A Brief Introduction to Tamil (Post No.3420)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 5 December 2016

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-53

 

Post No.3420

 

Pictures are taken from the Conference booklet;thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

1981 World Tamil Conference Procession in Madurai -Part 1

 

MOTHER TAMIL

Tamil is one of the classical languages of the world. It is the most ancient language among all the languages of the Dravidian family. It is endowed with rich vocabulary, beautiful diction, rhythm and melody. The  ancient Tamils, who have been fascinated by the greatness, grandeur and glory of their mother tongue, have personified her as Mother Goddess and showered all praise and honour on her.

 

It is a convention to describe some of the classical epics of Tamil language as the ornaments worn by the Mother Goddess Tamil. Silappathikaram is hailed as her anklet, Valayapathi as her bracelet, Manimekalai as her waist belt studded with gems, Chintamani as her necklace, Kuntalakesi as her ear-ring and Chutamani as the jewel worn on her forehead. She is also portrayed as a queen holding in her hand Thirukkural as the sceptre the symbol of her righteous rule.

 

The Tamil poets of yore have glorified their mother tongue as the first language of the human race. Its ancient grammatical treatises such as Tholkappiyam and  Irayanar Kalavijal bear testimony to its rich legacy of literature and continuity of literary tradition from a hoary past. Here is a tableau which depicts Tamil language as Mother Goddess.

 


THIRUVALLUVAR

Thiruvalluvar was a profound scholar, philosopher and poet, who lived in Tamil Nadu two thousand years ago. His magnum opus THIRUKKURAL or the sacred couplets, is an ethical work which speaks about the greatness of righteousness (Aram), polity and economy (Porul) and domestic happiness (Inpam) in 1330 couplets. This work is a great human heritage which has transcended the linguistic, racial and religious barriers in its presentation of the ethical codes. Among the Indian classics it is the only book which has been translated into nearly two and a half dozens of languages. The modern Tamil year is calculated beginning with the birth of Thiruvalluvar. Since agriculture formed the basis of the economy of the ancient Tamils, Thiruvalluvar has devoted one chapter to this noble profession. The float depicts an agricultural scene, so well portrayed by Thiruvalluvar.

 


AVVAIYAR

In the portrayal of various internecine and intertribal wars which were waged for various political motives, the Sankam literatures introduce Avvaiyar, a poetess of the Sankam age, as a peace maker between two warring kings. Thontaiman plans a war against Athiyaman. Avvaiyar, wishing to stop the war, meets Thontaiman. Contrasting his decorated weapons with those of Athiyaman, so frequently used in battles, she brings home to Thontaiman, the latter’s superiority in warfare. A war is thus averted.



KANNAKI
in SILAPPATHIKARAM

Silappathikaram is the earliest among the available Tamil epics. Kannaki came to Madurai along with her husband Kovalan to sell her anklet and start a new life. But, her husband was unjustly accused of stealing the anklet of the Queen and was killed under the orders of the King. To prove the innocence of her husband, and expose the heinous crime of the Great Pandya King, Kannaki went to his court with one of her anklets. She accused the King of having ordered the death of her husband without conducting proper trial. The Queen’s anklet had pearls whereas the anklet of Kannaki had gems inside. She broke her anklet in the presence of the king and proved that her husband  Kovalan was not guilty. She is worshipped in Tamil Nadu as the Goddess of Chastity. The scene where Kannaki accused the King and broke her anklet is depicted in this tableau.

 

to be continued………………………

தங்கத் தமிழாம் சங்கத் தமிழ் தெய்வத் தமிழே! (Post No.3278)

adi-perukku-sri-rangam

Written by S. NAGARAJAN

Date: 23 October 2016

Time uploaded in London: 5-50 AM

Post No.3278

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks

 

Contact :– swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

By ச.நாகராஜன்

 

தமிழ் இன்றேல் தெய்வம் இல்லை; தெய்வம் இன்றேல் தமிழ் இல்லை. இரண்டும் இரண்டறப் பின்னிப் பிணைந்தவை என்பதை தமிழ் இலக்கியம் காட்டும்; தமிழ்ப் பண்பாடு காட்டும். தமிழ்ச் சமூகம் காட்டும்.

 

இதை உடைக்க நினைப்பவர் உடைபட்டுப் போவர்.

பிரம்மாண்டமான வரலாறைக் கொண்ட தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் தெய்வத்தைப் பிரித்தால் மிஞ்சுவது சவமே.

அதாவது சிவ இலக்கியம் சவ இலக்கியம் ஆகி விடும்!

சங்க இலக்கியம் மிகவும் பழமையானது.

1000-krishnas

அதில் தெய்வம் பற்றிய பாட்லகள் ஏராளம் உள்ளன. அனைத்தையும் தொகுத்து விளக்கினால் அது ஒரு கலைக் களஞ்சியமாக ஆகி விடும்.

ஒவ்வொரு தெய்வத்திற்கும் சங்க இலக்கியத்திலிருந்து எடுத்துக் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட குறிப்புகள் கீழே உள்ளன.

விநாயகரிலிருந்து ஆரம்பிப்போம்

 

  • விநாயகர் :                                               ஒருகைமுகன் தம்பியே (திருமுருகாற்றுப்படையில் காணப்படும் வெண்பா 7)
  • சிவன் முதுமுதல்வன்  (புறம் 166)                           தொல்முது கடவுள் (மதுரைக் காஞ்சி 42)

பணிவில் சீர்ச் செல்விடைப் பாகன் திரிபுரம் செற்றுழிக்

கல்லுயர் சென்னி இமயவில் நாணாகித்

தொல்புகழ் த்ந்தாரும் தாஅம்

(பரிபாடல் திரட்டு  1: 72-78)

  • உமை கொடிபுரை நுசுப்பினாள் கொண்டசீர் தருவாளோ (கலைத்தொகை கடவுள் வாழ்த்து 7)
  • திருமால் மறு பிறப்பறுக்கும் மாசில் சேவடி மாயோனே    (பரிபாடல் 3)

 

  • இலக்குமி அகனமர்ந்து செய்யாள் (குறள் 84)

அவ்வித்து செய்யவள்   (குறள் 167)

  • பிரம்மா- நான்முகன் தாமரை பயந்த தாவில் ஊழி நான்முக ஒருவற் சுட்டி   (திருமுருகாற்றுப்படை 164-165)

 

  • முருகன் முருகமர் மாமலைப் பிர்ந்தெனப் பிரிமே (ஐங்குறுநூறு 308;4)                                               ஒடியா விழவின் நெடியோன் குன்றத்து (அக்நானூறு 149-16)
  • தெய்வயானை மறுவில் கற்பின் வாணுதல் கணவன் (திருமுருகாற்றுப்படை -6)
  • வள்ளி என்னுள் வருதியோ நல்நடை கொடிச்சி                     முருகு புணர்ந்து இயன்ற வள்ளிபோல நின் (நற்றிணை 82 3,4)
  • இராமன் கடுந்தெறல் இராமன் உடன் புணர் சீதையை     வலித்தகை அரக்கன் வௌவிய ஞான்றை    (புறநானூறு 358 :18,19)

 

  • பலராமன், கண்ணன்

 

பால்நிற உருவின் பனைக்கொடியோனும்

நீல்நிற  உருவின் நேமியோனும் என்று

இரு பெரும் தெய்வமும் உடன் நின்று ஆஅங்கு

(புறநானூறு 58)   இப்படி ஏராளமான குறிப்புகளைச் சங்க இலக்கியத்த்தில் பரக்கக் காணலாம்.

adi-velli-muslims

இதை யார் படித்து விடப் போகிறார்கள் என்ற நோக்கில் தமிழர் பண்பாடு என்பது தெய்வத்திற்கு அப்பாற்பட்ட ஒரு பண்பாடு என்பது போலவும் தெய்வங்களைப் பற்றிப் பழைய தமிழ் இலக்கியங்கள் குறிப்பிடவில்லை என்றும் தன் சொந்த உள் நோக்கிற்காக வெள்ளையரின் வழியில் கடந்த அறுபது ஆண்டுகளாக நாத்திக பிரச்சாரம் நடைபெறுகிறது.

 

இவர்கள் தெய்வத்தை நம்பவில்லை என்றால் தமிழையும் நம்பக் கூடாது. தமிழை நம்பினால் அது சுட்டிக்காட்டும் தெய்வீகப் பண்பாட்டையும் மதித்துத் தழுவ வேண்டும்.

இல்லையேல் இவர்கள் அனைவரும் ‘ஜோம்பிகளாகத்’ தான் வாழ வேண்டும். ஜோம்பி என்பது கல்லறையில் புதைக்கப்பட்டு திடீரென்று இருளில் எழுந்து நடமாடும் சவம் என்ப்தை அனைவரும் அறிவர்.

 

தாங்கள் ஜோம்பிகளாக மாறியதோடு மொத்த தமிழ்ச் சமுதாயத்தையும் ஜோம்பிகளாக மாற்ற முயலும் இவர்களை என்ன்வென்று சொல்வது?

 

தமிழர்கள் விழிப்புணர்வுடன் சங்க இலக்கியத்தைத் தாமே ஊன்றிப் படிக்க வேண்டும். அது காட்டும் பண்பாட்டை நன்கு புரிந்து கொள்ள வேண்டும்.

 

குமரி முனையில் ஆரம்பித்து இமயமலை வரை  முடிந்த் இடம் எல்லாம் சென்று நமது பண்பாட்டை ஊன்றிக் கவனிப்பதுடன் தனது ஆன்மீக அனுபவங்களைச் சிலரிடமாவது சொல்லி நல்லனவற்றைப் பரப்ப வேண்டும்.

ahmedabad-visarjan

சங்க இலக்கியம் தங்க இலக்கியம் அது தெய்வ இலக்கியமே!

**********

 

ஆரிய பாரதி வாழ்க!

mahakavi

கட்டுரை மன்னன் :– லண்டன் சுவாமிநாதன்
ஆராய்ச்சிக் கட்டுரை எண்:-1279; தேதி: 10 செப்டம்பர் 2014

தமிழுக்கு உயிர் கொடுத்த, தமிழால் உயிர்பெற்ற பாரதியின் நினைவு தினம் செப்டம்பர் 11. அந்தக் கவிஞன் பெயரைச் சொன்னாலேயே போதும். நம் நாவில் தமிழ் பொங்கித் ததும்பும். உடல் முழுதும் சக்தி பாயும்.

சீரிய சிந்தனை!
நேரிய பார்வை!
வீரிய உணர்வு!
பாரிய நோக்கு!
கூரிய மதி படைத்த பாரதியின்
ஆரியப் பாடல்களைக் காண்போமா?

ஆரிய என்றால் ‘பண்பாடுமிக்கவர்’ என்று பொருள். இது பிராக்ருதத்தில் ‘அஜ்ஜ’ என்று மருவி தமிழில் ‘ஐயர்’ என்று புழங்கியது. ஐயர் என்றால் குணத்தால், ஒழுக்கத்தால் உயர்ந்தவர் என்பது ‘பழம் பொருள்’.

தேசிய கவி சுப்பிரமணிய பாரதி 1921 ஆம் ஆண்டிலேயே இறந்து விட்டார். அப்பொழுதுதான் சிந்து சமவெளி நாகரீக அகழ்வாராய்ச்சி துவங்கியது. உலகிற்கு ஹரப்பா நாகரீகம் என்று ஒன்று இருப்பதே அப்போது தெரியாது. ஆனால் ஆரிய- திராவிட இனவெறிக் கொள்கையை அதற்கு நூறு ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னரே வெள்ளைக்காரர்கள் புகுத்திவிட்டனர். சுவாமி விவேகாநந்தர் போன்றோர் இந்தக் கொள்கையை எள்ளி நகை ஆடியதே இதற்குச் சான்று.

பாரதிக்கு இதில் நம்பிக்கை இல்லை என்பதை அவர் பாடல்கள் மூலம் காட்டிவிட்டார். இக்கொள்கையைப் பற்றிப் பாடாமல், பரிகசிக்காமல் நாசசூக்காக — வாழைப்பழத்தில் ஊசி ஏற்றுவது போல — ஆரிய என்ற சொல்லை ஏராளமான பாடல்களில் பயன்படுத்தி அதன் உண்மைப் பொருளைக் காட்டிவிட்டார். அவர் பாடல்களில் எங்கு எங்கெல்லாம் ஆரிய என்ற சொல் வருகிறதோ அதுதான் வேதத்திலும், இதிஹாசத்திலும் கையாளப்பட்ட பொருள். வடமொழி நூல்களில் கணவனை, மனைவி “ஏ ஆர்ய!” என்று அழைப்பார். “ஐயா, மதிப்புக்குரியவரே, உயர் குணச் செம்மலே” என்பது அதன் பொருள். இன வெறிப் பொருளைப் புகுத்தியது வெள்ளைத்தோல் “அறிஞர்”களே.

mahakavi2

இதோ சில பாரதி பாடல்கள்:
1.தமிழ்த் தாய் பாடலில்……………..
ஆதி சிவன் பெற்று விட்டான் – என்னை
ஆரிய மைந்தன் அகத்தியன் என்றோர்
வேதியன் கண்டு மகிழ்ந்தெ – நிறை
மேவும் இலக்கணஞ் செய்து கொடுத்தான்

2.ஆன்ற மொழிகளினுள்ளே – உயர்
ஆரியத்திற்கு நிகரென வாழ்ந்தேன்

ஆரிய நாடு எது?
3.பாரத தேவியின் திருத் தசாங்கம் பாடலில்…….
பேரிமய வெற்பு முதல் பெண் குமரி ஈறாகும்
ஆரிய நாடென்றே அறி

ஆரியர் யார்?

4.சங்கு என்ற பாடலில்………………
பொய்யுறு மாயையை பொய்யெனக் கொண்டு
புலன்களை வெட்டிப் புறத்தில் எறிந்தே
ஐயுறவின்றிக் களித்திருப்பவராவர்
ஆரியராம் என்று இங்கூதேடா சங்கம்!

5.பாஞ்சாலி சபதப் பாடலில்…………………
ஆரிய வேல் மறவர் – புவி
யாளுமோர் கடுந்தொழில் இனிதுணர்ந்தோர்
சீரியல் மதிமுகத்தார் – மணித்
தேனிதழ் அமுதென நுகர்ந்திடுவார்

6.வாழிய செந்தமிழ் பாடலில்…………………..
அறம் வளர்ந்திடுக ! மறம் மடிவுறுக!
ஆரிய நாட்டினர் ஆண்மையோடியற்றும்
சீரிய முயற்சிகள் சிறந்து மிக்கோங்குக!

maha3

பாரத மாதா= ஆரிய மாதா
7.பாரத மாதா என்ற பாடலில்…………………….
முன்னை இலங்கை அரக்கர் அழிய
முடித்தவில் யாருட வில்? – எங்கள்
அன்னை பயங்கரி பாரத தேவி நல்
ஆரிய ராணியின் வில்

சித்தமயம் இவ்வுலகம் உறுதி நம்
சித்தத்தில் ஓங்கிவிட்டால் – துன்பம்
அத்தனையும் வெல்லலாம் என்று சொன்ன சொல்
ஆரிய ராணியின் சொல்

8.தாயின் மணிக்கொடி என்ற பாடலில்………………….
அணி அணியாயவர் நிற்கும் – இந்த
ஆரியக் காட்சி ஓர் ஆனந்தம் அன்றோ?

bharathy and Chelamma

9.சத்ரபதி சிவாஜி என்ற பாடலில்…………… (மொகலாயர் பற்றி)
பாரதப் பெரும்பெயர் பழிப்பெயராக்கினர்
சூரர்தம் மக்களைத் தொழும்பராய்ப் புரிந்தனர்
வீரியம் அழிந்து மேன்மையும் ஒழிந்து நம்
ஆரியர் புலையருக்கு அடிமைகளாயினர்

ஆரிய! நீதி நீ அறிகிலை போலும்!
பூரியர் போல் மனம் புழுங்குறலாயினை
அரும்புகழ் தேய்ப்பதும் அனாரியத் தகைத்தும்
பெரும்பதத் தடையுமாம் பெண்மை எங்கெய்தினை?
பேடிமை அகற்று! நின் பெருமையை மறந்திடேல்!
ஈடிலாப் புகழினோய் எழுகவோ எழுக
(பகவத் கீதையில் கண்ணன் சொன்ன பகுதி)

bharati kutty

10.லாஜபதிராயின் பிரலாபம் என்ற பாடலில்………………..
சீக்கரெனும் எங்கள் விறற் சிங்கங்கள் வாழ்தருநல்
ஆக்கமுயர் குன்றம் அடர்ந்திருக்கும் பொன்னாடு
ஆரியர் பாழாகா தருமறையின் உண்மை தந்த
சீரியர் மெய்ஞான தயானந்தர் திருநாடு

(சீக்கியரை சிங்கங்கள் என்றும், பஞ்சாபில் ஆரிய சமாஜத்தை நிறுவிய தயானந்த சரஸ்வதி வேதத்தின் உண்மைப் பொருளை தந்தார் என்பதையும் பாராட்டும் பாடல் இது)

இவ்வாறு பாரதி பாடல் முழுதும் ‘ஆரிய’ என்ற சொல்லை அதன் உண்மையான ,மேன்மைப் பொருளில் பயன் படுத்தியுள்ளார். ஆரிய- திராவிட இனவெறிக் கொள்கைக்கு பாரதி கொடுத்த சரியான அடி இது என்றால் எதிர்ப்பொரும் உளரோ?

மேன்மை கொள் ஆரிய நீதி விளங்குக உலகமெலாம்!!

kutti bharathi

என்னுடைய முந்தைய பாரதி பற்றிய கட்டுரைகள்:
1.மனம் ஒரு பெண், மனம் ஒரு புலி (Posted on 17-2-2014)
2.Quotes from the Greatest Tamil Poet Bharati (11-12-2013)
3.வாழ்க்கையில் வெற்றி பெற பாரதி அட்வைஸ் 10-12-2013
4.பாரதியுடன் 60 வினாடி பேட்டி (16-1-2012 & 10-9-2014)
5.பாரதியின் பேராசை (Posted on 27-12-2012)
6.பாரதி பாட்டில் பகவத் கீதை (Posted on 10-12-2012)
7.பேய்கள் பற்றி பாரதி & விவேகாநந்தர் (Posted on 29-11- 2012)
8.சொல்லில் உயர்வு தமிச் சொல்லே (Posted on 10-9-2012)
9.பாரதி பாட்டில் பழமொழிகள் (Posted on 25-6-2012)
10.உங்களுக்கு வள்ளுவனையும் பாரதியையும் தெரியுமா? (27-3-2014)
11.காலா என் காலருகே வாடா! ஞானிகளின் ஞானத் திமிர் (23-3-2014)

எனது சகோதரர் ச.நாகராஜன் எழுதியவை
1.பாரதி தரிசனம் (Posted on 10-12-2013)
2.பாரதி தரிசனம்– பகுதி 2 ( Posted on 12-12-2013)

Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older?

tamil-letters

Questions answered by London Swaminathan
Post No. 1176; dated 16th July 2014.

Dear Swamy

It appears that you are not inclined to clear my doubts. However, I started reading your posts regularly and trying to find answers’
Recently I read your following post

https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/07/15/basic-questions-about-tamils-hinduism/

Here too I wish for clarification for the following
Regards
N K M.
(This is the Second e mail from NKM)

nagari
Dear NKM,

I have given my answers below:

Qestion1.What is the difference between Panini grammar and Tolkappiyam Grammar?

Answer: I am not an expert on Paninian Grammar. My Sanskrit knowledge is limited. I have passed five Sanskrit Examinations and Five Bhagavad Gita exams conducted by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai. When I was a school boy I passed all the five Sanskrit exams conducted by Chittoor Samskrutha Bhasa Pracharini Sabha. I can claim some authority on Sangam Tamil literature. I have read the 27,000+ lines four times. It will take 2 years if you devote some time every day to complete one round. I have read Post Sangam books and Valmiki and Kamba Ramayanam and all the Saivite and Vaishnavite scriptures only once. With my limited knowledge I answer your questions:

Paninian grammar was written around 7th century BCE. Tolkappiyam was written around 1st century BCE or CE. My estimate is 5th century CE in the present form. I have given the reasons for it in my five articles in English and Tamil on Tolkappim and the author Tolkappian. If you hold the word index of Sangam Books and Post Sangam works in your hand, you can see lot of Tolkappian words are found only in Post Sangam Tamil literature. That is why no Tamil scholar dares to compare them.

Porulathikaram of Tolkappiyam is a later addition according to many scholars. My opinion is all the three Adikarams belong to fifth century CE. In short there is a 1000 year gap between Tolkappiyam and Panini.

Wikipedia also listed the name of the authors and their dating.

Paninian Grammar is far superior to Tolkappiam in structure and construction. (If I remember correct Kamil Zvelebil mentioned something like that in his book The Smile of Murugan).

Q2. Do Panini’s grammar has all three viz Sollathigaram. Porul adhikaram and Ezhuththu adhikaram?

Answer : Panini’s Ashtadyayi (Eight Chapters) is not divided in that way. In short there is no Porul Adhikaram which is unique to Tolkappiam. Patanjali’s Mahabhasya gives lot of examples in the commentary on Panini. So we come to know more about Panni’s India. Please read the book “India in Panini”. I borrowed it from University of London (SOAS) Library. A very interesting book.

Sol (Syntax) and Ezuthu (Alphabet, formation of Words) are dealt with by Panini, in addition to several other topics.

kalvettu

Q3. What is the difference between Vedic language and classical Sanskrit?

Answer : The difference between the Vedic Sanskrit (1500 BCE) and the classical Sanskrit ( from 3rd Century BCE) is the difference between the Sangam Tamil ( First Century BCE to 3rd Century CE) and Modern Tamil (18th Century CE). Without Tamil commentaries we would not understand the Sangam Tamil literature, particularly the iraichi porul (hidden meaning, implied meaning etc). There was no present, past, future tenses in Sangam Tamil. Vaiyapuri Pillay has given lot of examples about the development in Tamil Grammar when he dated Tirukkural and Tolkappiam. Please read Vaiyapuri Pillay’s works.

The natural law is “CHANGE IS INEVITABLE. EVERYTHING MUST CHANGE. NOTHING CAN REMAIN STATIC in THE UNIVERSE”. Whether it is Nataraja’s dance, or the simplest Hydrogen atom or the Universe or my wife’s blouse or our food habits everything is changing/moving.

A language changes every two hundred miles and every two hundred years. This is the thumb rule used by Max Muller for dating the Vedas.

Q4. While I understand Sanskrit words are in Tamil and Tamil words are in Sanskrit, how Sanskrit was considered as Deva basha and Tamil as common man language

Answer : You don’t need to worry much about this nomenclature. It is very simple. All the ancient Hindu scriptures are in Sanskrit. So people may call it a Divine language. No one said that Tamil is not a divine Bhasa. Kanchi Paramacharya says Tamil has more devotional hymns than Sanskrit, which is correct. The word “divine” is used for the Tamil language by many poets. I have given it in my blog.

Patanjali called Panini ‘Bhagavan Panini’ (divine Panini). Kamban called Valmiki ‘Divine Valmiki ( Deiva Maa Kavi)’. Valluvar is called ‘Deiva Pulavar’ in Tiruvalluva Malai. Homer is called ‘Divine Homer’ in Greek. I will call Subramanya Bharati a ‘Divine Poet’.

Patamala-1 000

Regarding Tamil words in Sanskrit:

No language is pure in the world. Our forefathers were NOT language fanatics. They freely used Sanskrit words in Sangam literature and later Tirukkural. In the same way Tamil words are in later classical Sanskrit. But I doubt about it in Vedic Sanskrit. I have shown that even great linguists like Suneet Kumar Chatterji are wrong to claim that ‘Neer’ (water) in Rig Veda is Tamil. I have shown that it is in the oldest Greek mythology (Nereids=Water Nymphs). When a word is found in other Indo European languages it is not counted as Dravidian even in etymological dictionaries. But old linguists misled many others and so ‘Neer’ is shown as Dravidian. I have also shown that Kapi, Tuki in the Bible are Sanskrit words. Please read my article “Sanskrit in The Bible”.

In this context, my pet theory is Tamil and Sanskrit originated from a common source on the Indian soil. This is what saints like Paranjothy Munivar and others believed 300 years ago. If we believe our Puranas and Tamil commentators, we accept that Agastya from the north came to South India and codified grammar for Tamil. He was sent by Shiva to balance the population (Please read my article “Population Explosion: Oldest Reference is in Hindu Scriptures”; posted on 2nd February 2013). Naturally Agastya would have done it on the basis of Sanskrit grammar. But even Shiva accepted Tamil as a separate language and entrusted the grammar work to great Agastya. Even Lord Shiva recognised the greatness and uniqueness of Tamil. Do we need any other certificate?

Q.5. Yet the literature in Sanskrit or other classical languages are equally comparable with Tamil literatures in richness and depth of literacy.

Answer : Tamil is one of the richest languages in the world. My opinion is that it will come next to Sanskrit and Greek in the quantity and quality of the literature. Then only Hebrew, Chinese and Latin will come. But among these languages Tamil is the junior most language except Latin. But Sanskrit literature is enormous like an ocean. No one has listed all the books in Sanskrit. In Tamil we have listed all the lost and available books. It will come in a handy book. But if you just compile the names of the Sanskrit books only, it will come in several volumes. In Tamil we have not got anything before 1st century BCE. But Sanskrit had a huge, very huge literature even before Homer started writing his first book in Greek language. Around that time, we had great women philosophers Maitreyi and Gargi attending World Philosophers Conference in Mithila. Even before Moses issued Ten Commandments all those Ten Commandments were in the Vedas.

sanskrit14

Q.6. Even though Kalidasa is controversial, why you are not providing constructive arguments for the Tamil poets antiquity?

Answer : Date of Kalidasa is not controversial. Though it is debatable, great art historians like Sivaramamurthy and several foreign and Indian scholars have dated him in the Pre Christian Era. Reverend G.U. Pope dated him Pre Kabila as soon as he read Kurinjipattu.

Though we date the Tamil poets around first century CE references in Mahavamsa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Kalidasa and Asoka’s epigraph show that the Tamils existed long before the Sangam Period. I have written the following articles about Tamil antiquity in this blog:

Dravidian Queen (1320 BC) in North India (Posted April 14, 2012).

Valmiki in Tamil Sangam Literature (posted on 27 June 2013).

To Master the Tamil Language ……Keep a Calculator Handy! (12 Sept. 2011)

20000 Tamil Proverbs (1 June 2012)

Pandya King who Ruled Vietnam

How old is Indian Civilization? (Posted 25 September 2011).

Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

How Many Miles Did Rama Walk?

Ramayana Wonders- Part 2

In the first part, I mentioned that over 200 plants and 185 weapons are mentioned in the Valmiki Ramayana. Bible mentioned only 110 plants. Those who want the lists of plants and weapons can get them from the glossary of Hari Prasad Shastri’s translation of Ramayana. I have also got the full list of weapons and plants mentioned in the Ramayana

How many miles did Rama walk?

Indians are the Ancient Marathon champions. No literature in the world talks about long walks. Only two ancient Indians walked long distance and beat all the world records. Rama walked over 2000 miles from Ayodhya to Sri Lanka. He did not walk in a straight line as the crow flies. He had to cross the thick tropical forest, Dandaka Aranya, and cross several rivers before he entered Karnataka (Kishkinda) where he met Hanuman and Sugreeva. Then he came to Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and crossed the sea to go to Sri Lanka. He covered over 2000 miles. Adi Shankara who came several thousand years after Rama, walked all over India several times and established four centres in the four corners of India.

Some foreign scholars tried to belittle Rama’s grand travel by saying that the Lanka  that Valmiki mentioned was an island in the Godavari River. Those myths were exploded by the Sangam Tamil Works and Saivaite and Vaishnavaite references to Lanka in Thevaram and Divya Prabandham. Scholars who put forth those absurd theories did not know Tamil literature. One of the Sangam Tamil poets name is Valmiki!

ChineseRamayana

Buddhists took Ramayana to China in the first century AD. The names are distorted as Lomo (Rama), Poloto (Bharata), Loman (Lakshman),Naloyen (Narayan). The Pali Tripitaka was rendered in Chinese and compiled in the name of Taisho edition. Dasaratha Jataka and Story of Unnamed king were translated in 472 and 251 AD. Ravana was described as a wicked Naga King. Dasaratha Jataka has a verbatim Pali translation of Valmiki’s Sanskrit sloka!

Buddhists tried to enlist the national hero of India Rama on their side by transcribing his legend into their own in the Dasaratha Jataka.

Kush Vamsa in Ethiopia

Rama’s son ruled Kusha Dwipa. Ethiopian King considers himself as a descendant of Kush. According to P.N. OAK, swami Krisnananada was told by Haile Selaasie, King of Ethiopia that his dynasty came from Kush , son of Ham (Ram).

Niroshta (No Lip Touching) Ramayana

Of the 300 versions of Ramayana, Niroshta Ramayana,  is an interesting piece. When one reads it or recites it the lips won’t touch or close together. No labial letters are used. Hindus believe human saliva or spit is unclean, particularly when they do religious rituals. So they wanted to say Rama’s name without spit/saliva polluting it.

Saraswati Mahal Library in Thanjavur has got rare books. One of the books is Sabdarth Chintamani. This Sanskrit book was written by Chidambara Kavi sometime in the 15th or 16th century. If anyone reads the couplets from left to write, it is Ramayana story. If one reads it from right to left it is Mahabharata. Later he wrote Kathathreya including Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavatha in the same verse. It is a Three in One Hindu scripture. Only Sanskrit language can do such wonders! Tamil has Poet Kalamegam’s puns, but that is entirely a different genre.

In Sanskrit Kalidasa dealt with the story of Rama in Raguvamsa, Bhavabhuti in Uttara Ramacharita, Bhojaraja in Ramayana Chambu and Ramachandra Dikshitar in Janaki Parinayam. In Tamil the great poet Kamban wrote the story of Ramayana in verse form, Arunachala Kavirayar in Drama. Number of references is in Bhasa’s dramas and Alvars hymns.

Ramayana in One Day

Rajatarangini of Kalhana says that Damodaran, predecessor of Kanishka heard the whole of Ramayana in one day to cure a curse.

Ramayana recitation and musical discourses are done in every language in all parts of India. When Chera King Kulasekara was listening to a musical discourse of Ramayana he got mesmerised by the talk. When the speaker described how Rama was fighting all alone with 14000 demons of Kara Dushana army, the king stood up and ordered his army to march to help Ramayana. He was so absorbed in the story he even forgot he was listening to a story. Then the embarrassed ministers sent some men to say to king that Rama defeated the Kara Dushanas.

Bodi Palace Ramayana Paintings

Not many people knew Tamil Nadu has beautiful Ramayana paintings on the walls of Ramanathapuram and Bodi palaces. Nayak kings made artists paint them on the walls at least four hundred years ago. Ramanathapuram palace paintings describe Ram’s history up to Sita Kalyanam (Sita’s wedding). Bodi palace has got more on this topic. All the colour paintings were done with herbs. Madurai Meenakshi temple and Alagarkoil also got some Nayak paintings on the same theme.

 

New Information in Sangam Tamil Literature

Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavatham (Krishna’s life history) are very familiar in Tamil Nadu 2000 years ago. Tolkappiam, the oldest Tamil book refers to Baladevan’s Palmyra flag. Sangam literature speaks about river Yamuna and Gopika girls bathing with Krishna. But it gives some new information about Rama and Sita which was not found in Valmiki Ramayana. Rama consulted engineers under a banyan tree on the sea shore. Lot of birds were making a big noise. Rama asked them to keep quiet and all the birds fell into pin drop silence. This is in one of the verses. Another verse says that when Sita threw the jewels, the monkeys that picked up the jewels wore them in the wrong way. Likewise when a king gave the singers lot of jewels they did not know what to wear where. This is in Purananuru, Sangam Tamil anthology.

Lakshmana in GSS

Gatha Sapta Sati is an anthology of 700 sexy love poems in Prakrit language. One of the poems beautifully describes Lakshman’s chastity. Rama’s brother Lakshman was most famous for his character of observing a  vrata (vow) not to look at married women. He never saw Sita’s face after she got married to Rama. On the banks of River Godavari an amorous gentleman looks at his brother’s wife when his brother was away. The sister in law who was embarrassed showed him a painting on the wall where a Ramayana scene was painted. Painting showed Lakshmana looking at the earth or Sita’s feet in the company of Rama and Sita. This couplet speaks a lot: 1.There were Ramayana paintings in homes like we have calendars today 2.Chaste women were intelligent enough to give the message without mincing words.

Contd. In the third part………………………..

Source Materials: India in the Ramayana Age by Shantikumar Nanooram Vyas; The Ramyana of Valmiki- translated by Hari Prasad Shastri and Articles by PN Oak and CV Vaidya. Pictures are from Face Book and other websites. Thanks. Contact swami_48@yahoo.com

Please read other posts about Rama: 1. Ram –the Best PR Man 2. தியாகராஜ சுவாமிகளுடன் 60 வினாடி பேட்டி 3.நாமும் அனுமார் ஆகலாம் 4.கம்பனுடன் 60 வினாடி பேட்டி 5.ராமாயண வினா-விடை (க்விஸ்) 5.Ramayana Wonders Part 1

 

*****

No Brahmins, No Tamil!!

Written by By S Swaminathan

Posted on 14th January 2012

Tamil is one of the oldest, richest and sweetest languages in the world. A great many people, irrespective of their religion and caste, have shed their blood and sweat to foster and preserve the language and the culture. We salute all those great people. But yet a lot of mischievous propaganda by the Dravidian political parties in Tamil Nadu has misled the public to a great extent that they really believed Brahmins were aliens to Tamil culture. But anyone who goes deeper in to ancient Tamil literature known as Cankam (also called Sangam) literature would find out that without Brahmins Tamil would have died or at least become poorer two thousand years ago. The reason being Brahmins were the teachers of that language, like in other parts of India. So much was their contribution that any deletion of references to words like Brahmins, Vedas, Yagas, Sanskrit words, Sanskrit names from those books would leave the Tamil literature like a virus affected software. That is to say it would be incomplete without their contribution. Literally hundreds of references are there in the books. Ramayana ,Mahabharata and Puranic references are also in abundance.

The oldest Tamil book Tolkappiyam says Tamils worshipped the Vedic gods Indra , Varuna and Vishnu (Ref.Porul Adhikaram-1.5)

Two great Tamil kings were praised for their great yagnas- RAJASUYAM vetta Perunarkilli and Mudukudumi Peruvazithi. The first one was a Choza who did the great fire ceremony called Rajasuyam. We knew from Mahabharata that Dharma did this yaga. The second one was a Pandya king whose country was full of Yupa pillars. He was praised as if he would bow only twice-when he goes around a temple or when he sees a Brahmin. He was indomitable and invincible that the entire world would bow to him (ref.Purananuru Poem 6)

Nalliakodan’s palace is open to Brahmins 24 hours a day,  says Sirupantruppadai. Seraman Selvak Kadungo Vaziyathan will bow only to Brahmins , says Pathitru Pathu. In short we have so many references about kings bowing only before Gods and Brahmins.

Kapila was the giant among Cankam poets. He composed the highest number of poems (over 230) in Cankam period. Not only he composed Tamil poems, he taught a North Indian King Brahadhathan and made him to write a poem in Tamil. When he ridiculed Tamils, Kapila did teach him a real lesson. Kapila was praised by other Cankam poets as “A Brahmin of spotless character”.

A lot of Cankam poets have Sanskrit Names : Damodaran, Kesavan, Mahadevan, Vishnudasan, Kannadasan, Valmiki, Sahadevan, Gauthaman, Kausikan (Viswamitra), Kavya (written as Kappiya), Acharya (aasaan),Brahmachari

Over twenty Tamil poets are Nagas! They may not be Tamils. There is no reference to Nagas in five fold land division of traditional Tamils: Kurinji, Mullai,Marutham,Neithal and Palai landscapes have their own set of peoples and their own Gods such as Skanda Murugan,Vishnu,Indra, Varuna and Durga. Naga race lived in different parts of India.

The word Veda was beautifully translated by the Tamil poets. One poet described Veda as ‘Ezutha Kilavi’= unwritten word. Another poet praises it as ‘Ezutha Karpu’= unwritten chastity. He means that once written it’s purity would be lost and that is why the Brahmins pass it by word of mouth. Other poets call the Vedas as Marai= secret. They understood that the Vedas are written in a secret language with enigmatic or hidden meanings. Kaduvan Ilaveyini says that God is in secret form in the Vedas (Ref. Paripatal)

Karikalan and the Vedas

Karikalan and Rig Veda: Karikal Choza was praised as a supporter of Vedic practices. When you want to see your friends off you will have to walk seven steps with them and say good bye-says Rig Veda. The Saptapadthi ceremonly in wedding is also part of it. Karikalan was praised to have walked seven teps with his guest and see them off (Ref. Line 166 in Porunar Atruppadai by Mudathama Kanniyaar)

Brahmins are always referred to as one who looks inward (Anthanan or Paarppaan), one who always think of Brahman (Brahmanan). They are called one who do six jobs –Aru Thozilor- (In Sanskrit Shad Karma sukrutha:) because they do the following six kind of jobs,1.Learning,2.Teaching,3.Performing fire ceremonies  for others 4.Doing fire ceremonies for themselves,5. Accepting Gifts and 6.Donating gifts.

They are attributed with six virtues 1.One who seeks Brahman,2.One who takes two Births/Dwija,3.One who worships three forms of Agni/fire 4.One who practises four Vedas,5. One who controls all the five senses and 6. One who does six kinds of Jobs. Anyone can notice numbers 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 are used to describe Brahmins. The play on numbers has been used by thevTamil poets for two thousand years.

Brahmins acted as messengers as well during Cankam period. Dramas of Kalidasa and Bhasa also attributed this messenger role to Brahmins.

VEDIC GODS IN OLD TAMIL BOOKS

Following Hindu Gods and Godly persons were mentioned in Cankam literature:

Indra,Varuna,Agni,Yama,Rama,Krishna,Balarama, Shiva,Uma, Vishnu,Lakshmi, Parasurama,Kubera,Surya,Chandra,Arundhati, Gods in City Squares, Gods in trees, Gods in Hero Stones, Goddess of Kolli Hills,Gods in water sources etc. Reference of Holy bath in Cape Comorin and Dhanuskoti is also found in Tamil books.

Tamil Queen Committed Sati

There is a reference of a Pandya queen, Bhuta Pandyan Perun Devi, committing Sati as well. There is another reference of a poet going straight to heaven after performing a particular type of Yagna (Ref. Pathitru Pathu/Tenfold Ten poems).Gowthamanar who sang about Kuttuvan Cheral was transferred to Swarga (heaven) when he completed ten yagams with the help of the king. It is mentioned in Silappathikaram as well.

List of Brahmin poets and their contribution in Cankam literature:

Agasthyar ,who received Tamil language from Shiva

Tolkappiyar (Thruna dumagni), who wrote grammar after Agaththiyam became obsolete.

Amur Gowthaman Sathevanar (Sahadevan)

Kadiyalur uruththiran Kannanar ( Rudra Aksha)

Kodimangalam Vathula (Gothra) Narsenthan

Sellur Kosikan (Kausika Gothra) kannanar

Madurai Teacher Nalanthuvan

Madurai Ilam kausikanar

Madurai Kanakkayanar

Nakkiran,son of Madurai Kanakkayanar

Madurai gownian (Kaundinya Gothra) daththnar

Mamulanar

Uraiyur enicheri mudamosi

Perunkundrur Perungkausikan

Kumattur kannan

Gowthaman

Valmiki

Vadamavannakkan damodaran

Vembathur kumaran

PARANAR

Kapilar-Paranar, Kallada-Mamulanar are always treated as pairs. Of them Kapilar and Mamulanar are known Brahmins. But others are not classified under any caste. But my research shows Paranar is a Brahmin.

  1. Chera King sent his son with him for education. This was done in those days only with Brahmins.
  2. He was given land (Umbarkadu as Brahmadeyam) which was also done only to Brahmins or Temples in those days.
  3. Paranar is not a Tamil name. It is one of the Gothra Rishi’s name.
  4. Scholars like P T Srinivasa Iyengar also consider him a Brahmin.
  5. Dr R Nagaswamy, eminent historian and archaeologist of Taminadu also listed Paranar as a Brahmin in his book Yavarum Kelir.
  6. Paranar must be well versed in Sanskrit because he has translated and used lines from Kalidas’s poems and Vedic hymns.
  7. The name Paranar comes as a Brahmin’s name in the Story of Vikramaditya.

If we include Paranar’s  80+ poems with Kapilar’s 230+,  it will form a huge chunk in the Cankam works.

 

Books by Brahmin poets

Tolkappiyam (Pre Cankam period)

Kurinji pattu (lines 261)

Thiru murugatruppadai (lines 317)

Pattinap palai (Lines 301)

Perumpanatrup padai (Lines 500)

Malaipadukadam (lines 583)

Nedunal vadai (lines 188)

Six out of Ten Idylls sung by Brahmins

Pathitrup pathu (all except one)

Ainkurunuru (Kapilar’s 100)

Brahmin’s contribution adds up to 10,000 lines, nearly one third of the Cankam literature. The man who went from village to village to collect all these manuscripts was Mr U V Swaminatha Iyer, a Brahmin. We would have lost most of the Tamil treasures without his hard work.

Post Cankam Brahmin Writers

Thiru Gnana Sambandhar

Sundarar

Manikka Vasagar

Andal

Periyalvar

Madura kavi alvar

Tondaradippodi alvar

Jayamkondar

Ramanujar

(Though Adi Shankara and Dandi are from the South they did wrote only in Sanskrit)

Parimel Azkar: Though ten scholars wrote commentaries on the most famous Tamil ethics Tirukkural, Parimel Azakar’s was the best and most popular.

Nachinarkiniyar: The greatest commentator of Tamil literature. What Adi Sankara did for Upanishads, Brahmasutra, Bagavad Gita and Vishnu Sahasranama, Nachinarkiniyar did for Tamil literature. He wrote and wrote and never stopped. Without his commentaries we wouldn’t understand the Tamil poems at all. He was a voracious reader and a prolific writer.

Senavaraiyar: He wrote commentary on Tolkappiyam

U Ve Swaminatha Iyer: He was the doyen of Tamil literature. He saved Tamil books by visiting village after village to collect the old palm leaf manuscripts. Without his collection Tamil would have lost very valuable works. The Tamil world is indebted to him forever.

Bharathiyar: This twentieth century revolutionary poet was the giant of modern Tamil. He simplified the language of the poems and made it popular. He was the first one to write on various themes like God, nature, women’s liberation, education, freedom from poverty and patriotism. He broke the shell which insulated Tamil and made it available for laymen.

Parithimar Kalaignar: He was the first one to suggest Tamil should be declared a classical language.

We don’t want class and caste divisions in the society. But if anyone says that Brahmins came from outside India via Khyber Pass and they were alien to Tamil language and culture, my argument will be a nail in the coffin of those Brahmin haters.

Tamil article: The Age of Tamil Race

Click the title below for my Tamil article about The Age of Tamil Race

 

தமிழ் இனத்தின் வயது என்ன

How Did a Pandya King Get a Golden Hand?

By S Swaminathan

It is a well known fact that the Ancient Indians made tremendous advancements in the field of medical sciences. The Ayurveda and Siddha medical systems were widely practised for the benefit of the general public. Charaka and Susrutha wrote great treatises. A lot of surgical instruments, surgeries like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery for nose), hundreds of medicinal plants and thousands of medicines were listed by them. They were not only appreciated in India but reached western world through Arabic translations nearly one thousand years ago. The old medical books in Sanskrit and Tamil run in to several thousand pages.

Though Charaka, Susrutha,Vagbhata and Agastya are known to many even in the western world, one important surgery went unnoticed by many scholars. There is a very interesting story about a Pandya king in ancient Tamil literature. The king lived two thousand years ago is known from the Tamil epic Silappathikaram (Ref.Mathurai Kandam-Katturai Kaathai) dated around second century AD. A Pandya king was fitted with an artificial hand made of gold; he was known only as the Golden Handed Pandya. Nobody knows his real name even today. One more old Tamil book refer to this story (Ref. Pazamozi Naanuru).

The Story:

The story according to the epic runs like this: a Pandya king was going through the streets of Madurai (the second largest city of Tamil Nadu in South India) in disguise during the night. In the olden days kings used to visit their subjects and observe the general public in disguise to feel the pulse of the populace. Though the ancient Arthashastra of Kautilya speaks of kings employing spies for this purpose, the monarchy always wanted to know what the people feel about them or the country directly.(Every Hindu knew what Rama did to Sita just because a washer man raised some doubts about the purest woman Sitadevi). So much importance was given to the opinion of general public – absolute democracy!

When the Pandya king was passing by a house the lights were on at the dead of night and he heard a conversation. A brahimn by name Keeranthai was consoling his crying wife with these words, ”Darling, don’t worry too much about your safety and security. I am only going to be away for a very short period. Our great king is there to protect all the citizens. Nothing will go wrong in this just place”. As soon as the king heard this conversation he felt some big responsibility fell on his shoulders. So he increased his ward rounds and kept an eye on that house. Months passed. To his surprise he saw light again in the same house at the dead of night. He heard someone talking. In a hurry he mistook that person for a stranger and knocked at the door to scare away the stranger. Alas, it was not a stranger. It was her own husband Keeranthai himself who had just returned from his tour. When Keeranthai shouted back, the king realised his mistake.

One stupid mistake will make you to do more stupid things to hide the first one. It is human nature. So the king knocked at all the houses in the brahmin street and ran away to his palace. Next day a battalion of brahmins went to the palace and complained about what happened the previous night. The king, after patiently listening to their complaints, said to them that the ‘thief’ was already caught. All his ministers were surprised to hear his statement. The king did not stop there. He asked the opinion of the complainants what should be the punishment for that ‘thief’. Everyone shouted in chorus to follow the Hammurabi law: a hand for hand, an eye for an eye. The hand that knocked on the doors must be cut off. Before a second lapsed the king drew his sword and cut off the hand with which he had knocked on the doors the previous night. When he narrated the incident, the whole world praised his justice. The royal physicians rushed for his help and attached a gold hand to his arm. He came to be known as a Gold Hand Pandya in Tamil “Por Kai Pandyan”.

This is a story to elucidate the justice that was followed in ancient Tamil Nadu. No medical information was given about fixing the artificial limb but it didn’t surprised any Indian (please read my article Why do British Judges follow a TamilKing?) because they practised either the Ayurveda or the Siddha medical system.

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