‘Women can keep One Secret’- Voltaire (Post No.4592)

 

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 7 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-59

 

 

 

Post No. 4592

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

SECRET QUOTATIONS ABOUT HINDU SECRET

You may find the title a bit puzzling. The reason I chose this title for the essay is no quotes are available from Hindus sources in the quotations websites. But the most interesting about secret is that it is in the oldest book in the world- The Rig Veda. Later we find this word in hundreds of places in Hindu books both in Sanskrit and Tamil. I will give some quotes below; please don’t keep them secret; let it spread to blogs and websites as well!

The Rig Veda has the word secret in the second Mandala (chapter):

Raha- suu

The meaning given in the Vedic index is ‘bearing in secret’. It is in RV 2-29-1

It is a hymn to Visvedevas

“Upholders of the Law, ye strong Adityas, remove my sin like her who bears in secret.

You, Varuna, Mitra and all gods who listen, I call to help me , I who know your goodness”

 

Bearing in secret is a term applied to an unmarried mother according to Vedic index.

 

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The second reference about secret itself is secretive!

Rahasyu Deva-malimlue

is the name, in the Pachavimsa Brahmana (14-4-7), of a mythical person who at Munimarana slew the saintly Vaikhanases.

 

We don’t know much about the mythical person and the motive behind the murder. A typical secret story!

We have lot of references in the epics.

But the oft quoted Bhagavd Gita has a secret.

Lord Krishna says

“This same ancient Yoga has been today declared to thee by me; for thou art my devotee and my friend; and this is the Supreme Secret (rahasyam uttamam)

 

In most of the old Hindu scriptures they used the word Rahasyam (secret) for Veda and Upanishads.

Tamils are very clever that they translated the Veda (knowledge) it self Secret (Marai in Tamil); they knew very well that Vedas are not to be taken literal but understood through the hidden meaning!

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Secret in Manu Smrti

The oldest law book in the world is Manu Smrti (older than the Hammurabi’s code). It used the word secret to denote Upanishads,the philosophical treatises of the Hindus.

Here are some quotes:

उपनीय तु यः शिष्यं वेदमध्यापयेद् द्विजः ।

च्/ सकल्पं सरहस्यं च तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते

  1. They call that twice born who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the latter).

Rahsyas= Upanishads  Manu 2-140

 

तपोविशेषैर्विविधैर्व्रतैश्च विधिचोदितैः ।

वेदः कृत्स्नोऽधिगन्तव्यः सरहस्यो द्विजन्मना 2-165

  1. A twice born man must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).

rahasya= Upanishads

twice born = Brahmana, Kshatriya and Vaisya in the Vedic age; later only Brahmins

 

  1. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple Veda which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is called) learned in the Veda.11-266
  2. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have been exactly and fully described; (now) the secret portion of these Institutes, proclaimed by Manu, will be taught.12-107
  3. Thus did that worshipful deity disclose to me, through a desire of benefiting mankind, this whole most excellent secret of the sacred law.12-117

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SECRET in Later Literature

 

In the literature, the word used with the modern meaning, like we use it today

 

Chanakya Niti (3rd Century BCE):

One should not trust a bad friend, nor should repose too much of trust (even in good) friend lest the friend in a fit of rage were to lay bare all the secrets.

Chapter 2, Verse 6

 

na visvaset kumitre ca mitre caatiwa visvaset

kadaacit kupitamitram sarvam guhyaam prakaasayet

 

Never reveal Your Plans/ Ideas

 

One should not reveal through words (talk about) an action one has in mind. One should keep it secret in his counsel and apply it to one’s mission.

Chapter 2, verse 7

 

manasaa chintitam kaaryam vachasaa na prakaasayet

mantrena rakshayet guudam kaarye chaapi niyojayet.

 

Some of his instructions are valid even today.

Source for slokas: Chanakya Niti, translated by Satya Vrat Shastri, Kolkata.

 

Author’s name Chanakya alias Kautilya

 

xxx

 

WOMEN AND SECRET

 

Secret in Epics, Kalidasa, Panchatantra

 

A man should never disclose a secret to a woman if he longs for prosperity- Vishnusharman in Panchatantra Book3,97 (also in Katha Sarit Sagara)

 

This is repeated by all the English authors like Shakespeare and Tamil authors like Kamban and Vivekachudamani etc.

 

 

Constant you are, but yet a woman; and for secrecy, no lady closer; for I well believe thou wilt not utter what thou dost not know.

Shakespeare.

 

 

There is a secret drawer in every woman’s heart.

Victor Hugo.

 

  A woman can keep one secret,—the secret of her age.

Voltaire.

 

 

A man can keep another person’s secret better than his own; a woman, on the contrary, keeps her secret though she blabs all others.

La Bruyère.

 

 

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He cannot keep a secret longer than the morning des drops on the grass- Kalidasa in Vikrama Uvasiiyam Act 2

 

Good is the secrecy of a secret, its revelation is not to be praised

–Jataka Tales VI, Book 22, No546

 

One should not disclose secrets to everyone; one should reveal some only to one’s wife, some to one’s friend and some to one’s son, for they cannot be trusted- Vishnusarma in Panchatantra Book 1

 

 

Whoever divulges secrets should be torn to pieces- Arthasastra of Chanakya/Kautilya Book 1 Chapter 15

 

It is always difficult to keep secrecy counsels secret when many are concerned.—Vyasa in Mahabharata, Shanti Parva

 

This is also repeated by umpteen English writers. Anything concerning two or more people is not at all a secret.

 

SECRET IN TAMIL

 

Ancient Tamil literature also has many quotations on Secret:-

 

Tamil Veda Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar says,

 

“The mean are like the drum that is beaten, for they hear secrets and betray them” (Kural/ Couplet 1076)

 

Another translation of the same Tamil couplet is as follows:

 

“Like a tom-tom, the base ones will broadcast

Whatever information they come by”

 

The Bible  also has a parallel quotation:

A gossip gives away secrets,

But a trusty man keeps his own counsel (Proverbs 11,13)

 

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Pazamozi Nanuru is another Tamil didactic work which has few quotations:-

 

Telling a secret to base one is like placing cotton on the top of a palmyrah tree. (It will be blown into all directions easily)

 

We may compare it with What Khalil Gibran said:

 

Kahlil Gibran — ‘If you reveal your secrets to the wind, you should not blame the wind forrevealing them to the trees.’

 

The same book says,

The wise ones never tell a secret to mean minded people.

 

There are hundreds of proverbs in Indian languages. I have to deal with it separately.

 

–Subham–

 

Be a Snake! Paramahamsa and Chanakya Advise! (Post No.4579)

picture by Lalgudi Veda

 

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 3 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 18-35

 

 

 

Post No. 4579

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

A snake must be a snake; it must instil fear in others; otherwise it will die. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the great saint and Chanakya , the great philosopher, statesman and astute politician agree on snakes!

Chanakya says,

“Even a snake with no poison should raise its hood. Be there poison or not, the raising of the hood instils fear”—Chanakya Niti, Chapter 9, sloka/verse 10

 

Here is the verse in Sanskrit:-

nirvishenaani sarpena karthavyaa mahati fanaa

vishamastu na chaapyastu fanaayopo bhayankarah

Sometimes you may be weak or in a weaker position, but yet you can pretend to be strong.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa narrates a story:-

“A serpent dwelt in a certain locality. No one dared to pass by that way; for whoever did so was instantaneously bitten to death by the serpent.

 

Once a holy man passed by. As usual the serpent pursued the sage with a view to biting him, but when it approached the holy man, it lost all kits ferocity and was over powered by his gentleness. Seeing the snake, the holy man said,

‘Well, friend! Do you want to bite me?’ The snake was abashed and did not reply. At this the sage said again, ‘hearken friend, do not injure anyone in future’. The snake bowed and nodded assent.

 

After the sage, had hone his own way, the entered its hole, and began to live a life of innocence and purity without even wishing to harm anyone. In a few days, it became a common belief in the neighbourhood that the snake had lost all its venom and was no more dangerous, and so people began to tease it. Some pelted stones at it., and others dragged it mercilessly by the tail. Thus there was no end to its troubles.

Fortunately, sometime after, the sage again passed that way seeing the bruised and battered condition of the poor snake, was very much moved to pity and inquired about the cause of its distress.

At this the snake replied, Sir, I have been reduced to this state, because I Have not been injuring anyone since I received your instruction. But alas! they are so merciless!

The sage smilingly said, ‘Dear friend, I only advised you not to bite anyone, but I never asked you not to hiss and frighten others. Although you should not bite any creature, still you should keep everyone at a considerable distance from you by hissing’.

 

Similarly, if you live in this world, make yourself feared and respected. Do not injure anyone, but do not at the same time let others injure you.

Source:

Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai 600004

Canakyaniti, Satya Vrat Shastri, Bharatiya Vidya Mandir, Kolkata

 

 

Snake and Great men

If You see a Snake……………….

“Between a snake and a wicked person, it is the serpent which is better. Serpent bites ever and anon but a wicked person does so at every step”—Chanakya Niti, Chapter 3, Sloka

 

 

Three other poets sang about great men and poisonous snakes

Even if poisonous snakes enter an assembly of scholars it will pass through them unscathed. They won’t hurt them, says a Tamil poem in ‘Pazamozi Four Hundred’. Even the Sangam Tamil Literature (Neithal kali, Kali Tokai) gave the same message.

Another poet ( of Tamil book “Aranerisaram” ) viewed the snakes differently. He says, look at this, If you give water to a cow it gives you milk; but if you give milk to a cobra, it produces poison! Likewise, the books read by bad people are interpreted negatively. The same books read by the great people are interpreted positively”.

The best examples for this poem are our Vedas and the Epics. Foreigners who read these books interpreted them negatively. They are like snakes that convert milk into poison. The great Tamil kings Chera, Chola and Pandyas fostered Vedas and Vedic Yajnas for over 2000 years according to Sangam Tamil Literature. In the North, more Asvamedha Yajnas and Rajasuyas were done. Vedas are viewed positively in Kalidasa’s works and Sangam Tamil works. They are like cows that turns water into milk.

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar in her book ‘Vakkundaam’ compared water snake to good people and cobra to bad people. She says that the water snake is not poisonous and it lies openly on the banks of rivers and lakes. But the cobra is poisonous and so it hides in the holes. Good people don’t fear any one, bad people fear others and lead a secret life! They pretend to be good.

Chanakya also agrees,

“Those vile men who disclose each other’s secrets come o naught, for sure, like a snake in an ant-hill” – Chapter 9, Verse 2s

–Subham–

Tamils and Chanakya attack Yavanas! (Post No.4565)

Roman wine picture

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 30 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 8-18 am

 

 

Post No. 4565

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

Chanakya in his Niti Shastra attack Yavanas like the Tamils. One of the most powerful Tamil kings Imayavaramban Netuncheralathan punished Yavanas by shaving their heads and pouring oil on the heads 2000 years ago. (Please see full details in my earlier research articles in the links given at the bottom).

 

But who are the Yavanas?

 

In Tamil literature it denotes Romans and Greeks. In later Tamil literature, the words milecha and Yavanas were used for Romans, Greeks and Arbas may be Persians. Both Kalidasa and Tamil poet mentioned the Yavana wine. In Shakuntalam and Raghu Vamsa it refers to the wine produced by the Persians. Both Tamil and Sanskrit poets used them for guarding the harem, war camps and gates of the palaces. The Yavana women were used as maids in the palaces.

 

Let us look at what Chanakya says about the Yavanas (Greeks)  first!

 

“The wise who know the reality have proclaimed that even one Yavana is equal to thousands of Candalas (untouchables) There is no one more lowly than a Yavana”.

–Chanakya Niti , Chapter 8, Sloka 5

 

Chaadaalaanaam sahasraischa suuribistatvadarsibihi

eko hi yavanah prokto na niicho yavanaat parah

 

Satya Vrata Sastri who translated Chanakya Niti, says in the introduction:

“The Caanakya Niiti provides a good glimpse of the contemporary thinking. The time it was composed was marked by intense hatred for the Yavanas, the Greek or for that matter all the foreign invaders, who were out to subjugate the country with their life style running counter to that of the locals – mark the expression ‘Sayanaa Bhunchathe Yavanaah, ‘the Yavanas partake the food while lying’, a practice abhorring to high-bred Indians of the time.

 

The Yavanas through their unseemly behaviour, this is how one can infer it, invited on themselves the curse of the locals who would not take them kindly as evidenced by such expressions as ‘Dur yavanam’ which is cited in grammatical texts as an example of  the Avyayii Bhaava compound in the sense of vyurudhdhi (vi+ rudhdhi), the absence of prosperity of the Yavanas which was the wish of the then Indians.

 

It is the Yavanas who were picked for vyurudhdhi. The same feeling of intense revulsion for the Yavanas in the Caanakya Niiti Darpana also echoes when it says, ‘there is none more vile than the Yavana’.

 

Yavanas in Kalidasa

In the Vikramorvasiyam Yavanis (Act 5-2-7) are mentioned.

The commentator adds, “Ionian Greek girls were employed as servants in the courts of kings in ancient India. In the Shakuntala also (Act II) we find that  King Dushyanta’s retinue consists of several Ionian Greek girls and the sixth act of the same drama we have an ionian maiden whose duty is to carry the bow of the king wherever he goes.

 

In the Raghuvamsa, Kalidasa says,

 

यवनीमुखपद्मानां सेहे मधुमदं न सः|
बालातपमिवाब्जानामकालजलदोदयः ॥ ४-६१

yavanīmukhapadmānāṁ sehe madhumadaṁ na saḥ|
bālātapamivābjānāmakālajaladodayaḥ  || 4-61

 

yavanI mukha padmAnA.m sehe madhu mada.m na saH bAla Atapam iva abja AnAm a kAla jalada udayaH

  1. 61. saH=he that raghu; yavanI=of yavana females; mukha padmAnA.m= on faces, like lotuses – lotuses like faces; madhu mada.m= flush from drinks; a+ kAla= un, timely; jalada udayaH= cloud, arising; abjAnAm= for lotuses; bAla Atapam iva= young, sun, as with; na sehe= not, tolerated, removed – the flushes of drink from the faces of Yavana females.

Picture of Persian woman drinking

 

As to how an untimely cloud removes morning sunlight from the faces of just blooming lotuses, raghu has also removed the blooming flush of wine from the lotus-like faces of yavana women when he encountered their men. [4-61]

 

The yavani-s spoken of by kAlidAsa seem to be of Persian and other races on the north-west of India. Viewing them to be Greek or Ionians is only too far-fetched. – KMJ

 

Another drama of Kalidasa, Malavika Agnimitram, also refers to the Yavanas.

 

Hundreds of Tamil words are in ancient Greek (see my previous posts)

 

Tamil literature also talks about Yavana wine. The commentators said that it was Roman wine. When we look at Kalidasa it looks like Tamils also used Persian wine.

 

We have very clear proof for the contact with the Greeks; Fragments of drama with Greek words were discovered in South India. In the North West of India, there was Indo-Greek rule for a long time after Alexander left Indian borders.

 

Other references are in my earlier articles:—

 

 

Barhut sculpture of a Yavana; 2300 year old.

yavanas in Hindu literature | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/yavanas-in-hindu-literature/

Yavanas are described as men of harsh words by Ilango and a Brahmin poet Kumattur Kannanar and Mlechchas and Turks by commentator Adiyarkkunallar. 4.Ancestors of Tamil Chozas fought with “Black Yavana” during Lord Krishna’s time! 5.Vedic literature (Satapatha Brahmana) also described some people speaking …

தமிழ் பண்பாடு | Tamil and Vedas | Page 46

https://tamilandvedas.com/category/…/2/…:/tamilandvedas…/46/

 

31 Jul 2014 – Yavana in Puranas Mucukunta was an ancient king, who the Chozas claim as their ancestor. Later inscriptions and Tamil literature claim Chozas belong to the solar race. Sibi, who ruled North West India was also an ancestor of the Chozas according to Sangam Tamil literature(Purananuru). Mucukunda …

Who is a Mlecha? | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/who-is-a-mlecha/

 

In the Sangam Tamil literature we come across the word Mlecha in Mullaippaattu (line 66). Poet Napputhanar called the Yavanas as Mlechas. He described them as dumb who used only sign language. Lot of Roman or Greek bodyguards were used by the Tamil kings. Tamils called theYavanas (Romans) ‘mlechas’ …

 

–SUBHAM–

 

HELL in Rig Veda and Tamil Veda!(Post No.4405)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 17 NOVEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-33

 

 

Post No. 4405

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Hell and Heaven figure prominently in Hindu mythology. We read about in the oldest book in the world Rig Veda! There is not a single religious scripture without a reference to the hell. References to Hell are found in the Sangam Tamil literature and post Sangam Tamil book Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda.

 

Though later Hindu scriptures refer to various hells, Rig Veda only one hell is mentioned. It is a dark place; but no mention of torture or suffering is there. We read, “knowing he beholds all creatures; he hurls the hated and the irreligious into abyss” (RV 9-73)

 

In Manu Smrti, the Hindu Law Book, 21 hells are enumerated. Some of the name of the hells are: Darkness, Frightful, Burning, Place of Spikes, Frying Pan, Thorny Tree, Sword Leaved Forest and Place of Iron Fetters.

A liar would go to Raurava (dreadful) hell. He who kills a cow would go to the Rodha hell (hell of obstruction).

A horse stealer falls into the red hot iron hell. The wicked person who eats food before offering it to gods or ancestors or guests falls into where, instead of food, saliva is given to him. ( My comments: If people followed this rule and shared their food there woudn’t be any poverty, any beggar or communism in the world!).

TREE CUTTING – A SIN!

He who cuts down trees goes to the Hell of Sword Leaved Trees. So much environmental awareness was there during Manu’s days! Manu has listed the hells to fit each crime perfectly. He is a great law maker.

 

I have already the Bhavishya Purana story” about tortures in the heaven:–

“Yama was exceedingly pleased with a girl named Vijaya, a Brahmin’s daughter. When she first saw him she was greatly alarmed, alike at his appearance and on learning who he was. At length he allayed her fears and he consented to marry him.

 

On her arrival at Yama’s city, her husband cautioned her and assured her all would be well if she never visited the southern portion of kingdom. After a while curiosity overpowered her, and thinking that a rival wife may live in the Southern region and that is why Yama asked her never to visit that area, she visited the forbidden region.

 

There she saw the torments of the wicked, and alas! amongst these she recognised her own mother. Greatly distressed she appealed to Yama to release her mother but Yama told her that was impossible unless someone living on earth perform a certain sacrifice, and transfer the act of the merit of the act to this poor woman then suffering. After some difficulty, a woman was found willing to perform the sacrifice, and Vijaya obtained her release.”

 

Siva Purana gives a list of 28 types of hell. Each one has five levels!

 

A Scene from Heaven

 

HELL in Tamil Literature

Tamils have pure Tamil words for the hell, not Tamilized Sanskrit words. This shows that the belief was very old and independent of any Puranic influence. Alaru and Nirayam are found in Tirukkural (Tamil Veda) and Pura Nanuru (Sangam Tamil Book).

NIRAYAM (hell) – Aka Nanuru-67, Pura Nanuru -5

There are more references to Heaven in Tamil. They looked more at the positive side of the life.

From the Tamil Veda Tirukkural

ALARU (hell):- Kural 255, 835 and 919

“Abstinence from meat-eating contributes to this maintenance of life. Therefore if  a man has once committed the sin of eating meat the HELL which swallowed him will not open its mouth again to release him _ Kural 255

In one brief birth a fool can gain

Enough HELL for seven births pain- Kural 835

The delicate shoulders of harlots with fine jewels are a HELL into which are plunged the ignorant vile- 919

 

Jeevaka Chintamani, one of the Five Tamil Epics, also has reference to hell in several places (E.g.1235)

 

Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions curse those who defile or harm the inscriptions or the things mentioned in it to go to hell.

 

Scriptures like Bhagavad Gita have lot of references and one of them is as follows:

The gateway of this HELL leading to the ruin of the soul is three fold, lust, anger and greed Therefore these three, one should abandon. The man who is released from these, the three gates to darkness, Arjuna, does what is good for his soul and then reaches the highest gate.

It is very interesting to see the belief of sinners going to hell is found from the Rig Veda to latest poems in Tamil.

 

(Mr Rajendra Gupta has commented that NIRAYA for hell is a Sanskrit word. Thanks)

–Subham–

 

 

Lotus Flower in the Vedas, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Literature (Post No.3808)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 11 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-22

 

Post No. 3808

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

In Indian literature ‘flower’ means Lotus. For other flowers, they name it. Most of the Hindu girls are named after flowers. Lotus flower names are more prominent than other flower names. In Sanskrit lotus has more words than any other flower. in Tamil ‘MALAR’ means ‘flower ‘and the ‘Lotus’. Lotus flower is used as offering for all the gods and goddesses.

 

In the Vedas

‘Puspa’ in Sanskrit denotes a flower generally. It occurs in Atharva veda (8-7-12; 10-8-34) and Vajasaneyi Samhita and Taittiriya Samhita. Since Tamils use Malar for flower and lotus, Puspa may be lotus in the Vedas as well.

 

Puskara is blue lotus flower found in the Rig Veda (6-16-13; 7-33-11). Some scholars think it may be the bowl of the ladle. We have more references in Atharva Veda and later Brahmanas. Puskarini is a tank with lotus flowers in the beginning, then to all holy water tanks.

Pundariika

Pundarika denotes the blossom of the lotus in the Rig Veda (10-142-8). Later Brahmana and Upanishad have many references. The Pancavimsa Brahmana states that the lotus flower is born of the light of the Naksatras (18-9-6) and the Atharva Veda compares the human heart to the lotus (10-8-43) ( and in Chandogya Upanishad (8-1-1) as well).

 

Mysterious Puskara-saada

Puskara saada means ‘sitting on the lotus’. it is one of the animals in the list of victims at the Asvamedha/ horse sacrifice. It occurs in Taittiriya, Maitrayani and Vajasaneyi samhitas. It may be a bird or a bee or something else.

A woman’s face is frequently compared to lotus in Indian literature. Kamban, who wrote Ramayana in Tamil, also compared the face of Rama to a full blown lotus. He says that Rama’s face remained like a blossomed lotus in painting even when Dasaratha and Kaikeyi asked him to go to forest for 14 years so that Kaikeyi’s son Bharata can rule the country.

In Kalidasa

Kalidasa and Tamil poets use similar words for this flower in their works.

Sangam Tamil poet Mutukannan Sattanar described the lotus with the epithet Hundred Petalled flower (Puram.27). It was used by Kalidas earlier in the Kumarasambhava (7-46). Kalidasa used the word  Hundred petalled for Brahma because he is seated on a lotus.

Kalidasa says, Lord Shiva honoured Brahma (100 petalled seater) with a nod of the head, Vishnu with spoken words, Indra with a smile and other gods with a mere look according to their seniority (KS 7-46). This shows how Hindu kings honoured their guests according to their seniority!

Tamil poet Mutukannan says, “All the 100 petals of a lotus that grows in a muddy water tank, proudly stands without any difference. Likewise, there are hundreds of people who are high born. But most of them die unsung like the leaves of lotus plants. Only very few attain the fame to be sung and fly high.

 

The poet gives a message through the image of lotus flower. Not all the people attain fame like the lotus petals. Most of them die without fame like the lotus leaves.

 

Kalidasa and other Sanskrit poets use the lotus image for eyes. In the Rtu Samhara, the beautiful tremulous eyes of a frightened deer and the lovely, impassioned and dark eyes of women are imagined to be lotuses, blue as well as white (RS 2-9; 3-14)

 

In the Megaduta Kavya, Yakshini is compared to a lotus plant on a cloudy day, with its lotus neither opened nor closed up (Mega.43)

 

In the Kumarasambhava, Parvati’s tremulous eyes are compared with blue lotus. In Raghu vamsa, Kumarasambhava, Vikrama Urvasiya we come across many references to lotus like eyes. In those works women’s face is also compared with lotus.

 

The breath of Parvati’s mouth is imagined to possess the fragrance of a full blown lotus (KS 7-19)

 

Siva tasted the honey of Parvati’s lip as a bee does on drinking that of a lotus flower (KS 8-23)

When the women of Mithila looked at Sita from their windows, they are described as lotuses.

 

In all his seven works, there are number of lotus images comparing to women’s faces, limbs, eyes, skin colour etc.

 

In Sangam Tamil literature, there is no description of the relationship between lotus and sun. But in Kalidasa we have such references. The gloomy appearance of a Yaksha is imagined to be a lotus after sunset (Uttaramegham 20).

 

The water of Ganga mixed with the waves of Yamuna looks at one place like a garland of white lotuses intertwined with the blue ones (RV 13-54)

 

There are over 90 references to lotus in his seven works.

In Tami Literature

Nallur Nattattanar, author of Cirpanatruppatai, paints a picture of bees humming melodiously in the lotus blossoms in the tanks of the Choza country (Cirupan70-77). He uses the epithet Divine lotus, because it is all gods’ favourite flower.

 

Kapilar describes (Nar.1)the honey gathered from the lotus flowers in one of his poems. ‘The acquaintance with noble men of high qualities is as sweet as the honey gathered by the bees from the lotus flowers and stored in the honey comb of the lofty branch of a sandal wood tree in a high mountain.

 

Katiyalur Uruttiran Kannanar (his name is Mr Rudraksha), author of two long Sangam poems Pattinapalai and Perumpanatrupatai had the astonishing power of observation of nature. He gave us accurate comparisons to almost every sight and sound he described in his poems. In his work Perumpanatruppatai, he compares the lotus petals to the long ears of the rabbit (lines 114-115). In another line he described the ‘divine lotus flowers of flame like hue’ line 289/90.

The attractive colour of the pollen of the lotus flower is described in Kuruntokai 300

 

Sangam poet Allur Nan Mullaiyar sings about a buffaloe punging into water in a tank to eat the lotus blossoms there (Akam.46)

 

Paranar is famous for his similes. He is the kaidasa of Tamil Literature. He used nine similes in a single stanza in Akam178. He says the lotus has flame like flower, long stems and broad leaves (Nar.310 andAkam.6)

Mankuti Marutanar also used the same epithet for lotus:lotus of thorny stems and flame like flowers- Maturaikkanchi line 249.

 

Mamulanar describes a buffalo eating lotus flowers in Akam.91

 

in Akam.176, we read a full description of a lotus plant by Marutam Patiya Ilamkatunko:There are blossomed lotuses like smiling faces, with buds like sharp pointed spears, leaves like the ears of elephants, rounded tubular stems like bamboo sticks and mature roots that enter deep into the ground causing clefts there in.

Marutan Ilanakanar compared the lotus flower to the face of a beautiful lady in Kalitokai (line 73)

an otter enters a lotus tank, scatters the Vallai creepers there, seizes the Valai fish amidst them, feeds upon it and returns to its rattan bush (Akam.6) according to Paranar.

Source books

The treatment of nature in Sangam Literature by M Varadarajan, 1969

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Vinod Aggarwal, 1985

Vedic Index by Keith and Mc Donald

 

–Subham–

Water Images in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3793)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 6 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 18-09

 

Post No. 3793

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Great men think alike. Kalidasa, the most famous poet of India and a Sangam Tamil poet Sempulapeyarnirar use the water image in a beautiful way.

 

Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa says,

 

Water from the sky which is originally of one taste gains diversity of flavours in different regions. Similarly, Hari, being immutable assumes different conditions in different qualities (RV 10-17). The image gives the idea of monism.

 

Sempulap peyal nirar, Tamil poet who lived nearly 2000 years ago, says in Kuruntokai (verse 40):

 

“What are my mother and your mother to each other?

What is the relationship between my father and your father?

How did we come to know each other?

Like the (rain) water which falls on a field with red soil,

(mingle with it and becomes red)

the loving hearts have blended with each other.

 

Kalidasa used it illustrate monism; Tamil poet used it to illustrate the union of hearts.

 

(I have been emphasizing through several articles that Kalidasa lived before the Sangam age, probably around 1st century BCE. I am using 250 plus similes of Sangam poets to illustrate my point and those similes are already in Kalidasa’s seven works).

In the Kumara sambhava (2-25), he says that “the speed of the Wind Gods Maruts can be guessed from their faltering motion as is the stoppage of their current from the refulgence of waters.

 

As the sprouting of a seed requires water before it can make its appearance, similarly, the work of gods can be accomplished by the Cupid in diverting the mind of Siva from meditation towards Parvati (K.S.3-18)

 

Siva, on account of suspension of the vital airs is imagined to be a reservoir of water unruffled with ripples, a cloud not blustering up to burst into a shower, or like a lamp steady in a place free from wind (K.S.3-48)

 

Cupid who died leaving Rati whose very life depends upon him, is imagined as the torrent of water abandoning a lotus after breaking down a dam (K.S. 4-6)

 

The mind already firmly resolute and bent on its desired object cannot be diverted and is so imagined to be like downward flowing water which cannot be drawn back (K S 5-5). So Menaka’s advice to Parvati whose mind already leaned to Siva went amiss.

 

 

Seeing the moon-like face of Parvati, Siva had the water of his mind rendered clear (K S 7-74).

Water is always cool; seers are always kind!

 

In the Raghuvamsa (RV 5-54) Matanga cursed Pri yamvada to turn into an elephant. He fell at his feet and the sage relented afterwards. The hotness of water is due to its contact with the fire or the solar heat; what is coolness is but the natural property of water. This indicates that abut is the sage was kind-hearted.

 

स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चान्मया महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत्|
उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगाच्छैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य॥ ५-५४

sa cānunītaḥ praṇatena paścānmayā maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat
uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṁprayogācchaityaṁ hi yatsā prakṛtirjalasya || 5-54

“But, when I prostrated before his feet and importuned that great sage matanga relented to modify the curse as above… for the heat of water is owing to its contact with either fire or solar heat… what is coolness is but the natural property of water… isn’t it… [5-54]

 

 

The Sanskrit poets describe navel as a mark of beauty and it therefore, compared to the watery eddy (RV 6-52)

नृपम् तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः सा व्यत्यगादन्यवधूर्भवित्री|
महीधरम् मार्गवशादुपेतम् स्रोतोवहा सागरगामिनीव॥ ६-५२

nṛpam tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ sā vyatyagādanyavadhūrbhavitrī |

mahīdharam mārgavaśādupetam srotovahā sāgaragāminīva || 6-52

She who has a navel as beautiful as an eddy, and who is scheduled to become another man’s wife, that princess indumati moved past that prince susheNa of shUrasena kingdom, just as an ocean bound river moves past a mountain met by chance on its way. [6-52]

 

 

 

The family of Raghu with the child King comparable to the water with a lotus in the condition of a bud in it (RV 18-37). This indicates the tender and lovely heart of King Sudarsana.

 

नवेन्दुना तन्नभसोपमेयम्
शाबैकसिंहेन च काननेन।
रघोः कुलम् कुट्मलपुष्करेण
तोयेन चाप्रौढनरेन्द्रमासीत्॥ १८-३७

navendunā tannabhasopameyam
śābaikasiṁhena ca kānanena |
raghoḥ kulam kuṭmalapuṣkareṇa
toyena cāprauḍhanarendramāsīt || 18-37

 

That dynasty of Raghu with this young king sudarshana obtained similitude to the sky with new moon, a forest with a single lion-cub, and a lake with solitary bud of lotus. [18-37]

 

Thus Raghu’s line, whose chief was now a child,/Showed like the night while still the Moon is young,/Or like a forest where one Lion-cub/Alone doth range, or as a silent lake/Before its lilies bloom.

 

 

In the Malavikagnimitram (M.M.1-6), the skill of teacher which when communicated to a worthy student, attains greater excellence, is likened to the water of a cloud, which when dropped into a sea-shell, acquires the nature of a pearl.

 

Just as a stupid person becomes wise by association with the wise, similarly, the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree (M M 2—7)

 

(Rain drops falling on the day of Swati star becoming pearl in the oysters and the Kataka seed purifying water are used by Tamil poets as well; I have written about it already).

 

Source books :–Kuruntokai

Raghuvamsa.sansrit documents.com

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Mrs Vinod Aggarwal

xxx

My Old articles on the same subject:

1.Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775); posted on 31 March 2017

2. Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature; posted on 10 November 2014
3. Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st century BC. Posted on 22 January 2012
4. Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489); 27 December 2016
5. Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature

Posted on Post No. 1048 ; dated 17th May 2014.

  1. Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (13 February 2012)

 

–Subham–

 

 

Interesting Titbits about Asvamedha Yajna- Part 1(Post No.3159)

gupta-empire-samudragupta-i-c-330-70-av-dinar-7-70g

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 16 September 2016

Time uploaded in London: 15-45

Post No.3159

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

Asvamedha Yajna means Horse Sacrifice. It was performed by the Hindu Kings of India. We have good references to this sacrifice in historical as well as Vedic records. It took two years to complete it.

 

Mysterious number 4 and 400 are connected with this Asvamedha. It is a very interesting coincidence that Tamils also gave very much importance to number 4, 40 and 400. Tamil Sangam Literature which is 2000 year old compiled most of the books in 400 verses. Even after the Sangam period this custom continued and important works of 18 minor didactic book are also in 4, 40 and 400. (Please read y article about Tamils fascination with 4, 40 and 400).

 

The second mystery is about the gold and pearls. Horses were decorated with gold and 1000 pearl jewellery! Where did the pearls come from? If it is from Pandya country whose pearl is even praised by Kautilya/Chanakya or even if it is from Gujarat coast, it will explode all the foreign bluffing about Vedic geography. Still I see some foreign jokers writing that Vedic society did not know sea! Asvamedha horse decorated with pearls- is a slap on their face.

Another mystery is about sacrifice of the horse. This horse had 34 ribs according to Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world. This explodes the half-baked foreign clowns’ account that Aryans came from Central Asia with their horses. Those horses have 36 ribs!

kumara-4842-1bv-344-31

Another mystery is horse is equated with the Sun. It is a symbol of Sun according to Rig Veda. There the number 34 (ribs) is interpreted as 27 stars+ five planets+ Sun +Moon. This explodes the foreign half-baked jokers’ account of our astrology and astronomy. They say we imported them from the Greeks! Greeks started writing 1000 years after the Vedas!

 

When kings performed Asvamedha Yajna, they released coins as mementoes. We have beautiful gold coins issued by the Gupta kings. Even a Tamil Pandya king by name Peruvazuthi performed this Yajna and released a coin with horse image. This explodes the myth of foreign invaders’ account that Tamils have a separate culture. There is at least one Hindu reference per every ten lines in Sangam literature!

Another great mystery is that Indus Valley Civilisation alias Sarasvati Valley civilisation! They never used Cow or Horse on their seals. Probably they considered them too sacred to wear or use in business. Horse bones and lot of seals with bulls are recovered!

Rig Veda even got a prince named Asvamedha (RV 5-27-4/6; 8-68-15)

 

Horses from Indus and Sarasvati river areas were of special value according to Vedic literature (It is in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad and Sankyayana Aranyaka). Atharva Veda praises white horses with black ears. They are priced high.

Lepers were used and honoured in Asvamedha! Prisoners were released from prisons on the day of Asvamedha!

 

609 Animals!

609 different creatures representing animal kingdom were collected and released after the sacrifice. And the wild animals were released into forest. So much protection for the forest animals!

Those who said Aryans came from outside India couldn’t show anything similar to Asvamedha, Rajasuya, and Vajapeya sacrifices in Europe or Central Asia! They struggled very hard to compare some killings outside India but did not succeed. This explodes the theory of Aryans coming from outside India. Now these Yajnas prove that they were the sons of the soil. They are in Vedic literature, epics and Puranas and Sangam Tamil literature! They went outside to spread culture. But those people only learnt our languages and some customs.

Huge gifts were given to the priests; thousands of cows and hundreds of horses!

 malayalam-coin

Symbolism

Yajur Veda describes

Morning as Horse’s head

Sun as its eye

Vayua as its breath

Moon as its ear

Asvamedha was a symbolic ritual.

 

It was believed that the performance of 100 such Yagas would enable a mortal king to overthrow the throne of Indra, and to become a ruler of the universe and sovereign of the Gods. Indra would spoil their attempts by tempting them to fall for money or women.

There are lot of riddles used in the Asvamedha Yajna mantras! This shows the high standard of life at Vedic times and higher level of literacy. Obscene dialogue was also used. No one knew why and what they really meant in a big sacrifice like this.

 

Manu and Valluvar

 

Manu says vegetarian food is better than 100 Asvamedhas! Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar repeated this in his Tirukkural but multiplied100 by 10 and said it is better than 1000 sacrifices: –

“The man who offers a horse sacrifice  every year for a hundred years , and the man who does not eat meat, the two of them reap the same fruit of good deeds”– Manu 5-53

 

“More meritorious than a thousand sacrifices is to give up

The practice of killing a living creature, and eating its carcass” – Kural 259

In this couplet Tiruvalluvar uses the Sanskrit word avi (Havis) which stands for boiled rice and ghee.

Parasurama organised Vajapeya and one hundred Asvamedha sacrifices at Ramatirtha.

Indra performed 100 Asvamedha Yajnas under the supervison of Brihaspati.

 

After any sacrifice, the one who organised it,  for instance the king in the Asvamedha Yajna,  must give the Brahmins whatever they ask. Even if his kingdom or half of his kingdom is asked he must give it. But Brahmins were not greedy in those days and they never asked stupid things. When Parasurama conducted Asvamedha he gave honorarium to every participant. But Drona was not a participant. Being a Brahmin, Drona made a demand at the end of the Yajna. Parasurama accepted his demand and taught him Dhanurveda as Yajna Dakshina (fees for the priest).

 

 

I will give more interesting details of the Horse yajna (fire sacrifice) in the second part.

 

To be continued……………………………

 

 

 

 

இராவணனைப் பற்றிய இரு சுவையான பாடல்கள்!( Post No. 2407)

ravana

Written by S NAGARAJAN

Date: 20 December 2015

 

Post No. 2407

 

Time uploaded in London :– காலை 6-23

( Thanks for the Pictures  ) 

 

DON’T REBLOG IT AT LEAST FOR A WEEK!  DON’T USE THE PICTURES; THEY ARE COPYRIGHTED BY SOMEONE.

 

 

சம்ஸ்கிருதச் செல்வம்

 

இராவணனைப் பற்றிய இரு சுவையான பாடல்கள்!

 

ச.நாகராஜன்

 

 

சம்ஸ்கிருதம் அகன்ற, ஆழ்ந்த ஒரு பெருங்கடல். அதில் மூழ்கி கோடானு கோடி நல்முத்துக்களை எடுக்கலாம். இராவணனைப் பற்றிய சுவையான இரண்டு கவிதைகளைப் பார்க்கலாம்.

 

 

இராவணனின் இருபது கண்கள்

 

இராவணனுக்கு பத்துத் தலைகள். ஆகவே இருபது கண்கள் உண்டு என்பதை அறிவோம்.

 

அந்த இருபது கண்கள் என்ன செய்கின்றன – ஒரே சமயத்தில்? கவிஞர் தன் கற்பனைக் குதிரையைத் தட்டி விட்டார். பிறந்தது பாடல்.

 

 

இராவணனின் இருபது கண்களில் ஒன்று வளைந்து இருக்கிறது. இன்னொன்று குறுகி இருக்கிறது. அடுத்தது ஆவலுடையதாக இருக்கிறது. நான்காவது புன்சிரிப்புடன் இருக்கிறது. அடுத்ததோ ஏதோ அர்த்தத்துடன் ஒன்றைப் பிரதானமாகக் கொண்டுள்ளது. அடுத்ததோ அரைக் கண்ணாக முடியிருக்கிறது. அடுத்தது கறுப்பாக ஆகியுள்ளது ,அடுத்தது எதையோ தூரத்தில் பார்க்கிறது. ஒன்பதாவது கண்ணோ மகிழ்ச்சியுடன் திகழ்கிறது. பத்தாவது அரும்பு போல மூடியிருக்கிறது. அடுத்தது  நடுங்குகிறது. பன்னிரெண்டாவது கண்ணோ நிலையாக நேர் பார்வையைக் கொண்டுள்ளது. அடுத்தது சுழல்கிறது. பதிநான்காவது கண்ணோ இமையோரத்தில் நகர்ந்துள்ளது; அடுத்தது நீர்த்துள்ளது பதினாறாவது கண்ணோ சோர்வைக் காண்பிக்கிறது. அடுத்தது அலை போன்ற இயக்கத்தைக் காண்பிக்கிறது. கடைசி மூன்று கண்களும் கண்ணீரால் நிரம்பியிருக்கிறது.

 

 

இப்படி ஒவ்வொரு கண்ணும் ஒரு குறிப்பிட்ட நிலைக்குத் தக்கபடி ஒவ்வொரு வித்தியாசமான விதத்தில் தன் நிலையைக் காண்பிக்கிறது!

 

 

கவிஞர் ஸ்வபாவோக்தி என்ற அலங்காரத்தைக் காட்டுமாறு இதை அமைத்துள்ளார்.

 

 

இதற்கான ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பை – ரஸிக்லால் சி.பரீக் (Rasiklal C Parikh) செய்துள்ளதையும் – கீழே காணலாம்:

 

One of the twenty eyes of Ravana is bent,another is contracted, a third is eager, a fourth is smiling, the fifth is full of significance: the sixth is half-closed, the seventh is turned back; the eighth is having a long-range; the ninth is full of joy; the tenth is contracted like a bud; the eleventh is trembling; the twelfth is steady; the thirteenth is rolling’ the fourteenth is moving to its corner; the fifteenth is diluted; the sixteenth is drooping; the seventeenth is full of wave-like movements; the last three are full of tears.

(Thus owing to some particular condition every eye is working in a different way!)

 

India Hindu Festival

An Indian girl watches as a man displays effigies of ten-headed demon king Ravana for the upcoming Dussehra festival in Hyderabad, India, Saturday, Oct. 17, 2015. The Hindu festival of Dussehra commemorates the triumph of Hindu God Rama over Ravana, marking the victory of good over evil. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

குபேரபுரியில் கொண்டாட்டம்

 

மஹா வீரனான இராவணன் இறந்து விட்டான். உடனே விழா எடுக்கப்பட்டு விட்டது.

 

வானர சேனைகள் இருந்த இலங்கைக் கடற்கரையிலா? இல்லை! சுக்ரீவனின் கிஷ்கிந்தையிலா, அங்கும் இல்லை!

குபேர புரியில் கொண்டாட்டம்!

குபேரனின் அளகாபுரியில் ஒரே கொண்டாட்டமாம். யட்சர்கள் வசிக்கும் நகரில் மாதர்களுக்கு ஒரே மகிழ்ச்சி!

பாடலைப் பார்ப்போம்:

 

கைலாஸாசகர்ணிகேயமளாகா நேத்ரைகபேயா புரோ

தேவஸ்ய த்ரவிணப்ரபோ: கிமபரம் ஸ்ருங்காரஸாரஸ்யம்: I

அஸ்யாமஸ்தமிதே ஹி ராக்ஷஸபதௌ யக்ஷாங்கநாநாமமீ

வர்தந்தே ப்ரதிசத்வரம் ப்ரதிக்ருஹம் ப்ரத்யாபணம் சோத்ஸதா: II

 

 

இதன் பொருள் :- கண்களுக்கு விருந்தளிக்கும் அளகாபுரி,  செல்வத்திற்கு அதிபதியான குபேரனின் தலைநகர், மேலும் காமக்களியாட்டங்களின் மொத்த சாரத்தைக் கொண்டுள்ள நகர், கைலாஸத்தின் செவியில் உள்ள ஆபரணமாய் அமைந்துள்ளது. ராக்ஷஸர்களின் அதிபனான ராவணன் இறந்து விட்டான் என்று தெரிந்தவுட யட்ச பெண்மணிகள் ஒவ்வொரு நாற்சந்தியிலும் கூடிக் கொன்ண்டாடினர்.ஒவ்வொரு வீதியிலும் ஒவ்வொரு வீட்டிலும் கொண்டாட்டம் தான்!

 

 

 

குபேரனின் புஷ்பக விமானத்தை அபகரித்ததிலிருந்து ராவணனின் ஒவ்வொரு செய்கையும் பாதித்தது அளகாபுரி மக்களைத் தான்! அவன் ஒழிந்தான் என்றவுடன் இன்ப புரியில் இன்ப லோகக் கொண்டாட்டம் தான்! குறிப்பாக மாதர்கள் ஸ்த்ரீலோலன் ஒழிந்தான் என்று மகிழ்ந்தனர்.

 

பெரும் வாழ்நாள் கொண்டிருந்தாலும், வேத விற்பன்னனாக இருந்தாலும், சிவ பக்தனாக இருந்தாலும் அடுத்தவர் மனைவி மீது ஆசைப்பட்டு அநியாயமாகத் தூக்கிக் கொண்டு வந்தவந் ஒழிவது தானே தர்மம்!

 

 

கவிஞரின் கற்பனையை நாம் கொண்டாட வேண்டியது தான்.சார்த்தூலவிக்ரிதித சந்தத்தில் அமைந்துள்ள இதை பகதத்த ஜலஹணர் என்பவர் தொகுத்த சுக்திமுக்தாவளியில் காணலாம்.

ராவணனைப் பற்றி இப்படி ஏராளமான தனிப் பாடல்கள் உண்டு. ஒவ்வொன்றும் மிகச் சுவையானது!

 

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குடத்தினுள் இருக்கும் குத்துவிளக்கு!

Clay Pot

Post No 1677; Date 26th February 2015

சம்ஸ்கிருதச் செல்வம் – இரண்டாம் பாகம்

17. குடத்தினுள் இருக்கும் குத்துவிளக்கு!

ச.நாகராஜன்

நியாயங்களின் வரிசைத் தொடரில் மேலும் சில நியாயங்களைப் பார்ப்போம்:

घटप्रदीपन्यायः

ghatapradipa nyaya

கடப்ரதீப நியாயம்

 

ஜாடிக்குள் அல்லது ஒரு  குடத்தினுள் இருக்கும் குத்துவிளக்கு பற்றிய நியாயம் இது.

ஒரு ஜாடிக்குள் குத்துவிளக்கை வைத்தால் அதன் உட்புறம் மட்டுமே பிரகாசமாயிருக்கும். அதே போல ஒரு மேதையின் மேதாவிலாசம் ஒரு சிறிய இடத்தில் மட்டுமே இருந்தால் அதனால் மற்றவர்களுக்கு ஒரு பிரயோஜனமும் இல்லை.

இது போன்ற சமயங்களில் இந்த நியாயம் சுட்டிக்காட்டப் பயன்படும்.


led-outdoor-planter-light

जलमृणालन्यायः

jalamrnala nyayah

 

ஜல ம்ருணாள நியாயம்

 

நீரில் இருக்கும் தாமரை பற்றிய நியாயம் இது.

தடாக நீரில் இருக்கும் ஒரு தாமரையின் தண்டு அந்தக் குளத்தின் நீரின் அளவே உயர்ந்திருக்கும். நீர் மேலே ஏறினால் அதுவும் மேலே வரும். நீர் வற்றி விட்டாலோ அதுவும் கீழிறங்கி விடும். குளமே வற்றி விட்டால் அதுவும் வறண்டு கீழே இருக்கும். ஆனால் அது பட்டுப் போகாது.

 

அதே போல உயர்ந்த மனிதன் ஒருவன் துரதிர்ஷ்டவசமாக துயரமான சூழ்நிலையினால் தாழ்ந்த நிலையை அடைந்து விட்டாலும் அவன் தனது உயரிய குணங்களை இழந்து விட மாட்டான்.

lotus 1

வெள்ளத் தனையது மலர் நீட்டம் மாந்தர்தம்

உள்ளத் தனையது உயர்வு – குறள் 595

 

என்ற குறளில் தாமரை மலரின் நீட்டம் நீரின் அளவே இருப்பது குறிப்பிடப்படுகிறது. இதை வள்ளுவர் உள்ளத்தின் உயர்வுக்கு ஒப்பிட்டுச் சொல்கிறார்.

plane

ज्ञानीविमानन्यायः

 

jnanivimana nyayah

 

ஞானி விமான நியாயம்

ஞானியும் விமானமும் பற்றிய நியாயம் இது.

சமவெளியில் நடந்து செல்லும் ஒரு மனிதனால் ஒரு மலையின் உயரத்தையும் ஒரு பள்ளத்தின் ஆழத்தையும், சம வெளியின் சமபரப்பையும் தெளிவாக அறிந்து கொள்ள முடியும். ஆனால் அவனே ஒரு விமானத்தில் பறக்கும் போது இவற்றைப் பார்த்தால் இவற்றின் வேறுபாடுகளை அறிந்து கொள்ள இயலாது.கீழே இருக்கும் அனைத்துமே ஒரே மாதிரியாக சமமாக இருக்கும்.

ஞானத்தின் கீழ்ப்படியில் இருக்கும் ஒருவன் உயர்ந்தவன், தாழ்ந்தவன், பெரியது, சிறியது, நல்லது, தீயது ஆகிய வேறுபாடுகளின் அடிப்படையிலேயே தன் செயல்களைச் செய்வான். ஆனால் ஞானத்தின் உயர்படியில் இருக்கும் ஞானிக்கோ எல்லா வேறுபாடுகளும் அகன்று விடும். அவனுக்கு அனைத்துமே ஒன்று தான்; சமம் தான்!

 

ஞானியின் உயர்நிலையைக் குறிக்கப் பயன்படும் நியாயம் இது!


potter

दण्डचक्रन्यायः

dandacakra nyayah

தண்ட சக்ர நியாயம்

 

குயவனின், அச்சு மற்றும் கத்தியைக் குறிக்கும் நியாயம் இது.

மண்பானையை உருவாக்க அச்சு, சக்கரம் மற்றும் கத்தி ஆகியவையே காரணமாகும்.

அநேக விளைவுகள் ஒன்றைத் தொடர்ந்து உருவானால் அப்போது இந்த நியாயம் சுட்டிக் காட்டப்படும்.


cloth

दग्धपटन्यायः

dagdhapata nyayah

தக்த பட நியாயம்

 

எரித்த துணி பற்றிய நியாயம் இது.

துணி ஒன்று எரிக்கப்படும் போது, சில சமயம் துணி முழுவதாக எரிந்து விட்டாலும் கூட, அது சரியாக இருப்பது போல வெளிப்பார்வைக்குத் தோன்றும்.

 

ஒன்றுக்கும் உதவாத ஒன்று, வெளிப்பார்வைக்கு சரியானது போலத் தோன்றும் போது இந்த நியாயம் பயன்படுத்தப்படும்.


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