Post No. 10,231

Date uploaded in London – 19 OCTOBER  2021         

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There is a beautiful poem (RV.10-101) about farming in the Rig Veda. There are several references to agricultural implements in the Vedic Hymns. They are found throughout the Rig Veda; so no half baked fellow could say this is in the latest Vedic stage. Not only that, the grains such as paddy ,wheat and barley are mentioned in the Rig Veda.

In the Havis that was offered to the gods in the fire we see this occurring again and again. Even the foreigners with jaundice eyes said that Yava did not mean barley alone in all the places, but the term was used for ‘grains’.

Above all these things, one poet calls his comrades ‘Come on :Let us go to the fields and plough the lands’. A few thousand years after this Rig Vedic poet, Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar composed 10 couplets on Farming echoing the Rig Vedic poet. Bharati ,the greatest of the modern Tamil poets also sang,

‘Let us salute farming and industry and

Let us insult the people who indulge and waste time.’


The Vedic Hindus were primarily agriculturists . In one and the same family we see a doctor, grinder of corns and a poet!

‘I am a poet, my daddy is a doctor and my mother a labourer who grinds corn’ (RV 9-112-3)

“3. A bard am I, my dad’s a leech (doctor), mammy lays corn upon the stones.

     Striving for wealth, with varied plans, we follow our desires like kine. Flow, Indu, flow for Indra’s sake.” (RV 9-112-3)

It was sung by a poet named Sisu Angiras.

This poem has a refrain, ‘Flow Indu, Flow for Indra’s sake’

This is called ‘Farmers song’, a genre followed throughout India by the farmers. Ancient Tamil literature also described this as Uzavar Othai (farmers song).


Bhagawan Singh in his book ‘The Vedic Harappans’, listed over 55 agricultural terms from the Rig Veda itself.

He has shown that there were Landlords during Vedic Times who employed agricultural labourers.


Page 137

“In the Rigveda  4-57 , we  find a very titillating description of plough operation. More than that it suggests that in a number of cases the owners of the plots did not till the land themselves, but engaged labourers to do the job:-

RV 4-57

1. WE through the Master of the Field, even as through a friend, obtain     What nourishes our cattle and steeds. In such may he be good to us.

2. As the cow yields milk, pour for us freely, Lord of the Field, the wave that bears sweetness,     Distilling mead, well-purified like butter, and let the. Lords of holy Law be gracious.

3. Sweet be the plants for us. the heavens, the waters, and full of sweets for us be air’s mid-region.      May the Field’s Lord for us be full of sweetness, and may we follow after him uninjured.

4. Happily work our steers and men, may the plough furrow happily.

  Happily be the traces bound; happily may he ply the goad.

5. Suna and Sira, welcome ye this laud, and with the milk which ye have made in heaven      Bedew ye both this earth of ours.

6. Auspicious Sita, come thou near: we venerate and worship thee

  That thou mayst bless and prosper us and bring us fruits abundantly.

7. May Indra press the furrow down, may Pusan guide its course aright.      May she, as rich in milk, be drained for us through each succeeding year.

8. Happily let the shares turn up the ploughland, happily go the ploughers with the oxen.      With meath and milk Parjanya make us happy. Grant us prosperity, Suna and Sira.


My Comments

Fourth Mandala of the Rig Veda where this hymn occurs is considered one of the earliest part of the Veda. Rishi Vamadeva Gautaman sang this to Kshetrapati. Once again this word Kshetra is used today for ‘field’, ‘body’, ‘holy places’ in all Indian languages. That shows how it got extended in its meaning and how important the word is.

Nowhere in the world we see agricultural deities at this period. A few thousand years after the Vedas, came Greek literature where we see some deities attached to plants. Above all these things, the agricultural deity Sita is worshipped by millions of people even today.


Sita , heroine in Ramayana, is the personification of furrow or husbandry. Sita was named after furrow because she was found during ritualistic ploughing by the great king of Bihar, Janaka. There we get more information about farming; Kings were requested to start the farming every year. They came and started the Yajna Kshetra work as well. After the ritualistic ploughing, Brahmins constructed geometrically shaped Fire Altars.


Suna and Sira , two deities or deified objects who bless farming operations. Today agriculturists perform Puja or some rituals before starting ploughing. That shows the continuation of the Vedic rituals.

According to Yaska of 850 BCE , Suna /auspicious is Vayu and Sira/plough is Aditya/sun.

Professor Roth conjectures that the words here mean ploughshare and plough.

Professor Grassmann translates Plough and ploughman

All the foreigners, at last, agree on this issue!

My discovery

Apart from all these things ,RTU/season is described in various hymns. In one or two places we come across SIX SEASONS. Tamils followed it in their ancient literature. The very world Rhythm came from Rtu.

The English word Plough is a Tamil word UZU (P=V, B=V; which we see in all Indian languages. Ancient Tamils called Pandi/cart instead of Vandi/cart (P=V).

55 words are listed by Bhagawan Sing under agriculture. Many are in Tamil as well-

Utsa becomes UUTRU in Tamil

Kulyaa becomes KAALVAAY in Tamil

Kuupa/  well  is used as such  in Tamil

Kosa / leather bag is used as such in Tamil

Naadi /drain is used in time and clock as Naazikai

Khala/ farm yard, thrashing floor used as such in Tamil

Dhaanya / grain is in Tamil

Bija becomes Vidhai (B = V)

Sakan/ cowdung – Saanam in Tamil

Other words enter though the back door as Plough is UZU in Tamil.

Tamil and Sanskrit words have single source from where they originated ( I have shown it in my 150++ articles.)


Important Agricultural Hymn

RIG VEDA 10-101

.1. WAKE with one mind, my friends, and kindle Agni, ye who are many and who dwell together.

     Agni and Dadhikras and Dawn the Goddess, you, Gods with Indra, I call down to help us.

2. Make pleasant hymns, spin out your songs and praises: build ye a ship equipped with oars for transport.

     Prepare the implements, make all things ready, and let the sacrifice, my friends, go forward.

3. Lay on the yokes, and fasten well the traces: formed is the furrow, sow the seed within it.

     Through song may we find bearing fraught with plenty: near to the ripened grain approach the sickle.

4. Wise, through desire of bliss from Gods, the skilful bind the traces fast, And lay the yokes on either side.

5. Arrange the buckets in their place securely fasten on the straps.

     We will pour forth the well that hath a copious stream, fair-flowing well that never fails.

6. I pour the water from the well with pails prepared and goodly straps,

     Unfailing, full, with plenteous stream.

7. Refresh the horses, win the prize before you: equip a chariot fraught with happy fortune.

     Pour forth the well with stone wheel, wooden buckets, the drink of heroes, with the trough for armour.

8. Prepare the cow-stall, for there drink your heroes: stitch ye the coats of armour, wide and many.

     Make iron forts, secure from all assailants let not your pitcher leak: stay it securely.

9. Hither, for help, I turn the holy heavenly mind of you the Holy Gods, that longs for sacrifice.

     May it pour milk for us, even as a stately cow who, having sought the pasture, yields a thousand streams.

10. Pour golden juice within the wooden vessel: with stone-made axes fashion ye and form it.

     Embrace and compass it with tenfold girdle, and to both chariot-poles attach the car-horse.

11. Between both poles the car-horse goes pressed closely, as in his dwelling moves the doubly-wedded.

     Lay in the wood the Soviran of the Forest, and sink the well although ye do not dig it.

12. Indra is he, O men, who gives us happiness: sport, urge the giver of delight to win us strength

     Bring quickly down, O priests, hither to give us aid, to drink the Soma, Indra Son of Nistigri.



To be continued………………………………

tags– farming in Veda, Agriculture, Rig Veda, Sita, Sira, Suna, Farmers songs, in Tamil



Post No. 9331

Date uploaded in London – –2 MARCH  2021     

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Apart from Purananuru, the oldest part of Sangam Corpus, there is an interesting anecdote in Paripaatal, one of the 18 books of Sangam Literature. A village lass was looking at a painting in a temple near Madurai. She was wondering why a cat was running away from an Ashram of a seer. Immediately her husband who is also from the village, says that was Indra who is running like a cat after molesting Ahalya, wife the great saint Gautama. This incident and the painting show that even in the countryside people were thorough with Hindu Puranas 2000 years ago!

There is another incident in Ahananuru, one of the 18 Sangam Books, where Krishna helps the naked girls to dress themselves because Krishna’s brother was walking towards the river. Actually Krishna took away the ladies’ dress and hung them in the tree as part of his fun and frolics with the cowherdesses . When they begged him seeing Baladeva at a distance, Krishna lowered the tree and the beauties got their clothes.

Tamils never knew River Indus (Sindhu), but they praised Ganga and Himalayas in several places. They called all the pure women as Arundhati, Vasistha’s wife. Her name is referred to in many places in Sangam and post Sangam works.

Unknown Ramayana episodes are in Sangam Tamil literature. They are not in any of the Ramayans we knew such as Valmiki, Kamban, Tulsidas. That is why I call Tamils re best Hindus in India who are talking about many Puranic anecdotes that are not found anywhere else.

Coming back to Indra , we have common Tamil names like Rajedran Mahendran, Upendran, Surendran.



Among feminine names we have Indraa for Indraani, Amrutha etc.

Tamils didn’t stop naming their daughters Amrutha; they went far ahead to name their daily food as Amrutham:

Brahmins sprinkle water on the food served and worship it as Amruta.

Vaishnavite brahmins named all their food  items Amrutha

Saathamuthu -= Rasa Amrutha (Tomato soup or Tamarind soup)

Kariayamuthu – Vegetable Curry Amuthu

Thirukkan amuthu= Payasa Amrutha

Sangam Tamils used four different spellings for the word Amrit in Sanskrit. That shows the word is borrowed from Sanskrit.

Indra was praised in Tirukkural couplet 25. But the famous commentator Parimel Azakar misunderstood it as a criticism due to the Ahalya molestation. But Buddha praised Indra for his purity and modesty in Dhammapada. Fortunately one commentator followed Buddha in praising Indra as a person who has control over his senses.

Since the great Pandya king who died in sea says Indra’s Amrutha, the whole Tamil world knew about the Samudra Marthan episode which is confirmed by Purananuru verse where Shiva was parised as one who has blue thrt because of the poison which he swallowed to save Asuras and Suras/devas.

In short Tamils were well versed in Hindu mythology. Valluvar refers to Vamana Avatara, Yama, Leela Vinodha Krishna (Pal Maya Kalvan). Lakshmi is referred more than any other goddess.

Last but not the least, no ancient Tamil works exist without Sanskrit words. If anyone removes or deletes  the Sanskrit words from 18 Sangam Tamil books, it would look like a terribly injured soldier. And the wonder of wonders is SANGAM is a Sanskrit word! Tolkaappiar says no Tamil word can begin with letter ‘SA’. True to his instruction, Tamils never used ‘SA’ words in 27,000 plus lines of Sangam books except in a few places. And those are Sanskrit ‘Sa’ words. So Tamils depend upon Sanskrit SANGAM even to boast about their own literature!! Sangam is very often used by Panini 2700 years ago in his grammar book.

Long Live Tamils!

Please see the Tamil attachments where Amrit and Indra are referred to directly; in other places they refer to them with different words:–


 tags – Indra, Amrit, in Tamil, Sangam Literature




Post No. 8378

Date uploaded in London – 21 July 2020   

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Sangam Tamil literature is 2000 years old. It has got about 2500 verses composed by over 450 poets . it spreads over a period of 400 years from first century BCE upto third century CE. All the 2500 plus poems are collected in 18 books. They are called Pathup pattu (ten long poems) and Ettuth thokai (8 anthologies).

References to strange water nymphs are found in at least two books. They are in Akananuru and Kalittokai. This leads us to another interesting word in the Rig Veda. Tamil word ‘Neer’ for water is in the Rig Veda according to scholars of yester years. This water nymph references blasts their theory and shows the true colours of the word WATER/NEER.

‘Neer’ may NOT be a Tamil word because it is in ancient Greek language which is 800 years older than Tamil language according to available literatures.

First let us look at the interesting bits about TAMIL WATER NYMPHS.

In Akananuru,  verse 370 was composed by poet Ammuvanaar. The poem is about lovers.

“Friend of the heroine says,

Hello my friend! you say if you go home , you will be under your father’s strict watch and you also say that you will die if you don’t see your lover. Let me give you some idea. You go and stand like a sea nymph on the sea shore. I will stand by your side as a dancer”.

The background of the poem is as follows-

The lover meets her very often but never proposes to her. One day he came during day time and was hiding, waiting for private meeting with the heroine/ lady love. Knowing that , but pretending not to see the lover, she (heroine’s friend) said the above thing. The meaning is that you wont see your heart throb any more during day time because all our farm work is finished and here afterwards we wont be able to come outside. During night time, there will be stricter security from her father; so propose now, get married  soon and run away. That is the hidden meaning. All Tamil love poems have hidden meanings according to ancient commentators.

But our interest is in sea nymph and a dancer. Why should a dancer stand near a sea nymph? And who is a sea nymph? What is the word for sea nymph in Tamil and how come it is in Greek language?

Sea nymph or water nymphs are found in all cultures around the world. Tamils also believed in nymphs and angels residing in all water sources, hills and trees. We find them a lot in Sanskrit literature as well. An entire Tamil epic MANI MEKALAI is based on the sea farers’ goddess Manmekala. It is a Sanskrit word found in Sanskrit literature as well.

So they might have referred to one of such Manimekalas. But why should a dancer stand near by? Probably that type of paintings decorated the ancient Tamil world.

But I am more interested in the word for water nymph. The exact word used by the poet Ammuvanar is ‘Kadal Kezu Selvi’ – a sea woman/ sea goddess. But the ancient commentators used the word ‘Neer Ara Makalir’. ‘Neer’ means water and ‘Ara makalir’ means nymphs or heavenly ladies, angels etc.

The same word Nereids is used in Greek mythology for water nymphs. And Nereus is an old man of the sea. So NEER is water in Greek mythology. Since Greek is an Indo European language it is full of Sanskrit words and not Tamil words.

How are we going to explain the word ‘Neer’ in Greek?

‘Nar’ayana is also interpreted as one whose abode is NEER/water in Sanskrit. The puzzle can be easily solved if you accept my theory that Tamil and Sanskrit came from the same source. That is what Hindu literature also says. So linguists are wrong in saying that Neer was borrowed by Rig Vedic poets from Tamil. Neer/water belongs both to Sanskrit and Tamil. And the Tamils used it more because Sanskrit has 120 words for water.

Old Ananda Vikatan Dictionary also confirms Neer Ara Makalir is water nymphs .

Another Water Nymph!

In another Tamil book called ‘Kali Tokai’, poet Nallanthuvanaar says in Kali 131 verse,

“Look my darling, once your lover promised you by swearing on SEA GODDESS that he would never ever part (separate) from you. Now he is absent for a little while. And it is my duty to console you and convince you that he would be back soon”.

Words used by poet Nallanthuvanaar are ‘Kadal Theyvam’ (Sea Goddess; though Deivam is a Sanskrit word, Sangam poets freely use it)

From this verse we come to know about the  swearing on and serious belief in a Sea Goddess. And in the Rig Veda we come across Sea God Varuna and the mysterious magical twins called Asvins doing umpteen miracles. In short Hindus from Sarasvati- Sindhu River to Vaigai in the South had similar beliefs.


Tamils believed in water nymphs and sea goddesses.

Word Neer is in Greek, Tamil and Sanskrit. Sanskrit is much more older than Tamil and Greek and both Greek and Tamil kept the word alive until recent times. Since Sanskrit has scores of words for water, they didn’t bother much about this single word NEER/water.

Sea nymphs and mermaids are in postage stamps around the world.


கொலைகார இங்கிலாந்து மஹாராஜா (Post No.7359)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date – 19-12-19

Time uploaded in London -20-59


Post No.7359

பிரிட்டனில் மிகவும் நகைப்புக்கும் வியப்புக்கும் உரிய

மன்னன் எட்டாவது ஹென்றி ஆவார். ஆறு பெண்களை

கல்யாணம் செய்து அவர்களில் இரண்டு பேரை தூக்  கில்

தொங்கவிட்டவர். இது எல்லாம் 500 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் நடந்தது.

மஹாராணிகள் தூக்கில்  தொங்குவதை பார்த்த அரவாரித்த

கூ ட்டம் பெரும் கூட்டம் என்று வரலாற்று ஆராய்சசியாளர்

எழுதிவைத்துள்ளனர் .

நான் 1992ல் தினமணியில் எழுதிய கட்டுரையை

இத்துடன் இணைத்துள்ளேன்.


‘Women can keep One Secret’- Voltaire (Post No.4592)


Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 7 JANUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London- 16-59




Post No. 4592

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.




You may find the title a bit puzzling. The reason I chose this title for the essay is no quotes are available from Hindus sources in the quotations websites. But the most interesting about secret is that it is in the oldest book in the world- The Rig Veda. Later we find this word in hundreds of places in Hindu books both in Sanskrit and Tamil. I will give some quotes below; please don’t keep them secret; let it spread to blogs and websites as well!

The Rig Veda has the word secret in the second Mandala (chapter):

Raha- suu

The meaning given in the Vedic index is ‘bearing in secret’. It is in RV 2-29-1

It is a hymn to Visvedevas

“Upholders of the Law, ye strong Adityas, remove my sin like her who bears in secret.

You, Varuna, Mitra and all gods who listen, I call to help me , I who know your goodness”


Bearing in secret is a term applied to an unmarried mother according to Vedic index.



The second reference about secret itself is secretive!

Rahasyu Deva-malimlue

is the name, in the Pachavimsa Brahmana (14-4-7), of a mythical person who at Munimarana slew the saintly Vaikhanases.


We don’t know much about the mythical person and the motive behind the murder. A typical secret story!

We have lot of references in the epics.

But the oft quoted Bhagavd Gita has a secret.

Lord Krishna says

“This same ancient Yoga has been today declared to thee by me; for thou art my devotee and my friend; and this is the Supreme Secret (rahasyam uttamam)


In most of the old Hindu scriptures they used the word Rahasyam (secret) for Veda and Upanishads.

Tamils are very clever that they translated the Veda (knowledge) it self Secret (Marai in Tamil); they knew very well that Vedas are not to be taken literal but understood through the hidden meaning!



Secret in Manu Smrti

The oldest law book in the world is Manu Smrti (older than the Hammurabi’s code). It used the word secret to denote Upanishads,the philosophical treatises of the Hindus.

Here are some quotes:

उपनीय तु यः शिष्यं वेदमध्यापयेद् द्विजः ।

च्/ सकल्पं सरहस्यं च तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते

  1. They call that twice born who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the latter).

Rahsyas= Upanishads  Manu 2-140


तपोविशेषैर्विविधैर्व्रतैश्च विधिचोदितैः ।

वेदः कृत्स्नोऽधिगन्तव्यः सरहस्यो द्विजन्मना 2-165

  1. A twice born man must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).

rahasya= Upanishads

twice born = Brahmana, Kshatriya and Vaisya in the Vedic age; later only Brahmins


  1. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple Veda which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is called) learned in the Veda.11-266
  2. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have been exactly and fully described; (now) the secret portion of these Institutes, proclaimed by Manu, will be taught.12-107
  3. Thus did that worshipful deity disclose to me, through a desire of benefiting mankind, this whole most excellent secret of the sacred law.12-117



SECRET in Later Literature


In the literature, the word used with the modern meaning, like we use it today


Chanakya Niti (3rd Century BCE):

One should not trust a bad friend, nor should repose too much of trust (even in good) friend lest the friend in a fit of rage were to lay bare all the secrets.

Chapter 2, Verse 6


na visvaset kumitre ca mitre caatiwa visvaset

kadaacit kupitamitram sarvam guhyaam prakaasayet


Never reveal Your Plans/ Ideas


One should not reveal through words (talk about) an action one has in mind. One should keep it secret in his counsel and apply it to one’s mission.

Chapter 2, verse 7


manasaa chintitam kaaryam vachasaa na prakaasayet

mantrena rakshayet guudam kaarye chaapi niyojayet.


Some of his instructions are valid even today.

Source for slokas: Chanakya Niti, translated by Satya Vrat Shastri, Kolkata.


Author’s name Chanakya alias Kautilya






Secret in Epics, Kalidasa, Panchatantra


A man should never disclose a secret to a woman if he longs for prosperity- Vishnusharman in Panchatantra Book3,97 (also in Katha Sarit Sagara)


This is repeated by all the English authors like Shakespeare and Tamil authors like Kamban and Vivekachudamani etc.



Constant you are, but yet a woman; and for secrecy, no lady closer; for I well believe thou wilt not utter what thou dost not know.




There is a secret drawer in every woman’s heart.

Victor Hugo.


  A woman can keep one secret,—the secret of her age.




A man can keep another person’s secret better than his own; a woman, on the contrary, keeps her secret though she blabs all others.

La Bruyère.




He cannot keep a secret longer than the morning des drops on the grass- Kalidasa in Vikrama Uvasiiyam Act 2


Good is the secrecy of a secret, its revelation is not to be praised

–Jataka Tales VI, Book 22, No546


One should not disclose secrets to everyone; one should reveal some only to one’s wife, some to one’s friend and some to one’s son, for they cannot be trusted- Vishnusarma in Panchatantra Book 1



Whoever divulges secrets should be torn to pieces- Arthasastra of Chanakya/Kautilya Book 1 Chapter 15


It is always difficult to keep secrecy counsels secret when many are concerned.—Vyasa in Mahabharata, Shanti Parva


This is also repeated by umpteen English writers. Anything concerning two or more people is not at all a secret.




Ancient Tamil literature also has many quotations on Secret:-


Tamil Veda Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar says,


“The mean are like the drum that is beaten, for they hear secrets and betray them” (Kural/ Couplet 1076)


Another translation of the same Tamil couplet is as follows:


“Like a tom-tom, the base ones will broadcast

Whatever information they come by”


The Bible  also has a parallel quotation:

A gossip gives away secrets,

But a trusty man keeps his own counsel (Proverbs 11,13)



Pazamozi Nanuru is another Tamil didactic work which has few quotations:-


Telling a secret to base one is like placing cotton on the top of a palmyrah tree. (It will be blown into all directions easily)


We may compare it with What Khalil Gibran said:


Kahlil Gibran — ‘If you reveal your secrets to the wind, you should not blame the wind forrevealing them to the trees.’


The same book says,

The wise ones never tell a secret to mean minded people.


There are hundreds of proverbs in Indian languages. I have to deal with it separately.




Be a Snake! Paramahamsa and Chanakya Advise! (Post No.4579)

picture by Lalgudi Veda


Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 3 JANUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London- 18-35




Post No. 4579

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



A snake must be a snake; it must instil fear in others; otherwise it will die. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the great saint and Chanakya , the great philosopher, statesman and astute politician agree on snakes!

Chanakya says,

“Even a snake with no poison should raise its hood. Be there poison or not, the raising of the hood instils fear”—Chanakya Niti, Chapter 9, sloka/verse 10


Here is the verse in Sanskrit:-

nirvishenaani sarpena karthavyaa mahati fanaa

vishamastu na chaapyastu fanaayopo bhayankarah

Sometimes you may be weak or in a weaker position, but yet you can pretend to be strong.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa narrates a story:-

“A serpent dwelt in a certain locality. No one dared to pass by that way; for whoever did so was instantaneously bitten to death by the serpent.


Once a holy man passed by. As usual the serpent pursued the sage with a view to biting him, but when it approached the holy man, it lost all kits ferocity and was over powered by his gentleness. Seeing the snake, the holy man said,

‘Well, friend! Do you want to bite me?’ The snake was abashed and did not reply. At this the sage said again, ‘hearken friend, do not injure anyone in future’. The snake bowed and nodded assent.


After the sage, had hone his own way, the entered its hole, and began to live a life of innocence and purity without even wishing to harm anyone. In a few days, it became a common belief in the neighbourhood that the snake had lost all its venom and was no more dangerous, and so people began to tease it. Some pelted stones at it., and others dragged it mercilessly by the tail. Thus there was no end to its troubles.

Fortunately, sometime after, the sage again passed that way seeing the bruised and battered condition of the poor snake, was very much moved to pity and inquired about the cause of its distress.

At this the snake replied, Sir, I have been reduced to this state, because I Have not been injuring anyone since I received your instruction. But alas! they are so merciless!

The sage smilingly said, ‘Dear friend, I only advised you not to bite anyone, but I never asked you not to hiss and frighten others. Although you should not bite any creature, still you should keep everyone at a considerable distance from you by hissing’.


Similarly, if you live in this world, make yourself feared and respected. Do not injure anyone, but do not at the same time let others injure you.


Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai 600004

Canakyaniti, Satya Vrat Shastri, Bharatiya Vidya Mandir, Kolkata



Snake and Great men

If You see a Snake……………….

“Between a snake and a wicked person, it is the serpent which is better. Serpent bites ever and anon but a wicked person does so at every step”—Chanakya Niti, Chapter 3, Sloka



Three other poets sang about great men and poisonous snakes

Even if poisonous snakes enter an assembly of scholars it will pass through them unscathed. They won’t hurt them, says a Tamil poem in ‘Pazamozi Four Hundred’. Even the Sangam Tamil Literature (Neithal kali, Kali Tokai) gave the same message.

Another poet ( of Tamil book “Aranerisaram” ) viewed the snakes differently. He says, look at this, If you give water to a cow it gives you milk; but if you give milk to a cobra, it produces poison! Likewise, the books read by bad people are interpreted negatively. The same books read by the great people are interpreted positively”.

The best examples for this poem are our Vedas and the Epics. Foreigners who read these books interpreted them negatively. They are like snakes that convert milk into poison. The great Tamil kings Chera, Chola and Pandyas fostered Vedas and Vedic Yajnas for over 2000 years according to Sangam Tamil Literature. In the North, more Asvamedha Yajnas and Rajasuyas were done. Vedas are viewed positively in Kalidasa’s works and Sangam Tamil works. They are like cows that turns water into milk.

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar in her book ‘Vakkundaam’ compared water snake to good people and cobra to bad people. She says that the water snake is not poisonous and it lies openly on the banks of rivers and lakes. But the cobra is poisonous and so it hides in the holes. Good people don’t fear any one, bad people fear others and lead a secret life! They pretend to be good.

Chanakya also agrees,

“Those vile men who disclose each other’s secrets come o naught, for sure, like a snake in an ant-hill” – Chapter 9, Verse 2s


Tamils and Chanakya attack Yavanas! (Post No.4565)

Roman wine picture

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 30 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London- 8-18 am



Post No. 4565

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks


Chanakya in his Niti Shastra attack Yavanas like the Tamils. One of the most powerful Tamil kings Imayavaramban Netuncheralathan punished Yavanas by shaving their heads and pouring oil on the heads 2000 years ago. (Please see full details in my earlier research articles in the links given at the bottom).


But who are the Yavanas?


In Tamil literature it denotes Romans and Greeks. In later Tamil literature, the words milecha and Yavanas were used for Romans, Greeks and Arbas may be Persians. Both Kalidasa and Tamil poet mentioned the Yavana wine. In Shakuntalam and Raghu Vamsa it refers to the wine produced by the Persians. Both Tamil and Sanskrit poets used them for guarding the harem, war camps and gates of the palaces. The Yavana women were used as maids in the palaces.


Let us look at what Chanakya says about the Yavanas (Greeks)  first!


“The wise who know the reality have proclaimed that even one Yavana is equal to thousands of Candalas (untouchables) There is no one more lowly than a Yavana”.

–Chanakya Niti , Chapter 8, Sloka 5


Chaadaalaanaam sahasraischa suuribistatvadarsibihi

eko hi yavanah prokto na niicho yavanaat parah


Satya Vrata Sastri who translated Chanakya Niti, says in the introduction:

“The Caanakya Niiti provides a good glimpse of the contemporary thinking. The time it was composed was marked by intense hatred for the Yavanas, the Greek or for that matter all the foreign invaders, who were out to subjugate the country with their life style running counter to that of the locals – mark the expression ‘Sayanaa Bhunchathe Yavanaah, ‘the Yavanas partake the food while lying’, a practice abhorring to high-bred Indians of the time.


The Yavanas through their unseemly behaviour, this is how one can infer it, invited on themselves the curse of the locals who would not take them kindly as evidenced by such expressions as ‘Dur yavanam’ which is cited in grammatical texts as an example of  the Avyayii Bhaava compound in the sense of vyurudhdhi (vi+ rudhdhi), the absence of prosperity of the Yavanas which was the wish of the then Indians.


It is the Yavanas who were picked for vyurudhdhi. The same feeling of intense revulsion for the Yavanas in the Caanakya Niiti Darpana also echoes when it says, ‘there is none more vile than the Yavana’.


Yavanas in Kalidasa

In the Vikramorvasiyam Yavanis (Act 5-2-7) are mentioned.

The commentator adds, “Ionian Greek girls were employed as servants in the courts of kings in ancient India. In the Shakuntala also (Act II) we find that  King Dushyanta’s retinue consists of several Ionian Greek girls and the sixth act of the same drama we have an ionian maiden whose duty is to carry the bow of the king wherever he goes.


In the Raghuvamsa, Kalidasa says,


यवनीमुखपद्मानां सेहे मधुमदं न सः|
बालातपमिवाब्जानामकालजलदोदयः ॥ ४-६१

yavanīmukhapadmānāṁ sehe madhumadaṁ na saḥ|
bālātapamivābjānāmakālajaladodayaḥ  || 4-61


yavanI mukha padmAnA.m sehe madhu mada.m na saH bAla Atapam iva abja AnAm a kAla jalada udayaH

  1. 61. saH=he that raghu; yavanI=of yavana females; mukha padmAnA.m= on faces, like lotuses – lotuses like faces; madhu mada.m= flush from drinks; a+ kAla= un, timely; jalada udayaH= cloud, arising; abjAnAm= for lotuses; bAla Atapam iva= young, sun, as with; na sehe= not, tolerated, removed – the flushes of drink from the faces of Yavana females.

Picture of Persian woman drinking


As to how an untimely cloud removes morning sunlight from the faces of just blooming lotuses, raghu has also removed the blooming flush of wine from the lotus-like faces of yavana women when he encountered their men. [4-61]


The yavani-s spoken of by kAlidAsa seem to be of Persian and other races on the north-west of India. Viewing them to be Greek or Ionians is only too far-fetched. – KMJ


Another drama of Kalidasa, Malavika Agnimitram, also refers to the Yavanas.


Hundreds of Tamil words are in ancient Greek (see my previous posts)


Tamil literature also talks about Yavana wine. The commentators said that it was Roman wine. When we look at Kalidasa it looks like Tamils also used Persian wine.


We have very clear proof for the contact with the Greeks; Fragments of drama with Greek words were discovered in South India. In the North West of India, there was Indo-Greek rule for a long time after Alexander left Indian borders.


Other references are in my earlier articles:—



Barhut sculpture of a Yavana; 2300 year old.

yavanas in Hindu literature | Tamil and Vedas

Yavanas are described as men of harsh words by Ilango and a Brahmin poet Kumattur Kannanar and Mlechchas and Turks by commentator Adiyarkkunallar. 4.Ancestors of Tamil Chozas fought with “Black Yavana” during Lord Krishna’s time! 5.Vedic literature (Satapatha Brahmana) also described some people speaking …

தமிழ் பண்பாடு | Tamil and Vedas | Page 46…/2/…:/tamilandvedas…/46/


31 Jul 2014 – Yavana in Puranas Mucukunta was an ancient king, who the Chozas claim as their ancestor. Later inscriptions and Tamil literature claim Chozas belong to the solar race. Sibi, who ruled North West India was also an ancestor of the Chozas according to Sangam Tamil literature(Purananuru). Mucukunda …

Who is a Mlecha? | Tamil and Vedas


In the Sangam Tamil literature we come across the word Mlecha in Mullaippaattu (line 66). Poet Napputhanar called the Yavanas as Mlechas. He described them as dumb who used only sign language. Lot of Roman or Greek bodyguards were used by the Tamil kings. Tamils called theYavanas (Romans) ‘mlechas’ …




HELL in Rig Veda and Tamil Veda!(Post No.4405)

Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 17 NOVEMBER 2017


Time uploaded in London- 20-33



Post No. 4405

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.


Hell and Heaven figure prominently in Hindu mythology. We read about in the oldest book in the world Rig Veda! There is not a single religious scripture without a reference to the hell. References to Hell are found in the Sangam Tamil literature and post Sangam Tamil book Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda.


Though later Hindu scriptures refer to various hells, Rig Veda only one hell is mentioned. It is a dark place; but no mention of torture or suffering is there. We read, “knowing he beholds all creatures; he hurls the hated and the irreligious into abyss” (RV 9-73)


In Manu Smrti, the Hindu Law Book, 21 hells are enumerated. Some of the name of the hells are: Darkness, Frightful, Burning, Place of Spikes, Frying Pan, Thorny Tree, Sword Leaved Forest and Place of Iron Fetters.

A liar would go to Raurava (dreadful) hell. He who kills a cow would go to the Rodha hell (hell of obstruction).

A horse stealer falls into the red hot iron hell. The wicked person who eats food before offering it to gods or ancestors or guests falls into where, instead of food, saliva is given to him. ( My comments: If people followed this rule and shared their food there woudn’t be any poverty, any beggar or communism in the world!).


He who cuts down trees goes to the Hell of Sword Leaved Trees. So much environmental awareness was there during Manu’s days! Manu has listed the hells to fit each crime perfectly. He is a great law maker.


I have already the Bhavishya Purana story” about tortures in the heaven:–

“Yama was exceedingly pleased with a girl named Vijaya, a Brahmin’s daughter. When she first saw him she was greatly alarmed, alike at his appearance and on learning who he was. At length he allayed her fears and he consented to marry him.


On her arrival at Yama’s city, her husband cautioned her and assured her all would be well if she never visited the southern portion of kingdom. After a while curiosity overpowered her, and thinking that a rival wife may live in the Southern region and that is why Yama asked her never to visit that area, she visited the forbidden region.


There she saw the torments of the wicked, and alas! amongst these she recognised her own mother. Greatly distressed she appealed to Yama to release her mother but Yama told her that was impossible unless someone living on earth perform a certain sacrifice, and transfer the act of the merit of the act to this poor woman then suffering. After some difficulty, a woman was found willing to perform the sacrifice, and Vijaya obtained her release.”


Siva Purana gives a list of 28 types of hell. Each one has five levels!


A Scene from Heaven


HELL in Tamil Literature

Tamils have pure Tamil words for the hell, not Tamilized Sanskrit words. This shows that the belief was very old and independent of any Puranic influence. Alaru and Nirayam are found in Tirukkural (Tamil Veda) and Pura Nanuru (Sangam Tamil Book).

NIRAYAM (hell) – Aka Nanuru-67, Pura Nanuru -5

There are more references to Heaven in Tamil. They looked more at the positive side of the life.

From the Tamil Veda Tirukkural

ALARU (hell):- Kural 255, 835 and 919

“Abstinence from meat-eating contributes to this maintenance of life. Therefore if  a man has once committed the sin of eating meat the HELL which swallowed him will not open its mouth again to release him _ Kural 255

In one brief birth a fool can gain

Enough HELL for seven births pain- Kural 835

The delicate shoulders of harlots with fine jewels are a HELL into which are plunged the ignorant vile- 919


Jeevaka Chintamani, one of the Five Tamil Epics, also has reference to hell in several places (E.g.1235)


Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions curse those who defile or harm the inscriptions or the things mentioned in it to go to hell.


Scriptures like Bhagavad Gita have lot of references and one of them is as follows:

The gateway of this HELL leading to the ruin of the soul is three fold, lust, anger and greed Therefore these three, one should abandon. The man who is released from these, the three gates to darkness, Arjuna, does what is good for his soul and then reaches the highest gate.

It is very interesting to see the belief of sinners going to hell is found from the Rig Veda to latest poems in Tamil.


(Mr Rajendra Gupta has commented that NIRAYA for hell is a Sanskrit word. Thanks)




Lotus Flower in the Vedas, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature (Post No.3808)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 11 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 20-22


Post No. 3808


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





In Indian literature ‘flower’ means Lotus. For other flowers, they name it. Most of the Hindu girls are named after flowers. Lotus flower names are more prominent than other flower names. In Sanskrit lotus has more words than any other flower. in Tamil ‘MALAR’ means ‘flower ‘and the ‘Lotus’. Lotus flower is used as offering for all the gods and goddesses.


In the Vedas

‘Puspa’ in Sanskrit denotes a flower generally. It occurs in Atharva veda (8-7-12; 10-8-34) and Vajasaneyi Samhita and Taittiriya Samhita. Since Tamils use Malar for flower and lotus, Puspa may be lotus in the Vedas as well.


Puskara is blue lotus flower found in the Rig Veda (6-16-13; 7-33-11). Some scholars think it may be the bowl of the ladle. We have more references in Atharva Veda and later Brahmanas. Puskarini is a tank with lotus flowers in the beginning, then to all holy water tanks.


Pundarika denotes the blossom of the lotus in the Rig Veda (10-142-8). Later Brahmana and Upanishad have many references. The Pancavimsa Brahmana states that the lotus flower is born of the light of the Naksatras (18-9-6) and the Atharva Veda compares the human heart to the lotus (10-8-43) ( and in Chandogya Upanishad (8-1-1) as well).


Mysterious Puskara-saada

Puskara saada means ‘sitting on the lotus’. it is one of the animals in the list of victims at the Asvamedha/ horse sacrifice. It occurs in Taittiriya, Maitrayani and Vajasaneyi samhitas. It may be a bird or a bee or something else.

A woman’s face is frequently compared to lotus in Indian literature. Kamban, who wrote Ramayana in Tamil, also compared the face of Rama to a full blown lotus. He says that Rama’s face remained like a blossomed lotus in painting even when Dasaratha and Kaikeyi asked him to go to forest for 14 years so that Kaikeyi’s son Bharata can rule the country.

In Kalidasa

Kalidasa and Tamil poets use similar words for this flower in their works.

Sangam Tamil poet Mutukannan Sattanar described the lotus with the epithet Hundred Petalled flower (Puram.27). It was used by Kalidas earlier in the Kumarasambhava (7-46). Kalidasa used the word  Hundred petalled for Brahma because he is seated on a lotus.

Kalidasa says, Lord Shiva honoured Brahma (100 petalled seater) with a nod of the head, Vishnu with spoken words, Indra with a smile and other gods with a mere look according to their seniority (KS 7-46). This shows how Hindu kings honoured their guests according to their seniority!

Tamil poet Mutukannan says, “All the 100 petals of a lotus that grows in a muddy water tank, proudly stands without any difference. Likewise, there are hundreds of people who are high born. But most of them die unsung like the leaves of lotus plants. Only very few attain the fame to be sung and fly high.


The poet gives a message through the image of lotus flower. Not all the people attain fame like the lotus petals. Most of them die without fame like the lotus leaves.


Kalidasa and other Sanskrit poets use the lotus image for eyes. In the Rtu Samhara, the beautiful tremulous eyes of a frightened deer and the lovely, impassioned and dark eyes of women are imagined to be lotuses, blue as well as white (RS 2-9; 3-14)


In the Megaduta Kavya, Yakshini is compared to a lotus plant on a cloudy day, with its lotus neither opened nor closed up (Mega.43)


In the Kumarasambhava, Parvati’s tremulous eyes are compared with blue lotus. In Raghu vamsa, Kumarasambhava, Vikrama Urvasiya we come across many references to lotus like eyes. In those works women’s face is also compared with lotus.


The breath of Parvati’s mouth is imagined to possess the fragrance of a full blown lotus (KS 7-19)


Siva tasted the honey of Parvati’s lip as a bee does on drinking that of a lotus flower (KS 8-23)

When the women of Mithila looked at Sita from their windows, they are described as lotuses.


In all his seven works, there are number of lotus images comparing to women’s faces, limbs, eyes, skin colour etc.


In Sangam Tamil literature, there is no description of the relationship between lotus and sun. But in Kalidasa we have such references. The gloomy appearance of a Yaksha is imagined to be a lotus after sunset (Uttaramegham 20).


The water of Ganga mixed with the waves of Yamuna looks at one place like a garland of white lotuses intertwined with the blue ones (RV 13-54)


There are over 90 references to lotus in his seven works.

In Tami Literature

Nallur Nattattanar, author of Cirpanatruppatai, paints a picture of bees humming melodiously in the lotus blossoms in the tanks of the Choza country (Cirupan70-77). He uses the epithet Divine lotus, because it is all gods’ favourite flower.


Kapilar describes (Nar.1)the honey gathered from the lotus flowers in one of his poems. ‘The acquaintance with noble men of high qualities is as sweet as the honey gathered by the bees from the lotus flowers and stored in the honey comb of the lofty branch of a sandal wood tree in a high mountain.


Katiyalur Uruttiran Kannanar (his name is Mr Rudraksha), author of two long Sangam poems Pattinapalai and Perumpanatrupatai had the astonishing power of observation of nature. He gave us accurate comparisons to almost every sight and sound he described in his poems. In his work Perumpanatruppatai, he compares the lotus petals to the long ears of the rabbit (lines 114-115). In another line he described the ‘divine lotus flowers of flame like hue’ line 289/90.

The attractive colour of the pollen of the lotus flower is described in Kuruntokai 300


Sangam poet Allur Nan Mullaiyar sings about a buffaloe punging into water in a tank to eat the lotus blossoms there (Akam.46)


Paranar is famous for his similes. He is the kaidasa of Tamil Literature. He used nine similes in a single stanza in Akam178. He says the lotus has flame like flower, long stems and broad leaves (Nar.310 andAkam.6)

Mankuti Marutanar also used the same epithet for lotus:lotus of thorny stems and flame like flowers- Maturaikkanchi line 249.


Mamulanar describes a buffalo eating lotus flowers in Akam.91


in Akam.176, we read a full description of a lotus plant by Marutam Patiya Ilamkatunko:There are blossomed lotuses like smiling faces, with buds like sharp pointed spears, leaves like the ears of elephants, rounded tubular stems like bamboo sticks and mature roots that enter deep into the ground causing clefts there in.

Marutan Ilanakanar compared the lotus flower to the face of a beautiful lady in Kalitokai (line 73)

an otter enters a lotus tank, scatters the Vallai creepers there, seizes the Valai fish amidst them, feeds upon it and returns to its rattan bush (Akam.6) according to Paranar.

Source books

The treatment of nature in Sangam Literature by M Varadarajan, 1969

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Vinod Aggarwal, 1985

Vedic Index by Keith and Mc Donald



Water Images in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3793)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 6 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 18-09


Post No. 3793


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





Great men think alike. Kalidasa, the most famous poet of India and a Sangam Tamil poet Sempulapeyarnirar use the water image in a beautiful way.


Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa says,


Water from the sky which is originally of one taste gains diversity of flavours in different regions. Similarly, Hari, being immutable assumes different conditions in different qualities (RV 10-17). The image gives the idea of monism.


Sempulap peyal nirar, Tamil poet who lived nearly 2000 years ago, says in Kuruntokai (verse 40):


“What are my mother and your mother to each other?

What is the relationship between my father and your father?

How did we come to know each other?

Like the (rain) water which falls on a field with red soil,

(mingle with it and becomes red)

the loving hearts have blended with each other.


Kalidasa used it illustrate monism; Tamil poet used it to illustrate the union of hearts.


(I have been emphasizing through several articles that Kalidasa lived before the Sangam age, probably around 1st century BCE. I am using 250 plus similes of Sangam poets to illustrate my point and those similes are already in Kalidasa’s seven works).

In the Kumara sambhava (2-25), he says that “the speed of the Wind Gods Maruts can be guessed from their faltering motion as is the stoppage of their current from the refulgence of waters.


As the sprouting of a seed requires water before it can make its appearance, similarly, the work of gods can be accomplished by the Cupid in diverting the mind of Siva from meditation towards Parvati (K.S.3-18)


Siva, on account of suspension of the vital airs is imagined to be a reservoir of water unruffled with ripples, a cloud not blustering up to burst into a shower, or like a lamp steady in a place free from wind (K.S.3-48)


Cupid who died leaving Rati whose very life depends upon him, is imagined as the torrent of water abandoning a lotus after breaking down a dam (K.S. 4-6)


The mind already firmly resolute and bent on its desired object cannot be diverted and is so imagined to be like downward flowing water which cannot be drawn back (K S 5-5). So Menaka’s advice to Parvati whose mind already leaned to Siva went amiss.



Seeing the moon-like face of Parvati, Siva had the water of his mind rendered clear (K S 7-74).

Water is always cool; seers are always kind!


In the Raghuvamsa (RV 5-54) Matanga cursed Pri yamvada to turn into an elephant. He fell at his feet and the sage relented afterwards. The hotness of water is due to its contact with the fire or the solar heat; what is coolness is but the natural property of water. This indicates that abut is the sage was kind-hearted.


स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चान्मया महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत्|
उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगाच्छैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य॥ ५-५४

sa cānunītaḥ praṇatena paścānmayā maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat
uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṁprayogācchaityaṁ hi yatsā prakṛtirjalasya || 5-54

“But, when I prostrated before his feet and importuned that great sage matanga relented to modify the curse as above… for the heat of water is owing to its contact with either fire or solar heat… what is coolness is but the natural property of water… isn’t it… [5-54]



The Sanskrit poets describe navel as a mark of beauty and it therefore, compared to the watery eddy (RV 6-52)

नृपम् तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः सा व्यत्यगादन्यवधूर्भवित्री|
महीधरम् मार्गवशादुपेतम् स्रोतोवहा सागरगामिनीव॥ ६-५२

nṛpam tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ sā vyatyagādanyavadhūrbhavitrī |

mahīdharam mārgavaśādupetam srotovahā sāgaragāminīva || 6-52

She who has a navel as beautiful as an eddy, and who is scheduled to become another man’s wife, that princess indumati moved past that prince susheNa of shUrasena kingdom, just as an ocean bound river moves past a mountain met by chance on its way. [6-52]




The family of Raghu with the child King comparable to the water with a lotus in the condition of a bud in it (RV 18-37). This indicates the tender and lovely heart of King Sudarsana.


नवेन्दुना तन्नभसोपमेयम्
शाबैकसिंहेन च काननेन।
रघोः कुलम् कुट्मलपुष्करेण
तोयेन चाप्रौढनरेन्द्रमासीत्॥ १८-३७

navendunā tannabhasopameyam
śābaikasiṁhena ca kānanena |
raghoḥ kulam kuṭmalapuṣkareṇa
toyena cāprauḍhanarendramāsīt || 18-37


That dynasty of Raghu with this young king sudarshana obtained similitude to the sky with new moon, a forest with a single lion-cub, and a lake with solitary bud of lotus. [18-37]


Thus Raghu’s line, whose chief was now a child,/Showed like the night while still the Moon is young,/Or like a forest where one Lion-cub/Alone doth range, or as a silent lake/Before its lilies bloom.



In the Malavikagnimitram (M.M.1-6), the skill of teacher which when communicated to a worthy student, attains greater excellence, is likened to the water of a cloud, which when dropped into a sea-shell, acquires the nature of a pearl.


Just as a stupid person becomes wise by association with the wise, similarly, the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree (M M 2—7)


(Rain drops falling on the day of Swati star becoming pearl in the oysters and the Kataka seed purifying water are used by Tamil poets as well; I have written about it already).


Source books :–Kuruntokai


The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Mrs Vinod Aggarwal


My Old articles on the same subject:

1.Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775); posted on 31 March 2017

2. Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature; posted on 10 November 2014
3. Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st century BC. Posted on 22 January 2012
4. Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489); 27 December 2016
5. Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature

Posted on Post No. 1048 ; dated 17th May 2014.

  1. Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (13 February 2012)