்.

இதே ஸ்லோகத்தை திருப்பிப் போட்டுப் படித்தால் பொருள் மாறி விடும் இப்படி:- புண்ணியச் செயல்களைச் செய்த ஓ, பரீட்சித்து மன்னனே, ராக்ஷஸ குணத்தில் வேறு யாரையும் ஒப்பிடமுடியாத பூதனையையும் பறவையின் உருவில் இருந்த பகனையும் குதிரையின் உருவில் இருந்த கேசினையும் விளையாட்டு லீலையாக எல்லையற்ற ஞானம் உடைய ஸ்ரீ கிருஷ்ணர் அவர்கள் உடலிலிருந்து (உயிரை நீக்கி) முக்தி அளித்தார்.

rama brown

இதே காவியத்திலிருந்து இன்னொரு பாடலைப் பார்ப்போம்.
க்ஷதாய மா யத்ர ரகோரிதாயுர் அங்கானுகானன்யதயோயனானி I
நிநாய யோ வன்யனகானுகாரம் யுதாரிகோரத்ரயமாயதாக்ஷ: II
– 34வது ஸ்லோகம்

இதன் பொருள் : சுக்ரீவனும் இதர குரங்குகளும் யுத்தகளத்தில் நுழைந்தவுடன் அழியப் போகும் வாழ்வை உடையவனான ராவணனால் ராமருக்கு எந்தக் காயத்தையும் விளைவிக்க முடியவில்லை.
இதையே பின்னாலிலிருந்து படித்தால் வரும் பொருள் இது: நீண்ட கண்களையுடைய ஸ்ரீ கிருஷ்ணர் மலை போன்ற உருவத்தை ஒத்த (அகாசுரன், கேசின், பூதனா ஆகிய) மூன்று பயங்கரமான அசுரர்களை வதம் செய்தான்.

இது போன்ற விலோம காவியத்தின் ஆதிகர்த்தா சூர்யகவியே என ஆய்வாளர்கள் கருதுகின்றனர். அவர் பார்த்தபுரத்தில் (அஹ்மத் நகர்) 1580ஆம் ஆண்டு வாக்கில் வாழ்ந்த அற்புதமான கவிஞர். இதற்கு அவரே ஒரு உரையையும் எழுதி இருக்கிறார். அதில் இப்படிப்பட்ட ஒரு காவியம் செய்வது எவ்வளவு கஷ்டமானது என்பதையும் விளக்கியுள்ளார்.

rama B&W

சிதம்பர கவியின் அற்புத காவியங்கள்
அடுத்து 1600ஆம் ஆண்டில் தஞ்சாவூரில் வாழ்ந்த சிதம்பர கவி என்பவர் சப்தார்த்த சிந்தாமணி என்ற நூலை இயற்றியுள்ளார். இதிலும் முதலிலிருந்து படித்தால் ராமாயணமும் பின்னாலிலிருந்து படித்தால் மஹாபாரதக் கதையும் மிளிரும். தஞ்சை சரஸ்வதி மஹாலில் சுவடி வடிவில் உள்ள இந்த அற்புத நூல் இன்னும் அச்சிடப்படவில்லை எனத் தெரிகிறது. ஆனால் இதன் பெருமை உலகெங்கும் பரவி விட்டிருக்கிறது.இவர் இன்னும் ஒரு படி மேலே போய் கதா த்ரயம் என்ற காவியத்தையும் இயற்றி இருக்கிறார். இதில் ஸ்லோகத்தைப் பிரித்துப் படித்துப் பார்த்தால் ராமாயணம், மஹாபாரதம் ஆகியவற்றோடு பாகவதக் கதையையும் படிக்கலாம், ஒரே பாடலில் மூன்று பிரம்மாண்டமான நூல்கள்! அதிசயம், ஆனால் உண்மை! உலகில் இது போல எந்த ஒரு மொழியிலும் நினைத்துக் கூடப் பார்க்க முடியாத சாதனையாக இது கருதப்படுகிறது!

கவிஞர் வேங்கடாத்வரி
சிதம்பர கவியை அடுத்து அதிசயமான மூன்றாவது கவிஞராகத் திகழ்பவர் வேங்கடாத்வரி என்பவர். 1650ஆம் ஆண்டு வாக்கில் காஞ்சிபுரத்தில் வாழ்ந்த மாபெரும் கவிஞர் இவர். இவரது ராகவ யாதவீயம் என்பது 30 ஸ்லோகங்களைக் கொண்ட ஒரு அரிய நூல். ஸ்லோகத்தை நேரடியாகப் படித்தால் ராமாயணக் கதையையும் தலைகீழாகப் படித்தால் மஹாபாரத கதையையும் இதில் படிக்க முடிகிறது.இதில் இரு ஸ்லோகங்களைப் பார்க்கலாம்.

ராமநாமா சதா கேதபாவே தயாவான் அதாபீனதேஜா: ரிபௌ ஆனதே I
காதிமோதாஸஹாதா ஸ்வபாஸா ரஸாமே சுக: ரேணுகாகாத்ரஜே பூருமே II
-ஸ்லோகம் 7
அனுலோமமாக அதாவது முதலிலிருந்து கடைசி வரை வரிசைக்கிரம்மாகப் பார்த்தால் இதன் பொருள் : துயரப்படுவோரிடம் எப்போதும் சதா கருணையுடன் திகழும் ராமபிரான், சூரியனைப் போலப் பிரகாசிப்பவரும் சுலபமாக அணுகக்கூடியவரும் முனிவர்களைத் துன்புறுத்திய ராக்ஷஸர்களை அழித்தவருமான அவர் ரேணுகாவின் புத்திரரும் பூமி அனைத்தையும் தனது செல்வமாகக் கொண்டு சுற்றித் திரிந்தவருமான பரசுராமரைப் பார்த்த போது குளிர்ந்த ஒளியுடன் அடக்கமுடன் திகழ்ந்தார்.
இதையே திருப்பிப் போட்டால் வரும் ஸ்லோகம்:

மேருபூஜேத்ரகா காணுரே கோஸுமே சா அரஸா பாஸ்வதா ஹா சதா மோதிகா I
தேன வா பாரிஜாதேன பீதா நவா யாதவே அபாத் அஸ்வேதா சமானாமரா II

பிரதிலோமமாக அதாவது கடைசியிலிருந்து முதல் வரை (மேலே உள்ள ஸ்லோகப்படி பார்த்தால்) இதன் பொருள் : மேருவையும் வெல்லும் ரைவர்த்தக மலையில் இருந்தபோது பாரிஜாத மலரை அடைந்த ருக்மிணி பூமியில் உள்ள குறைந்த வாசனையே உள்ள எந்த புஷ்பங்களின் மீதும் ஆசையின்றிப் போனதோடு ஒரு புதிய மேனியை அடைந்தவள் போலத் திகழ்ந்தாள்.
ஆக அனுலோமமாகவும் பிரதிலோமமாகவும் உள்ள இந்த விலோம காவியத்தின் அனைத்துப் பாடல்களையும் வார்த்தை வார்த்தையாக எடுத்து அர்த்தத்தைக் கூறப் போனால் கவிதையின் அழகும் ஆழமும் நன்கு புரிவதோடு பிரமிப்பும் வியப்பும் வரும்.

krishna and balarama
Picture of Krishna and his brother Balarama.

இன்னும் ஒரு பாடல்:
தாம் ஸ: கோரமதோஷ்ரீத: விக்ராம் அஸதர: அதத I
வைரம் ஆஸ பலாஹாரா வினாஸா ரவிவம்சகே II
– ஸ்லோகம்18

அனுலோமமாக இதன் பொருள்: ராமனின் வலதுகரமாகத் திகழ்ந்த பயமே அறியாத லக்ஷ்மணனால் மூக்கு அறுபட்டவுடன் சூர்ப்பணகை ராமன் மேல் பழி வாங்கத் துடித்தாள்.
இந்த ஸ்லோகத்தை பிரதிலோமமாக கடைசியிலிருந்து தலைகீழாக எழுதிப் பார்த்தால் வருவது இந்த ஸ்லோகம்:-

கேசவம் விரஸானாவி: ஆஹ ஆலாபஸமாரவை: I
ததரோதஸம் அக்ராவித: அஷ்ரித: அமரக: அஸதாம் II

இதன் பொருள்:-மலைகளின் கொட்டமழிப்பவனும், தேவர்களின் தலைவனும், அசுரர்களை அழிப்பவனுமான இந்திரன் தனது சந்தோஷம், பலம், ஒளி ஆகியவற்றை இழந்தான். வானையும் பூமியையும் படைத்த கிருஷ்ணனிடம் சமாதானப்படுத்தும் சொற்களைப் பேசினான்.
காவியம் படிப்போம்; பரப்புவோம்!

(சம்ஸ்கிருத) இலக்கணத்திற்குட்பட்டு பொருள் பொதிந்த சொற்களை இப்படி அமைப்பதென்பது இறை அருளினால் மட்டுமே வரும் என சூரிய கவியே மனம் நெகிழ்ந்து சொல்லியுள்ளார்.
இப்படிப்பட்ட தெய்வீகக் கவிஞர்கள் இந்த நாட்டில் தோன்றி இதிஹாஸ மேன்மையையும் சம்ஸ்கிருத அருமையையும் நிலை நாட்டி இருப்பது சனாதன தர்மத்தின் ஏராளமான அதிசயங்களுள் இன்னும் ஒரு அதிசயமே!
krisna bow

ராமகிருஷ்ண விலோம காவ்யத்தை சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் படிக்க விரும்புபவர்கள் கீழ்க்கண்ட இணையதளத்தில் என்ற தொடுப்பிலிருந்து இலவசமாக டவுன்லோட் செய்து கொள்ளலாம்.

ராகவ யாதவீயம் காவியத்திற்கு ஆங்கிலத்தில் விரிவான அழகான உரை ஒன்றை எழுதி இருப்பவர் டாக்டர் சரோஜா ராமானுஜம்.இந்த சம்ஸ்கிருத ஸ்லோகத்திற்கான ஆங்கில விரிவுரை நூலையும் இணையதளத்தில் காணலாம்.

அருமையான காவியங்களை உலகிற்குத் தரும் இணைய தளங்களுக்கும் உரை எழுதிய சம்ஸ்கிருத விற்பன்னர்களுக்கும் நமது நன்றிகளை உரித்தாக்கி இக் காவியங்களின் பெருமையை உலகில் பரப்புவோம்!.ராம கிருஷ்ணரின் அருளுக்குப் பாத்திரராவோம்!!