More interesting titbits about Natyasastra of Bharata (Post No.9878)

same woman SANTHA BASKAR danced after 50 years


Post No. 9878

Date uploaded in London –21 JULY   2021           

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Dhananjaya’s  Dasarupaka

Almost thousand years ago, a writer called Dhananjaya wrote a treatise called Dasarupaka (ten forms of plays). He said,

“It was Brahma who extracted from the four Vedas their essence and created the Natyaveda out of it. It was sage Bharata who put it in to practice; and it was Siva and his consort Parvati who (respectively) contributed the Tandava and Lasya dances. Against this galaxy of authors who else dare explain dramatics? I am contributing my little mite to reveal the excellence of the work”.


The original work, the text says in its first chapter, was composed by Lord Brahma for the celestial immortals ruled by Indra . In the last chapter, it is said that for the terrestrial world, it was recomposed or edited by Konami, Vvastysa, Sandilya and Dattila, who are mentioned both as the sons and disciples of Bharata.

But dramaturgy was studied even before Panini of eighth century BCE. Panini refers to Nata Sutras— aphoristic guide for the Natas — by two persons Silalin and Krsasva.


Meaning of Words not known

We come to know that several hands tried to update the book. It resulted in contradictory, repetitive and incongruent final text. There are words and passages impossible to understand. Even an erudite scholar like Abhinavagupta gives several meanings to a word. For instance meaning of Mattavarani is not known. The gods of eight quarters are placed on eight places to protect the theatre; in the Mattavarani, , Indra, the master or the patron of the show, is seated. Mattavarani means intoxicated elephant. Is it a special seat like Royal box?. Correct meaning is not known. Similarly Dwibhumi— two grounds— in connection with the theatre, where Abhinavagupta is on an imagination spree.

Another example, where confusion and contradiction exist is the description of three kinds of theatre houses.

In the first chapter, the book begins with the origin of drama and narrates how and why Bharata produced the first play. The sixth chapter begins with the sages asking Bharata five questions . Here he used the word Sutra and summarised the first five chapters. This lead to the conclusion that the first five chapters are added later. And originally it was in ‘Sutra’ form and authors like Kohala produced it in the present ‘sloka’ form.

Originally the open field was used as the auditorium; in the course of time a Dwibhumi was thought of. That is the auditorium was in two levels. Later a building with four walls came. And each change was incorporated in the book.

My comments

All these apparent contradictions can be resolved if we understand that it was updated according to the development of stage and acting. Whatever we don’t understand belong to the oldest stratum.

The text underwent changes may be seen from another circumstance. In one instance the death of a hero is prohibited on the stage. But the dramatist Bhasa has his hero dead on the stage. ‘Goes to heaven’,says the stage direction. Does it mean it was written before Bhasa? Role of sthapaka is also different in both.

Characters in a play should not be many says Bharata.

But in Bhasa’ s plays we see many characters. Even critics have called Bhasa’s plays ‘bahu bhumika’, having many characters.

There are many more remarks which would date NS to a later period.

My view is that it shows updating. While updating any book Hindus don’t dare to touch the previous writers. We see such contractions even in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Like Mahabharata

Like Mahabharata which encompassed all earlier stories and philosophies, NS too boasts that

“What is found here may be found elsewhere, but what is not here cannot be found anywhere”.

Playwrights continued the use of Bharata’s Sanskrit and Prakrit. Bharata himself said that dress and speech conform to the regional usage of the spectators .

Since foreigners were not well versed in our customs, and then they had falsely believed that Greeks were far superior in all aspects, they drew wrong conclusions. The only help they did was translating all the Sanskrit works into English .

They had no intimate knowledge of our tradition.

Crimes came before the Penal code,

Language came before grammar and

Drama came into existence before the NS


Drama in the Rig Veda

RV 6-29-3

“Your devotees embrace your feet for glory.

Bold, thunder armed, rich through your strength in rewarding.

Robed in a garment fair as heaven to look on,

You have displayed you like an active dancer.”

Active dancer in the fourth line is translated into Tamil as actor by Jambunathan.

In the days of Rig Veda only dance drama existed. So actor and dancer is acceptable.

शरिये ते पादा दुव आ मिमिक्षुर्ध्र्ष्णुर्वज्री शवसा दक्षिणावान |
वसानो अत्कं सुरभिं दर्शे कं सवर्ण नर्तविषिरो बभूथ ||

śriye te pādā duva ā mimikṣurdhṛṣṇurvajrī śavasā dakṣiṇāvān |
vasāno atkaṃ surabhiṃ dṛśe kaṃ svarṇa nṛtaviṣiro babhūtha ||Rigveda 6-29-3

tags – dance, titbits, Rig Veda, 6-29-3

19 Dance Dramas in the Rig Veda (Post No.9858)


Post No. 9858

Date uploaded in London –16 JULY   2021           

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Nineteen Dialogue poems in the Rig Veda spreading over several Mandalas of the Veda shows that Dance and Drama existed at the Vedic period.

Following are the interesting Dialogue poems:

RV.1-165, 170 & 179;

RV.3-33; 4-18, 26/27 &42;


RV.10-10, 28, 51,86,95, 102,108, 124,135

Then we have Vajasaneyi Samhita (Yajur Veda) and Taittiriya brahmana references to Sailusaa which later meant an actor following the tradition of Silaalin, the author of a nata sutra . Sailusaa has the same meaning in the Vedas.  Panini referred to nata sutras.

The Natyacharya or the instructor in the theatrical arts was a recognised figure , popular but not approved by the law books.  Baudhaayana dharmasutra condemned Natyacharya as a minor defilement.2-25

We have good evidence to state that the drama originated in India during Vedic period. In the beginning dance and drama were inseparable. 100 or 150 years ago drama meant songs with stories. It was easy to memorise them and pass it on to his or her disciples. Later prose was introduced as links between the songs so that one can have a break and start again.

We have evidence in the Tamil epic Silapaadikaram where we have dance and drama elements in the story. Indra festival was the one where the dance of Madhavi was staged. We see in Bharata’s Natya Shastra that the Indra Festival was suggested to enact the dance dramas. More over we read about 11 different dances staged by Madhavi. All those were based on Hindu mythology. Silapaadikaram is dated second century CE . I would date Bharata’s Natya shastra well before this date

Indian drama has no connection with the Greek drama at least in its early stage. We have well defined roles such as a Brahmin as comedian, a director who introduces the drama at the outset. Apart from this we have Bharatavakya (Benedictory Message) at the end. This is the like a national anthem wishing the king a long life and the people and the country a prosperous life. After Alexander’s invasion new elements might have been introduced, because Greeks also had well developed dramas.

Going back in time we have at least 19 dialogue poems in the Rig Veda. Some of the dialogue poems are comparable with the folk dances of the Tamils. During the Holi festival, that is known as Kaman Pandikai in South India, some sexy folk dances were staged in street corners at the dead of night. Tamil epic Silapaadikaram has lot of information about dance dramas . After Rigveda, we have good evidence in Paninis Ashtadhyayi and Kautilya’s Arthasastra. There is a gap of at least three hundred years between the Ashtadhyayi and Arthasastra.

Panini talk about Nata sutras, which scholars think, was a guide book or practical hand book for actors (Ashtadhyayi 4-3-110). We could not expect much from a grammar book like Ashtadhyayi. But Kautilya who came at least 300 years after Panini gives lot of information about dance and drama.

 Patanjali , author of Mahabhashya ,refers to the enacted spectacle of Killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva. He refers to actors and fans.

Dance drama did not exist in Krta Yuga. It came only in Treta Yuga gaaccording to Bharata. We see Lava Kusa enacting Ramayana. Later that Kusi Lava become a model for future Kusi Lavas.

The Arthasastra clearly distinguished between actors/Nata, dancers/nartaka, singers/gayakas, instrumentalists/ vadakas, story tellers/vajivana,bards/kusilavas, rope dancers/ plavakas, show men/saubhikas and wandering ministrels/caranas. This shows well developed and differentiated stage of performing arts. This is confirmed by Kautilya’s reference to the diverse arts/ Kala taught to the women who lived by the stage/Rangopajivini.

Kama sutra of Vatsyayana also gave a big syllabus for women with 64 arts. Tamil Sangam Literature mentioned Arya kuuthaadi meaning the pole/rope dancers visiting Tamil Nadu from North India. Silappadikaram also mentioned 64 arts.

Half baked foreigners try to place 1000s of books dealing with  subjects from A to Z within four centuries i.e. Second century BCE and second century CE. I is not possible to see such explosion.

But the above information gives us a clear picture of gradual development.

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12 Mar 2021 — Actually they are all dance dramas enacted after Yagas and Yajnas. Panini and Patanjali say that some yajnas lasted for hundreds of years.

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31 Oct 2016 — Krishna danced and played his flute, while women, overcome by his music and his dancing, left home and husband to follow him. Lakshmi, the Hindu …

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1 Apr 2015 — It shows that the Vedic society was a happy and prosperous society. Scores of musical instruments are mentioned and scores of ornaments are also …

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24 Feb 2014 — Post No 862 Date: 24 February 2014 By Dr R Nagaswamy Parpādal is a form poetry best suited as a musical composition mainly for dance along …

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Rig Veda is a book with over 1000 hymns running to 10,000 mantras running to 20,000 lines; but lot of repetitions are there. But we can expect more from the Rig …

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2 Apr 2015 — Dr Nagasamy pointed out also that music and dance are part of Shodasopara (16 Upasaras). The Amarakosa (Sanskrit Thesarus) lists different …

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2 Apr 2015 — “I find that almost all forms of classical dances of India like Bharata Natyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Kuchipusdi, Manipuri, Mohini Attam etc are …

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15 Jun 2012 — The commentators added wealth of information in their commentaries. … Mohanjadaro points to the antiquity of the classical Bharatanatyam.

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7 Oct 2012 — More over it fulfils the desires of the people who practise them. … In the classical dance called Bharatanatyam, there are lot of Mudras …

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24 Mar 2020 — Rig veda is not only the oldest anthology in the world but also it isonly old book with a number of dialogue poems. These conversation poems …

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Tags- dance drama, origin, dialogue poems, Rig Veda 

ரிக் வேதத்தில் பகவத் கீதை! (Post.9833)


Post No. 9833

Date uploaded in London –9 JULY   2021           

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இந்துக்களின் புனித நூலான பகவத் கீதை இந்து மதத்தின் பிரிவுகளான அறு சமயத்தாருக்கும் பொதுவானது. ஏனெனில் அதிலுள்ள கருத்துக்கள் உபநிஷத்தின் சாரம் . உபநிஷதங்களும் எல்லோருக்கும் பொதுவானது என்பதை சமய ஆச்சார்யார்கள்  உரை எழுதி ஒப்புக்கொண்டுள்ளனர். பகவத் கீதைக்கும் எல்லோரும் உரை எழுதியுள்ளனர்  உபநிஷதங்கள் வேதத்தின் சாரம். அதை வேதத்தின் முடிபு, துணிபு என்ற பொருளில் வேத + அந்தம்= வேதாந்தம்  என்பார்கள் .

வேதம்தான் தர்மத்தின் மூலம் ; வேதமே இந்துமதத்தின் ஆணிவேர் என்றெல்லாம் சொல்லுகிறார்கள்.; அதற்கு ஆதாரம் காட்ட வேண்டாமா.? வேதம் தமிழ்செய்த மாறன் சடகோபன் என்றெல்லாம் நம்மாழ்வாரைப் போற்றுகிறார்கள்; இவை அவ்வளவும் உண்மையே என்பதை ரிக் வேதத்தை ஊன்றிப் படிப்போருக்குத் தெள்ளிதின் விளங்கும் . திருவாசகம், தேவாரத்திலுள்ள வரிகள் ரிக் வேதத்தின் எதிரொலியே ; விறகில் தீயினன் , பாலில் படுநெய் போலப் பரவியவன் என்ற தேவார வரிகள் அப்படியே உள்ளது. அக்கினி என்ற பகவான் பெயரை சிவன் என்று தலைப்பிட்டுவிட்டால் அப்படியே பொருந்துகிறது.

விஷ்ணு என்ற பெயர் பல இடங்களில் தெளிவாக வருகிறது. ஆயினும் சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தொல்காப்பியம் முதலியவற்றில் “சிவன்” என்ற சொல் இல்லாதது போலவே ரிக் வேதத்திலும் இல்லை. ஆனால் சிவனைக் குறிக்கும் வேறு அடை  மொழிகள் புற  நானூற்றில் உள்ளது போலவே ரிக் வேதத்திலும் உண்டு ஒரே ஒரு இடத்தில் சிவ என்ற சொல் வருவது உரிச்  சொல் (adjective) அல்ல, பெயர்ச் சொல்லே (proper noun) ; அது சிவ பெருமானையே குறிக்கும் என்று வில்சன் எடுத்துக் காட்டியுள்ளார்.

நான் வேறு ஒரு சுருக்கு வழி  வைத்துள்ளேன். அக்கினி தேவனைப் போற்றும் துதிகளை எல்லாம் சிவன் என்று கருதினால் போதும். நல்ல பொருத்தம் இருக்கிறது சிவனே நெற்றிக் கண்ணில் தீயை உடையவன்;. நடராஜர்  கையிலும் அனல் உண்டு.

சுருக்கமாகச் சொன்னால் வேத கால அக்கினியே சிவனாகவும் முருகனாகவும் வழிபடப்படுகின்றார்கள் .


இப்போது பகவத் கீதைக்கு மூலமான வேத மந்திரங்களைக் காண்போம்.

RV 1-24-7

மூலமில்லாத சுத்த வானிலே வசிக்கும் சுத்த வலிமையுள்ள அரசனான வருணன், மேலே மூலமுள்ளவையும், கீழே நோக்குபவையுமான கதிர்களிருக்கும் ஒளித் தூணை உச்சத்திலே ஏந்துகிறான் . அந்தக் கிரணங்கள்/ ஒளிக்  கற்றைகள் எங்களுக்குள் இறங்கி மறைவாக நிற்கட்டும் (சீவனுக்கு காரணமான ரசிமிகள் ராணங்களாக  எண்ணில் ஸ்தாபனமாகுக- Jambunathan) RV 1-24-7

Varuna, King, of hallowed might, sustaineth erect the Tree’s stem in the baseless region

Its rays, whose root is high above, stream downward. Deep may they sink within us, and be hidden RV 1-24-7

பகவத் கீதை

ஊர்த்வமுலமத:சாகமச்வத்தம் ப்ராஹு ரவ்யயம்

ச்சந்தாம்ஸி யஸ்ய பர்ணானி யஸ்தம் வேத  ஸ வேத வித் 15-1


மேலே வேருள்ளதும், கீழே கிளையுள்ளதுமான  அசுவத்தமாக முடிவற்றதாய் தோன்றும் ஸம்ஸாரத்தை பேசுகிறார்கள்.எதற்கு இலைகள் வேதங்களோ அந்த மரத்தை எவன் அறிந்தவனோ  அவன் வேதத்தை அறிந்தவன் ஆவான்

இதில் மர உவமையும் அதன் மேல், கீழ்ப் பகுதி விளக்கங்களும் ஒப்பிடத் தக்கவை.


RV 1-25-6



மித்திரனும், வருணனும் மகிழ்ச்சியுடன் இதை ஏற்கிறார்கள் நம்பிக்கையுடன் தொழும் பக்தர்களை அவர்கள் எப்போதும் கைவிட்டதில்லை. RV 1-25-6

பகவத் கீதை 9-31

க்ஷிப்ரம் பவதி தர்மாத்மா சச்வச்  சாந்திம் நிகச்சதி

கௌந்தேய ப்ரதி ஜானீஹி ந மே பக்த :ப்ரண ச்யதி  9-31

விரைவில் தரும சிந்தனையுடையவன் ஆகின்றான்.சாசுவதமான சாந்தியைப் பெறுகிறான் . குந்தீ புத்திரனே  என்னுடைய பக்தன் நாசம் அடையவே மாட்டான் . இந்த உண்மையை உணர்ந்து உலகுக்கு உரைப்பாயாகுக.



இந்த இரண்டு மந்திரங்களில் அக்நியானது விவஸ்வா னுக்கும் மனுவுக்கும் முதலில் புலப்பட்டதாக ரிஷிகள் பாடுகின்றனர்.

இதே வரிசை பகவத் கீதையின் நாலாவது அத்தியாயம் முதல் ஸ்லோகத்திலும் உளது..அதற்குப்பின்னர் பாண்டவர்களின் முன்னோர்களா ன யயாதி, புரு முதலியோர் பெயர்களும் வருகின்றன .

பகவத் கீதை 4-1

நான் இந்த அழிவற்ற யோகத்தை முதலில் விவஸ்வானுக்கு உபதேசித்தேன். விவசுவான் மநுவுக்கு உபதேசித்தார். மநு இக்ஷ்வாகுவுக்கு உரைத்தார். -பகவத் கீதை 4-1

நண்பன் என்ற சொல் நூற்றுக்கணக்கான ரிக்வேத மந்திரங்களில் வருகிறது. கடவுளரையும் சகா க்களையும் ரிஷிகள் நண்பர்களே என்றுதான் அழைக்கின்றனர். அர்ஜுனன் – கிருஷ்ணன் உறவும் நட்பின் அடிப்படையிலே அமைந்தது என்பது வெளிப்படை. விசுவ ரூப தரிசனம் காட்டிய பின்னரும் கூட கிருஷ்ணன் அர்ஜுனனைக் கட்டாயப்படுத்தாமல் , நான் சொல்லுவதைச் சொல்லிவிட்டேன்; ஏற்பதும் ஏற்காததும் உனது ரிமை என்று சொல்லிவிடுகிறான்.

குரு  வம்சத்தின் மூதாதையர்களான யயாதி, நஹுஷன் பெயர்களும் இதே துதியில் வருவது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது இது பகவத் கீதை, மஹாபாரத காலத்தை நிர்ணயிக்கவும் உதவும்..


tags – Bhagavad Gita, Rig Veda, Gita in Veda,



Post No. 9826

Date uploaded in London –7 JULY   2021           

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Manikka vasagar (maanikka vaasagar), one of the four great Tamil Saivite saints, wrote Tiruvasagam. He might have lived just before Sambandar and Appar, which will fix his time around seventh century CE. His masterpiece Tiruvasagam attracted even Christian preachers like Rev.G U Pope. He translated it into English. It contains 51 hymns on Lord Shiva. Manikka vasagar’s another work is Tirukkovaiyar.

Manikka vasagar makes some interesting remarks about the Vedas.

Those remarks are echoes of the mantras found in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world ,dated between 6000 BCE and 1500 BCE.

I will compare only a few hymns from the RV.

The common factor between the two is

“Crying and weeping for His grace”.


RV 1-25-19

Varuna , hear this call of mine; be gracious unto us this day.

Longing for help I cried to thee.

Manikka vasagar  says in 2-136

நாத நாத என்றழு தரற்றிப்
பாத மெய்தினர் பாத மெய்தவும்

On earth they rolled, they fell, they wailed

They rushed with eager foot to reach the sea;

Our Lord, Our Lord , they wept and called



Bring in your triple car, O Asvins, bring us present prosperity with noble offspring.

I cry to you who hear me for protection; you be our helpers where men win the booty.

Manikka vasagar says in 4-59…..61

தப்பாமே, தாம் பிடித்தது சலியா,
தழல் அது கண்ட மெழுகு அது போல,
தொழுது, உளம் உருகி, அழுது, உடல் கம்பித்து,
ஆடியும், அலறியும், பாடியும், பரவியும்,

Lest I should go astray, He laid His hand on me

As wax before the unwearied fire

With melting soul I worshipped, wept, and bent myself,

Danced , cried aloud and sang, and prayed



Now whither to ? what goal of yours you go in heaven and not on earth?

Where else you find cows bellowing (mooing)?

Manikka vasagar says 5-85

Thee worship the earth and heaven , with shouts of joy, and Four fold Vedas

They are yearning pine for Thee

Again in the same fifth hymn 5-348

Estranged, a  slave , I wildered weep

  வணங்கும் நின்னை, மண்ணும், விண்ணும்; வேதம் நான்கும் ஓலம் இட்டு
உணங்கும், நின்னை எய்தல் உற்று, மற்று ஓர் உண்மை இன்மையின்;
வணங்கி, யாம், விடேங்கள் என்ன, வந்து நின்று அருளுதற்கு,
இணங்கு கொங்கை மங்கை பங்க! என் கொலோ நினைப்பதே?

(Vedas cry for your help . The words earth and heaven found here– are repeated hundreds of times in the Vedas too. This confirms Manikkavasagar is repeating the Rig Vedic Mantras.

What we find in common between M and RV is that devotees always cry for the help from Gods.

அழுகேன், நின்பால் அன்பு ஆம் மனம் ஆய்; அழல் சேர்ந்த
மெழுகே அன்னார், மின் ஆர், பொன் ஆர், கழல் கண்டு
தொழுதே, உன்னைத் தொடர்ந்தாரோடும் தொடராதே,
பழுதே பிறந்தேன்; என் கொண்டு உன்னைப் பணிகேனே?

In other words they pine, weep, yearn and long for God.

In 5 -357 to 360, Manaikkavasagar says

பாடல் எண் : 90 
யானேபொய் என்நெஞ்சும் பொய் என்அன்பும்     பொய்
ஆனால் வினையேன் அழுதால் உன்னைப்   பெறலாமே
தேனே அமுதே கரும்பின் தெளிவே    தித்திக்கும்
மானே அருளாய் அடியேன் உனைவந்    துறுமாறே   

I am indeed false; my heart also is false;
my love too is false;Yet,if ,
I the Karma-ridden one,
weep for You I can secure You.
O Honey,Nectar,Essence of sweet cane

And sweet and great One,grace me,Your slave, to reach You.


Thus we see Manikka vasagar echoing the Rig Vedic mantras in his great devotional work. From the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, from the Vedic days to devotional period in Tamil Nadu, the approach was same. Though the Vedas mentioned different gods in different hymns the attributes to Gods were nearly same.


Tags -Tiruvasagam, Rig Veda, Crying, Weeping



Post No. 9766

Date uploaded in London – –22 JUNE   2021           

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It is amazing to see the continuity of our customs from the days of the Rig Veda to this day. Not many Hindu scholars noticed or not documented those customs. I don’t expect Western Buffoons to list them because Max Muller gang is not only Anti Hindu but also could not understand many of the customs said in mantras. Most of them including Max Muller never visited India nor seen a true Vedic Hindu.

Rigveda contains over 1000 hymns in which we come across over 10000 mantras . One will be amazed and flabbergasted to see the way the seers address the Gods. I have just finished reading two out of Ten Mandalas(Books) in the Rig Veda.

Let me tell you the points I have noted.

Everyone knows that this is the Oldest Religious Book in the world.

Most of you know that this is the Oldest Anthology in the world. Several thousands of years after the Rigveda, Tamils also made anthologies like this. Tamil books themselves are 2200 years old!!

Most amazing thing in the Vedas is the Mudra or Signature they use in the Rig veda. I used to wonder how come the great Tamil saint Tiru Jnana Sambandar put his name in every decad 1400 years ago and how come 900 years after him the great Carnatic music composer Sri Purandaradasa used the same style and revived it. Many of the hymns in the Veda have the names of the Seers who sang them e.g. Agastya, Grtsamada, Bhargava,Visvamitra. All the Carnatic music composers used the technique. We see Thyagaraja’s name in his Krtis and Guruguha for Muthuswami Dikshitar krtis. Dikshitar used Guru Guha , perhaps following Agastya. He also used Mana’s son and in few his own name ‘Agastya

Before Purandaradasa, Jeyadeva also placed his name in every Ashtapathi. It continued with Kabir Mirabai and the latest Tamil composers of 20th century.

Until this day this Rig Vedic custom is followed.


Dharba Grass

All the Brahmin priests leave the house with a bundle or bunch of Dharba grass. Every Brahmin use it in their day today rituals. As a Brahmin I use it at least once a month. Most amazing thing is the way the Vedic seers used it on the banks of River Yamuna, Ganga, Sindhu and Sarasvati is followed by me in London on the banks of the River Thamasa, that is Thames.

All the Vedic Rishis or seers invoke the gods to sit on the Dharba grass spread before them. I do the same to invoke my departed forefathers every New Moon day what is called Amavasya. Apart from 12 new moon days and 12 first days of every Hindu month, Hindus are supposed to this Tarpana 70 more days. I invoke the departed souls from my father’s side and from my mother’s side in the Dharba grass on a plate. Then we do it with mantras and Sesamum seeds and the water.

So this Dharba grass  business is being continued for several thousands of years.

Amazing thing about this Dharba business is, it is in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature too!!


Let me tell you more amazing things. In Carnatic and Hindustani songs we have Pallavi.

Refrain (Pallavi)  is part of the compositions. That is the opening lines or sentences are used after each stanza. This custom or style is started by the Vedic Rishis. Bards like Homer and Sangam age Tamil poets also used refrains. We see it in Bharati’s Tamil poems too.

But the oldest refrains are found in the Rigveda. Some times all the stanzas/ mantras finish with the same word s or lines. Sometimes a particular Rishi finish all his compositions with the same stanza/ Mantra.

The wonder of wonders is like Visvamitra of Rig Veda, Tamil saint, The Boy wonder, Tiru Jnana Sambandar, also composed 11 stanzas and the finishing has the same message like the previous decads. Though we call it decads they have 10+1=11.

Jnana Sambandar, the boy saint, who changed Tamil Nadu completely within 16 years of his life, mentioned Rig Veda in many of his Pathikams / decads. No wonder he followed Visvamitra.

Look at the beauty in his name. Visvamitra means ‘Friend of the World’. And the very first hymn was sung by Madhu chandas which means Mr Honey Poetry or honey poems.

Vedas are full of positive words. They address all the Gods as Friends and address their colleagues Comrades. I don’t know whether there is any Index book that gives the information of the number of times each word is used. They use the similes ‘God please help me like a friend helping another friend’.

‘God please shower me good things like a father showers his love and affection on his children’.

Mother, father, brother, sister, friend and cow and calf are used thousands of times. I don’t find it in Sangam Tamil literature that many times. Even ten fingers are called ‘10 sisters’, because they help you like a sister.

Wonders never stop in the Rig Veda.

To be continued………….

tags- everything, Rig Veda,



Post No. 9710

Date uploaded in London – –9 JUNE   2021           

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Tamils are very familiar with two food items 1Appam or Aappam and 2.Puttu or Pittu. Agastya , the great seer of the Tamil language, has 27 poems or hymns to his credit in the first book of the Rig Veda alone. And one of them is on food. Along with the gods, food, water, birds and inanimate objects have hymns in the oldest book of the world.

It may look strange to 30 foreign translators who have no practical knowledge of Hindu culture. And we have the gang leader Max Muller who was scared to death to visit India and refused to see India or Hindus in his lifetime. Such a coward! And there is another set of white skinned fellows like Ralph T H Griffith. He was very honest and apologised hundreds of times saying ‘the meaning is not clear, he is uncertain, it is obscure’ etc. In his 650 page Rig Veda book I have seen it more than 200 times. At least, he was honest in admitting his ignorance!

Brahmins who practice Hinduism worship food every day. Like the Catholic Christians’ ‘Grace’, Brahmins say Pariseshana Mantra. They praise the food as God sent Amrosia/ Amrita and finish eating by saying ‘Anna Dhata Sukhi Bhava’. Let the provider of food live longer healthily.

Actually Catholics followed the Pada Puja of guests which we see in the pictures where Jesus feet were given a holy wash. Great Hindu saints are honoured that way even today. And Jesus saying Namaste in old Christian drawings are also there. In short, Catholics copied Hindus.

Worshipping Food

It is part of Hindus’ day to day life. Agastya, Father of Tamil Language, sings the glory of Food. It is Tamil Food Pittu or Puttu. Kerala Malayalees and Sri Lankan Tamils use it as staple food. It is salted and spiced. But Agastya talks about sweet Puttu. Lord Siva of Madurai worked for an old Puttu vending lady of Madurai and got beaten by the Pandya King, according to Saint Manikka vasagar.

Brahmins make such Sweet Puttu on festive days and in particular, on the day a girl comes of age in a family. Close relatives are given that Sweet Puttu. Agastya use the spelling Pithu ten times in the said hymn RV 1-187.

Since I am attaching the hymn at the end, I am going to leave my comments alone.

Aapupa is a fried cake which is called Appam or Aaappam in Tamil. Like Puttu, this is also made spicy and sweety. It is in many verses of Rig Veda. Even Tamil villagers are very familiar with this Aapuupa- AAppam.

Now in this verse 1-187 we come across 3 or 4 tasty food items. Puttu (Pithu) Mork Kali (Karamba), Barley cake and Soma juice.

Pithu and Puttu are the same though the spellings are different. Th= T is seen in moTHer and maTErnal uncle. (Other examples Pitha= Pitr= Pater= Peter= FaTHer; moTHer= matha= mater etc)

There are 11 mantras in the hymn describing various dishes. But in general Agastya thank Gods for providing Food and Water.

Apart from Pittu, Agastya sings about, Karamba. It is rice flour mixed with sugar or spices. One way of eating it is mixing flour in diluted yoghurt/ curd and add spices. After boiling it will be thick and can be cut into pieces. It is called Kali. Brahmins make it as snacks and call it Mork Kali (Mor is diluted Youghurt).


Three interesting Tit Bits

Since Rig Veda is many thousand years old, no one can give us correct meaning to many words. One of them is Trita. Literally it means ‘Mr Number Three’.

Griffith says about Trita:- “ a mysterious ancient deity frequently mentioned in the  Rigveda, principally in connection with Indra , Vayu and Maruts. His home is in the remotest part of heaven and he is called Aaptya , the Watery, that is sprung from or dwelling in the sea of cloud and vapour. By Sayana, (the most famous Hindu commentator ), he is identified sometimes with Vayu, sometimes with Indra as pervader of Three worlds and sometimes with Agni stationed in the  Three Fire receptacles.”

Every Brahmin house had Three Fires in Three geometrically shaped Altars. 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature also called Brahmins with the epithet ‘Three Fire Brahmins’. Trita is in RV. 1-187-1

The mystery doesn’t stop there. In 1-187-5 we come across an animal with the epithet ‘Like creatures that have mighty necks’. Griffith says ‘like strong bullocks’.

I don’t agree with Griffith. It is also a mysterious word like Trita. We come across Bulls in the Rig Veda hundreds of times with the normal Sanskrit word Vrsa/ba. Here Agastya plays on words to mean perhaps a Rhino. They are also vegetarians, but their horn and neck can even knock down a heavy truck. In Tamil they are called Kaandamrga meaning Neck animal or Horn animal.


Vaatapi Mystery

There is more mystery towards the end of the hymn with the word ‘Vatape peetha Bhava.’ This occurs in three Mantras.

“Vaataapi = Fermenting Soma. According to Saayana, the body” says Griffith

White skinned Max Muller gang interpreted Rig Veda as a Book of Songs of Drug Addicts. in the very first page of 650 paged Rig Veda of Griffith, we see the description of the hallucinatory Drug Soma. Scores of pages later Max Muller pours more poison saying he couldn’t find any word in English to explain the Matha/Kick the drug Soma gives. So according to the white skinned gangsters , Soma is a hallucinatory narcotic chemical. And there is no hymn without Soma in the Rig Veda!! So the gang hints at a drug addicted Hindu religion/ society. So no wonder here also Vaatapi is interpreted as fermenting Soma by Griffith.

Vatapi- Ilvalan Story

There is a very interesting story in the later Hindu mythology about Agastya whose statues are found throughout South East Asia. He is a short guy with a big belly like Lord Ganesh. Two demon brothers Ilvala and Vaataapi killed lot of sages and ate them. Some hymns clearly say they were cannibals. When Ilvala invited a sage he used to cook Vatapi and as soon as the sage ate Vaataapi meat, Ilvala called ‘Vatapi, Come out’ and the sage tummy was torn to pieces. When Ilvala played the same trick on Agastya, he said Vataapi Jeerno Bhava= Vataapi Get Digested.

This story is hinted in this mantra.

The Tamil translation by Jambunathan says ‘let the body get fattened’. Or ‘become stronger’.

All these mean the same. When the food is digested and get absorbed, the body becomes stronger or fatter.

So my Bhasyam/ interpretation is ‘Vatape peetha Bhava’ is ‘Vataapi Jeerno Bhava’. So we have the mythological story in the Rig Veda itself.

Kaamabha and Pithu

I said in the beginning two tasty items mentioned in the hymn are Pittu or Puttu and Mor Kali (karamba). Old Brahmin ladies make this spicy tasty Mor Kali by mixing Curd/Yoghurt with rice flour. Boil it and spice it with Jeera, Turmeric powder and chilies or black pepper. Chillies were imported from South America at a very late stage in Indian History and Hindus used black pepper instead.

The very word Pishta in Sanskrit means rice flour. In Agamas Rice Flour Abhisheka is prescribed to Lord Siva.

So my conclusion is Pithu= Pittu= Puttu and Karambha is Mor Kali= Yoghurt+ Rice Flour.

1935 Tamil Dictionary published by Ananda Vikatan magazine gives the meaning of Karambha.

Let us enjoy the Tamil Food from the Menu of Agastya Restaurant of Rig Vedic times!!

If you can’t make it, visit Kerala or Sri Lanka for a spicy Puttu or a Brahmin family for Sweet Puttu and Mor Kali/Karambha.

Long Live Tamil Saint Agastya!

Please see the attached original hymn below: —

1. Now will I glorify Food that upholds great strength,

     By whose invigorating power Trita rent Vrtra limb from limb.

2. O pleasant Food, O Food of meath, thee have we chosen for our own,

     So be our kind protector thou.

3. Come hitherward to us, O Food, auspicious with auspicious help,

     Health-bringing, not unkind, a dear and guileless friend.

4. These juices which, O Food, are thine throughout the regions are diffused.

     like winds they have their place in heaven.

5. These gifts of thine, O Food, O Food most sweet to taste,

     These savours of thy juices work like creatures that have mighty necks.

6. In thee, O Food, is set the spirit of great Gods.

     Under thy flag brave deeds were done he slew the Dragon with thy help.

7. If thou be gone unto the splendour of the clouds,

     Even from thence, O Food of meath, prepared for our enjoyment, come.

8. Whatever morsel we consume from waters or from plants of earth, O Soma, wax thou fat thereby.

9. What Soma, we enjoy from thee in milky food or barley-brew, Vatapi, grow thou fat thereby.

10. O Vegetable, Cake of meal, he wholesome, firm, and strengthening: Vatapi, grow thou fat thereby.

11. O Food, from thee as such have we drawn forth with lauds, like cows, our sacrificial gifts,

     From thee who banquetest with Gods, from thee who banquetest with us.

Rig Veda Mandala 1 Hymn 187

पितुं नु सतोषं महो धर्माणं तविषीम |
यस्य तरितो वयोजसा वर्त्रं विपर्वमर्दयत ||

सवादो पितो मधो पितो वयं तवा वव्र्महे |
अस्माकमविता भव ||

उप नः पितवा चर शिवः शिवाभिरूतिभिः |
मयोभुरद्विषेण्यः सखा सुशेवो अद्वयाः ||

तव तये पितो रस रजांस्यनु विष्ठिताः |
दिवि वाता इव शरिताः ||

तव तये पितो ददतस्तव सवादिष्ठ ते पितो |
पर सवाद्मानो रसानां तुविग्रीवा इवेरते ||

तवे पितो महानां देवानां मनो हिताम |
अकारि चारु केतुना तवाहिमवसावधीत ||

यददो पितो अजगन विवस्व पर्वतानाम |
अत्रा चिन नो मधो पितो.अरं भक्षाय गम्याः ||

यदपामोषधीनां परिंशमारिशामहे |
वातपे पीवैद भव ||

यत ते सोम गवाशिरो यवाशिरो भजामहे |
वातापे पीवैद भव ||

करम्भ ओषधे भव पीवो वर्क्क उदारथिः |
वातापे पीवैद भव ||
तं तवा वयं पितो वचोभिर्गावो न हव्या सुषूदिम |
देवेभ्यस्त्वा सधमादमस्मभ्यं तवा सधमादम ||

pituṃ nu stoṣaṃ maho dharmāṇaṃ taviṣīm |
yasya trito vyojasā vṛtraṃ viparigvedaamardayat ||

svādo pito madho pito vayaṃ tvā vavṛmahe |
asmākamavitā bhava ||

upa naḥ pitavā cara śivaḥ śivābhirūtibhiḥ |
mayobhuradviṣeṇyaḥ sakhā suśevo advayāḥ ||

tava tye pito rasa rajāṃsyanu viṣṭhitāḥ |
divi vātā iva śritāḥ ||

tava tye pito dadatastava svādiṣṭha te pito |
pra svādmāno rasānāṃ tuvighrīvā iverate ||

tve pito mahānāṃ devānāṃ mano hitām |
akāri cāru ketunā tavāhimavasāvadhīt ||

yadado pito ajaghan vivasva parigvedaatānām |
atrā cin no madho pito.araṃ bhakṣāya ghamyāḥ ||

yadapāmoṣadhīnāṃ pariṃśamāriśāmahe |
vātape pīvaid bhava ||

yat te soma ghavāśiro yavāśiro bhajāmahe |
vātāpe pīvaid bhava ||

karambha oṣadhe bhava pīvo vṛkka udārathiḥ |
vātāpe pīvaid bhava ||

taṃ tvā vayaṃ pito vacobhirghāvo na havyā suṣūdima |
devebhyastvā sadhamādamasmabhyaṃ tvā sadhamādam ||


tags- Puttu, Pittu, Tamil Food, Rig Veda, RV 1-187, Mor Kali, Karambha

Vrka in Rig Veda, Viruhu in Tamil and Vrka in Panini- A study (Post.9604)


Post No. 9604

Date uploaded in London – –14 May   2021           

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After reading Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, I thought the Rig Vedic translation of the word ‘Vrka is wrong at least in some places. Ancient Hindus used animal totems, or they had animals on their flags. We know that Arjuna had monkey flag and Duryodhana had snake on his flag. We also read Vanara/ monkey tribe, Jatayu, the Eagle rtribe, Jambhavan, the Bear tribe in Ramayana. All the rishis have animal or bird names. Just a few examples Kausika Visvamitra means Owl, Bharadvaja means Crow and Kashyapa means Tortoise. These totem symbols are in later Mahabharata as well. We read about Matsya/ Fish kingdom and Naga/ snake loka or kingdom.

To cut it short,  over hundred kings, seers and persons are named after plants, birds and animals. It is even in Vedic literature like Pippalada/ peepul tree, Mesha/ sheep for Indra. Aja means goat and many kings and Brahma were called Aja.

Vrka is found in Rigveda in several places. The Vedic Index of Keith and Macdonell gives two meanings. Strangely not connected to one another. A wolf or a plough. I read one or two hymns where the word Vrka occurred. The people who read Vedas forget completely the greatest grammarian Panini. Nobody explained why Panini gives the meanings of  words or usage In Chandas/ Vedas and Bhasha/ Sanskrit. Scholars like Goldstucker only pointed out that he was very close to the end of the Vedic period.

So let us look at some interesting details about Vrka in Panini and also Viruhu in Tamil


Panini’s Vrka is explained in detail by M S Agrawala in his doctoral research thesis and published later with the title ‘India As Known to Panini’.

Here is the gist from the book:

Vrikas is an Aayudha jiivi Sangha, a community that lived by the profession of arms. The whole tribe was called Vrikaah. The Vrikas thus appears to be a section of the war like Saka tribes.

Vrka, Sutra 5-3-115

An individual member of this Sangha was called Vaarkenya and the whole Sangha Vrika. This name standing alone in the sutra with a suffix peculiar from the rest is hither to untraced. It is stated to be Aayudha jiivin, but not necessarily associated with Vaahiika.

It should probably be identified with Varkana, the Old Persian form in the Behitsun inscription of Darius, mentioned along with Paarthava or the Paarthians.

There is a striking similarity between the Sanskrit and old Persian forms of the name,e.g.Vaarkenya equal to Vaarkana in the singular number, and Vrikaah equal to Varkaa in the plural as in the expression Sakaa Hauma Varkaa.

The country of the Vrikas s seems to have been the same as Hyreania lying to the north of Paarthia and on the Eastern corner of Caspian.

Modern Persian Gurgan from Vrika= gurg, in the valley of the river with that name in fertile district of Astarabad.

The Persians distinguished the Varkas and in fact all the northern warlike equestrian people as Sacas.

The name Vrika is known throughout the north west as shown by by its derivatives found in several languages near by Paninis homeland


Iskashmi- Verk

Yidghaa – work, wurg

The title Bakanapati or Barkanapati, the Chief of the Varkanas, is applied to a governor of Mathuraa who was associated with the foundation and repair of Devakula of Vima kadphises, whom Jayaswal identifed a sa Hycranian Saka.

The Sakas were a very ancient race referred to in old Persian inscriptions of Darius and settled both in the Sakasthana. Katyayana also has the expression Saka- Parthava in a Varttika showing that he knew about them in the fourth century BCE.


Vrika in Vedic Index

Vrka, wolf, is mentioned frequently in the Rigveda and also later. It was an enemy of sheep and of calves, being dangerous even to men. Its colour is stated to be reddish/aruna. The she wolf is Vrki ; several times mentioned in the Rigveda.

Second meaning:

Vrka in two passages of the Rigveda denotes ‘plough’.

Another word next to it is Vrka-dvaras, found in only one place in the Rigveda. It is interpreted differently by Ludwig, Roth, Oldenberg and Hillebrandt.

King of the Sandikas. Hillebrandt says it has Iranian connection.


Viruhu (Dhole)  in Tamil

In Tamil, Viruhu is forest Red dog.

It is like Dingoes of Australia. They circle the prey and attack together.


My Comments

Matsya tribe is found in the Puranas and Mahabharata. It means Fish tribe. In our own time we saw Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka attacking Sinhalese. The newspapers simply called them ‘tigers’. Those who were familiar with the Sri Lankan politics know they were fighters against the government .

In the same way, Vrka were wolf people. They attacked others and made a life out of it. But in the Rig Vedic translations we find only wolves. It may be right in some places, but not in other places. So we have to reconsider the old translations.

And strangely Tamils also has this word. Many Rig Vedic words are used in day today conversations. Like Rig Vedic Aruna/ Red wolf we have Sen Naay, Red Dogs of the wild, the common name of which is Viruhu/dhole. There is even a proverb. He blinks like a viruhu; it also means the face of a thief. Because they steal goats and sheep.

So Vrka is not just Wolf. It may be Armed Vrka tribe or Red Dog, Dingoes of Tamil Nadu or plough.

Another interesting point is its Iranian connection. Since Tamils also have the word we are pretty sure the word travelled from India to Iran and not vice versa.

One more interesting  point is Gurg. We have to see whether there is any connection with the Gurkas of Nepal.

The word Gurg is used even in Karnataka where the River Kaveri originates.

We see wolf and sheep even in Aesop fables who copied all the Hindu stories. Vrka gives the word Wolf in English is known to linguists.


 tags- Vrka, wolf, Armed tribe, Dhole, Dingo, Plough, Rig Veda

Anti COVID-19 Mantra in Rig Veda (Post.9564)


Post No. 9564

Date uploaded in London – –4 May   2021           

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The Rigveda has a mantra against snake bites and other poisonous creatures including scorpions. The mantra or the spell has some lines against unseen germs as well. I personally think that this mantra can be used as anti COVID-19 spell by those who have faith in the Vedic mantras. Hindus believe that Vedic sound effect is more important than the literal meaning.

There are more interesting details coming out of the commentaries on these mantras. It talks about anti dotes to poison and the anti-dotes are peacock/peahen, mongoose, a bird identified as Francolin partridge , herbs, sun and the hymn Mantra itself.

This Rigvedic hymn 1-191 has 16 mantras or stanzas in it. It is attributed to seer Agastya.

RTH Griffith, who translated it gives us the following information,

My additional interpretation is that it may be used against all viral attacks because it talks about invisible and unseen poison attacks as well.

Since the hymn is at least 3500 years old, we lost some of the original meaning..

in the second part  i will give the full mantra………….

to be continued…………………….

tags- Anti Covid Mantra, Rig Veda, Snake bite manta, poison, sucking bird, Agastya, Siddha-Ayurveda

The Beautiful Poetry of the Vedas (Post No.9473)


Post No. 9473

Date uploaded in London – –9  APRIL  2021     

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( I find Vedic references numbers are wrong )

Indian Express newspaper cutting dated 6-3-1980

The visions of the beauty of life and nature in the Vedas are extremely rich in poetic value. Perhaps, nowhere else in the world has the glory of dawn and sunrise and the silence and the sweetness of nature, received such rich and at the same time such pure expression.

In English literature , only such noblest passages in Shakespeare and Milton, for example, can be cited as a parallel to the best Vedic hymns, in respect of the spontaneity and expression, the power and sweep of rhythm and the subtlety and solemnity of effect. It is surprising to find that the Vedic sages were quite confident about the future of their poetry

Never Forget  This word of thine, O Singer !

Which future generations shall re-echo

— RV 3-33-8

The words of the Vedas have resounded through at least three and a half millennia and we should expect them to be resounded for many more millennia— (Dr. Abinash Chandra Bose).

Indeed, God is seen as the poet who with poetic power has fixed his beauty in the sky – RV

Aye, the poet of poets, the most famous of all

‘Kavim kaveernaam Upamasra vasthamam’

Also the greatest sage among the poets

‘Tvaam aahur vipratamam kaveenaam.’

In Subrahmanya Bharati s words

‘Umai kavithai seykiral’.

Vedic hymns are compared in the Veda itself to streams gushing out of mountains

‘Giribhrajo normayo madanto bruhaspatim abhyakaa anaavan’-


The Vedic sage -seer to whom Vaak, the sacred word had revealed her noble form as a loving wife, finely robed, reveals her to her husband, could not but sing –RV10-71-4


The aspect of Veda as superb poetry, literature, was dealt with Sri A.V.Subrahmanian under the auspices of Rasodaya at the Sanskrit college premises, Mylapore on March 2. He cited the relevant mantras with manifest ease and enjoyment. Some points referred to by him are recalled below,


1.The Vedic age was one of abundant life. The will to live a long and radiant life was strong. This world was the most beloved of all, we must be happy here.

Sweet to the night and

Sweet to the dawns

Sweet the dust of the earth,

Sweet be our father heaven to us.

‘Madhu naktam utoshaso madhumat naathivam rajah madhu dhyaur nah pitas’

2.In the opening mantra of the Rigveda  the deity is hailed as the Supreme donor,

Agnimeele….. hotaaram ratnadhaatamam. Elsewhere the deity is extolled as the best of furtherers— gaatuvittama- the best gladdener— matsarintam, friend, father, fatherliest of fathers—sakhaayo pitaa pitrutamah and a fountain in the desert to the worshipful man.


3.During times of care and pain the Supreme deity is prayed to thus realistically—-

As rats eat the weaver’s threads, cares are eating inside me, Oh Almighty God, show Thy mercy on us. Be like a father to us.

Moosho na sisnaa vyadanti Maadhyah sotaaram to mrulayaa adhaa piternava no bhava RV 10-33-3


4.Like a child appealing to his father not to leave him and go away, the prayer is made

Stay still O Bountiful One

Don’t go away. I will offer Thee a libation of

Well pressed Soma juice .

With my sweetest song,

I grasp thy garment’s hem as a child grasps his father’s

RV 3-5-2.



Tags- Vedic poetry. Dawn, Rig Veda



Post No. 9260

Date uploaded in London – –13 FEBRUARY 2021
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Number symbolism is found throughout Vedic hymns. Hymn 114 of Tenth Mandala also has lot of numbers in it and the Vedic “scholars” found it very difficult to translate it or interpret it. Many of the translators differ from traditional commentator Sayana. I read more in this hymn/ poem from another angle.
First let us look at the numbers in the Ten Mantras in the hymn RV 10-114
Here is Ralph T H Griffith’s translation who is very honest and admits that he is unable to understand hundreds of mantras in the Rig Veda. Others such as Max Muller, Dr Muir, Wilson and Ludwig give their own views. Like no two clocks agree they don’t agree with each other. Later day Tamil siddhas also followed this style and gave just numbers in their verses. At the end of this article I give two examples from Siva Vakkiyar and Tirumazisai Alvar where they repeat number 8 or 5 umpteen times in their verses they leave it to solve the number puzzle.

RV 10-114
The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 114
Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith

  1. Two perfect springs of heat pervade the Three fold, and come for their delight is Matarisvan.
    Craving the milk of heaven the Gods are present: well do they know the praise song and the Saman.
  2. The priests beard far away, as they are ordered, serve the three Nirrtis, for well they know them.
    Sages have traced the cause that first produced them, dwelling in distant and mysterious chambers.
  3. The Youthful One, well-shaped, with four locks braided, brightened with oil, puts on the ordinances.
    Two Birds of mighty power are seated near her, there where the Deities receive their portion.
  4. One of these Birds hath passed into the sea of air: thence he looks round and views this universal world.
    With simple heart I have beheld him from anear: his Mother kisses him and he returns her kiss.
  5. Him with fair wings though only One in nature, wise singers shape, with songs, in many figures.
    While they at sacrifices fix the metres, they measure out twelve chalices of Soma.
  6. While they arrange the four and six-and-thirty, and duly order, up to twelve, the measures,
    Having disposed the sacrifice thoughtful sages send the Car forward with the Rc and Saman.
  7. The Chariot’s majesties are fourteen others: seven sages lead it onward with their Voices.
    Who will declare to us the ford Apnana, the path whereby they drink first draughts of Soma?
  8. The fifteen lauds are in a thousand places that is as vast as heaven and earth in measure.
    A thousand spots contain the mighty thousand. Vak spreadeth forth as far as Prayer extendeth.
  9. What sage hath learned the metres’ application? Who hath gained Vak, the spirit’s aim and object?
    Which ministering priest is called eighth Hero? Who then hath tracked the two Bay Steeds of Indra?
  10. Yoked to his chariot-pole there stood the Coursers: they only travel round earth’s farthest limits.
    These, when their driver in his home is settled, receive the allotted meed of their exertion.



1.In Mantra 8, Griffith talks about 15 types of prayers/lauds. Sayana talks about Indriyas/ sense organs.

2.In Mantra 3, we come across Two Birds; In another Upanishad mantra two bird sitting and one eats the berries- is interpreted as Paramatma and Jeevatma; Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) says it was taken by the Christians and given in Adam and Eve (Atma and Jeeve atma) story Mantra 9, we come across 8th hero. Some describe it as Agni. Others differ.
4.In Mantra 8 , three times 1000 is repeated. Translators struggle to explain it.
5.Mantras 5, 6, 7 also have many numbers
6.Mantra three is very interesting Four Braided Woman is described as Vedic altar with four sides!
7.In Mantra we have Three Nirritis, who are usually associated with Death
8.Mantra two probably talks about the Big Bang and the expanding Univers whe they say “Sages have traced the cause that first produced them, dwelling in distant and mysterious chambers.”
9.Mantra 10 also stress this cosmological point when they say “Yoked to his chariot-pole there stood the Coursers: they only travel round earth’s farthest limits”
10.Mantra seven describe a place called Apnana (water ford?) which is rare.
11.Mantra 4 talks about one bird goes into the sea and looks around which reminds us of the bird that sailors use to fined out whether they are near shore/land. This bird is in Indus boat seal and Alvar song.
12.Mantra 4 has a beautiful expression “his Mother kisses him and he returns her kiss.”
This hymn is addressed to Visvedevas, but stress One God is seen as many/1000
Very interesting Hymn, but not translated correctly by the “scholars”
Translators’ views
Mantra 1
Springs of heat – Agni and Surya ; Three fold- the universe , sky, firmament and earth; Matariswan – Vayu according to Sayana;
Three fold- Agni, Vayu, Surya says Ludwig.
Mantra 2
Nirritis -heaven, mid air an earth according to Sayana. Dawn , which by their regular appearance bring men nearer to death . Nirritis are linked to death.
Mantra 3
Four braided youth – Vedic altar
Two birds – probably Agni and Soma
According to Sayana husband and wife
Mantra 4
One – Agni as the sun. his mother, perhaps as prof. Ludwig says dawn
Mantra 6
Thirty six grahas are chalices or saucers for soma juice and four extra for Atyagniistoma sacrifice. The car = sacrifice.
Mantra 7
Majesties- may be mighty priests;
The ford Apanana – passage leading to sacrifice
Mantra 8
The mighty thousand – meaning is uncertain.
Wilson says 1000 places.
Dr muir says thousand times 15 Ukthas/ words.
According to Sayana every function of the body had its appropriate object.
Mantra 9
Eighth hero – Agni


घ॒र्मा समं॑ता त्रि॒वृतं॒ व्या॑पतु॒स्तयो॒र्जुष्टिं॑ मात॒रिश्वा॑ जगाम ।
दि॒वस्पयो॒ दिधि॑षाणा अवेषन्वि॒दुर्दे॒वाः स॒हसा॑मानम॒र्कं ॥

ति॒स्रो दे॒ष्ट्राय॒ निर्ऋ॑ती॒रुपा॑सते दीर्घ॒श्रुतो॒ वि हि जा॒नंति॒ वह्न॑यः ।
तासां॒ नि चि॑क्युः क॒वयो॑ नि॒दानं॒ परे॑षु॒ या गुह्ये॑षु व्र॒तेषु॑ ॥
Samhita Devanagari Accented
चतु॑ष्कपर्दा युव॒तिः सु॒पेशा॑ घृ॒तप्र॑तीका व॒युना॑नि वस्ते ।
तस्यां॑ सुप॒र्णा वृष॑णा॒ नि षे॑दतु॒र्यत्र॑ दे॒वा द॑धि॒रे भा॑ग॒धेयं॑ ॥
एकः॑ सुप॒र्णः स स॑मु॒द्रमा वि॑वेश॒ स इ॒दं विश्वं॒ भुव॑नं॒ वि च॑ष्टे ।
तं पाके॑न॒ मन॑सापश्य॒मंति॑त॒स्तं मा॒ता रे॑ळ्हि॒ स उ॑ रेळ्हि मा॒तरं॑ ॥
Samhita Devanagari Accented
सु॒प॒र्णं विप्राः॑ क॒वयो॒ वचो॑भि॒रेकं॒ संतं॑ बहु॒धा क॑ल्पयंति ।
छंदां॑सि च॒ दध॑तो अध्व॒रेषु॒ ग्रहा॒न्त्सोम॑स्य मिमते॒ द्वाद॑श ॥
ष॒ट्त्रिं॒शांश्च॑ च॒तुरः॑ क॒ल्पयं॑त॒श्छंदां॑सि च॒ दध॑त आद्वाद॒शं ।
य॒ज्ञं वि॒माय॑ क॒वयो॑ मनी॒ष ऋ॑क्सा॒माभ्यां॒ प्र रथं॑ वर्तयंति ॥
चतु॑र्दशा॒न्ये म॑हि॒मानो॑ अस्य॒ तं धीरा॑ वा॒चा प्र ण॑यंति स॒प्त ।
आप्ना॑नं ती॒र्थं क इ॒ह प्र वो॑च॒द्येन॑ प॒था प्र॒पिबं॑ते सु॒तस्य॑ ॥
Samhita Devanagari Accented
स॒ह॒स्र॒धा पं॑चद॒शान्यु॒क्था याव॒द्द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी ताव॒दित्तत् ।
स॒ह॒स्र॒धा म॑हि॒मानः॑ स॒हस्रं॒ याव॒द्ब्रह्म॒ विष्ठि॑तं॒ ताव॑ती॒ वाक् ॥
Samhita Devanagari Accented
कश्छंद॑सां॒ योग॒मा वे॑द॒ धीरः॒ को धिष्ण्यां॒ प्रति॒ वाचं॑ पपाद ।
कमृ॒त्विजा॑मष्ट॒मं शूर॑माहु॒र्हरी॒ इंद्र॑स्य॒ नि चि॑काय॒ कः स्वि॑त् ॥
भूम्या॒ अंतं॒ पर्येके॑ चरंति॒ रथ॑स्य धू॒र्षु यु॒क्तासो॑ अस्थुः ।
श्रम॑स्य दा॒यं वि भ॑जंत्येभ्यो य॒दा य॒मो भव॑ति ह॒र्म्ये हि॒तः ॥


tags- number symbolism, Rig Veda, RV 10-114