Post No. 8047

Date uploaded in London – 26 May 2020   

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

Sangam Tamil literature consist of 18 books running to nearly 30,000 lines. Over 2500 poems were composed by more than 450 poets. They belong to first three centuries of modern era (CE). Rig Veda also has over 400 seers with over 1000 hymns. Those hymns have over 10,000 mantras. Rig Veda is dated between 1500 BCE and 4000 BCE.

Here is a list of TAML and SANSKRIT words found in old literatures belonging to both the languages.

Scholars argue that Mina (fish), Neer/Nir (water), Mayura (peacock) found in the Rig Veda are few words borrowed from Tamil.  But no one has given the details of who used those Tamil words in the Rig Veda and what is the position of those Risis (seers) in chronological order. Tamils took at least 300 years to produce 2500 poems, Rig Vedic poets took at least 500 years to produce the present 1000 plus hymns. Someone has to probe into the chronology of those poets before coming to definite conclusions

I am giving a list of Sanskrit words found in the Tamil Sangam Works. I have taken most of the words from the book INDO-ARYAN LOAN WORDS IN OLD TAMIL by S. VAIDYANATHAN, 1971. I have not included words from Cilappadikaram, because I consider it a Post -Sangam work. But he has included Tolkappiam, Tirukkural and Cilappadikram in his book


Abbreviations used in the list

Tolkappiam- TK

Cilappadikaram -CAM

Tirukkural -TKL


Tamil Sangam books

A .Pattup pattu

1.Porunaraarruppatai – PNP

2.Cirupanaarruptai – CPP

3.Perumpanaarruppatai – PMP

4. Mullaippattu- MP

5.Maturaikkaanchi- MKI

6.Netunalvaatai – NNV

7.Kurincippaattu – KP

8.Pattinappaalai – PP

9.Malaipatukataam – MPK

10.Tirumurukaarruppatai -TMP


B .Ettut tokai

1.Purananaauru -PNN

2.Akanaanuru – ANN

3.Narrinai – PMP

4. Kuruntokai – KTK

5.Patirruppattu -PPU

6.Anikurunuuru- Ai. KN

7.Kalittokai -KLT

8.Paripaatal – PPL


1.Antaram , sky in TMP line 119. அந்தரம்

Intermediate space in RV

2.Manam ,PNN.183-4; Manan TMP line 90, mind மனம்

Manas mind in RV

3.Tuumam, PNN 117-1, smoke தூமம்

Dhuuma , smoke in RV

4.Ticai PP-2, direction திசை

Dis , direction in RV

Disaa in epics

5. Kalam, PMP 415, kalan MKI 48, battlefield, களம்

Khala ,threshing floor in RV

6.Pataakai PP 182, flag, பதாகை

Pat , to fly in RV

Pataakaa , flag in epics

7.Viccai , KLT 119-4, learning  விச்சை

Vidyaa -knowledge and vid- to know, in RV

8.Vecanai , PPL 20-13, entrance வேசனை

Vis , to enter in RV

Vesana – the act of entering in Bh P

9.Mukam, CPP -73, Mukan in PNN.207-4, face முகம்

Mukha , face in RV

10.Tantu ,KTK 156-3, staff, stick தண்டு

Danda , stick in RV

11.Mani , PNN. 56,PNP.21 gem, மணி

Gem in RV

12.Ulakkai , PNN. 221-8, pestle, உலக்கை

Uluukhala , a wooden mortar in RV

13.Aariyar, The kings of Andhra, ANN 276-9, ஆரியர்

Aarya , honourable  in RV

14.Iyakkan , PNN.71-14, name  of a king, இயக்கன்

Yaksha , spiritual apparition in RV

15. Valayam – PPL.13-52, bracelet, வலயம்

Valaya – bangles since the epics,

Var – wrap up, environ in  RV

16.Mangala , PNN.332, auspicious மங்கலம்

Sumangala , auspicious in RV

Also in CAM6-125, beauty

Mangala , luck, Sat.brahmana

17.Vaanikap paricilan , PNN 208-7, TKL.120, TOL.3-622-1 வாணிகப் பரிசிலன்

Vanikan PNN.134-2, a merchant

Vanik (in compounds) in RV

18.Kalam , PNN.228-1, pot கலம்

Kalasa , water pot in RV

19. Punniyam ,PP.204, good deeds புண்ணியம்

Punya , virtuous in  RV

20.Pali ,PNP.183, a ball of rice offered to crow, PP.179. oblation, CAM.5-87 human sacrifice பலி

Bali, oblation in RV

21.Ulaku PNN.107-4, Ulakam PNP.176, world உலகு

Loka in RV

22.Maakam ,MKI 454, sky மாகம் 

Mahaa , great in RV, (Maghavan-Indra)

Kha – sky in RV

23.Kankai , PMP.431, the Ganges கங்கை

Gangaa in RV

24.Puruvam, PNP.26, eye-brow புருவம்

Bhru , eye brow, in RV

25.Uuci- PNN 82-4, north ஊசி

Udici , north in RV

26.Paaci, PNN 229-9, east பாசி

Praaci, east, in RV

27.Vaaranam ,ANN.172-1, elephant வாரணம்

Vaarana , wild, dangerous, in RV

28.Ankam, ANN137-1, body அங்கம்

Anga, limb of the body in RV

29.Acokam , KLT 57-12, Saraca indica, the Asoka tree

Asoka , without heat in RV அசோகம்



Kanti CAM 12-57, neck கண்டி

Kantha in Satapata brahmana


Kulam , Ai. KN, 259-3, community , குலம்

Kulan ,TKL 223, family

Kula in Satapata brahmana


Mekalai,  KLT.96-16, upper garment மேகலை

Mekhela , girdle in AV


Navamani CAM 3-116, nine gems நவமணி

Nava , nine in RV,

Mani , gem, RV


Manta maarutam , CAM 4-44, breeze மந்த மாருதம்

Manda , slowly, softly, in epics

Maaruta proceeding from or consisting of the 

Maruts in RV


Arasa kumarar , CAM 5-158, அரச குமாரர்,

Raja kulaara, panini


Analan PPl.5-57, the fire god அனலன்

Since Manu and R


Pintam , PNN.246-6, a ball of rice offered to the deceased ancestors,


Pinda , a ball of food offered to the deceased in Srauta and   Grhya sutras


11.Kutaari , PPL 5-34, axe குடாரி

Kuthaara, axe, in R


Palaasam KCP 88, butea frondosa பலாசம்

Palaasa  I Aitareya Brahmana


Cakatam PMP 50, PNN 60-8, , 90-7, 185-2 சகடம்

(with different spellings), cart

Sakata , cart, in Chadogya Upanishad


Picaaca KLT-65-17, ghosts, பிசாச

Pisaca – demon, imp in AV


Aatava, sun, ANN.195-19, ஆதவ

Aatapa , sun shine Kathopanishad


Naakam, elephant, NNv.117, நாகம்

Naaga, elephant, Aitareya Brahmana


Vata Malai , PNN 67—7, Northern Mountains வட மலை

Uttaraparvata in R


Kaayam PNN 20-4, aakaayam PPL 4-31, sky

காயம் ஆகாயம்

Aakaasa , sky in Aitareya Brahmana


tags – Sanskrit words, , Sangam Literature, ,part 1,list,Rig Veda



Post No.7551

Date uploaded in London – 8 February 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

The number of female seers in Rig Veda comes to about thirty. This number includes five lady seers of Khilasukta also . Khila is like appendix or supplement.






It is pleasing to note that no religious disabilities were associated with women in India down to the end of the Upanishadic age (pre buddha period 600 BCE)

In the Vedic age there is ample evidence to show that the women not only studied the Vedas but also figured among the authors of Rig Vedic hymns. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


In the Vedic age there were certain sacrifices  like the Siitaa sacrifice and Rudra sacrifice that could be performed by women alone.

(Siitaa sacrifice at harvest and Rudra sacrifice to ensure fecundity among cattle)

Some women Vedic scholars like Lopaamudraa, Vishwavaaraa and Ghoshaa composed hymns that were later admitted into the sacred canon. Usually Vedic sacrifices were to be offered jointly by the husband and the wife.

The wife took an active part in the daily and periodical sacrifices along with her husband. She had her own hut in the sacrificial compound; the duty of chanting the sSaman hymns  usually fell upon her. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


The wife used to make the first brick for the sacrificial altar and participate in the consecration of the fire and the offering of oblations.

If the husband is away on a journey, the wife alone performed the different sacrifices which the couple had to do jointly.


As women enjoyed the same religious privileges as men and received the same education, their status in the family was nearly the same as that of men. Their status in society also was naturally satisfactory. Many of them were famous scholars and authors. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Women in Industries

 It is rather surprising to find that women were taking active part in the industrial life. They were manufacturing arrows and bows, making baskets, weaving cloth and participating in outdoor agricultural work. It is important to note that words like female arrow makers (ishukartryah) do not occur in later literature.

Among the fine arts music and dance have been cultivated by women fairly extensively; their love for and excellence in these arts were well known. Since women were following many outdoor professions there was naturally no ‘purdah’ (face covering veil) in the society. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


The husband and wife were the joint owners of the household and its property. They are called Dampati (Couple).RV 8-31-5/6

Yaa dampatii samanasaa sunuta aa ca

Dhaavalah devaaso niyayaasir

The expression ‘the wife is the home’ shows how woman was the central point of domestic life-RV 3-53-4


Grhinini /housewife is used in tamil as well as ‘illaal’ tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


What living women have proved to be such formative force as, for example, Sati, Sita and Savitri?

What could be better illustrative examples of the true dignity of Indian womanhood than Draupadi, Shakuntalaa, and Gaandhaari?

We hear of great women like Maitreyi, , Gaargi, Arundhati and Liilaavati

Source – Great Women of India and New Horizons of Indological Research tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

TAGS – Vedic Women, Vedic Poetesses, Rig Veda


ரிக் வேதத்தில் “க” (Post No.4229)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 20 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 21-19


Post No. 4229


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


ரிக்வேதத்தில் “க” என்னும் கடவுள் வெளி நாட்டு “அறிஞர்களின்” கண்களில் விரலை விட்டு ஆட்டிவிட்டது. வேத கால மக்கள் நாடோடிகள், கைபர் கணவாய் வழியாக வந்த நாடோடிகள் என்றெல்லாம் பிதற்றிய அறிவிலிகளுக்கு, அரை வேக்காடுகளுக்கு ரிக் வேத  “க” பெரிய புதிர் போட்டது. மாக்ஸ் முல்லர் முதலியோரெல்லாம் சிரித்தனர். இப்போது அதுகளை ப் பார்த்தால் நமக்கு சிரிப்பாக வருகிறது!


க என்றால் பிரம்மா; க என்றால் பிரஜாபதி; இது தமிழ் அகராதியிலும் உள்ளது. மேலும் சில விஷயங்கள் மாக்ஸ் முல்லர் வகையறாக்களுக்குத் தெரியாது ‘க’ என்றால் கடவுள். தமிழ் ‘க’ பிராமி என்னும் வடக்கத்திய லிபியிலிருந்து வந்ததை உலகமே அறியும். அது கிட்டத்தட்ட கிறிஸ்தவ சிலுவையைப் போல வெறும் கோடுகளால் மட்டும் ஆனது. ஆதி கால எகிப்தில் இது கடவுளைக் குறிக்கும் சின்னம்! ஆனால் வெறும் சிலுவை மாதிரி கோடுகள் மட்டுமில்லாமல் இரண்டு புறமும் இரு கோடுகள் மேல் நோக்கிச் செல்லும் அதைப் பார்த்தால் ஒரு மனிதன் இரு கைகளையும்  உயர்த்தி இருப்பதைப் போலத் தோன்றும். இந்தியாவில் இருந்து சென்ற க (பிரஜாபதி) மூலம் இந்த எழுத்து வந்திருக்கலாம். அதிலிருந்து சிலுவையும் தோன்றி இருக்கலாம்.


இனி ரிக் வேத கவிதை “க” (10-121) பற்றிக் காண்போம்.


‘க’ என்றால் சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் யார் என்றும் ஒரு பொருள் உண்டு. வேத கால மக்கள் மிக மிக நாகரீக முன்னேற்றம் கண்டவர்கள். ஆகையால் ‘க’ என்ற எழுத்தை வைத்துச் சொற் சிலம்பம் விளையாடினர். வேத கால மக்களை ‘மண்டுகள்’ என்று சித்தரித்த மாக்ஸ் முல்லர் வகையறாக்களால் இந்த சிலேடைக் கவிதையை ஜீரணிக்க முடியவில்லை. மேலும் அவர்களுக்கு எகிப்திய நாகரீகம் பற்றிய விரிவான  அறிவும் கிடையாது. தமிழ் ‘க’ பற்றியும் தெரியாது. ஆகையால் இது என்ன வெறும் உளறலாக இருக்கிறதே என்று குறை கூறத் துவங்கினர்.


தெரியாத கடவுள்(Altar for Unknown God) என்று ஏதென்ஸ் நகர மக்கள் ஒரு பலி பீடம் அமைத்திருந்தனர் . அந்த பெயர் தெரியாத கடவுளுடன் ரிக் வேத  க -வையும் ஒப்பிடத்துவங்கினர்.


‘க’ என்பது பிரஜாபதியைக் குறிக்கும், உயிரினங்களுக்கு எல்லாம் கடவுள் அவர்; அவைகளை எல்லாம் படைத்தவர் அவர் என்று வேதமே சொல்லியும் அவர்களுக்கு சந்தேகம் தீர்ந்தபாடில்லை.

க-வை வைத்து  யாருடைய என்ற எழுத்தும் பல உரிச் சொற்களும் உருவாயின. இவை எல்லாம் மொழி வளர்ச்சி பற்றிய விஷயங்கள்.


‘க’ என்பது பிரஜாபதி என்பதால் யாகத்திலும் அவருக்கு ஆகுதி அளிக்கப்பட்டது. இது எல்லாம் வெளிநாட்டினரை திகைக்க வைத்தது. வேத கால ரிஷிகளுக்கு முட்டாள் பட்டம் கட்டியே வழக்கம் என்பதால் சிலேடை அர்த்தம் புரியாமல், இது சிறுபிள்ளைத்தனமான ஒரு கண்டுபிடிப்பு என்றெல்லாம் கட்டுரை எழுதினர்.


சுருக்கமாக சொல்ல வேண்டுமால் ‘க’  என்பதன் சிலேடை அர்த்தம் புரியாமல் – அதை குறை கூறினர்.


எகிப்தில் இறந்த மன்னன், கழுகு வடிவில் வான மண்டலத்துக்குச் செல்லுவதாக எகிப்திய பிரமிடு  இலக்கியம் சொல்லும். ‘க’ என்பது மனிதனின் ஆத்மா என்றும் சொல்லும். இந்தியாவிலும் மனர் பறவை வடிவத்தில் மேலுலகம் செல்லுவதாக சம்ஸ்கிருத ஸ்லோகம் உள்ளது. ஆக ‘க’ என்பது கடவுள், ‘க’ என்பது ஆன்மா; க’’ என்பது படைப்புக் கடவுளான பிரஜாபதி/பிரம்மா. ‘க’ என்பது பறவை வடிவில் காட்டப்படும்.

ரிக்வேதத்தில் (10-121) வரும் கவிதை!


1.முதல் முதலில் தங்க முட்டை (ஹிரண்யகர்ப்பம்) எழுந்தது. அவர் பிறந்தவுடன் படைப்புகளுக்கு எல்லாம் கடவுள் ஆனார். அவர் வானத்தையும் பூமியையும் வைத்திருந்தார் யார் இந்தக் கடவுள்? யாருக்கு பிரசாதத்தைப் படைப்போம்?


(இதில் யாருக்கு என்ற இடத்தில் பிரஜாபதிக்கு என்று சிலேடை அர்த்தத்தில் படிக்க வேண்டும். ஏனெனில் க என்றால் யார்; க என்றால் பிரஜாபதி; இந்த சிலேடை பொருள் தெரியாமல் வெள்ளைத் தோல்கள் முழித்தன!)


2.யார் ஒருவர் உயிர் அளிக்கிறாரோ, யார் ஒருவர் பலம் அளிக்கிறாரோ, யாருடைய கட்டளைக்கு எல்லாக் கடவுளரும் கீழ்ப் படிகின்றனரோ அவர்தான் அழியாதவர் யார் இவர்? யாருக்கு படைப்புகளைப் படைப்போம்?


(முன்னர் காட்டியது போல யார்= என்ற இடத்தில் எல்லாம் பிரஜாபதி என்றும் படிக்கலாம்)

3.யார் தனது மகிமையாலுலகின் ஒரே மன்னர் ஆனாரோ யார் இரு கால், நான்கு கால் உயிரினங்களுக்கு தலைவரோ — யார் இவர்? யாரை நாம் வணங்கி காணிக்கைகளைச் செலுத்துவோம்?


4.யார் தனது சக்தியால் பனி மூடிய மலைகளையும் கடலையும் ஒன்றாக வைத்திருக்கிறாரோ- இடையே ரசா என்ற நதியுடன்– யார் கைகளில் வானத்தின் இரண்டு பகுதிகள் இருக்கின்றனவோ அவர் யார்? எவரை வணங்கி நம் காணிக்கைகளைச் செலுத்துவது?


5.யார் வானத்தையும் பூமியையும் திடமாக வைத்திருக்கிறாரோ யார் மூலம் வானம் நிலைத்து நிற்கிறதோ யார் இடைப்பட்ட பகுதியை வைத்து இருக்கிறாரோ யார் அவர்? யாருக்கு படைப்புகளைத் தருவது?


6.யார் மூலம் சூரியன் பிரகாசிக்கிறான்?யார் அவர்? யாருக்கு படைப்புகளைத் தருவது?

7.வெள்ளம்/பிரளயம் வந்தபோது உயிர்க்கருக்களுடனும் தீயுடனும் அதிலிருந்து உருவானவர் கடவுளரின் உயிர் மூச்சு– யார் அவர்? யாருக்கு படைப்புகளைத் தருவது?

8.யார் தக்ஷாவுடன் (படைப்பு சக்தி) வந்த பிரளயத்தை பார்த்தாரோ – யாக யக்ஞங்களைக் கொண்டு வந்தாரோ– கடவுள்களில் எல்லாம் ஒரே கடவுளரோ– யார் அவர்? யாருக்கு காணிக்கைகளைப் படைப்பது?


9.பூமியையும் வானத்தையும் படைத்த அவர் நமக்கு எந்தத் தீங்கும் இழைக்கக் கூடாது. அவருடைய சட்ட திட்டங்கள் உண்மையானவை. தண்ணீரைப் படைத்தவர் அவரே– யார் அவர்? யாருக்கு காணிக்கைகளைப் படைப்பது?


10.ஓ பிரஜாபதியே! படைப்புக் கடவுளே! உம்மைத் தவிர எல்லா உயிரினங்களையும் காப்பவர் எவர்? உனக்கு நாங்கள் காணிக்கைகளைச் செலுத்துகிறோம். எங்கள் ஆசைகளைப் பூர்த்தி செய்வாயாக நாங்கள் செல்வத்துக்கு அதிபதியாகட்டும்.


மிக மிகத் தெளிவாக பிரஜாபதியை/ பிரம்மாவைத் துதிக்கும் பாடல் என்பதை கடைசி மந்திரம் தெளிவாவக் காட்டுகிறது.


ஆனால் யார் (க= பிரம்மா=பிரஜாபதி) என்ற சிலேடை புரியாமல் வெளிநாட்டுக் கிராக்கிகள் முழி முழி என்று முழித்தன!


my old article:

  1. Ka | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Ka written by Tamil and Vedas … Picture shows Egyptian Manu= Narmer. Did Indians build Pyramids?-Part 2 ( Please read first part before reading this ..





Mysterious PURUSA in the Hindu Vedas!(Post No.3985)

Research article Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 9 June 2017


Time uploaded in London- 11-37 am


Post No. 3985


Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.


contact: swami_48@yahoo.com



English word PERSON is derived from the Sanskrit word PURUSA. It is used in grammar, relationships and philosophy. If one studies the ways this word is used in the Hindu scriptures, one would realise how difficult it would be to understand Vedic symbolism.


In Tamil families, they use the word ‘purusa’ to mean one’s husband. In Sanskrit and English grammar, we use it for First person, second person and third person. In the Vedas, they use it to denote MAN. Lot of number symbolism come with it.

1.Purusa is the generic term for Man in the Rig Veda and later in the Atharva Veda (7-104-15; 10-97-4 etc; AV 3-21-1;5-21-4 etc.


  1. Man (Purusa) is composed of five parts (AV 12-3-10)
  2. Man (Purusa) is composed of 16 parts (Aitareya Brahmana
  3. Man (Purusa) is composed of 20 parts (Pancavimsa Brahmana)
  4. Man (Purusa) is composed of 21 parts (Taittiriya Samhita and four more books
  5. Man (Purusa) is composed of 24 parts (Satapata Brahmana 6-2-1-23)
  6. Man (Purusa) is composed of 25 parts (Sankalayana Srauta Sutra 16-12)


One has to get proper explanation from his Guru to understand all these. No translation will help. Vedic language has hidden meaning.


Tamil poets – Alwars and Nayanmars- used this type of number symbolism around 8th century CE. But Vedic poets used it thousands of years before them. This shows how advanced they were in thinking. Foreigners couldn’t understand all these symbolisms and branded them as primitive. Modern research show that the foreign authors were primitive!

Man is the Master of Animals


Man is the first of animals (Satapata Brahmana 6-2-1-18)

(This goes very well with the theory of evolution and psychologists’ belief)

“Man is a rational animal — so at least I have been told. Throughout a long life I have been looked diligently for evidence in favour of this statement, but so far I have not had the good fortune to come across it.”[— Betrand Russel

“Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unsocial naturally and not accidentally is either beneath our notice or more than human. Society is something that precedes the individual. Anyone who either cannot lead the common life or is so self-sufficient as not to need to, and therefore does not partake of society, is either a beast or a god. ”–Aristotle


Man is the Master of Animals (which is shown in Indus Valley Seal, Bahrain/Dilmun seal Celtic seal; pleasesee my earlier research article on Pasupati seal of Indus valley)—Kathaka Samhita 20-10


Height of a Man

Tamil literature says a man’s height is eight times of his hand/Saan (though the modern meaning of Saan is the length of one hand’s extended fingers, the old meaning must be different)


The height of a man is four Aratnis (cubits) accordint to Katyayana Srauta Sutra (here again Aratni means length of an extended arm; it may vary between 18 and 21 inches). Wherever such human limbs used one has to use his own foot or hand or arm for the measurement.)

Purusa itself is used as a measure of length (satapata Brahmana and Taittiriya Samhita). This is also interesting. Even today Indian villages use this measurement. When they want to say how seep is a tank or a lake they will says Four men depth or three men depth. So, Purusa is used to mention the length.


Since Vedas say a man’s life is 100 years, the term is used to denote the length of one’s life and generation as well , a generation (Taittiriya Samhita 2-1-5-5; dvi purusa= two generations- Aitareya Brahmana 8-7).


Strangely purusa is used for the pupil of the eye as well (Satapata Brahmana and Brhad Aranyaka Upanishad)

Purusa also meant Cosmic man, Brahman in the Vedas. Purusa Sukta (10-90) in the Rig Veda sings the glory of cosmic man with thousand heads and thousand feet.

Mysterious PURUSA MRGA!

The ‘man wild beast’ (Purusa Mrga) occurs in the list of Asvamedha Sacrifice list in the Yajur Veda (Taittiriya Samhita 5-5-15-1)

Zimmer thinks it MAY be an ape; according to him it meant an ape in Atharva Veda(6-38-4; 19-39-4)

But Bloomfield and Whitney don’t agree with him.

The mystery continues! were there apes in India those days in North India? Mrga also mean deer; was it a particular type of deer or a male deer?


More Mysterious PURUSA HASTIN!

Purusa Hastin means A Man with a Hand! It is also found in the list of Asvamedha Yaga list of Yajur Veda (Vajasaneyi Samhita 24-29; Maitrayani Sahita 3-14-8)


Hastin – an animal with a hand is used for elephant in later literature. But Purusa Hastin and Purusa Mrga are strange words which have not been used in the sense of ape.

Bhima’s encounter with Purushamiruga is a later story.

Books used: Book of Quotations

Vedic Index by A A Macdonell and A B Keith


Comments on Vedic Women Poets (Post No.3923)

Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 19 May 2017


Time uploaded in London: 22-15


Post No. 3923


Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, google and Wikipedia; thanks.


contact: swami_48@yahoo.com




VEDA SAMHITAS have at least twenty women poets (rsikas).  Prof. Rahurkar has shown, the names and contents of hymns, i.e .the nature of their prayers reveal the social background of their composers who thus become fairly representative of their society.


Ghosa was a maiden anxious to get married while Suryaa was the newly wedded wife. In Sasvati we have an affectionate and faithful wife. Indrani is a jealous wife while Romasa and Lopamudra are voluptuous women. Apala’s plea is moving, she is sick and abandoned by her husband. Visvavara is a happy and contented matron, while Aditi is a proud mother. Poor Godha was a modest and righteous woman. The nymph Urvasi, as her lover says has the heart of a hyena and Yami is eager to seduce her twin brother Yama. Thus no two women are exactly alike and together they offer glimpse into the feminine world in Vedic society.



Lopamudrs was the author of I- 179;

Apala Maitreyi of VIII-91

Yami of X -10

Vasukra’s wife X :28

Kaksivat Gbosa X 39-40;

Surya -X 85;

Urvasi of X 95

Vac, daughter of Ambhrna  X 125;

Brahma Jaya X 139;

Yami, daughter of Vivasvat X 145;

Indrani X: 145;

Sraddha Kamayani X: 151:

Paulomi Saci X 159.

From V G Rahurkar, “The Rsikas of flie Baveda” in Dandekar felicitation Volume


Also, Pouruchlila, Zarathustra’s daughter was a woman seer, the author of Gatha 53.




Oldest Democracy in the World! Oldest Female MP in the World!!

Written by London swaminathan

Research Article No.1858; Dated 11 May 2015.

Uploaded in London at 21-07


India is the oldest democratic country in the world. Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world, confirms it. Not only that but also the two words used by the Vedic Hindus are used until today from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari and throughout the world. They had two assemblies: Sabha and Samiti. Sabha is used in all the states of India (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Vidhan Sabha etc) Since Tolkappiam, the oldest Tamil book banned the use of letter ‘Sa’ in Tamil,  Sabha is changed as Avai (Sabhai) in Tamil Nadu. Samiti is used throughout the world as Committee (C=S; samiti=committee).

Several hundred words from the Rig Veda are being used throughout the country. Tamils have been using them for 2000 years! Sanskrit will never die! All the major languages of the world have Sanskrit words!

Bihar Vidhan Sabha


Oldest female MP or MLA was also from India! Rig Veda mentioned female members of the Sabha as sabhavati (RV 1-167-3). It says female member utters fitting words in the sabha!! They were the best speakers! It also said that a woman who protects law (rta) comes thrice to the Sabha (RV 3-56-5). I have already given one proof where Miss Gargi Vachaknavi attended the Religious Conference convened by Janaka. She stood up in the conference and challenged the greatest scholar of the period Yajnavalkya! All this happened before Homer wrote the first book in Greek!

The words regarding Sabha, its activities, its members and its uses show that Rig Vedic society was the most advanced civilization in the world.

Tamil Nadu Assembly

ROLE OF SABHA (Avai in Tamil; S becomes ‘a’ and B becomes ‘v’; sabha=avai)

Sabha was an assembly where important members met and discussed matters of public interest (RV.6-28-6; 8-4-9; 10-34-6; 7-12-1; 8-10-5; 12-1-56; 19-55-6 etc). It is also mentioned in the later Samhitas and Brahmanas. The members were called sabhasaha like we call MLA or MP. Its director was called sabhasthanu; may be compared to Chief Secretary or the Speaker. The word literally meant Pillar of the Assembly.

The hall was used for social intercourse. General conversations and debates were also held there (RV2-24-13). Disputes were also solved and mitigated in the Sabha according to Mahidhara. He mentioned it in his commentary on Vajasaneyi Samhita (20-27). Financial affairs like wealth of the cattle were also discussed and settled in the sabha (RV6-28-6). Atharva Veda says that higher subjects were also discussed there (AV 7-12-3).

It looks like they performed various functions like enacting new laws, solving the problems. Another suggestion is that it was the assembly of the affluent (maghavan), like the House of Lords.

It was the meeting place of Village council. Domestic use of the sabha was confirmed in several passages of the later Samhita and Brahmanas (AV 8-10-5; TS 3-4-8-6; TB 1-1-10-3

Rajasthan Assembly

Dignity and Decorum of the House

Care was taken to maintain the standard of speech in the Sabha. No unparliamentarily words were allowed. Important participants were called ‘sabheya’ or fit for assembly (RV 2-24-13; AV 20-12-8; VS 22-22

Chandogya Upanishad says that the king attended the sabha (53-6). Chairperson of the Sabha was known as Sabhapala. Members were also known as sabhachara (TB 3-7-46)

Both Sabha and Samiti are described as the Twin Daughters of Prajapati (AV 7-12; SB 4-1-4-1)

Tamil Nadu Assemly

ROLE OF SAMITI (Comiti=Committee)

Samiti means a collective body (RV 9-92-6). Kings attended the samiti (RV 10-97-6)

Atharva Veda which described Samiti and Sabha as twin daughters of Prajapati says they are deliberative bodies (712). RV shows its importance and the business transacted there in 10-193-3.

AV gives more information about the Samiti

a)Courtly men coming as guests 8-10

b)Samiti’s praise sung in all gatherings of men 12-1-56

c)It was an assembly of people and its consent is essential for the King 5-19

Sayana says that Samiti was a War Council, where kings or tribal chiefs assembled to discuss the course of action.

It was conveyed to elect and accept the king or to approve of his acts (RV 1-95-8;9-92-6; 10-97-6.

Compared to Sabha, it was a smaller assembly.

Picture of Lok Sabha

Dasaratha’s Consultation

Even in Valmiki Ramayana we read that Dasaratha called the assembly of ministers and VIP.s and asked their opinion and consent to appoint Rama as the next king. Manu in his Smrti says how bad kings were thrown out of power. We read about Vijaya’s banishment from Kalinga/Bengal region who established a new dynasty in Sri Lanka. Later literature gives us information about Council of Five and Council of Eight people. So we have a continuous history of democratic institutions. The king was decorative post without much power.

Oldest Poet Usanas Kavi!


Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1360; Dated 20th October 2014.

“Of the Vrsnis I am Vasudeva; of the Pandavas I am Dhananjaya (winner of wealth); of the sages I am Vyasa and of the poets I am Usana”.
– Bhagavad Gita 10-37

Why did Krishna say that he was Usana Kavi, an ancient poet whom we did not know much? We know a lot of other Vedic seer poets, but not Usanas.

First of all let me give you some basic information:
1.Until this day we use the word ‘Kavi’ for a poet in all the major Indian languages including Tamil (Pulavar was old and Kavinjar is current). This shows that the Rig Vedic Sanskrit lives in all our hearts. Kavi is a poet and Kavitha is a poem in all Indian languages. ‘Kavi’ is in the Veda and in the Gita!

2.Usanas belonged to Kavya Gotra and in Tamil, the oldest poet Tolkappiyan is believed to be from this Gotra. And there is another poet Kappiyatru Kappiyanar of Patitru Pathu (Ten Decads) from the same Gotra.

3. This shows the antiquity of the Gita as well. Krishna mentioned one of the oldest poets of the Rig Veda! AA Macdonell and A B Keith say in their Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, “ Usanas Kavya is an ancient seer, already a half mythical figure in the Rig Veda where he is often mentioned, especially as associated with Kutsa and Indra”. Rig Veda itself is old; in fact the oldest book we know of. Usanas had become ancient to the seers of Rig Veda! But Krishna was able to appreciate it. That means Krishna lived before the collection of Rig Vedic hymns by Vyasa.

4.”Later on Usanas becomes the Purohita/Priest of the Asuras in their contests with the Gods. A Variant of his name is Kavi Usanas. He appears in the Brahmanas as a teacher also”, say the authors. This shows that there were more poets with the same name in later days. We know that Shukracharya was the Guru of Asuras. This reveals another fact that both Asuras and Suras had Brahmin teachers. Both Devas and Asuras were sons of the soil. In Tamil also we have famous names of Sangam period, Kapila, Parana, Nakkirar and Avvaiyar at various ages. All these poets have done some works in later ages in Tamil as well. So it is possible that we had other poets with the name of Usanas. But even their works are not available!!
5.Usana’s name figured as an author of Artha sastras (Books on Economics) earlier than Kautilya alias Chanakya.


References to Usanas in the Rig Veda
His name occurs in seven out of ten Mandalas of the Rig Veda. His name is missing in Mandalas 2,3 and 7. We are unfortunate to lose the poems of such a popular poet. This shows how much of old Sanskrit literature was lost.

The way all the people praise him give the impression that the words Kavi and Kavya (poet and classics)– all originated from Usanas Kavya!

The following references are considered important (from Vedic Index):
Rig Veda 1-51-10, 1-83-5, 1-121-12;
R V 4-16-2, 6-2011, 8-23-17
R V 9-87-3, 9-97-7, 10-40-7
Probably also 1-130-9, 5-31-8, 5-34-2
Also in A V 4-29-6 (A V = Atharva Veda)

Taittriya samhita, Panchavimsa Brahmana, Sakyayana Srauta Sutra mention the Purohit/priest Usanas (Sukracharya).

Kavi Usanas is found in RV 4-26-1.


He appears as a teacher in two of the Brahmanas.
Yajur Veda and Sama Veda also praise him as a great poet.
Usanas’ few compositions are available in the Rig Veda: 9-87 to 89 and 8-84. As usual, the foot notes say that it is difficult to understand certain lines. Ninth Mandala of Rig Veda deals with Soma Pavamana (Soma Plant and Juice).
Usana, the son of Kavi is well known for making Agni the ministrant priest and offerer of the sacrifice for Manu ( RV. 8-23-17)

He is referred to as a seer and leader of the people. By his poetic gift he is said to have discovered the secret milk of cows of Indra which was concealed ( RV. 9-87-3)

Usana is said to have increased the vigour of Indra ( RV. 1-51-10) and fashioned the thunderbolt for him for slaying Vritra( RV. 1-121-12; 5-34-2).

He is characteristically wise and soma is compared with him due to his wisdom ( RV. 9-97-7)

Indu, the well armed god, is flowing onward, who quells the curse and guards from treacherous onslaught,
Father, begetter of the gods, most skilful, the buttress of the heavens and earth’s supporter
Rsi and sage, the champion of the people, deft and sagacious, Usana in wisdom
He had discovered even their hidden nature, the cows concealed and most mysterious title (RV 9-87-2/3)

Source books : Vedic Index of Names and Subjects Volume 1 and Bhrgus – A Syudy by Jayanti Panda, Delhi, 1984; The Rig Veda, Translated by Ralph T H Griffith.

Oldest Riddle in the World! Rig Veda Mystery –3


Research Paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No. 1330; Dated 6 October 2014.

Rig Veda is the oldest religious book in the world. Even if we agree with the date given by the Western Scholars –1200 BCE, there was no other book at that time with huge a volume hymns on Gods like the Rig Veda in any part of the world. Modern Indologists in western countries slowly moving up the date of the Vedas to 1700 BCE. And archaeological proof for the Rig Vedic hymn is available from 1380 BCE from Bogazkoy in Turkey. Freedom fighter and great scholar B G Tilak and German scholar Jacobi have independently arrived at a date of 6000 BCE for the Vedas.

Vedas are full of mysteries. No scholar was able to interpret them in full. All the western scholars did not agree on a single hymn. Each hymn was interpreted differently by them. Some were honest to admit that the meaning was obscure, unintelligible, uncertain or not understood.

The first Indian scholar who tried a full commentary on it was Sayana who did write it around 14th century CE. By that time there was a big gap between the original “composition” and the commentary (Composition: Hindus never believe that they were composed like the Smritis. They were ‘heard’ like radio wavelengths by the sages). So he couldn’t know what the sages said or meant. But one positive thing was that Sayana was a believer in the Vedas. Other western scholars were like spectators in a film or a circus. Some wanted to have fun in reading the Vedas, some more wanted to belittle or denigrate them and a very few wanted to actually understand the meaning.

They all believed in their own religious books and thought the world was created in 4100 BCE. Their knowledge was shallow ss far as other religions were concerned. They saw Hindus as Kafirs and Pagans. They did NOT believe that the Hindu gods were GODS. They thought GOD can be reached ONLY through their religion. They were very narrow in their outlook. They did not follow Hindu values or respect Hindu values. They never criticized their own religions or other religions except Hinduism. They never scrutinised their religious books the way they did with Hindu scriptures. Their motive was very clear which they expressed it in articles without any hesitation (Please read what Max Muller said about Vedas in the beginning and what Macaulay said about English education in India).

Vedas flow chart

What is the Riddle?
Vedas can be interpreted at different levels: symbolic, allegorical, didactic or mythical. Many people believed that the sound effect of the Mantras is more important than the meaning. There are many puzzles and riddles in the Vedas. In fact all the minor deities have umpteen interpretations. I will give one hymn which puzzled many scholars:

Four are his horns, three are the feet that bear him; his heads are two, his hands are seven in number.
Bound with a triple bond the steer roars loudly; the mighty god hath entered in to mortals (R.V.4-58-3)
Translated by Ralph T H Griffith

There are ten Mandalas (divisions) in the Rig Veda (RV). The fourth Mandala is Vamadeva Mandala. Sage Vamadeva was the son of Gautama. Many scholars dated it as the oldest part of RV or one of the oldest Mandalas in the RV. Hymn 4-58 (quoted above) is in praise of Grta, clarified butter or oil used in sacrifices, but a choice of deities is offered in the Index – Agni or Surya, Waters, Cows or Ghrtra.

Prof. Wilson observes, “it is a good specimen of Vaidik vagueness and mystification, and of the straits to which commentators are put to extract an intelligible meaning from the text”.

Professor Ludwig says, “it would be fruitless to repeat all the various explanations which Sayana gives of the first line of this stanza – they only show the utter uncertainty of tradition in reference to the passage. For instance ‘samudrd’ ocean, is said to mean, sacrificial fire or celestial fire or the firmament or the udder of the cow; and ‘urmi’ wave or reward or rain or butter.
A .Gillebrandt explains it differently, says Griffith.

So far I have used four names of foreign “ scholars” . Griffith who summarised other three views did not say anything.

vedas music
What do we know from this one Rik of a hymn?

1. Vedic Hindus are not “barbaric Aryans” or illiterate cowherds. In the previous hymns by the same sage/Rishi we read about agriculture. This type of number symbolism is used by Tamil Siddhas a lot in very late periods. Tirumular who lived around seventh century used it in hundreds of verses. Without a proper commentary no one will know what they are saying.

2. The second point is Vedic hymns are very difficult to interpret. Even Hindu Sayana gives different possibilities adding OR, OR several times.

3. Foreign “Scholars” were very confused and make their own guesses according to their own whims and fancies. So they are NOT scholars and they are most unreliable.

4. Vedas have lot of hymns like this or hymns totally not understood by anyone. Hindus should not believe some half baked statements on Dasas, Dasyus, Sisna Devah etc. Many of the kings had names like Sudasa, Divodasa, Dirga Tamas (long or total dark or darkness) like we had Kalidasa and Tulsidasa in later periods.

5. The words in the given passage like Samudra (ocean), Urmi (woman’s name ‘Wave’) are used even today. So Vedic Sanskrit is not dead. It is a living language. Thousands of words in The Rig Veda, the oldest scripture in the world, are used by Tamils and others from Kashmir to Kandy in Sri Lanka. I have already pointed out the use of Indra and Indrani in nook corner of Indian subcontinent including tribal communities in one of my posts on Indra. Those who read the Vedas without any bias can ‘enjoy’ the rubbish jokes of Foreign, Marxist and so called Dravidian scholars!!!


Sayana’s Commentary
Now let me give Sayana’s two different explanations for the above Rik:
Four horns of Agni, if identified with sacrifice, are said by Sayana to be the four Vedas.
The three feet are the three daily sacrifices
The two heads are the Brahmaudana and the Pravargya ceremonies
Seven hands are explained as seven metres of the Vedas.
Triple bonds are Mantra, Kalpa and Brahmana

If identified with Aditya, the four cardinal points.
Three feet are Morning, Noon and Evening
The two heads are Day and Night
Seven hands are Seven Rays of Sun
Three bonds are Heaven, Firmament and Earth.

Mahidhara’s explanation differs from that of Sayana
Vedic commentator Mahidhara lived in the sixteenth century.

The four horns:— are priests or nouns, verbs, prepositions and particles
The three feet:— are the three Vedas or the first, second and third person or the past, present and future tenses.
The two heads:– are tow sacrifices or the agent and the object
The seven hands:– are the metres or the cases of the nouns
The three bonds:– are the three daily sacrifices or the singular, dual and plural numbers.

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My previous research articles on RV and AV:-
1.The Mysterious Vedic Homa Bird: Does it exist? – posted on 10-12-2011
2.Vedic Hymn better than National Anthems
3.Vedas and Egyptian Pyramid Texts – posted on 29-8-2012
4.Kapinjala Bird Mystery –posted on 23-5-2014 (Post No 1060)
5. Most misinterpreted words : Asva and Ayas
6.Confusion about Vedic Soma Plant –posted on 5-5-2013
7.Horse Headed Seer: Rig Veda Mystery- 1 -posted 27-8-2-14
8.Cucumber in the Rig Veda – posted on 2-42014 (post no 950)
9.Origin of Horse race and Chariot Race –posted 25-8-2014
10.Creation: Vedic Hymn and Babylonian Hymn –posted 6-8-2013
11.Sex Mantras and Talismans in Egypt and the Atharva Veda –posted 26 Sept. 2012
12.Gems from the Atharva Veda – posted 27 Sept. 2013
13.Mysterious Atharva Veda: Part 1 –posted 30 Sept. 2013
14. Mysterious Atharva Veda: Part 2 – posted 7 Oct 2013
15).27 Similes in one Vedic Hymn! – posted on18-8-2012
16) 107 Miracle Herbs in Rig Veda – posted on16-9-2013
17)Vedic Origin of 1000 Pillar Halls in Indian and Mayan Culture – 5 July 2014
18.Two seers saved by Asvins: Stories from the Rig Veda – posted 7 Aug. 2014.
19.Herbs and Diseases in the Veda – posted on 1 July 2014.
20) 31 Quotations from the Vedas – posted on 26 June 2014.
21.Talismans in Atharva Veda and Ancient Tamil Literature — posted on 17 June 2014.
22)Why did Indra kill Brahmins? – posted on 25 May 2014.
23)Ode to Sky Lark: Shelley, Kalidasa and Vedic Poet Grtsamada– posted on 3/5/14
24)Vedic Poet Medhathithi’s Quotations — Posted on22/5/2014
25)Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature –posted on 18/5/2014
26.Important Vedic Quotations on Rivers and Water –posted on 8/5/14
27) 40 Important Quotations from the Atharva Veda –posted on 2-5/14
28.Oldest and Longest patriotic Song – 20 Sept. 2013
29)King and 8 Ministries in Vedic Period – posted on 28 May 2013
30)Numbers in the Rig Veda: Rig Veda Mystery – 2 –posted on 3rd Sep.2014
31) Mystery about Swan: Can it separate Water from Milk? (6 July 2014)

And several other articles regarding Vedic Gods Agni, Varuna and Indra in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam and the Indus Valley Civilization. Please read my 1000+ articles.
Contact swami_48@yahoo.com