Ten Greatest Literary Wonders (Post No.4582)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 4 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-24

 

 

 

Post No. 4582

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Some picturers were used from Brahmi by Ankhita Roy and Malay mandal

 

 

Wonder 1

India is a land of wonders. It is a land of literary wonders. Take any subject; It is in the first place; but this article is about the language, literature and linguistics. Nowhere in the world we see 900 plus poets 2000 years ago. We have all the names of the poets and their poems intact. Vedic anukramani gives a list of 435 poets and the Tamil Sangam literature gives a list of approximately 470 poets. We have 1028 hymns containing 10,600 verses or mantras in the Rig Veda alone. It is the oldest book in the world. It is the oldest anthology in the world. Tamil Sangam had 470 poets who had composed 2380 poems. Rig Veda was there at least 4000 years ago when Sarasvati was flowing from the Himalayas to the sea. Tamil Sangam literature came 2000 years after the Vedic poems. Post-Vedic poets prepared the Index- the first in the world.

What does it show? It shows that India, that is Bharat, was the most civilized country and most literate in the ancient world. This also shows that all other civilizations such as Babylonian, Egyptian and Chinese came later. Because literature is the scale with which can measure the wisdom, knowledge and maturity of a society. To reach such a level of intelligence, the community should have lived there several thousand years before that literary production.

 

Wonder 2

 

Women wrote Poems!

The literacy and progressive thoughts of the Hindus is highlighted by at least 50 poetesses, which is not seen anyhere in the world. Oldest book Rig Veda has more than 20 poetesses. Sangam literature which came 2000 years after the Vedas has another 25 Tamil poetesses.

This galaxy of intellectuals show that no civilization came nearer to the Hindu civilization.

Women were so educated that they attended the debating societies and (Gargi Vachaknavi) questioned great philosopher such as Yajnavalkya. In Tamil poetess Avvaiyar was fearless in questioning the war mongering Tamil kings.

Wonder 3

The Vedic literature was huge. In every culture, there is a time gap between the poetry and prose. In Sanskrit, four Vedas with 20,000 verses and a huge mass of prose literature ( Brahmanas and Aranyakas) came well before the Greeks started writing. Tamils wrote 2000 years after the Sanskrit poets. The great wonder about this bulky literature is that they passed it by word of mouth until today, at least for 4000 years!

 

Wonder 4

Another literary wonder is the production of Upanishads – the philosophic treatises- before other philosophers of the world. Moses, Zoroaster, Mahavira, Confucius, Buddha—all came after the Upanishads according to the Hindu dating of the Upanishads.

 

Wonder 5

In those Upanishads we have a long list of Gurus – over 50 generations of teachers- who passed the wealth of knowledge. That shows how old our teaching is. And in the Puranas (mythologies) we have 140 generations of kings. Longest and continuous list which the world has ever seen. Sumeraian and Egyptian king lists were made up by scholars like Berosus of 2nd century BCE. There are big gaps.. In spite of dry climate helping them to preserve 60,000 clay tablets and Egyptian writings on papyrus the list is incomplete. Together with the Upanishadic list of hereditary teachers and Puranic list of 140 generations before Megasthenes, we stand in the front. These Hindu scriptures are another literary wonder.

 

Wonder 6

The inscriptions of Emperor Asoka was a great literary wonder. Suddenly we see Brahmi script from Afghanistan to the southernmost part of Sri Lanka—biggest geographical mass—the largest country in the world. This happened 2300 years ago. That means Indians were literate from Kashmir to Kandy in Sri Lanka. Unless they could read Asoka would not have installed so many inscriptions.

 

 

Wonder 7

 

The Brahmi script itself is a great wonder. Though some scholars think that it was derived from Phoenician, the undeniable fact is that it is very different from those Semitic scripts. Brahmi script is alphabetical and scientifically arranged. It followed Paninian phonetics. The greatest wonder abbot the Brahmi script is that it gave the scripts, the glyph to all the languages of South East Asia and South and North India.

 

Wonder 8

Hindus were first in all the literary ventures whether its wring stories or wring sex manuals. The first grammar book was from Panini of seventh century BCE. The world is wonderstruck with the conciseness of Ashtadyayee of Panini. This grammar book is considered a wonder of human thought

 

Wonder 9

Language and linguistics are dealt with even in a religious book like Rig Veda. Similes, number symbolism, metaphors using literary subjects show the level of knowledge in the Vedic society. I have already written about the Vedic lingustics and four types of sounds and hymns on Vac—the speech. Higher thoughts and world welfare were dealt n the hymns. The last hymn of the Rig Veda prays for the integration. It can serve as the World National Anthem or the UN national Anthem. The hymns on Earth in the Atharva Veda  can serve as the anthem for all the environmental organisations.

Please see below the relevant hymns:

Language and Linguistics

RV 1-164, 4-58, 8-59, 8-100, 10-71, 10-114, 10-125, 10-177

 

 

RV 1-164, 10-71, 4-3, 10-125

 

World Welfare

10-191, , YV 36, AV 19-60, AV 7-69, AV 3-30,

 

 

Wonder 10

Hindus stood first in the production of dictionaries, thesauruses such as 2000 year old Amarakosham. In every field of language they stood first. The Vedic prosody is also highly developed. The syllabus had six different subjects including etymology, grammar and astrology/astronomy. This is also another indication of highly developed culture.

 

Linguistics | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/linguistics/

Vedic Hindus were highly educated. We come across many linguisticobservations in all the four Vedas. Rig Veda, the oldest book, has many hymns dealing with linguistic points. Satyakam Varma has summarised them in his book Vedic Studies. Rig Vedic hymns 1-164, 4-58, 8-59, 8-10, 10-114, 10-125, 10-177 and many …

IS THERE POETRY OR PHILOSOPHY IN THE RIG … – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/is-there-poetry-or-philosophy-in-the-rig-veda-post-no-4…

23 Oct 2017 – Written by London Swaminathan Date: 23 October 2017 Time uploaded in London- 20–15 Post No. 4329 Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. We know that the Rig Veda is the oldest religious book in the world; we know…

 

DIRGATAMAS HYMN- A RIDDLE IN THE RIG VEDA – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/dirgatamas-hymn-a-riddle-in-the-rig-veda-post-no-4453…

2 Dec 2017 – The Rig Vedic hymn 1-164 is a great hymn. Probably that is the longest hymn in the oldest book in the world with 52 mantras. It is like an encyclopaedia touching various subjects. It is a riddle because the poetDirgatamas has used lot of numbers which can be interpreted in many ways. In fact Wilson, Max …

Strange Names for Unknown Poets of Rig Veda … – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/strange-names-for-unknown-poets-of-rig-veda-and-tami…

14 Dec 2014 – Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article No.1486; Dated 14th December 2014. Some poets have got strange names in the Rig Veda as well as in Sangam Tamil literature. Some of thepoets are named after the epithets they use. There is a reason behind it. Shrikant G.Talageri, in …

You visited this page on 03/01/18.

Poetry in Vedas | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/poetry-in-vedas/

By London Swaminathan. Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world, has beautiful poetry in it. The Vedas are records of man’s earliest thoughts on God and philosophical matters. When the Vedic seers wanted to convey their thoughts they used lot of similes as well. Vedas can be interpreted symbolically, …

Big Bang in the Rig Veda! (Post No.4235) | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/big-bang-in-the-rig-veda-post-no-423…

22 Sep 2017 – The Big Bang is described in the Rig Veda 6000 or 7000 years ago. Cosmologists wonder that such a thought occurred to one or two seers on the banks of River Sarasvati in India. Hindus are great cosmologists that the same creation is described in several Brahmanas, Puranas and Manau Smrti as well.

 

 

–Subham–

Indian Grammar Wonder! (Post No.3008)

450px-agastyaprambananindonesia

Statues of Agastya in Indonesia

Research Article written by London Swaminathan

Date:26 July 2016

Post No. 3008

Time uploaded in London :–  21-30

( Thanks for the Pictures)

 

DON’T REBLOG IT AT LEAST FOR A WEEK!  DON’T USE THE PICTURES; THEY ARE COPYRIGHTED BY SOMEONE.

 

(for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com)

 agastyanepal-carole-r-bolon

Statue of Agastya in Nepal

There is a beautiful verse in Tamil:

 

If there is no literature, no grammar;

If there is no sesame seed, there is no oil;

Like we extract oil from the seeds

We get grammar from literature

–Peragathyam (Big+Agastyam)

 

All of us are familiar with the chicken and egg question which came first? Chicken or Egg?

We are familiar with the question whether man came first or woman came first?

We have an answer at least for this question.

Adam came first and he made Eve out of his left rib. This story was copied from the Hindu scriptures. Atma became Adam and Jiivatmaa became Eve (atma) in the Old Testament (I have already dealt with it in my post “Sanskrit in the Bible”).

 

Hindus say that Parvati was the left side of Shiva and that form is known as Ardha Naareeswar (Half Shiva and Half Parvati/Uma). This is also basis for the ‘left rib’ story of Adam. Left always denotes woman in Hindu literature.

 

There is another story about Brahma falling in love with his own daughter. Stupid foreigners dubbed this as “Incest” without understanding the symbolism. This is again the basis for the Adam and Eve story. Adam fell in love with his own daughter created out of his left rib. This is copied again from the Brahma’s ‘incest’ story.

 

Going back to the original topic, which came first, Grammar or Literature? Tamils are very clear about it: Literature came first and then Grammar was done on the basis of existing literature. Later writers followed that grammar. After 1000 years they dropped some rules and invented new rules as we see in Tamil and Sanskrit.

agastya-in-london

Statue of Agastya in London V and A Museum

Both the languages were created by Lord Shiva from the same root (Sounds from his kettle drum). Foreigners who wanted to divide India invented two families –Aryan family and Dravidian family of languages which is wrong. Both the languages belong to the same family. Thousands of Tamil words are in English which has a known relationship with Sanskrit. This is possible because Tamil and Sanskrit belonged to the same family ( I have dealt with it in my previous research paper)

 

Great Grammar Wonder!

Agastya, a saint who lived in the Himalayas was sent by Lord Shiva to the South to codify a grammar for the Tamil language. We have inscriptional, archaeological and literary proof in Tamil epigraphs, Agastya Statues in South East Asia and literary evidence in Kalidasa and Tamil literature in support of this belief.

 

If we go by the Tamil verse that literature came first, we accept that there was literature in Tamil even before Agastya was sent to the South. The scholars believe that this happened between 700 BCE and 1000 BCE. Unfortunately, Tamils lost their books and their literature and the existing ones start only from first century BCE. One grammarian known as Tolkappiar , believed to be a disciple of Agastya wrote the grammar for Tamil – Tolkappiam which is used until today. But original Agastya couldn’t have been his Guru. Tolkappiam betrays a later age. One thing is certain that Tamils had literature before Agastya came. Tolkappiar had 12 contemporary grammarians including Agastya.

agastya

Sanskrit wonder!

If we apply the Tamil verse that literature came before grammar, we can see a big wonder. Panini was the oddest grammarian in the world. But he himself referred to ten other great grammarians. We did not have those grammars. If we accept the date of Panini as seventh century BCE. We must accept lot of books existed at that time; unfortunately, we did not have any work except the Vedic literature. The oldest book in the world — the Rig Veda– is dated between 1400 BCE and 6000 BCE. Even if we accept 1400 BCE, then another wonder awaits us. There are grammatical terms in Vedic literature which shows that there was a grammar. It was referred to in a religious book! This again means another thing that literature existed even before the Vedas.

 

Remember: Before Grammar was literature!

 

Another coincidence is that some of the names mentioned by Panini are found in the Vedic literature too. But we don’t know whether they are just saints with the same names or saints cum grammarians.

 

Pre- Paninian grammarians include Apisali, Kasyapa, Gargya, Galava, Cakravarmana, Bharadvaja, Sakatayana, Sakalya, Senaka and Sphotayana.

 

Yaska of 8th century BCE refers to the works of Saakataayana, Kraustuki, Gragya and several others.

 

Another wonder is that it shows that Hindus were far more advanced than any other civilization in the world 3500 years ago. Language (Sanskrit), Literature (Vedas), Linguistics (Yaska’s Nirukta) and Grammar (Panini) are the yard sticks of a civilisation. In the above four fields no language of today or ancient days comes closer to Sanskrit. Moreover this is the status after losing hundreds of Shakas (branches ) of the Vedas and thousands of books.

 

Long Live Tamil and Sanskrit.

Advanced Grammar and Linguistics in Vedic India!

Research Article No.1812; Date: 19th April 2015

Written by London swaminathan

Uploaded from London at 21-24

When the sages formed the Speech with their mind

Straining it, as they strain flour with sieve

Therein have friends discovered bonds of friendship

Whose holy beauty lies hidden in that Speech.

 

With worship they followed the steps of the Speech

And found it installed in the hearts of sages

They acquired it and gave it at many places

And seven singers intone it together.

 

There is a man who sees but has not seen Vak

There is the man who hears but not has heard her

But to another she reveals her lovely form

Like a loving wife, finely robed, to her husband

—Rig Veda 10-71

One who studies Vedas ‘subject wise’ will be amazed to see the level of knowledge in all the faculties at such an early age. They have reached the highest level in Grammar and Linguistics. Nowhere in the world were grammar and etymology part of regular education in religious institutes. I am talking about a period between 1000 BCE and 1700 BCE. Max Muller said no one can date the Vedas under 1200 BCE. The latest research in Sarasvati River basin and History of Rig Veda show that it can be safely dated to at least 1700 BCE. For Brahmanas (not Brahmin caste, but literature) even if we accept Max Muller’s date it would be 1000 BCE.

Let us look at what  Vedic literature say about grammar, etymology, linguistics in general:-

Hindus were the first to write a grammar book. We have Panini’s Ashtadyayi dated to seventh century BCE by Goldstucker and other great Sanskrit scholars of India.

Hindus were the first in the world to do an Index. They compiled an index for the Vedas: Vedic Anukramani

Hindus were first in installing a chair for the study of words (Nirukta) in all Vedic Educational Institutes in ancient India.

1.The Rig Veda celebrates Vac ( personified speech) as a Goddess (RV 10—125). For the Hindus all that is good is feminine, as affectionate as a mother. So they named all the Vedic metres after women starting from Gayatri metre (24 syllables) and the speech as Vac or Sarasvati or Bharati. Some stanzas of the RV are capable of giving grammatical explanation. Expressions like ‘catvari srnga’ and ‘sapta sindhavah’ have been interpreted by Patanjali in terms of four parts of speech and seven cases.

2.There are speculations on letters, syllables and words in the Brahmanas as also terms like Aksara, Varna and Vibhakti which Panini has used without definition. In the Satapata Brahmana (SB 13-3-1-18) we meet with names for singular ad plural.

3.In the Chandogya Upanishad we find classification of letters and technical terms such as Svara (vowels), sparsa (consonants) and women (sibilants).

4.The next land mark was reached when  the Samhita texts were reduced to pada-patha where in each word is exhibited separately in its individual grammatical form followed by word signs like ‘iti’ and also symbols by avagraha etc. to distinguish case terminations to analyse compounds and to mark out a few special cases of accentuation.

5.Yaska (at least 8th century BCE) distinguishes a Northern and an Eastern school of grammarians and mentions nearly twenty predecessors such as Sakatayana, Pargya, Sakalya. The theory of verbal origin of nouns stressed by Yaska may be said to be the foundation of the whole system of Panini.

6.Yaska states that there are four parts of speech : naman (noun) akhyata (verb), upasarga (preposition) and nipata (particle)  — terms later used by Panini.

64 Grammarians before Panini!

7.Of the sixty four grammarians, referred to as the predecessors of Panini’s ,few must have belonged to the Vedic age (Cultural Heritage of India I (281 -283)

(My comments: Brahmanas themselves belong to 1000 BCE. Yaska mentioned 20 grammarians before 8th century BCE. Panini mentioned 64 grammarians before seventh century BCE. This big number of grammarians show that the civilization  has reached a very high standard during the Vedic times. Only when peace prevails, this is possible.

8.VAC:-Personified speech is celebrated in one hymn of the Rig Veda (10-12-5) in which she describes herself. She accompanies all the gods and supports Mita-Varuna, Indra-Agni and the Asvins. She bends Rudra’s bow against the unbeliever. Her place is in the waters, the sea. She encompasses all beings. In another passage she is called the queen of the gods and divine.

9.A legend of Vac frequently referred to in the Brahmanas is that of Soma being brought back from the Gandharvas at the price of Vac transformed into a woman. (AB 1-27).

My comments: It may be a symbolical story to convey certain thing. We do not know the meaning now.

Riddles in the Vedas

10.Riddle poetry was very popular with the Vedic Hindus. The Rig Veda contains a large number of riddles (RV. 1-114) such as ,seven harness a one wheeled cart; it is drawn by one horse with seven names; three naves have the immortal never-stopping wheel, on which all these beings stand’

11.In content, the Kuntapa hymns (AV20-127-36) are partly riddles and their solutions are partly obscene songs and coarse jokes.

12.The Vajasaneyi Samhita contains a number or riddles with which the priests amused themselves at the horse sacrifice. These riddle games form an equallay imporatant part of the prayers and sacrificial formulae.

13.The Vedic texts frequently assure us that gods wish to be not only fed but entertained as well as they take a particular pleasure in the mysterious and the enigmatic.

Spoken Language

  1. Spoken language was known as ‘Bhasa’. Vedic Sanskrit has grown out of the spoken tongue of the times as its root. The point is discussed by Yaska in the Nirukta (i-16). Those who do not speak a refined language are referred to in the Rig Veda as ‘mrdhravac’ 5-29-10; 5-32-8).

Even in the oldest Tamil book , ‘Kotun thamiz’ (rustic language) is referred to as the language spoken by some people. They were also Tamils living in border areas. When the same was said in the Vedas, they brought in the racist Aryan-Dravidian theory. Even the Greeks called other language speakers as barbarians. Sangam Tamil literature also describe the Yavanas (Greeks/Romans/Arabians) as speakers of a rude language. For any language speaker, another language is a Mrdhra vac. Even Telugus called Tamils Aravas. When such a thing existed in all parts of the world at all times, foreign scholars distorted the image of the Vedic society.

If we make a list of what one community called another community or their language, we will have a long list of insults. There is no race involved. I see lot of phrases about Irish, English, Scottish and Welsh in London.

15.The Satapata Brahmana (SB 3-2-1, 23-24) refers to barbarisms in speech which are to be avoided. Scholars think that it is a reference to Vratyas (please read my article on Vratyas), who are Hindus but did not practice the rituals, leading a nomadic life. We have parallels in Tamil Siddhas, who were high philosophers, but against the rituals.

16.Panchavimsa Brahmana (17-1-9) describes Vratyas as speaking the language of the initiated by the uninitiated people as they felt it difficult to utter.

Metrics

  1. In the Rig Veda (10-14-16), 10-130-4.5) we meet with several terms which later became well known as technical designations of metres.

Gayatri is said to born of Agni, Usnih of Savitr, Anutubh of Soma, Brahati of Brhaspati, and Virat of Mitra Varuna. Indra, the god praised most often, invented the Tristubh, the metre employed most often. The Visvedevas created Jagati.

A hymn in the eighth Kanda of Atharva Veda gives the number of syllables in these seven chief metres of Vedic poetry by increasing by four successively i.e. from 24 in Gayatri to 48 in Jagati. These seven metres are referred to in several hymns. Fascinated by the charming rhythm of metres, the authors of the Brahmanas ingeniously show that their harmony is, in some mystical and mysterious fashion the fundamental cause of the harmony of the world.

18.Among the five or six extant Indices (anukramanis), the chandonukramani enumerates the metres of the Rig Vedic hymns and states the number of verses in each metre.

These Indices, metres and the care with which they have compiled the statistics show that the civilization was very advanced in literature and mathematics. We don’t see such things in the contemporary Egyptian or Sumerian civilizations.

19.The Satapata Brahmana (8-1-1-2) tells us that metres, like other beings,  were created by Prajapati. In 3-9-4-10. It mentions gayatri as a mystical name of Agni who carries off Soma. Gayatri, in the form of a bird, fetches the Soma from heaven. In the Brahmana and Upanishadic speculations on the mystical significance of metres, numbers play a great part. The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (5-15) says, “The word Bhumi, Antariksha and Dyu make up eight syllables; a gayatri pada (foot) contains eight syllables, therefore he knows the gayatri gains the three worlds

In other scriptures we have lot of things said about these metres. This shows their obsession with metres, prosody, their number and the mathematics behind it. The Vedic society was very scientific and much more advanced than Sumer and Egypt.

maheswara-sutrani.jpg (300×275)

Etymology

20.Nirukta of Yaska states, “without this science there can be no understanding of the Vedic mantras (1-15). However it is a commentary on an older list of Vedic words, called the Nighantu or Naighantuka, to each of which one of the more illustrative Vedic passages ought to be understood as attached. Yaska himself mentions earlier Niruktakaras. The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads offer as many as 600 etymologised words, through proper etymologies, synonymous expression, explanation of one Vedic word by another and brief annotations of whole verses and hymns.

Yaskas borrowing from earlier works is quite evident though he was the first one to formulate general principles of etymology. When we consider that he lived around 850 BCE and many more etymologists lived before him, the science of etymology must have advanced to a high degree around 1000 BCE. This is a big difference from other civilisations. They did not advance in literature or its allied branches. Only a peaceful and prosperous society could make some progress in this area.

21.The Taiitiriya Samhita and Maitrayani Samhita have got the largest number etymologised  of the Rig Vedic words. Among the Brahmanas, satapata Brahmana and Aitareya Brahmana, and among the Aranyakas, the Aitareya is notable in this respect. Among the Upanishads Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads occasionally take to etymologising on the basis of etymologising principles formulated by Yaska.

  1. Anecdotal etymologies are copious in Brahmana literature. Thus the etymologies of Agni, Asva, Udumbara, Vidyut, Prithivi etc., are connected with the legend of Prajapati; those of Ashada, Aparajita etc., with the legend of Devasura contest; and that of Puskara and Sakvari with the legend of Indra- Vritra fight in the Brahmanas.

23.Vedic language had become antique with obsolete words by the time of Yaska. He counts more than 400 words of which he did not know the meaning.  This shows the big gap between the time of Yaska and the Samhitas.

24.In the Atharva Veda (8-10-5), there is a reference to Vak on incantation for acquiring extraordinary charm of speech and manner. Social prestige through intelligent speech is vouchsafed in the Rig Veda (10-71-10). Success in assembly and triumph in debate, were greeted with joy by the friends of equal mind. At the later Vedic ae Hindus had even invented a prescription for procuring a son not only attending the assembly or conference, but also having naturally cultured speech as ‘susruta vak’ by learning in the lore’s, clearly noted in Brahadaranyaka Upanishad (6-4-17)

All the above quotes point out that the Vedic Hindus cared so much about their speech and such a thing is possible only in a civilized society.

Souce: Cultural History of India; A Cultural Index to Vedic Literature by N N Bhattacharya and Sri Aurobindo’s Vedic Glossary.

Swami_48@yahoo.com

Lord Shiva and Panini, the Greatest Grammarian!

maheswara-sutrani

Lord Nataraja Shiva with 14 Sutras

Research Paper written by London swaminathan

Research Article No.1657; Dated 17th February 2015.

Vakyakaram Vararuchim, Bhashyakaram Patanjalim

Paninim Sutrakaram cha pranatosmi Munitrayam

Let us bow to the great three seers Vararuchi, Patanjali and Panini.

Two thousand seven hundred years ago, there lived a man in India who is considered the father of grammar in the world. His name was Panini. He lived before Buddha and other great philosophers of sixth century BCE. Though he mentioned several great grammarians before his time, we don’t know anything about them. We could not get their books. Panini’s grammar book Ashtadyayi was the first in the world.

Here is a story of a person who gained the greatest knowledge in the world of languages by the grace of Lord Shiva! Tamil Hindus in South India and their counter parts in North India consider Lord Shiva was the one who gave them the language and the grammar.

nataraja (1)

The world is not celebrating Panini’s work Ashtadyayi or Paniniyam just because it was the first grammar book known in any language, but because of its amazing structure. He constructed a grammar for Sanskrit which shows the greatest height to which human thought can raise. This marvellous thing happened 2700 years ago!

Homer’s Iliad was just 100 years old by that time. Other languages except Sanskrit did not have any literature at all! Moses could repeat only Ten Commands of the God! Of course we have Gilgamesh in the Middle East and some other writings in Hieroglyphs (Book of Dead) in Egypt. But they are all museum materials and that too primitive thinking without any higher thoughts. They are not literature. But Sanskrit had huge volume of literature by then. The world’s greatest literary wonder Rig Veda was reverberating in the nook and corner of Asia. Turkey had Rig Vedic Gods in Cuneiform letters. And Rig Veda is still preserved in its pristine form without a change of single syllable. All this is done by word of mouth!! That is another world wonder. Nowhere in the world a literature of that size is preserved without writing till today!

cola1

Lord Shiva’s Grace!

Panini was a student of Guru (teacher) Varsha. He was the dullest student in the group. Guru (teacher) was not happy. Guru’s wife also told him to go out into the world and learn the basics. He went to the Himalayas and did penance. Lord Shiva appeared before him and told him that he was fully satisfied with his prayer and was ready to give him whatever he wanted. Panini was very intelligent. He did not ask for gold coins or beautiful women or a kingdom. He asked Lord Shiva to bestow him knowledge in the language. Shiva was very happy started to dance. His kettle drum boomed and the Himalayan Mountains echoed it.

Paninni was so focussed he could get only 14 beats from the drum called ‘Damaruka’ in Sanskrit. Based on the fourteen sounds he wrote the most famous grammar book in the world called Eight Chapters (In Sanskrit Ashta+Adhyayi). It contains 3959 Sutras. Sutra means formulas. He wouldn’t waste a single space. Even if he could avoid a full stop or a comma he would feel as if he had saved one million dollars. But his grammar was complete, no gap, no incoherency.

  1. a i u ṇ
    2. Ṛḷ k
    3. e o ṅ
    4. ai au c
    5. ha ya va ra ṭ
    6. la ṇ
    7. ña ma ṅa ṇa na m
    8. jha bha ñ
    9. gha ḍha dha ṣ
    10. ja ba ga ḍa da ś
    11. kha pha cha ṭha tha ca ṭa ta v
    12. ka pa y
    13. śa ṣa sa r
    14. ha l

This contain all the letters of Sanskrit language.

 cola2

He mentioned 500 towns in his work. This shows his vast geographical knowledge. He talks about 51st generation of Bharadwaja etc. This shows his knowledge in the ancient history of India. People erected a statue for him in his birth place, now in Pakistan. Chinese traveller Huan Taang saw the statue 1400 years ago. Patanjali who wrote a commentary praised him as Bhagavan Panini. Like Divine Homer and Divine Tiruvalluvar he was called Divine Panini. He was considered a seer – a Maharishi.

Patanjali says that holding the holy grass Dharba in his hand, facing East, he wrote the marvellous grammar in the world. I will explain the 14 sounds he heard in another article. They are called Maheswarani Sutrani. Brahmins repeat the 14 sutras every year on the day they change their sacred thread and start the Vedic studies again. Great Sanskrit scholars say that his grammar is closer to Vedic language than classical Sanskrit. He never mentioned Buddha or Mahavira. He lived well before their time.

Panini mentioned the grammarians before his time: Upavarsha, Parasarya, Karmanda, Sakatayana, Apitali and Sakalya. When he was going into a jungle with his students, there came a tiger! All the students ran away. But Panini stared at the tiger and analysed the word Vyagra, Sanskrit word for tiger.

Western linguists wonder how a person can write a grammar in such a scientific way at that period. Most of the world was uncivilised at that time. But India had produced wealthy literature, quantitatively and qualitatively very high.

In Kashmir a king passed an order that everyone must learn Ashtadyayi and those who passed in it were awarded 1000 gold coins each!

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Panini died on a Trayodasi day (13th day either after the full moon or new moon). Even today traditional learners of Sanskrit in North India declare holiday for the studies on 13th day. Unlucky number 13!! Author of Panchatantra Vishnusarman said that Panini was killed by a lion. We know that his town was Salaturya in Pakistan and his mother was Dakshi. All other details and stories about him are just hearsay!

The name Panini is synonymous with the words WONDER, MARVELLOUS and AMAZING. Those who study his grammar will understand it.

Panini of Seventh Century

Indologist Goldstucker placed him in the seventh century BCE and Max Muller in the sixth century BCE. Dr Radha Kumud Mukerjee, Bhandarkar and Pathak thought that Goldstucker was correct. VS Agrawala, the author of a monumental work “India as Panini knew it” —dated him to fifth century.

A.Kalyanaraman in his book Aryatarangini rightly points out, “A language takes a long time to develop. European languages took several hundreds of years in this process. Modern grammar in English began only under the Stuarts. The earliest grammatical treatises in Sanskrit were written around 1000 BCE.  Had Panini lived in fourth century BCE, then there would not be any commentaries by Vararuchi and Patanjali within a short period. Patanjali was placed in 150 BCE or before. Other languages in the world show a big gap between the original work and the commentaries. In Tamil the commentaries came 1300 years after the original grammar book Tolkappiam. In other languages also there is a 500 to 1000 year gap. So we can boldly say that Panini existed at least 500 years before the commentators.

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Let us sing the glory of Lord Shiva and his disciple Panini on this Shivaratri day (17 February 2015).

Pictures were taken from Sangatham.com and other sites;thanks.

பெரியோர்கள் மரணம் பற்றிய உண்மைகள்

நமது புராணங்களோ இதிகாசங்களோ வட மொழி, தென் மொழி நூல்களோ பொய் சொல்லவில்லை என்பதற்கு அதில் எழுதப் பட்ட சில உண்மைச் சம்பவங்களே சான்று. பல நிகழ்ச்சிகளை குறிப்பாக, மரணம் பற்றிய விஷயங்களை அப்படியே எழுதி வைத்துள்ளனர்.

 

கோவலன் கொலை செய்யப்பட்டு இறந்தான். அது தவறு என்று தெரிந்த உடனே பாண்டிய மன்னனும் அவனுடைய மனைவியும் அங்கேயே இறந்தனர். ஒரு வேளை தவறே நடக்காத ஆட்சியில் தவறு நடந்ததை நிரூபித்தவுடன் அவர்கள் இருவருக்கும் மாரடைப்பு நேரிட்டிருக்கலாம் (Heart Attack). கண்ணகி புஷ்பக விமானத்தில் ஏறி மேலுலகம் போகிறாள்.

 

பாண்டிய மன்னன் மனைவி பூதப் பாண்டியன் தேவி பெருங்கோப் பெண்டு தீப் பாய்ந்து (சதி என்னும் முறைப்படி,புறம். 247) இறக்கிறாள். இளம் பெரு வழுதி என்ற மன்னன் கடலில் மாய்ந்து (புறம்.182) உயிர் இழந்தார்.

பல மன்னர்களும் புலவர்களும் வடக்கிருந்து (Sitting facing North and Fasting ) உயிர் இழந்தனர் ( சேரமான் பெருஞ் சேரலாதன், கோப்பெருஞ் சோழன், சேரமான் கணைக்கால் இரும்பொறை, கபிலர், பிசிராந்தையார் ).

 

யார் யார் எங்கு எங்கு துஞ்சினர் (இறந்தனர்) என்றும் சங்க இலக்கிய கொளுவில் உள்ளது. கூடகாரத்துத் துஞ்சிய மாறன் வழுதி (புறம் 51, 52); சித்திர மாடத்துத் துஞ்சிய நன்மாறன்; வெள்ளி அம்பலத்துத் துஞ்சிய பெரு வழுதி (புறம். 58), சேரமான் கோடம்பலத்துத் துஞ்சிய மாக்கோதையின் பெருங் கோப்பெண்டு (புறம். 245); சோழன் குராப்பள்ளித் துஞ்சிய கிள்ளி வளவன் புறம் 373, பெருந் திருமாவளவன் 58,60; இலவந்திகைப் பள்ளித் துஞ்சிய நலங் கிள்ளி சேட்சென்னி 61). புலியால அடிக்கப்பட்டு (Tiger Attack) இறந்த மன்னன் பற்றி திருவிளையாடல் புராணம் பேசுகிறது.

மாணிக்கவாசகர், ஞான சம்பந்தர், ஆண்டாள், திருப்பணாழ்வார், நந்தனார் வள்ளலார், கோபால் நாயக் ஆகியோர் ஜோதியில் (Spontaneous Human Combustion) கலந்து ஐக்கியமானார்கள். (“The Mysterious disappearance of Hindu Saints”- கட்டுரையில் மேல் விவரம் காண்க).

 

அண்மைக் காலத்தில் ஸ்ரீ சத்திய சாய் பாபா திடிரென்று இறந்தது  பலருக்கு வியப்பாகவும் புதிராகவும் இருந்தது. இதற்கு முன் பல சாது சந்யாசிகள் புற்று நோயால் (Cancer) இறந்தனர். ஆனால் ஞானிகளுக்கு இதெல்லாம் ஒரு பொருட்டே இல்லை. கீதையில் கண்ணன் சொன்னது போலவே (கீதை 2-22; குறள் 338, 339) நமது உடம்பெல்லாம் கிழித்த சட்டைகளுக்கு சமானம். நம் உடம்பு இறந்தாலும் ஆத்மா அழிவதில்லை. ஆகையால் இந்துக்கள் இறப்பைப் பொருட்படுத்துவது இல்லை. மரணம் என்பது ஆத்மா சட்டையை மாற்றுவது போல. வள்ளுவன் வாக்கில் கூட்டை விட்டுப் போன பறவை:

 

குடம்பை தனித்து ஒழியப் புள் பறந்தற்றே

உடம்பொடு உயிரிடை நட்பு (338)

உறங்குவது போலும் சாக்காடு உறங்கி

விழிப்பது போலும் பிறப்பு (குறள் 339)

 

பாரதி பாடல்

நொந்த புண்ணைக் குத்துவதில் பயனொன்றில்லை

நோவாலே மடிந்திட்டான் புத்தன் கண்டீர் !

அந்தணனாம் சங்கராசர்யன் மாண்டான்

அதற்கடுத்த ராமனுஜனும் போனான்.

சிலுவையிலே அடியுண்டு ஏசு செத்தான்

தீயதொரு கணையாலே கண்ணன் மாண்டான்

பலர் புகழும் இராமனுமே ஆற்றில் வீழ்ந்தான்;

பார் மீது நான் சாகாதிருப்பேன் காண்பீர். (பாரதி அறுபத்தாறு).

 

சேக்கிழார் அடிப்பொடி டாக்டர் டி.என்.ராமசந்திரனின் ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு

——————-it cannot do good

To pierce a painful sore; the great Buddha

Died of illness; Sankara the Brahmin-sage

Also died; so too Ramnuja great.

The Christ died crucified; Kannan

Was by an arrow killed; Rama by many praised,

Had a watery grave; in this world “ I ”

Will thrive deathless, for sure………..

 

ஆதி சங்கரர் குகைக்குள் சென்று மறைந்தார் என்றும் சர்வாரோகண பீடம் ஏறி மறைந்தார் என்றும் கூறுவர். புத்தருக்கு ஒருவர் மாமிச உணவைக் கொடுத்தபோது அது தொண்டையில் சிக்கி மரணம் ஏற்பட்டதாகவும் மாமிசமா? என்று அதிர்ச்சியுற்று இறந்தார் என்றும் கூறுவர். இந்தப் பாடலைப் பாடிய பாரதியும் யானையால் தாக்கப் பட்டு கொஞ்ச காலத்துக்குப் பின்னர் வயிற்றுக்கடுப்பு நோயால் இறந்தார்.

2000 ஆண்டுக்கு முந்திய பஞ்சதந்திரக் கதையிலிருந்து:

A lion took the life of Panini

Grammar’s most famous name;

A tusker madly crushed sage Jaimini

Of metaphysic fame;

And Pingal, metric’s boast, was slaughtered by

A sea side crocodile;

What sense for scholarly attainments high

Have beasts besotted vile?

(Panchatantra ,translated by Arthur W Ryder)

 

இலக்கணப் புகழ் பாணிணியோ

இரையானான் சிங்கத்துக்கு;

மீமாம்சக ஜைமினியோ யானை

காலில் மிதியுண்டழிந்து போனான்;

யாப்பு புகழ் பிங்களனோ கடலோர

முதலையால் கிழிக்கப்பட்டான்;

கழுதைக்குத் தெரியுமோ

கற்பூர வாசனைதான்? ( விஷ்ணு சர்மனின் பஞ்ச தந்திரக் கதைகள்)

 

இவர்கள் எல்லோரும் இறந்தாலும் பூத உடல் மறைந்த பின்னரும் புகழ் உடம்போடு இன்றும் நம்மிடையே வாழ்ந்து நம்மை எல்லோரையும் நற்பணியில் ஊக்குவிக்கின்றனர்.இவர்கள் அனைவரும் சிரஞ்ஜீவிகள்.

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Tamil article: The Age of Tamil Race

Click the title below for my Tamil article about The Age of Tamil Race

 

தமிழ் இனத்தின் வயது என்ன