One Minister Cabinet 2700 years ago, Panini Titbits-2 (Post No.9535)


Post No. 9535

Date uploaded in London – –26 APRIL  2021     

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Panini in his grammar book Ashtadhyayi gives remarkably interesting information about cabinet formation in the government.

He used ASHADAKSHIINA, which literally meant “that which is not seen by six eyes. The Kasika (Kaasikaa) explains it to mean deliberations between two persons only and not more.

“Ashadakshiino mantras, yo dvaabhyaameva kriyate, na bahubhih”

In the political evolution of the Mantri Parishad and with the emergence of the office of the Prime Minister there was a tendency to form a smaller body inside the Parishad/council for more effective and responsible deliberation.

As to the number of ministers constituting this Inner Body, Kautilya supplies valuable information recording the views of earlier political thinkers like



Visalaksha and


Kautilya states that the number of ministers should three to four (Arthasastra 1-15)

In this matter the most forceful view was that of Kaninka Bharadvaja, the severe theorist who advocated the system of one minister cabinet

“Gubhyam eko mantrayetiti Bhaardvaajah Arthasastra 1-15”

This was the ashadakshiina mantra referred to by Panini,i.e.the secret counsel of the king and the chief minister only, in which Six Eyes had not participated. It signified the same thing as

“Shad karno bhidyate mantrah of later literature”

Bharadvaja held that a plethora of councillors betrayed the secret.

“Mantri paramparaa mantram bhinnati, Artha 1-15”

Cited in the Kasika on 5-2-10

This view was disputed by Visaalaaksha, who perhaps true to the veiled suggestion of his name, was in favour of admitting more ministers to that secret sessions of the council.

The Six Eye must have related to urgent and important matters of the state. Panini refers to Aatyayika Vinayadi gana 5-4-34, urgent business, to which Asoka also refers in Rock Edict 6 and so also Kautilya.

Summoning the ministers and the council, the king shall speak to them on urgent matters,

“Aatyayike kaarye mantrino mantri parishadam chaahuuya bruuyaat, Arth 1-15”

Here ‘mantrinah’ refers to the Inner Cabinet, and ‘Mantri Parishad’ to the fuller Council of Ministers.

The No Six Eyes deliberations belonged to the former.

Similarly, in the Gana patha 4-3-118 ,an act or resolution of the Parishad is called ‘Paarishatka’

All these show how advanced was our political system 2700 years ago


500 members in Raaja Sabhaa

As distinguished from the Parishad, the General Assembly was represented by the Raaja Sabhaa. Tradition makes King Bindusara having a Council of 500 members.

As examples of Raja Sabha, Patanjali cites Chandragupta Maurya Sabha and Pushyamitra Sabha, Bhashya 1-177


King and 8 Ministries in Vedic Period | Tamil and Vedas › 2013/05/27 › king-and-8-ministri…

27 May 2013 — Coronation and Consecration · Eight Ministers for Tamil Kings · Ashta Pradhan of Veera Shivaji · Council of Eight Poets: Ashta Diggajas.

Samiti | Tamil and Vedas › tag › samiti

11 May 2015 — Rig Veda mentioned female members of the Sabha as sabhavati (RV 1-167-3). … Later literature gives us information about Council of Five and …


tags – one member, cabinet, Six Eyes, Panini, Kautilya 

Assembly Membership 2700 years ago- Panini Titbits-1 (Post No.9527)


Post No. 9527

Date uploaded in London – –24 APRIL  2021     

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Panini in his grammar work Ashtadhyayi gives interesting information about citizenship, patriotism, and qualifications of an assembly member

Classmates are called ‘sa brahmachar’i by Panini. In the same way citizens of a particular Janapada/ country were called ‘sa Janapada’(Sutra 6-3-85)

Socrates of Greece, talks about loyalty to his country

“As to his parents and his master , so to the laws and his country, he must not return injury for injury, nor blow for blow. Country is more than a mother. For her sake all things must be endured”.

Whatever Socrates said was from the ancient Hindu scriptures; in other words ‘un Greek’ principles. That is why he was hated and accused of poisoning the youths.

‘Matha pitha guru deivam’ is a Vedic tenet. He repeated this in the above quote.

Don’t return injury for injury is in Buddha’s Dhammapada and Valluvar’s Tirukkural

Concept of Motherland is in the Atharva Veda-

Maataah bhuumih upto aham prithivyah

—Atharva Veda 12-1-12

Earth is my Mother, I am the son of the earth

Laws of the Janapada must be obeyed and Panini called it Bhakti, i.e. the political and moral allegiance of the citizens both to the Janapada and Janapadins (Sutra 4-3-100)

A citizen of the Anga Janapada was called ‘Aangaka’ with reference to his Bhakti to the Anga state .

The two fold Bhakti is here significantly distinguished, viz. to the state in theory and to his government in practical life.

Mahabharata says

Namo Dharmaya mahate dharmo dharayati prajah

—Udyoga parva 137-9

Dharma or the law is the foundation.

Panini used ‘Dhaarmiika’, ‘Dharmam charati’ where ‘charati’ is explained as ‘aasevaa’ habitual moral conduct or practice of virtue.

The ideal of the Janapada state was the highest development of virtue and its object was to produce the perfect citizen.

This ideal is embodied in the famous words of King Asvapati of Kekaya which he uttered in the presence of such citizens as were house holders posessing magnificent mansions, (Mahaa  saalaa) supplied with all the luxuries that Janapada life would provide, but who still chose the path of virtue and learning, (Mahaa srotriya )

“Within my realm ( Janapada ) there is no thief

No miser, nor a drinking man,

None altarless, none ignorant,

No man unchaste, no wife unchaste”

–Chandogya Upanishad 5-11-5

We see such principles, statements In Vidura Niti, Chanakya Niti and even in the writings of Chinese traveller Fahiyan . He said there were no thieves in India and people left the doors open duing night time.

Buddha in dhammapada says

“For hate is not conquered by hate;

Hate is conquered by love. This is a law eternal”

Dhammapada 5

Valluvar in Tirukkural 314 says ,

“The best way to punish those who harm you is to make them feel abashed by doing them good and thinking no more of it”—Kural 314

“Of what avail is perfection if it does not do good even to them that have done evil?” Kural 987


Assembly in the Vedas

Each Janapada/State had its assembly / Sabhaa and a governing council / Parishad.

In Greece 20 year old youths became assembly membeSr after two year military training.  Panini also refers to such qualification with the word Sabhya which means he can attend the ‘ Sabhaa’.

‘Sabhaayaa yah’ 4-4-105

‘Sabhaayaam saaduh’ where ‘saaduh’ means yogya/qualified.

A Kshatriya young man, when eighteen years of age acquired the privilege of becoming a ‘kavacha hara’/ fit for military duty (3-2-10)

And at the age of 21, became privileged for all political rights and duties.

The new word ‘Sabhya’ was equivalent in meaning to the Vedic  ‘sabheya’ which Panini himself records as an old chandasa/ Vedic term (4-4-106)

Sabhaa had a two -fold meaning i.e. the assembly and the assembly hall (Saalaa 2-4-23, 24)

Till this day Sabha is used for assembly in all Indian languages including Tamil (Sabha- Avai; Sa is banned by Tolkaappiyar. So AVAI; B=V)

Thousands of years later than Vedas , Uttaramerur Inscription in Tamil Nadu gives more details about the qualification to contest for a council post.

India is the oldest democracy in the world. Before Greeks started writing, we had Sabhas/Assembly!

SOURCE- INDIA AS KNOWN TO PANINI BY V S AGRAWALA, with my inputs from Tamil literature


tags- Sabha, Membership, Assembly, Citizenship, Panini, Desa Bhakti 



Post No. 9415

Date uploaded in London – –23 MARCH  2021     

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Did Panini who wrote the first grammar book in the world know South India? Is the question discussed by some who wrote about this issue. Though we have references to South Indian Kings in Ramayana and Mahabharata the date of the scriptures in its present forms is debatable. Panini did not give any grammatical rules quoting South India or the Tamils in particular.

But Katyayana Vararuchi who made notes on Panini’s work refers to Codas, i.e.Chozas and Pandyas. Later Asokan Inscriptions also

tags- bride price, Panini, South India, Pearls in Veda

Hindu Astrology 2700 years Ago: proof from Megasthenes! (Post No.9392)


Post No. 9392

Date uploaded in London – –17 MARCH  2021     

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The Science of Astronomy and astrology originated in India. The proof for this is in the Rig Veda which is dated between 4500 BCE and 6000 BCE by various scholars on the basis of astronomical references in the Vedas. Herman Jacobi of Germany and Freedom fighter B G Tilak lead this group of researchers.

Hindus are the only community in the world who included astronomy / astrology in day today syllabus. Vedic scholars must study SIX ancillary subjects. They are ….

Siksaa – phonetics – nose of Vedic man/Veda purusa

Vyakarana – grammar – mouth

Nirukta – etymology/lexicon- ear

Kalpa – manual of rituals – hands

Chandas – prosody – foot

Jyotisa – astronomy/ astrology- eye

These are the limbs of Vedic learning. When one mastered all the six……………….

tags- Hindu, astrology, astronomy, Jyotisha, Panini

Origin of Drama in India, No connection with Greece! (Post No.9374)


Post No. 9374

Date uploaded in London – –12 MARCH  2021     

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We have discovered a bronze dancing woman statue in Indus-Sarasvati valley civilization. The closest link to that statue is the Rig Veda, which many consider a Pre- Indus book. The amazing figure has the Tri Bhanga (Three Bends) which we see in all the Hindu goddess statues even today. Rig Veda has many references to dancing and singing. All the dialogue poems are nothing but dance dramas.

 In the nook and corner of Tamil Nadu, you my see such sexy (similar to Urvasi- Puruvas dialogue in the Rig Veda) dances in the mid night on the eve of Holi. It is called Kaman Pandikai (Festival of Manmatha) in Tamil Nadu. In Sprig season (Vasanta Rtu) every young couple enjoy such pleasure. But the end message of the festival is Kama will be burnt by Lord Shiva (desire will be annihilated by the worship of Shiva. In the mythology , we see Manmatha is burnt alive by Shiva and he became bodyless/ANANGA.

Most of the encyclopaedias attribute the first and oldest drama to Greece. But Vedic and Ashtadhyayi references explode those myths. According to Panini, ‘Naandhi’ is the first scene which we see even in Kalidasa’s plays. Panini is dated 7th century BCE. He did not know the Buddha and Nanda Vamsa nor Pataliputra. He lived at least 300 years before the Mauryas. Panini’s coinage, weights and measurements, no mentioning of Buddha and Mahavira, his description of Hindu gods, his innumerable comparisons of Chandas/Vedic poems with Sanskrit, that is Basha etc, show Panini lived many centuries before Nandas and Mauryas. Greeks haven’t got the scheme of play that is found in Sanskrit. Neither Nandi/prologue nor National Anthem at the end. All Sanskrit dramas finish with the National Anthem what they called ‘Bharata vakya’. That says ‘Long Live the King; Long Live the Queen. Let all people be Happy; Let the country be Prosperous’. This scheme or structure is absent in Greek dramas.

Kalidasa lived in the first century BCE, which is proved by Tamil Sangam poets. His 200 out of 1500 similes were used by Sangam Tamil poets. Kapilar, the Brahmin who contributed highest number of poems to Sangam corpus imitated Kalidasa in his Kurinjippattu. Even a foreign Tamil student like Rev Dr G U Pope has rightly pointed out this fact.

Half baked western ‘’scholars’’ mis interpreted all dialogue poems in the  Rigveda. Actually they are all dance dramas enacted after Yagas and Yajnas. Panini and Patanjali say that some yajnas lasted for hundreds of years. It is not an exaggeration . Generation after generation continued fire sacrifices. Elsewhere we read that Bharadwaja couldn’t finish mastering all Vedas even after 300 years. Like the Nanda Lamps in the temples Yaga Kundas were burning continuously. Nanda vilakku, lamp, means that which is never extinguished. We see in all Tamil Temples even today.

Here is what Panini and Patanjali say about dramaturgy:-

Panini,who lived before the Greek dramas, mentions ‘Naandi’ , Prologue to a drama in Sutra 3-2-21.

Panini mentioned ‘Silaalin’ as the author of Nata sutras, his students forming the Vedic school of dancing designated as Sailalinah Nataah 4-3-110.

The Sailalakas were originally a Rigvedic charana/school with their own Brahmana book. This is cited in the Apastambha Srauta Sutra. Katyayana who comes 300 years after Panini also knew of this Vedic school as Sailaalaah 6-4-144.

Thus it will be seen that the students of dramaturgy were called SAILAALINAH while those of orthodox Vedic studies were known by the simpler name Sailalah.

The growth of a secular text like the NATA SUTRA under the auspices of a Vedic school shows the scope that Vedic literature gave to new intellectual development not directly connected to religion.

The word Natya Nataka was used through out India. Both were inseparable. Later only dramas with prose only dialogues were written. Tamil words Natya as in Bharata natya and Nataka/drama are all of Sanskrit origin. They are  found in Sangam literature and Tolkappiam. But no ancient Tamil drama survived. Though we read about 11 types of dances performed by Madhavi in Tamil epic  Silapadikaaram they were all Post Sangam materials. They were all Hindu mythological stories. In short we didn’t know anything about ancient Tamil dramas. Instead of Sanskrit Nataka and Natya, Tamil used the word  Kuuthu. But the amazing fact is Tamils did not have any drama for 2000 years! Sanskrit has hundreds of dramas from the days of Bhasa of third century BCE.

Source book:- India as known to Panini, V S Agrawala, 1953; with my inputs


pictures from Kalkshetra, Chennai

Origin of dramas | Tamil and Vedas › tag › origin-of-dramas


6 Dec 2014 — We have dialogue hymns in the Rig-Veda and several scholars believe those were the first theatrical plays. We have similar dialogues in Egypt.

DIALOGUE POEMS IN THE RIG VEDA (Post No.7737) | Tamil … › 2020/03/24 › dialogue-poems-in-…


24 Mar 2020 — Even the funeral hymns and marriage hymns are only in the tenth mandala. So according to them Hindus did not get married or did not die until …

origin, drama, Panini, Nandi

Tamils followed Panini in 3 more rules (Post No.9370)


Post No. 9370

Date uploaded in London – –11 MARCH  2021     

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Panini lived 2700 years before Tamil literature came into existence. Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam written by Tolkappiar, is dated first century CE because he talks about dotted letters.

Other scholars like M. Varadarajan, former Vice Chancellor, placed him in second century BCE. Panini lived in seventh or eighth century BCE. But the amazing thing about his grammar book Ashtadhyayi is , Tamils followed it in several rules.

All Tamil scholars agree that Agastya was the first one who gave a grammar  to Tamil language. His disciple was Tolkappiar. His name was Trunadumagni , a seer, according to the most famous Tamil commentator Nachchinrkiniyar. No wonder he followed Panini.

Previously it was pointed out that he followed Panini in describing the origin of sound, case suffixes and he followed Manu in describing the eight types of marriages and Arthasastra of Kautilya in certain things. Tolkappiar himself admitted that he repeated what his predecessors said. He used the journalistic cliche, ‘they say’, ‘it is said that’ etc in 305 places.

Now I have found more examples to show that he followed Panini in other areas as well.


1).A- kaara and A- kara

The first sutra of Tolkappiam and the first couplet of Tirukkural has ‘A- Kara’ . It means letter A. Panini used this in his sutras. In Sanskrit it is long sound A- kaara. In Tamil it’s short sound A -Kara . No other language has this kara or kaara suffix to a letter.


2).PaniniYAM and Tolkappi YAM

When you want to name a book after its author or on the subject matter you add ‘IYAM’

PaniniYAM- book written by Panini


Indra janan’iya’


are some of the books mentioned by Panini (4-3-88)

Tamils also named books in the same way


Kakkai paatini’YAM’


English is also part of Indo European Languages. So, we find


MiltoniAN scholar etc.


3).Another area where similarity is naming a book after the number of verses it has

Tamils were obsessed with numbers 4,40, 400 and 4000. They named a lot of the 36 books of Sangam and Post Sangam works wih these numbers.

Let us take 400 for example

We have Pura 400/nanuru, Aka 400, Narrinai 400 etc.

Naming a book with numbers is very common in Sanskrit:-

Panchakam, Satakam , astakam, pathikam, Sahasranamam are a few examples

But 2700 years ago, Sanskrit scholars used this.

Satapata Brahmana – book with 100/ sata  chapters.

Kaushitaki Brahmana was called 30 chapter book

Aitareya Brahma was called 40 chapter book

So naming a book with number also came from a common source from Vedic days.

Recent Post on Tolkappiam:–

50 SANSKRIT WORDS AND 25 PRAKRIT WORDS IN … › 2021/02/27 › 5…


27 Feb 2021 — Agreement between Tolkappiam and Sanskrit works on Grammar. BY S N Sri Rama Desikan. (FOLLOWING MATTER IS FROM AN OLD …


tags- Tamils, Panini, naming book,

Hindu Women’s Education 2700 Years Ago! (Post No.9366)


Post No. 9366

Date uploaded in London – –10 MARCH  2021     

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Amazing information about education of women during post-Vedic period is available from Panini’s Ashtadhyayi and the commentaries on it. When Panini wrote his grammar 2700 years ago, very few literary or religious works were there in other parts of the world. I am not talking about the museum languages of Egypt, Babylonia or Mayan. Sanskrit lives in all the languages of India. No one can speak even for a few minutes without Sanskrit words. Either his/ her name or their birth places or their patents names will be in Sanskrit.

I am a regular reader of articles on tribes of India. All the tribes have something Hindu or some words in Sanskrit. Half baked foreigners could not digest it and so created a new theory it was because of later contacts. Those who follow tribal birth, death and wedding rites find that they are based on Hindu beliefs ; like the civilised city Hindus have different birth, death and marriage customs they also differ in several rites.

Women in ancient India went to school with boys and achieved good qualifications. Here is the solid proof.

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar lived 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu. She could go to any kings’ assembly and praise him or criticise him. She saw three great kings of Chera, Choza and Pandya on the dias after the Choza king performed Rajaasuya Yaga. She blessed them whole heartedly and advised them to live without enmity. Apart from Avvaiyar we have about atlesasst 20 Tamil poetesses.

 About twenty Vedic poetesses lived 2000 years before the Tamils came on the scene. Most famous woman’s name is Gargi Vachaknavi. She took part in the All India Philosophers conference and challenged the famous scholar Yajnavalkya in front of Emperor Janaka. And this is not an isolated anecdote.

Information from Ashtadhyayi, is very interesting.

Aapisaali was a Pre Paninian scholar. Katyayana who wrote notes on Panini’s sutras refers to students studying his (Apisali) grammar. Patanjali even speaks of female Brahmana students of Aapisaali.

Both Panini and Patanjali refer to women admitted to Vedic study in the Charanas (Institutions like Oxford and Cambridge) . The term Jaati in sutra 4-1-63 includes the female members of gotras and charanas.

Thus a woman student of Katha School was called ‘Kathi’ and of the Rig Vedic Bahvrichi school, ‘Bahvrichii’. It appears that the three principles of naming the male students applied equally to the female students also.

Both panini and Patanjali called the female students of Aapisaala as ‘Aapisaalaa braahmanii’ . Katyayana here refers to the rule of a previous writer; similarly Kasika refers to Paaniniya Braahmanii.

Female students were also admired to study of Mimaamsa.

Example, Kaasakrstnii, a female student studying the Mimamsa work Kaaskrstnii

Panini himself  refers to female students as Chaatrii and their hostels Chhaatri saalaa. 6-2-86

The wife of an aacharya is Aachaaryaanii 4-1-49. Female teachers were called ‘aachaaryaa’. (Note different spellings for teacher’s wife and female teacher).

The term Kathi – vrindarikaa , the foremost female student of the Katha Saakhaa, points to the success of women as Vedic students.

Patanjali refers to a female student as Adhyetrii and a female novice as Maanavikaa 4-1-93; 2-249.

Manava and Manavi are used in Tamil until this day!

In another place Panini talks about ‘Kumaari Sramana’, a female  ascetic of young age. This was in the Pre Buddhist literature. Buddhists allowed women later .

The terms Bikshu, Nirvana and Kumari sramana are in Pre Buddhist literature, the Upanishads. Ancient Hindu literature did not mention Buddha.

Patanjali and other commentators mocked at students who were not interested in studying. They were compared to crows that bathe for a few seconds and fly. Like French Bath, Hindus have the idiom ‘Crow Bath’. In that context commentators mentioned some students are coming to school just to ‘see girls’. Probably co- education existed in Gurukula at the time of Panini and Patanjali.

Putting all these together give us a clear picture of women’s education in ancient India.

Later , Vatsyayana of Kamasutra listed 64 subjects in woman’s syllabus. That is the first syllabus for women in the world. So, we see the development of education in India.

Tamil language produced Six Avvaiyars in different periods and Saint poets like Karaikkal Ammaiyar and Andal.

(Avvai means a spiritually advanced, matured woman, probably  not married; like Kumari Sramana of Panini’s book)

Later we see scholars Lilavathi and Gangadevi. Women’s education stopped only when foreigners entered India.

Source book- India as known to Panini, V S Agrawala with my inputs.


tags-  women’s education, ancient India, Panini, Patanjali



Post No. 9019

Date uploaded in London – –10 DECEMBER 2020      

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2700 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் தமிழ், ஆங்கில சொற்கள் – பகுதி 2

Let us continue with Panini’s Ashtadhyayi ……

Sutra 1-2-24

Vanch – Vengeance – punishment inflicted or retribution exacted for an injury or wrong..

English meaning has changed a little bit. But

Tamil and Sanskrit have similar meanings = cheating someone  வஞ்சி, ஏமாற்று

Lunch – seize, take it forcefully – English – loot


Sutra 1-2-25

Thrush – thirst , thirsty thaakam in Tamil தாகம்


sutra 1-2-57 thulyam – thulaa rasi, thulai/tharasu

thulyamaka துல்யம் – துலை /தராசு , துல்யமாக சொன்னான்


Sutra 1-2-68

Brathru – brother

Svasru – sister

Duhitru – daughter

Putra – son  புதல்வன்


Sutra 1-2-70

Pitru – pithaa – father; also Peter

Matru – maathaa – mother

Jagatha pitharau – parents of the world – Raghuvamsa 1-1

Parents – பெற்றோர் – பிதரெள – பேரண்ட்ஸ்


Sutra 1-3-10 sama = same – saman /tirukkural சம, சமன் செய்து….குறள்


Sutra 1-3-16

Itharethara – ithara – this athars- other person


Other /person இது, இவர் ;அது அவர் ;


1-3-21 sakata

Cart goes kata, kata , so saகட கட என்று வண்டி ஓடியது kata கட கட என்று வண்டி ஓடியது

Manavaka – student – மாணவர் / க

Cock – குக்கூ என்றது கோழி – குறுந்தொகைப் பாடல்


1-3-22  thishta – Stand



Beg – Bikshu –பிச்சை

பிச்சை எடுப்பவன் பிக்ஷு

பிரம்மச்சாரிகள் படிக்கும் காலத்தில் வீடு வீடாகச் சென்று

‘பவதி பிக்ஷாம் தேஹி’ என்று கேட்பார்கள்.


1-3-27 thapah

P = v in tamil – thava – see tirukkural

தபஸ் – தவம் / ஒளிவிடு

தானம் தவம் இரண்டும் — குறள்


உத்தபதே வித்யாய வித்யார்தீ = படிப்பாளி  தன் கல்வியினால் ஒளிவிடுகிறான்



Han – kill ; hunt; hunter

Brahmahathi – murder of a brahmin  killing a brahmin

ஹன் = கொல் ; பிரம்ம ஹத்தி தோஷம் ; பிராமணனைக் கொல்வதால் உண்டாகும் தோஷம்

ஹத் = பட் = பட்டான் = கொல்லப்பட்டான் – பட்டான்

இறந்துபட்டான் ; நடுகல் கல்வெட்டுகளில் ‘பட்டான்’ உள்ளது

ரஜ்ஜு – கயிறு

10 கல்யாணப் பொருத்தங்களில் கயிறு / தாலிப் பொருத்தம் எல்லா ஜாதிகளுக்கும் முக்கியம்

Rajju – rope

To be continued……………………………….

tags- amil words 2700 years ago-2, Panini ,


pictures are from Grand Anaicut in Tamil Nadu; taken by London swaminathan


Post No. 8886

Date uploaded in London – –3 NOVEMBER 2020   

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this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.,

All of us know that a Hindu marriage is legally done , completely done, only when the couple takes Seven Steps together. Please see my links to previous articles on SEVEN STEPS.

 I also wrote about the oldest and the most famous Chola king KARIKALAN (SIMILAR TO KALMASHA PADAN OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY).


Three things show that he was competing with the oldest Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi of Purananuru, who established YUPA polls through Pandya kingdom by doing Yagas and Yajnas. Oldest Tamil verse says Pandyan emperor would bow his head  only on  TWO occasions:-

One time to Brahmins

Another time during circumambulation of Siva Temple.

Karikal Choza was similar in many respects.

1.He constructed Yaga Kunda in Eagle shape as prescribed in the Vedas

2.He sent Wind Sailed Ships and controlled the whole of Indian Ocean.

He knew the monsoon and used it fully, says Purananuru. Ships that went with sails are in the oldest book in the Rig Veda as well.


(Please see the references and my 10 year articles about how Ravana easily went to Patna and Himalayas by using monsoon; also Rajatarangini says that Kashmiri kings invaded Sri Lanka using Returning Monsoon)

Karikal Choza (Chola) is dated first century BCE and Panini is dated 8th century BCE.


Now I am reading the Tamil translation of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi for the second time. The Translation was done by Dr K Meenakshi of Pune and published in three parts by World Tamil Research Institute, Chennai-600 113

Panini Sutra 5-2-2

Saapta padheenam sakyam

The commentator says (I think it is from Mahabashya of Patanjali) that walking seven steps together and saying seven words mean firm Friendship. That is the definition of Friendship.

It is also in Rig Veda’s Wedding Mantras. (see my links below)

What Panini said 2700 years ago was followed by Karikal Choza, the gretaest of the Choza Race. Other Vedic rites such as Eagle shaped Yaga  Kunda (Fire Sacrifice Altar) also confirm he was out and out a follower of the Vedas.

Thanks to Panini we come to know the greatness of Number Seven

In Indus-Sarasvati River Bank civilization we see more seals with Number 3 and Number 7 which confirms that it is Hindu Civilization.


Purananuru verse 224 – Eagles Shaped Yaga Kunda

Porunar Atruppadai – lines 165-167 Walking Seven Steps during Farewell Ceremony

Purananuru verse 66 – Using Wind for sailing ; knowledge of Sailors and Monsoon.

Seven Steps | Tamil and Vedas › tag › seven-steps


20 Jul 2016 — Posts about Seven Steps written by Tamil and Vedas. … The seven steps are the seven grades of life. Compare this with the seven ages of life …

walking 7 steps | Tamil and Vedas › tag › walking-7-steps


8 Nov 2016 — Posts about walking 7 steps written by Tamil and Vedas. … The next ceremony is called saptapadi or seven steps. This is the most important …

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8 Mar 2017 — ஆதி மந்தி என்பவள் கரிகால் சோழனின் அருந்தவப் புதல்வி; அவள் ஒரு … சோழன் மகள் ஆதி மந்தியும், சேர நாட்டரசனும், ஆதியின் …

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21 Jan 2015 — இவர்களில் யார் காவிரியில் அணை கட்டிய கரிகாலன் என்பது … ஏனெனில் சோழர்களின் தலை நகராக தஞ்சாவூர் உருவாநது மிகவும் …

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15 Jul 2013 — சேரர்களுக்கு முன்பாக பாண்டியர் பெயரும் சோழர் பெயரும் … கரிகால் சோழன் பருந்து (கழுகு) வடிவ யாக குண்டம் அமைத்து …

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tags — Panini, Karikal Choza, Karikalan, Seven Steps



Post No. 8793

Date uploaded in London – –9 OCTOBER 2020   

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.,

Though Panini wrote a grammar book we get amazing information about the rivers, mountains, hills, wells, crops and cities in ancient India from his own work and commentaries and supplementary attached to his book. Greek sources also confirm it. So, we get a clear picture of North India. But we must remember it is only the information about famous and big cities and ports and commercial centres and holy cities. India has over 600,000 towns. Even Kabilar, a Tamil poet who composed highest number poems in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature says Pari, a Tamil philanthropist, owned 300 towns in his small Parambu country. It is in Purananuru of Sangam corpus.  If Pari can own 300 towns in a small area of Tamil Nadu there is no wonder that North India had 750 known cities 2700 years ago or even before that.

That ancient  India possessed a large number of cities or towns is also attested to by Greek writers. According to them Punjab was full of towns , centres of industry and economic prosperity. Many of these figured as forts or centres of defence such as the famous town of Massage – Masakaavati- or Aornos – Varanass in the country of the Asvakas. Many towns had a population of 5000 to 10000.

Strabo said that in the territories of the nine nations situated between the Jhelum and Beas, such as the Malloi, Oxydrakai and others , there were 500 cities.

Megasthenes makes the following general statement on the cities of Mauryan India—

“Of their cities it is said that the number is so great that it cannot be said with precision”.

Greeks did not exaggerate and that is known from the lists attached to the two sutras 4-2-75 and 4-2-80 we have about 500 names. If we add the towns from Ghanas we will get the names of 750 towns.

The grammatical literature is now a valuable source of information regarding the old and forgotten cities of India. This literature like Yuan Chwang’s Travels has preserved landmarks .

Famous breed of dogs in Ramayana and Panini

The Ghanapatha gives a list of 500 towns. Of them one is Saubhuta  4-2-75.

It is usually identified with the kingdom of Sophytes mentioned by the Greek writers. The place is especially noted by the Greeks for a ferocious breed of dogs whose fame spread to Greece even before Alexander’s time. Ramayana also refers to similar dogs bred in the Kekaya country  of the Salt Range. It describes them as bred in the royal kennels , strong like tigers, big in size and with big teeth. It was probably the breed of dogs that was referred to by PaninI as Kauleyaka – 4-2-96. Saubhuta was thus a  part of Kekaya in the Salt Range.

tags–750 towns, cities, breed of dogs, Panini