Bhagavad Gita Simile used by Ancient Tamil Poets! (Post No.3514)

Research Article written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 4 January 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:-  20-56

 

Post No.3514

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

If one studies the similes used by ancient Sanskrit poets and Tamil poets one will find out that Indians had a unique culture spreading over a vast landmass, that was the largest country in the world 2000 years ago. The simile used by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita is found in the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam and Sangam Tamil literature. Kalidasa and other Sanskrit poets also used the simile in umpteen places. This explodes the divisive Aryan- Dravidian Race Theory. Hundreds of similes are unique to Tamil and Sanskrit literature which are not found in any other literature or culture in the world.

 

Lord Krishna says (Sutra Manigana Iva) :

There is nothing whatsoever higher than Me, O Dhanjanjaya. All this strung in Me, as clusters of gems on a string 7-7

 

Commenting on this couplet Swami Chinmayananda says: “To show that the Self is one and the same in all forms, it has been said that the Lord is the common factor in all forms in the universe. He holds them all intact as the string holds all the pearls in a necklace. These words have deep significance. Not only is it beautiful in its poetic suggestion, but it has also a very exhaustive philosophical implication. The pearls in the necklace are necessarily uniform and homogenous, and its thread, which is generally unseen, passes through the central core of every pearl, and holds them all, the big and the small, into a harmonious ornament of beauty. Here is an instance wherein we see Shri Veda Vyasa typically expressing himself as the poet-philosopher of the world.

 

Tolkappaiam written by Tolkappiar, is considered the oldest book available in Tamil. It is dated around First Century BCE. Definitely later than Bhagavad Gita. We find the simile in Tolkappiam as well. Like Sanskrit, Sutra means a book and a thread in Tamil also; in Tamil the word used is Nuul= Thread or Book.

 

Tolkappiar used the word Sutra following Panini. He never hesitated to use a Sanskrit word. In the Sutra 1426:

Like orderly arranging the gems in a string, arranging the same types is called Othu.

 

Tamil Veda Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar also used the Bhagavad Gita simile:-

There is something that is implied in the beauty of this woman, like the thread that is visible in a garland of gems.

 

Thus Krishna’s “Sutra Manigana Iva” simile has become popular 2000 years ago. Avadhutopanishad also has this.

Kalidasa used this imagery in His Raghuvamsam and Vikrama Urvaseeyam:-

Though a dunce, I have a way in through the epic already rendered by Valmiki like the thread that easily goes through the diamonds already bored- (Raghuvamsa 1-4)

 

This King of Anga made the wives of his enemies to throw off their ornaments and weep for their husbands shedding tears larger than pearls on to their breasts which appeared like pearl necklaces. The king took the real necklace and gave them tear necklace- Raghu.6-28

 

A lady was halfway through her stringing of gems for her girdle. The thread was tied to her thumb. When she came to know about Aja’s visit she rushed to the window to see him. All the gems fell and scattered leaving only the thread still knotted to her thumb 7-10

 

These women engrossed at splashing water on each other are unable to give a thought to the severance and slithering of their pearl necklaces from their bosom, for the water drops as large as pearls are hopping on their bosoms which they think necklace of pearls – 16-62

These similes of Raghuvamsa were used by Tamil poets in Sangam literature.

Sangam Tamil poets used the similes in the following places:

 

Kudavayil Keerathanar has used this imagery twice in his poems in Akananuru (289 and 315)

 

Eyinanthai Ilankeeranar (Akam.225) used the broken pearl necklace image in his verse.

 

Kurunthokai Poets Kundriyanar and Kavan Mullai Poothanar and  Marudan Ilanagan of Marudakkali also followed his predecessors.   All of them used the unstringed or broken necklace images.

 

Thus, we see One Thought- One Culture from Kanyakumari to Kashmir. Before the foreigners came they didn’t know any divisions in the community such as Aryan or Dravidian races.

-Subham-

 

 

Kalidasa’s Famous Quotations

kali1

Indian Postal Stamps on Kalidasa’s works

Compiled by London swaminathan

Article No.1921; Dated 9 June 2015.

Uploaded at London time: 20-51

I give power and knowledge to him I love;

In invest him with Holy Power;

I make him a sage, a seer— Rig Veda 10-125-5

Kalidasa is one of the greatest poets of India. He is the most famous poet of ancient India. He has used over 1000 apt similes in his seven works. And there are quotations in his works which are used by the Sanskrit knowing general public in their every day conversations; his seven works are

POEMS

1)Meghadutam (MES)

2)Rtusamharam (RTS)

3)Kumarasambhavam (KS)

PLAYS

4)Malavikagnimitram (MA)

5)Vikramorvasiyam (VU)

6)Abhijnana sakuntalam (AS)

EPIC

7)Raghuvamsam (RV)

He is a dramatist, a writer of epic and a lyric poet of extraordinary scope. In his hands the language attained a remarkable flexibility, becoming an instrument capable sounding any moods and nuances of feeling – says Chandra Rajan in her book Kalidasa- The Loom of Time.

Here are twenty five of his quotations (source Suktisudha published by Chinmaya International Foundation):

kalidas-encyclopedia

Excess Affection

Deep affection often hits upon the specific remedy (VU)

Ati snehah khalu kaaryadarsi

Excessive affection suspects that evil will happen (to loved ones)

Ati snehah paapasanki (AS 4)

Authority / Power

The office of the government knows no rest (AS.5)

Avisramoyam lokatantraadhikaarah

Thoughtlessness

Which heartless soul will sprinkle scalding water on the tender Navamallika creeper? (AS.4)

Ka idaaniimsnodakena Navamaalikaam sincati

Misfortune

Misfortune enters through a miniscule loophole in an uncompromising truth (AS.6)

Randhropanipaatinonarthaa iti yaducyate tadavyabhicaari

kalidas-cinema-song-book

Hope

Hope makes bearable even the intense sorrow of separation (AS.4)

Gurvapi virahaduhkhamaasaabandhah saahayati

Senses

The senses toe the line of fate (VU3)

Bhavitavyataanuvidhaayin indriyaani

God

None has understood the real nature of Lord Siva (KS 5-77)

Na santi yathaarthyavidah pinaakinah

Nectar turns into poison, and poison into nectar, if the Lord so choses (RV 8-46)

Visamapyamrtam kvacid bhavedamrtam vaa visamiisvarecchayaa

Daughter/ unmarried girl

A daughter is another’s wealth (AS 4-22)

Artho hi kanyaa parakiiya eva

The daughter wedded to a virtuous groom will never be a source of grief to her father (KS 6-79)

The girl should be given to a virtuous man (AS 4)

Gunavate kanyakaa pratipaadaniiyaa

Action/ work/ deed

Will not he who undertakes a futile task become a butt of ridicule? (MES 1-54)

Ke vaa na syuh paribhavapadam nisphalaarambhayatnaah

Efforts, when directed towards a meaningful end, bear fruit (RV 3-29)

Kriyaa hi vastupahitaa prasiidati

A spirit tired by toil gets refreshed by reward (KS 5-86)

Klesah phalena hi punarnavataam vidhatte

kali2

Russian stamp to honour Kalidasa

Love/ desire

The desirous are self-centred (AS 2-2)

Kami svataam pasyati

Time

Requests submitted to bosses by the proficient at the opportune time will surely be granted (KS 7-93)

Kaalaprayuktaa khalu kaarya vidbhir vijnaapanaa bhartrsu siddhimeti

Anger

What else can scorch better than fire? (AS 4)

Ko nyo hutavhaaddagdhum prabavati

Warrior caste

All the exertion of warriors is to safeguard dharma (RV 15-4)

Dharmasamraksanaayaiva pravrttirbhuvi saarnginah

Virtue

Virtues are set foot everywhere (RV 3-62)

Padam hi sarvatra gunairnidhiiyate

The creator is averse to bringing together a totality of positives in a single soul – (KS 3-28)

Praayena saamagryavidhau gunaanaam paraanmukhi visvasrjah pravrttih

Guru /spiritual teacher

Question not the preceptor’s precepts (RV 14-46)

Aajnaa guruunaam hyavicaaraniiyaa

 

Senseless

The numb at heart do not recognise virtue (AS 6-13)

Acetanam naama gunam na laksayet

Factual knowledge

Fie on the transience of the lives of men (RV 8-51)

Dhigimaam dehabhrtaamasaarataam

Fear

Place a wreath on a blind man’s brows and he tears it off, fearing it to be a snake (AS 7-24).

Humility of Indian poets! Varahamihira, Kalidasa, Kamban & Purandaradasa

Bend it like Modi ( More you bow, More you Grow)

Written by London swaminathan

Research Article No: 1831

Date: 27 April 2015; Uploaded in London at 17-29

Sanskrit and Tamil poets were great poets and yet they were very humble. We may find several examples in our literature that show their humility. Let us look at a few examples:

VARAHAMIHIRA

Varahamihira who authored two encyclopaedic works’ Brhat Jataka’ and ‘Brhat Samhita’ among others, says in the concluding chapter of Brhat Samhita,

Jyotih sasstrasamudram pramathya matimandaraadrinaatha mayaa

Lokasyaalokakarah saastrasasaangkah samuthksipthah

“Having churned the ocean of astrology with the Mandara mountain of my intelligence, I have taken out the moon of science that affords light to the world.

Then in the next verse he says,

“I have not discarded the works of ancient seers while writing this scientific work. Hence, O ye good men, you may by all means compare mine with theirs, and accept whichever you like

He continues,

“Good men, on finding some excellence, though slender, in an ocean of faults, proclaim it, while the mean minded do the contrary. This is the nature of the good and the wicked

Durjanahutaasataptam kaavyasuvarnam visuddhimaayaati

Sraavayitavyam tasmaaddusta janasya prayatnena

 

“The gold of poetry being heated by the fire of wicked men gets purified. Hence, it should be read to the wicked by all means”.

KALIDASA

Kalidasa, the greatest of the Indian poets, in his Raguvamsa Kavya, says,

“The dynasty originated from Sun; with the meagre intellect of mine,  I am wishing to go across this unnavigable ocean called the solar dynasty by a small boat.

“Will I become the butt of ridicule if I were to covet the celebrity of an eminent poet, like a short fellow overstretching his arms for a fruit obtainable only by the tall, because I am still a dunce in this subject matter?

“But my course in depicting this dynasty might as well be easy through the gateway already crafted by the earlier poets, like a diamond bore holed by a diamond-edged tool for an easy passage of thread”.

In Malavikagnimitra, he says,

“Every old poem is not good simply because it is old; nor is a poem without charm, because it is new; sound critics favour the one or the other, after proper examination; while a blockhead is guided by another’s judgement”.

KAMBAN

Greatest of the middle age Tamil poets Kamban in his Tamil Ramayana says in Balakanda,

“I wanted to write the story of Rama. My desire is like a cat licking the milky ocean (thinking it could drink the full ocean).

“Are you people wondering at my endeavour of writing the great story done by Valmiki– full of penance? He wrote the story of great Rama who pierced the seven strong trees with a single arrow which never miss the target like the curse of great people.

“I know the world will ridicule me; but my intention is to highlight the greatness of Valmiki who wrote flawless divine poetry”.

PURANDARADASA

The famous Kannada saint and composer Purandaradasa says in one of his songs

“There ought to be traducers. Without them the glory of the virtuous would not gain celebrity. For example the paddy grain would be worthless without its slender thorn”.

Varahamihira  concludes by saying

“With my intellectual power blessed by the Divine Sun, the sages and my preceptor, as a result of my having made obeisance to their feet, I have only summarized this science. Hence I offer salutations to the ancient authors”.

Bowing Modi

“Gunaprakarso vinyaadavaapyate”

“All virtues are enhanced with humility” – Subhasita ratna bhandakaram 3-869

Octogenarian Manmohanji Namaskar!

Did Hala copy Kalidas in GSS?

Umamaheshwara

Research Paper written by london swaminathan

Research article No 1561; Dated 9th January 2015.

 

Gatha Sapta Sati (GSS) is a Prakrit book of 700 erotic verses. It is dated  as a first century CE work. Satavahana king Hala compiled 700 good verses from the works of Prakrit poets. But in the present form it cant be a work of first century CE.  There is anachronism. There are lot of anonymous poems as well. Poets who are not popular or unknown to many of us have copied Kalidasa, the most famous poet of the classical age.

 

Even Hala who contributed 44 verses to GSS, has imitated Kalidas, at least in one of his poems where he describes an erotic scene. Lord Siva takes off the clothes of Uma. She immediately closed the eyes of Siva with her two hands to save her honour. Immediately Siva opened his third eye. Uma was so clever that she closed his third eye under the pretext of giving a kiss on the third eye.

 

Kalidasa, who lived in the first century BCE and served as the  Poet Laurate of Emperor Vikramaditya, described the scene in his Kumara sambhava even before Hala composed his verse:

 

“In private, with her garment taken off, she closed Siva’s two eyes with her two palms; but as his third eye on the forehead continued looking, she had her efforts foiled and became helpless” — sloka 7 of canto 8

 

Hala improved it by adding one more line by saying that she kissed on his third eye.

radha-krishna-om

But this is not the only one that will decide the date of Kalidasa and Hala. There are many more things:

 

1.There is a mention of Tuesday in one of the verses. Days of the week appear very late in Indian litearture. Older poets never used the days of the week. In Tamil it appeared for the first time in the Tamil epic Silappadikaram. Madurai city was burnt down by Kannaki on a Friday. This reference and many other things in the epic made the scholars to doubt the date second century CE given to the epic. Later Thevaram hymn of Sambandhar listed all the seven days from Sunday to Saturday. Though the epic story happened in second century CE, it was put in present form in fifth to seventh century. If we apply the same principle to GSS, it will be dated to fifth to seventh century.

 

2.Mention of Lord Ganesh in one of the verses also take GSS to a later age. Older poets like Kalidasa never mentioned Lord Ganapathy. Statues of Ganesh came to the South only after fifth century CE.

 

3.Hora is a word used in GSS and the oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam. Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillay argued that this word is of Greek origin and so Tolkappiam in its present form must be placed after Greek contact in the South. If we apply the same rule GSS may be later than first century.

  1. Vikramaditya’s distribution of gold coins to his soldiers is mentioned in one of the GSS verses. Kalidasa was the court poet of Emperor Vikramaditya.


uma siva

5.Hala was said to have married Leelavathy, daughter of Sri Lankan King Seelamegha. Seelamega ruled between 200 and 600 CE according to V V Mirashi. This means that we have to look for more than one Halan!

 

6.There are 14 commentaries on GSS; but there are  seven different versions of GSS. Out of the 700 verses, only 430 are common to all. The total number of verses from the seven editions are 1066. So this is not reliable (Source: Mr Patwardhans translation of GSS).

 

7.One of the famous similes of Kalidasa is Deepa sikha. This was copied by GSS and other Sanskrit poets. It is found even in Maduraikanchi, part of Tamil Sangam literature. Had Kalidasa copied this simile and the above Uma-Siva episode, the ancient poets would not have praised him the Kavikulaguru.Kalidasa would not have become the greatst of the Indian poets. Tamil litearture has more than 200 similes of Kalidasa

8.But there are lot of similarities to prove that the main authors of GSS

lived at the age of Sangam litearture, i.e the first few centuries of CE.

 

9.The big difference between the Tamil love poems and GSS erotic poems is that the description of bad family women. Though Tamil literature has lot of references to courtesans, there was no immoral family women. But GSS depicts such women having pre marital and post (extra) marital sex with strangers.

10.Some poets of GSS such as Paliyathan ( also of Puram 387), Brhmachari (also of Natrinai 34) are found in Sangam Tamil literature as well. There may be others such as Kayamanar (Gajan in GSS) and  Ulochanar (Trilocana in GSS). Paliathan of Gundukat (Gundakkal) was a good friend of Hala. Satavahanas were good friends of Cheran Senguttuva, one of the great Sera kings of Tamil Nadu. Paliyathan sang about Selvakatungo Vaziyatha, a Sera king. All these prove that Hala and Paliathan were contemporaries of Cheran Chenguttuvan and his immediate follwers. But lot of new verses were interpolated in GSS at a later age.

 

  1. One GSS poest addresses the cloud, an imitation of Kalidasa’s Megaduta kavya.

 

12.There are many poets with Naga suffix in both Sangam and GSS.

radha unjal

13.Though Sangam Tamil literature mentioned Gopis and Krishna on rthe banks of Yamuna (Thozunai in Tamil), GSS mentioned Radha with Krishna in several places. So it must be of a later age.

Interesting Names of Raja, Deva, Swami, Sena

 

Name search gives much interesing information to researchers.

 

At least 28 poets with RAJA suffix such as Raviraja, Rathiraja, Maharaja, Ahoraraja, Anuraja, Andhraraja etc.

 

At least 8 names with SWAMI suffix: Govindswami, Chandraswami, Meenaswami, Satyaswami etc.

 

Five have SEELA, five have SIMHA, six poets have DEVA suffix

 

At least 8 names with SENA suffix: Pravarasena, Satyasena, Mallasena, Makarandasena.

 

The interesting thing about SENA is that it is a suffix for kings. Sangam Tamil literature project several kings as poets. In the same way, many of the Andhra kings or commanders of army might have composed poems. Moreover I have written elsewhere that several Sumerian kings have this Sena suffix as SIN. Sin also mean moon (Chandra) in Sumerian. Eitherway it is typical Hindu to have Sena or Chandra as suffix in names (Eg.Mahabharata has 24 kings with Sena suffix. Also we have Hari Chandra, Udaya Chandra, Chandramati as royal names).

 

Last but not the least is the number of poetesses. Sangam Tamil Literature and world’s oldest literature the Rig Veda can boast of at least 20 poetesses each. But GSS has approximately 12 women poets:

Andhralakshmi, Sarasvati, Sasiprabha, Girisudha, Reka, Reva, Gramakuddika, Chadraputtika, Revathy, Gunamukta, Tharangamathy,Jakkurangy

 

Strangley GSS did not mention Ganga, Himalaya and Lord Skanda. Both Kalidasa and Sangam Literature have lot of references to them. There is lot of scope for reaserch by comparing GSS with Tamil literature.

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16 Virtues of Great Kings

dasaratha

Dasaratha in painting

Research paper written by London Swaminathan

Research article No.1517; Dated  25  December 2014.

Kalidasa, the greatest Indian poet of classical age, begins his Raghuvamsa, with bombastic words in Sanskrit. But he was so humble that he compared himself to a dwarf trying to reach fruits on a tall tree with his tiny arms.

But in the very next verse he said that he can do it because the old poets had already pierced the diamond through their verses. Now his job is like sending a thread through that hole.

But those who knew Sanskrit felt that he excelled all other poets in the choice of words as well as the description of sixteen great virtues of the Raghukula, the clan of Lord Rama (Rama’s forefather was Raghu).

This is not only for those who look for literary gems but also for those who want to study what Hinduism stood for.

rajasthani_painting_HM45_l

1.Pure from their birth- Aajanma Sudhhaanaam

The kings were pure from their birth. No bad name for the family, all their forefathers were embodiments of great virtues

2.Who till they won success worked on – Aafalodaya karmaanaam

They worked very hard till they won the task.

Perseverance was one of their virtues, never stopped in the middle.

They tried like Bhageeratha, who brought Ganges from the heaven ( actually he was a great engineer and planned to divert Ganges towards Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal for irrigation. With great and long effort  he succeeded in the Himalayan engineering work)

3.Ruled Earth to the Sea – Aasamudra Kshithisaanaam

They did not rule small areas. From shore to shore they ruled. Kalidasa , who lived in the first century BCE, during the reign of Vikramaditya, knew what he was talking about. He routed all the foreign forces and drove them out of the vast Indian sub continent.

king4

4.Their Car track reached to heaven —  Aanaaka ratha varthmanaam

Their chariots had direct route to heaven; that meant they were so pure they go to heaven when the leave their bodies at will.

5.The altar fire they tended – Yathaavidhi Huthaagniinaam

They were very pious and did great Yagnas like Asvamedha, Rajasuya etc.

6.Suppliants all Most fully satisfied – Archithaarthinaam

All were satisfied; their needs were met.

7.Ill deeds they punished – Yathaaparaatha Dandaanaam

They punished according to the gravity of the crimes; neither too much nor too less.

indian-royal-procession-bi96_l

8.Nor were slothful in their rule –Yathaakaala Prabhodhinaam

They were never lazy.

9.Wealth they amassed to scatter – Thyaagaaya sambruthaarthaanaam

They accumulated wealth only to give it back to the poor

10.Sparing words they never spoke falsely- Sathyaaya Mithbahaasinaam

They spoke a few words fearing that they may tell something wrong by the slip of the tongue.

king2

11.Fame in war they sought- not gain – Yasasee Vijigishuunaam

They fought wars indeed, but all Dharma Yuddha, not for the booty, but for fame. This is a great concept seen nowhere in the world. Sangam Tamil literature and Sanskrit literature were crystal clear that innocents should not suffer during wars. All the old people, invalids, women, Brahmins, sick people, children were asked to vacate the place and the wars were fought outside the town.

When the king was killed or defeated they accepted the verdict. But after the foreign invasions, the picture changed completely. Since they did all the illegal and immoral things, Hindu rulers also fell in that grew.

12.Wedded  for noble seed – Prajaayai Gruhamedhinaam

They married and led a family life not for sexual pleasure, but for progeny.

13.Their children studied—Saisave abhyasthavidhyaanaam

They studied all through their life from childhood. They were lifelong students. They updated their knowledge now and then.

king_s_procession

  1. Youth pursued its decent pleasures – Yauvane Vishayaishinaam

They followed only decent pleasures even when they were young.

15.And in ripe old age they lived as ascetics – Vardhakee Munivriththinaam

They lead ascetic life when they became old

16.Relinquished their bodies in meditation- Ante Yogena Thanuthyajaam

They did not die without any purpose. They left the body at will meditating upon God like the great Bhishma Pitamaha.

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Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature

gujarati

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1403; Dated 10th November 2014

I have listed over 200 similarities between Kalidasa’s works and Sangam Tamil literature. I have argued in my previous posts on Kalidasa that he lived in the first century BCE or before that. Most of the Indian scholars believe that he lived during the rule of Vikramaditya of first century BCE. Amazing similarities between the Tamil poems and Kalidasa’s confirm that the Sangam Tamils were very familiar with his works. This is confirmed by the Brahmin poet Kabila’s work in the Sangam period. He taught Tamil poetics to an Aryan king Bruhat Datta ( through Sanskrit) and made him write a Tamil poem which is included in the Sangam corpus. Kabila was a trend setter. He used many Sanskrit words and Sanskrit themes in Sangam verses. He copied Kalidasa in his Kurinjipattu which was noticed by an ardent Tamil lover Rev. Dr G U Pope 150 years ago.

I present below some similes where Kalidasa’s influence is noticeable.
Rivers in India are considered women and sea as their (lover) husband. Women’s beauty is compared to the beauty of cities. Though it may look strange today ancient people used this simile. If I compare a beautiful actress to the beauty of a big city today, people will laugh at me. But it is in the Bible as well.
Sangam poets Nakkirar, Paranar , Kabilar, Mamular, Orampoki and Ammuvan compared the beauty of a woman to a city/town.
Seattle_Skyline_2112
Women and city are compared in literature!

Tamil Ref. Natrinai 367, 258, 260, 340, 350, 358, 395; Ainkurunuru 56, 171
Poet Nakkirar compares the beauty of a woman to Aruman’s small and beautiful village (Natrinai 367). And in another poem (358), he compares the beauty of a woman to Pandya’s town Marungai. Poet Orampokiar compared a woman’s beauty to Choza town Amur (Aink.56). Another woman was compared to Pandya’s port city Tondi by Ammuvan (Aink.171).

20120222 Water change near Ballina

Kalidasa used this simile in Raghuvamsam :

Mithila is compared to a woman. Like a woman tolerates all that is done to her (by her husband) out of love, Mithila tolerated the army of Dasaratha -11-52,
City of Ayodhya with its smoke from sandal is compared to women with their hair drying in the fragrant smoke– 14-12

Akasath Patitam Toyam Yatha Gachchati sagaram ………

Hindus are very familiar with the rivers and the seas. Great seers Bhrgu, Agastya and Kaundinya took the Hindu culture and civilization to different parts of the world via sea route.
So they always use this comparison:
“Even as all the waters (rivers) falling from the sky invariably flow into the sea, so ………. (all prayers offered go to God)”.
This is found in Kalidasa and Tamil literature. This shows that Indians from Kashmir to Kanyakumari thought in the same way. This simile is unique to Indian literature.
Tamil references: Puram 42, Malaipatukadam 51/53; Perumpanatrupatai line 427, Purpporul Venpa 11, Kamba Ramayana Kaiyatai ppatalam 15
pen painting

Kalidasa :
“Fortunately, you have set your heart on one truly worthy of you. But then where else would a great river flow except to the ocean? (Saku 3-13)

The daughters of the Kings of Maghada, Kosala and Kekaya obtained a husband (Dasaratha) for them who is a mighty warrior, just as the rivers, daughters of mountains, obtain the mighty ocean (as their husband) (Raghu 9-17)

Just as the bride loved the bridegroom worthy of her, so too did he love her for the Ganges did not leave the ocean, and the ocean too finds the greatest delight in tasting (the nectar of) her mouth (Kumara 8-16)

most-beautiful-cities-101
Beauty of the city is compared to woman

Sangam Tamil poet Nalvellaiyar compared the amorous thoughts to the flooded Ganges River in Natrinai 369. In can’t be a rare co incidence for a Tamil poet to compare the floods in Ganges to a woman’s feelings in the southern most part of India. They are well versed in Kalidasa. Otherwise the common men would not understand or appreciate this simile!

Tamil Poet Idaikatan of Puram verse 42 compares the rivers that eagerly flow into the sea to poets that come towards the Choza king Killivalavan.

Uruthirankannan, author of Perumpanatruppatai, says that like the rivers take all the things to the sea, kings come to you with their tributes (line 427)
Raghu.12-35,13-9, 13-58, 13-62,15-60 more references

13-10-08_217_CONFLUENCE_OF_INDUS_RIVER_N
Rivers go to seas, men go to kings or gods.

My earlier posts on Kalidasa
1.Did Kalidasa fly an Airplane? 12 Sept. 2014
2.Sea in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature
3.Ganges in Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Works
4.Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature
5. Bird Migration in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature
6.Kalidasa’s Age:Tamil Works confirm 1st Century BC
7.Above articles in Tamil

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Veera Matha–‘Mother of Heroes’ in the Vedas and Tamil literature

Greatest of the Hindu Heroines Rani Padmini of Chittoor. When lustful Alauddin Khilgi wanted to take her she entered fire with hundreds of women to save her honour in 1303 AD.

Veera Matha–‘Mother of Heroes’ in the Vedas and Tamil literature

Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world, and the 2000 year old Sangam Tamil books praise Hindu women as mother of heroes- Veera Matha. They agree on one more point. They say that those who die in the battle field will go to heaven. Bhagavad Gita and Purananuru are very clear about it. Women are blessed with Vedic mantras to give birth to heroes. Lalitha Sahasranama praises Goddess Sakthi as Veera matha. Tamil poet Bharathi goes one step further and says this country will call a woman Maladi (infertile woman) only if she doesn’t give birth to heroes. This is a novel concept.

They were all forerunners to Swami Vivekananda who thundered that Fear and Cowardice are to be shunned most. He always advocated youths to go forward by quoting the Upanishad mantra, “Uhthishta, Jagratha, Prapyavaran Nibodhatha”-Arise, Awake, Stop not till the goal is reached!

Poet Kalidasa says in Kumara sambhava (Canto VII-87):

“The bride was greeted by the Creator with the words: “Blessed one, be you the mother of a Hero” (In Sanskrit : Veeraprasavaa Bavethi).

A Tamil poet puts it beautifully in a verse in Purananuru:

What a Hero’s Mother (Veera Thay in Tamil) said:

“ You stand against the pillar

Of my hut and ask me:

Where is your son?

I don’t really know.

My womb is only a lair

For that tiger.

You can see him now

Only in the battlefields” —(Purananuru Verse 86 by Kavarpendu)

(Purananauru is part of Sangam Tamil Literature. It is an anthology of 400 poems).

There a hymn in the Rig Veda praising Veera Matha:

Rig Veda: Tenth Mandala ,Hymn 86

10-86-43

So may Prajapati bring children forth to us; may Aryaman adorn us till old age come nigh.

Not inauspicious enter thou thy husband’s house. Bring blessings to our bipeds and quadrupeds.

10-86-44

Not evil eyed, no slayer of thy husband, bring weal to cattle, radiant, gentle hearted;

Loving the gods, delightful, bearing heroes, bring blessing to our quadrupeds and bipeds

Heroes go to Heaven

Krishna in Bhagavad Gita (II-37) says:

“Either slain thou shalt go to Heaven; or victorious thou shalt enjoy the earth; therefore arise, O son of Kunti, resolved on battle.

Puram verses 26, 62, 93, 287, 341, 362;PathiRRu Pathu 52 give the same message to the heroes. There are more Tamil verses where in the poets talk about kings reaching heaven after dying. There are even special funeral ceremonies conducted by Brahmins for the kings who die elsewhere. If the kings die due to natural causes Brahmins spread the dharba grass under the king’s body and cut them into pieces by saying ‘let you go to heaven where the heroes go’. Avvaiyar describes this ceremony in a praise to Athiyaman Anji (Pura Nanuru verse 93): you escaped from this ceremony because you are a hero wounded in the battle field.

All these are echoes of Kalidasa who lived a few centuries before the Sangam poets. Kalidasa sings about wounds that happened in the battle fields throughout his works. In Raghuvamasam 14-4 he says Kausalya and Sumitra were fond of the word ‘Veeramatha’. But having seen the wounds inflicted by the Rakshasas on young Rama and Lakshmana , their mothers Kausalya and Sumithra did not want to hear that sound of Veera matha.

Pictre: Rani Lakshmibhai of Jhansi was killed by the British

Slogans on the Flags

“The kings of Surya Vamsa (solar race) Raghu and Ajan took all your name and fame, but not your lives– were written with blood on the flags with arrow heads”. That is, out of mercy, Raghu and Aja let you all run alive. The interesting message Kalidasa gives in this sloka (Raghu.7-65) is that devoted workers of politicians (Kings) wrote slogans like this 2000 years ago!

So political workers writing with their blood for their leaders is nothing new!

Ascetics bless Sakuntala Veera Prasavini Bhava (Be a mother of heroes)”.

In Sakuntala 7-28,  Sakuntala was blessed by the elders:

“ With a husband the equal of The Breaker of Dark Clouds (Indra)

With a son like his son, Jayanta, no other blessing fits you but this;

Ravana was equal to Rama

Rama was so happy to meet a great hero like Ravana in the battle field, says Kalidasa in Raghu 12-89. Heroes never favour unequal fights.

Like Tamil poets Kalidasa used words like battle wounds on the chest (not on the back), wounds or injuries due to arrow and bow in the hands in several places (Raghu III-68, II-64,  18-48, 16-84, VII-65, 12-89, 13-73, 16-1).

In the Asvameda Yagna (Horse Sacrifice), Kshatriya women(Kings’ wives) have to cut the horse into pieces.

Picture of Kittoor Rani Chennamma

தமிழ் REFERENCES:

1.பாரதி பாடல் Bharathi Poems:

“வீரரைப் பெறாத மேன்மைதீர் மங்கையை

ஊரவர் மலடி என்று உரைத்திடு நாடு”—பாரதி

***

2.புறம் 86 (காவற்பெண்டு)

சிற்றில் நற்றூண் பற்றி, ‘நின் மகன்

யாண்டுள்ளனோ? என வினவுதி; என் மகன்

யாண்டு உளன் ஆயினும் அறியேன்;ஓரும்

புலி சேர்ந்து போகிய கல் அளை போல

ஈன்ற வயிறோ இதுவே;

தோன்றுவன் மாதோ, போர்க்களத்தானே!

***

3.Lalitha Sahsranama லலிதா சஹஸ்ரநாமா

Praneswari pranadatri panjasatpeedarupini

Visrungala vivikthasdha veeramatha viyathprasuhu:

ப்ராணேச்வரி ப்ராணதாத்ரீ பஞ்சாசத்பீடரூபினி

விஸ்ருங்கலா விவிக்தஸ்தா வீரமாதா வியத்ப்ரஸூ:

****************

Hindu Goddess’ march to Denmark !

Picture shows Gundestrup cauldron with Gajalakshmi

(This is the fifth part in my thesis to prove that Kalidasa lived before Sangam Tamil period. Kalidasa’s date was around 1st century BC. Tamil poets have used a lot from his 1000+ similes in various places. For some of these we may find a common source. But a lot of similes and idioms and phrases show beyond any shadow of doubt that they knew Kalidasa’s works and they deliberately used them in Sangam Tamil poems. Art Historian Sri C Sivaramamurti and others used different methods to arrive at the same date of first century BC. Sivaramamurti showed how Junagadh Rudradaman inscription of second century AD had echoed Kalidasa’s poems)

Lakshmi is praised by various Tamil and Sanskrit poets from Vedic days. They used the words THIRU (Tamil) and SRI (in Sanskrit) to mean wealth as well as Goddess Laksmi. Goddess Lakshmi is in charge of wealth. There are innumerable references to the goddess in Tamil and Sanskrit works. But the interesting form of Lakshmi  is GAJA LAKSHMI(Gaja in Sanskrit means elephant). Goddess Lakshmi seated on a lotus flower and two elephants on either side pouring water on her is known as Gaja Lakshmi. This particular aspect of Lakshmi is considered very auspicious. In India, particularly in Chettinadu of Tamil Nadu, palatial houses have Teak doors with the wooden figures of Gajalakshmi till this day.

Gajalakshmi’s figures have travelled from the Himalayas to the southern most part of Sri Lanka. It is in the form of old coins, lamps, wooden figures, idols and stone sculptures. It has travelled from India to Denmark !! We have Gajalakshmi figure carved in to Gundestrup silver Cauldron. Now it is in Copenhagen. When they dug up a marshy area in Jutland , Denmark in 1891 they recovered a big silver vessel which is dated to second century BC. A very interesting fact about this vessel is that there is a god surrounded by animals like we see in the Indus valley seal (For more details please read my article Vishnu in Indus Valley Seal)

The earliest reference to Gajalakshmi is in Sri Suktam of the Vedas:

“Laksmir –divyair-gajendrair-manigana-kasithai: snabitha hemakumbhair nithyam sa pathma hastha”

(Holding a lotus in hand she is bathed by water from the gem studded golden pot by the celestial elephants)

Later Valmiki, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil poets described the goddess in detail. We get lot of materials with the figure in coins, sculptures, idols etc. from second century BC onwards .The Bharhut sculptures show a beautiful Gajalakshmi which is in Kolkatta museum at present.  Ellora, Mahabalipuram cave temples also have got these sculptures.

Gajalakshmi coins are in plenty belonging to different dynasties of different periods. The oldest coin was issued by an Indo Greek king Azilises of North West India in first century BC. Later kings of Kosambi and Mathura Bijaasata Mitra and Visaka Deva respectively issued coins with Gajlakshmi. In Sri Lanka we find Gajalakshmi on the coins of 1st century AD. The coins were recovered from Anuradhapuram,Kantharodai , Manthottam in Sri Lanka and Karur of Tamil Nadu..

Buddhists and Jains “worshipped”

Not only Hindus but also the Jains and Buddhists respected or probably worshipped Gajalakshmi. The Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka issued such coins. Bharhut sculpture of Gakjalakshmi is another proof for it. Jain Tirthankar Mahavir’s mother Trishala had a dream of 14 auspicious signs before the birth of Mahavir. The fourth dream was of Gajalakshmi.

Michael Michener read a paper at a seminar in British Museum, London where he listed all the old kings who issued coins of Gajalakshmi. The list includes coins of Indo Greek king Azilesas, Mathura King Raju vula , Andhra King Shrive Satakarni(1st century) ,Jayanagar (8th century AD) and Nayak Kings of Tamil Nadu.

In the 2000 year old Sangam literature, we have references in the books:

Nedunal vaatai .88-89 and Kalitokai 44-8.

Madurai Kanchi of Mankudi Maruthan 353

Kapilar being a Brahmin well versed in Sanskrit used lot of Kalidasa’s similes and expressions. In Kalitokai, Kurinji Kali 44-8 he described Gajalakshmi.

Another Brahimn poet Nakkirar, who would have read all Kalidasa in Sanskrit used a lot of Kalidasa’s works on Muruga (Lord Skanda) in his Tirumurukatruppatai and Lakshmi in Nedunalvatai.

“Have massive door posts daubed with ghee and white mustard

And held by a stout lintel named after Uttara star,

Where on are carved the figures of Goddess Lakshmi,

With the elephants holding water lilies on either side

And fitted with double doors, iron clamped….. (Nedu88-89)

(Nachinarkiniyar interpreted these lines as Gajalakshmi. English translation is based on his commentary. Arthasastra also advised kings to install such figures in the fort doors)

In Sivaka Sinthamani (2595), we see the same picture.

In Kalidasa we have references to Gajalakshmi in the books:

Raghuvamsa 12-93: Kalidasa was describing the battle between Rama and Ravana with beautiful similes in every sloka/couplet. The commentators struggled to comment on this sloka because they did not know what he was using as simile. They guessed that a wooden plank with wheels was used when two elephants clashed in the battle field. But anyone who reads it can easily see he used Jayalakshmi (goddess of victory) in between two elephants to mean Galjalakshmi .

In Meghadutam 79, Kalidasa described the lotus and conch (Sangha Nidhi and Padhma Nidhi) pictures drawn on the doors. They are considered two of the nine treasures of Kubera. Saivite saint Appar also mentioned these treasures of Kubera in his Thevaram hymns.

Arthasastram of Kautilya (second century BC) listed several gods and goddesses to be installed in the forts and Gajalakshmi was one of them

Tamil References:

குறிஞ்சிக் கலி

வரிநுதல் எழில் வேழம் பூநீர் மேல் சொரிதரப்,

புரிநெகிழ் தாமரை மலரங்கண் வீறு எய்தித்,

திரு நயந்து இருந்தன்ன தேங்கமழ் விறல் வெற்ப! (கலி.44-8-5/7)

மதுரைக் காஞ்சி

விண் உற ஓங்கிய பல் படைப் புரிசை

தொல் வலி நிலை இய அணங்குடை நெடி நிலை(352-353)

நெடுநல்வாடை

ஐயவி அப்பிய நெய் அணி நெடு நிலை

வென்று எழு கொடியொடு வேழம் சென்று புக

குன்று குயின்றன்ன ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில்

திருநிலை பெற்ற தீது தீர் சிறப்பின் (86-89)

அப்பர் தேவாரம்

சங்க நிதி பதும நிதி இரண்டும் தந்து

தரணியொடு வானாளத் தருவரேனும்

மங்குவார் அவர் செல்வம் மதிப்போம் அல்லோம்

மாதேவர்க்கு ஏகாந்தர் அல்லார் ஆகில் (அப்பர் 6-346)

References

  1. The Gundestrup Cauldron by Timothy Tailor-Scientific American, March 1992
  2. Ancient coins of India by A. Cunningham (pages 74,86,92 and 100)
  3. Foreign influence on Ancient Sri Lankan Coinage by Jayasinghe-1997
  4. Lakshmi bathed by elephants on ancient Indian coins by Michael Michener-seminar in British Museum-2-12-2000

Ganges in Kalidasa & Sangam Tamil Literature

(This is the fourth in the series of Kalidasa and Sangam (Cankama) Tamil literature- part of my thesis proving that the Date of Kalidasa was around First Century BC-Pre Sangam period-S swaminathan)

No river on earth commands so much respect and reverence as the Holy Ganga. We see this river in Rig Veda, the oldest religious scripture in the world, the great Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, Kalidasa’s works and in the ancient Sangam Tamil literature. The Tamils considered it the holiest river. Whenever they want to say something holy they always compared the Ganges. Just to exaggerate they used to say X or Y is holier than Ganga. All the rivers are considered mother in Hindu mythologies. But Ganga Matha( Mother Ganges)  has a very special place in the minds of Indians.

Ganges water was praised as the purest and cleanest water with miraculous properties even by the East India Company 300 years ago. When their ships were loaded with Ganges water for drinking purpose it never became stale (putrefy) even after several months where as other water loaded in different parts of the world went stale within a month. The Hindus knew its properties for thousands of years. The powerful Tamil kings went all the way to Himalayas and embossed their seals on the rocks there. When they came back they brought Ganges water after taking a holy dip. In the middle ages the Vaishnavite Alvars and the Saivite Nayanmars sang its praise in their hymns.

Cheran Senguttuvan of Sangam period brought stones from Himalayas twice for his mother Narchonai and another chaste woman Kannaki. Both the times he washed the stones in the Holy Ganges and made idols from them.

Even today Hindus fill in Ganges water in bottles and pots and bring them home to use it on special occasions. Even before bottling water became a roaring business, Ganges water was sold or distributed free of cost by the Hindu Charities. Everyday Madurai and Rameswaram temples use Ganges water for Abhishekam (bathing the gods). Truck loads of Ganges water come all the way from Himalayan destinations to these temples.

In Haridwar and Varanasi (Kasi), an evening Arthi is performed to Ganga Matha which is watched and worshipped by thousands of people. No river in the world has this type of daily worship. The world’s largest religious festival Kumbhamela attended by  twenty million people takes place every twelve years on the banks of river Ganges.

No wonder this mighty river finds a special place in every literary work of India. Kalidasa, the greatest of the secular Indian poets, even praises the Milky Way in the sky as Akasa Ganga (Ganges in the sky).

Hidden Treasure Under the Ganges

Tamil literature reveals some unknown, secret information about the Ganges. Poet Mamulanar in Akam 265 says that the Nanda Kings have hidden enormous treasure under the Ganges in Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar). He compares the mighty Himalayas and the enormous hidden treasure to the wealth the hero went after leaving the heroine all alone. Since there was no supporting information from other historical sources, the commentators also left us skeleton details only.

Kalidasa’s references to Ganges:

Mega 45, 65

Vikra. I -7 ,II 15, III-6, V-22

Kumara I-30, 54; VI 38, 57, 70; VII-41, 42;VIII-16

Ragu. II-26,IV 32, 36, 73,V 48, X 37, 63;XIII 20,54 to 57; XII-66;XIV-3, 52;XVI 33,34, 71;XVII 14

From Kumarasambhavam

“To her, those impressions were permanent, the lore  acquired in the past life, came at the time of instruction, as do the flocks of swans to the Ganges in autumn, or their own lustre to the medicinal herbs at the night” (1-30) I have already given the verse by Paranar (narri.356) where he sang about the Himalayas and the swans.

“O you, the most eminent of the twice born, I consider myself sanctified by these two only, by the fall of Ganges on my head, and water from your washed feet”(6-57)

“Just as Ganga is lauded by the foot of the supreme lord, so is she by you of lofty peaks, who are her second source” (6-70)

Ganga and Yamuna also, assuming visible forms and holding Chauries, served the god (7-42)

Mega. 51

The dark clouds at the top of the mountains look like dark elephants bathing in the Ganges.

The shadow of the dark clouds and the crystal clear Ganges water makes us think that river Yamuna mingles with the Ganges in a different place (Yamuna water is darker than Ganges).

Ragu 13-54 to 57

Kalidasa employs seven similes in this description of White Ganges and Dark Yamuna. The joining of the two rivers looks like a necklace of pearls and blue sapphires. Then it looks like a garland of white and blue flowers. In another place it is like white swans and black swans swimming together. In another place it likes the Rangoli on black agar wood with sandal paste. It also looks like the white moon light peeping through dark tree leaves. In another place it is like dark clouds floating in blue sky. Ganga and Yamuna together look like Shiva smeared with white ash with the snake around his neck (Ganges is Shiva and Yamuna is snake).

Paranar also follows Kalidasa and employs nine similes in Akam 178, but on a different theme.

Ragu 17-72

The clouds are praised for showering water on parched fields. But they are that generous only because of the sea. People forget the sea. King Athithi gave so much to the poets who in turn donated them to others. Though they were praised the original philanthropist Athithi was forgotten like the sea.

Tamil poets and Kalidasa knew that the sea was the source of clouds and rain. Kapilar in Puram 107 sings about it. People praise rain (Mari) when King Pari is more generous.

Tamil poets’ references to Ganges

Patti.190 (articles produced in the valleys of the Ganges and the Kavery)

Narr.369 (Nalvellaiyar);189 (Anonymous)

Puram 161 (Perunchittiranar)

Madu.696 Mankudi Maruthan (1000 branched Ganges)

Perum.429-431

Akam .265 (Mamulan)

Pari. 16-36

Post Sangam works: Silappadikaram mentions Ganges in 15 places; Manimegalai -4 places

Tamil literature uses Ganges as a simile for the generosity and philanthropy of kings and chieftains. They came to know about the river only from Kalidasa and other Sanskrit works.

Katiyalur  Uruttiran Kannanar (Perum. 429-431) says

As men who flee from peril slumber as they wait

For the boat that will ferry them across

The unfordable Ganga, scattering gold as it tears down

The lofty crest of the Himalaya where the gods dwell,

Lighting it up with its silvery billows (Perum. 429-431)

Vikramorvasiyam I-7 refers Ganges breaking its banks which is echoed by Tamil poet Perunchittiranar. He describes the mighty flow of Ganges in Puram. 161: the clouds raise from the sea, gather themselves, appear dark and huge like mountains in the sky, roar with thunder and pour the torrents; when such a rainy season is past and when the summer reigns supreme making the tanks and rivers everywhere dry, the Ganges flows full of water for the benefit of the whole of mankind. The poet compares Ganges to the generosity of Kumanan, a Tamil chieftain. The Ganges descending from the Himalayas is always overflowing its banks, he says.

Narrinai poet Madurai Nalvellaiyar (verse 369) used Ganges in a statement by a heroine. The heroine feels that her love is so powerful and influential that it over comes her self- control like the great floods in the Ganges that overflows the banks and smashes the dams in its course. Another anonymous poet says that the hero might have gone somewhere by a boat in the Ganges. Nal Velliyar just echoed Kumarasambhavam verse VIII-16 and Raguvamsam verse XII-66.

Tamils even knew that the Ganges branches into thousands of smaller streams just before entering into Bay of Bengal . Sangam poet Mankudi Maruthan compares the lively Madurai market to the Ganges. Saivite saint Appar also refers to it as thousand faced Ganges.

Milky Way

Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. There are 200 to 400 billion stars. Astronomers estimate that there are ten billion habitable planets in the Milky Way galaxy. If the night sky is clear we can see this galaxy with a lot of stars with a background of white light patch. Kalidasa refers to it in several places. In Tamil we come across it in Paripatal (16-36).

Ka lidasa refers to the Milky Way as Chaya Patham, Vyoma Ganga, Thri Marga, Thri Divasa and Akasa Ganga in Ragu I-78, XII-85, XIII-2, Kuma. I-28, IV-37.

NB: The Ganges has become more polluted in recent years. So readers are warned not to drink water  without boiling it. This is because of the industrial wastes mixing into it along its 1500 mile route. The medicinal qualities are still maintained at the source or very near the source in the Himalayas.

Supporting information from another website

The Ganges is 2525 kilometres long. Along its course, 27 major towns dump 902 million litres of sewage into it each day. Added to this are all those human bodies consigned to this holy river, called the Ganga by the Indians. Despite this heavy burden of pollutants, the Ganges has for millennia been regarded as incorruptible. How can this be?

Several foreigners have recorded the effects of this river’s “magical” cleansing properties:

  1. Ganges water does not putrefy, even after long periods of storage. River water begins to putrefy when lack of oxygen promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which produce the tell-tale smell of stale water.
  2. British physician, C.E. Nelson, observed that Ganga water taken from the Hooghly — one of its dirtiest mouths — by ships returning to England remained fresh throughout the voyage.
  3. In 1896, the British physician E. Hanbury Hankin reported in the French journal Annales de l’Institut Pasteur that cholera microbes died within three hours in Ganga water, but continued to thrive in distilled water even after 48 hours.
  4. A French scientist, Monsieur Herelle, was amazed to find “that only a few feet below the bodies of persons floating in the Ganga who had died of dysentery and cholera, where one would expect millions of germs, there were no germs at all.

More recently, D.S. Bhargava, an Indian environmental engineer measured the Ganges’ remarkable self-cleansing properties:

“Bhargava’s calculations, taken from an exhaustive three-year study of the Ganga, show that it is able to reduce BOD [biochemical oxygen demand] levels much faster than in other rivers.”

Quantitatively, the Ganges seems to clean up suspended wastes 15 to 20 times faster than other rivers.

(Kalshian, Rakesh; “Ganges Has Magical Cleaning Properties,” Geographic, 66:5, April 1994.)

From Science Frontiers #94, JUL-AUG 1994. © 1994-2000 William R. Corliss

 

Tamil References:

நாள் தர வந்த விழுக் கலம் அனைத்தும்

கங்கை அம் பேர் யாற் கடல் படர்ந்தா அங்கு

அளந்து கடை அறியா வளம் கெழு தாரமொடு

மாங்குடி மருதன் (மதுரைக் காஞ்சி 695-697

*************

இமையவர் உறையும் சிமையச் செவ்வரை

வெண் திரை கிழித்த விளங்கு சுடர் நெடுங்கோட்டுப்

பொன்கொழித்து இழிதரும் போக்கு அரும் கங்கைப்

பெரு நீர்ப் போகும் இரியல் மாக்கள் (பெரும்பா.429-432)

**************

“நீண்டொலி அழுவம் குறைபட முகந்துகொண்டு;

ஈண்டுசெலல் கொண்மூ வேண்டுவயின் குழீஇப்

பெருமலை யன்ன தோன்றல் சூன்முதிர்பு,

உருமுரறு கருவியொடு, பெயல் கடன் இறுத்து,

வளமழை மாறிய என்றூழ்க் காலை,

மன்பதை எல்லாம் சென்றுணக் கங்கைக்

கரைபொரு மலிநீர் நிறைந்து தோன்றியாங்கு,

எமக்கும் பிறர்க்கும் செம்மலை யாகலின்” (புறம் 161)

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மலர் மார்பிற் சோர்ந்த மலரிதழ் தா அய்

மீனாரம் பூத்த வியன் கங்கை நந்திய

வானம் பெயர்ந்த மருங்கொத்த லெஞ்ஞான்றும்

(பரிபாடல் 16-35/37 நல்லழிசியார்)

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ஞெமையோங்கு உயர்வரை இமயத்து உச்சி

வா அன் இழிதரும் வயங்கு வெள் அருவிக்

கங்கையம் பேர்யாற்றுக் கரையிறந் திழிதரும்

சிறையடு கடும் புனல் அன்னவென்

நிறையடு காமம் நீந்துமாறே (நற்றிணை 369)

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Appar :

நேர்ந்தொருத்தி ஒரு பாகத்து அடங்கக் கண்டு

நிலை தளர ஆயிரமா முகத்தினோடு

பாய்ந்தொருத்தி படர் சடை மேற் பயிலக் கண்டு

பட அரவும் பனி மதியும் வைத்த செல்வர் (அப்பர் தேவாரம்)

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சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் காளிதாசனின் உவமைகள்

காளிதாசனின் காலம் குறித்து நீண்ட காலமாக பல்வேறு கருத்துக்கள் நிலவி வந்தன. கி. மு முதல் நூற்றாண்டு முதல் குப்தர்களின் காலமான நான்காம் நுற்றாண்டு வரை பல்வேறு ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள் பல தேதிகளைக் குறிப்பிட்டார்கள். ஆனால் அவைகளுக்கெல்லாம் முற்றுப் புள்ளி வைக்கும் நல்ல சான்றுகள் சங்கத் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் கிடைத்துள்ளன. இதன் மூலம் காளிதாசனின் காலம் சங்க காலத்துக்கு முன் என்பது தெள்ளத் தெளிவாகிறது. புகழ்பெற்ற வரலாற்று நிபுணரும் கலைத்துறை வல்லுனருமான சிவராம மூர்த்தி போன்றோர் காளிதாசனை விக்ரமாதிதன் காலத்தில் வைத்தனர். சங்க இலக்கியமும் அவர் காலம் கி.மு முதல் நூற்றாண்டு என்பதை உறுதி செய்கிறது.

 

காளிதாசன் உலக மகா கவிஞர்களில் ஒருவன். மிகப் பெரிய நாடகாசிரியன். அவனுடைய ஏழு நூல்கள் அவனுக்கு உலகப் உகழை ஈட்டித் தந்துள்ளன. காளிதாசன் உவமை மன்னன். ஆயிரத்துக்கும் அதிகமான உவமைகளை ரத்தினக் கற்கள் போல ஆங்காங்கு பொருத்தமாகப் பயன்படுத்தியுள்ளான். சங்க இலக்கிய நூல்களில் இவனுடைய ஆயிரம் உவமைகளில் அல்லது சொற்றொடர்களில் 225 வரை அப்படியே கையாளப்பட்டுள்ளன.

 

ஜி யு போப் கண்டுபிடிப்பு

இந்திய பண்பாடு பற்றிப் பேசும் யாவரும் காளிதாசனின் காவியங்களைப் படித்திருக்க வேண்டும். அல்லது அவர்களுடைய அறிவு முழுமை பெற்றதாகாது. ஆங்கில இலக்கியத்துக்கு ஷேக்ஸ்பியர் எவ்வளவு முக்கியமோ அவ்வளவுக்கு இந்தியப் பண்பாட்டுப் படிப்புக்கு காளிதாசன் முக்கியம். அவனது காவியங்களும் நாடகங்களும் சம்ஸ்கிருத மொழியில் எழுதப்பட்டிருந்தாலும் நூறு ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னரே தமிழ் ஆங்கிலம் போன்ற முக்கிய மொழிகளில் மொழிபெயர்க்கப்பட்டுவிட்டன. கபிலரின் குறிஞ்சிப் பாட்டைப் படித்த பிரபல தமிழ் அறிஞர் ஜி யு போப் அது காளிதாசன் காவியத்தின் தழுவலே என்று கூறிவிட்டார். இரண்டு நூல்களையும் படிக்கும் எவருக்கும் இது எளிதில் புலப்படும். கபிலரும் குறிஞ்சிப் பாட்டை தமிழை இகழ்ந்த பிரமதத்தனுக்குப் பாடம் புகட்டவே செய்ததால் காளிதாசன் போலவே எழுதி அவனை ஒரு வழிக்குக் கொண்டுவந்தார் என்றால் அது மிகையாகாது. பிரகதத்தனை மனம் மாற்றியதோடு அவனையும் தமிழில் கவிதை எழுத வைத்தார் கபிலர்.

 

கபிலர் ஒரு பிராமணப் புலவர். அவர் ஆரிய மன்னன் பிரகததனுக்கு சம்ஸ்கிருதம் மூலம் தான் தமிழ் கற்றுத் தர முடியும். அப்போது காளிதாசனின் உவமைகலைப் போல தமிழிலும் செய்ய முடியும் என்பதைக் காட்டியிருப்பார். சங்கத் தமிழ் கவிகளில் அதிகம் புனைந்தவர் (235 பாடல்கள்) கபிலர்தான். இவருக்கு அடுத்தபடியாகப் பெயர் பெற்றவர் பரணர். இவரும் பிராமணப் புலவரே. தமிழ் அறிஞர்கள் கபில-பரணர் என்று இரட்டையர்களாகவே எப்போதும் எழுதுவர். பரணரோவெனில் காளிதாசனின் வாசகங்களை அப்படியே எடுத்தாண்டுள்ளார். பரணர் வேதங்களில் கரைகண்டவராக இருக்க வேண்டும். கடல்கள் சத்தியம் தவறாது. எத்தனை ஆறுகள் எவ்வளவு தண்ணீர் கொண்டுவந்து கொட்டினாலும் கடல் எல்லை தாண்டாது, நிரம்பிவழியாது என்ற வேத வாசகத்தையும் பரணர் அப்படியே சங்கப் பாடலில் வடித்துள்ளார்.

தமிழ்ப் புலவர்கள் இமயம் வரை சென்றிருப்பது அரிதே. அவர்கள் கார், ரயில் விமானம், சாலை, நதிப் பாலங்கள் இல்லாத காலத்தில் காடுகள்  வழியே போய் வருவது அவ்வளவு எளிதல்ல. ஆனால் கபிலர், பரணர் முதலிய பிராமணப் புலவர்கள் கங்கை நதி குறித்தும் இமயம் குறித்தும் சர்வ சாதாரணமாகப் பாடுகின்றனர். ஒருவேளை இமயத்திப் புலி, வில், மீன் பொறித்த மூவேந்தர்களுடன் போயிருந்தாலும் காளிதாசனின் சொற்றொடர்கள் இல்லாது வேறு விஷயங்களைக் கூறியிருப்பர்.

 

காளிதாசன் ஒரு மாமேதை. அவன் பேசாத பொருள் இல்லை. அவனுடைய பூகோள அறிவோ மூக்கில் விரலை வைத்து வியக்கும் வண்ணம் உள்ளது. இமய மலையை பூமியை அளக்கவந்த அடிக் கோல் என்கிறார். வரை படம் இல்லாத காலத்தில் 1500 மைல் நீளமுள்ள இமயமலையை அவர் எப்படி இப்படி வருணித்தார் என்பது ஆச்சரியமே.

 

ஈரான் முதல் இந்தோனேஷியா வரை பல இடங்களை அவர் குறிப்பிடுகிறார். கப்பல் கவிழ்ந்தால் அந்த சொத்துயாருக்குப் போய்ச் சேரும் என்ற சட்ட விசயங்களை அலசுகிறார். ரகு வம்ச காவியத்தில் ஸ்வயம்வரத்துக்கு வந்த மன்னர்களை வருணிக்கையிலும் ரகுவின் திக் விஜயத்தை வருணிக்கையிலும் ஒவ்வோரு நாடு பற்றியும் முக்கியமான வியப்பூட்டும் குறிப்புகளைக் கொடுக்கிறார்.

இமயமலையை “தேவதாத்மா இமாலய:” என்று குமார சம்பவத்தில் அவர் கூறியதை சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் அப்படியே காண்கிறோம். பொற்கோட்டு இமயம் என்ற காஞ்சன ஸ்ருங்கத்தையும் இப்போதைய பெயர் கஞ்சன் ஜங்கா) தமிழில் காண்கிறோம். நாகரத்தினம், ஸ்வாதி நட்சத்திர மழையில் முத்து உருவாதல், முருகனுக்கும் அணங்குக்கும் உள்ள தொடர்பு, மகளிர் முருகன் கோட்டத்துக்குச் செல்ல அஞ்சுதல் (கலம் தொடா மாக்கள்), பறவைகள் குடியேற்றம், பாண்டியனுக்கும் அகத்தியனுக்கும் உள்ள தொடர்பு, பாண்டிய மன்னரின் அஸ்வமேத யாகம் (பல்யாக சாலை முது குடுமிப் பெருவழுதியின் அவப்ருத ஸ்நானம்), ஜாவா சுமத்ராவிலிருந்து வரும் வாசனைத் திரவியங்கள், யவனர்களின் இந்திய தொடர்பு, தீப சிகா உவமை (மதுரைக் காஞ்சி)  இப்படி 225 இடங்களில் காளிதாசனின் உவமைகளையும் சொற்றொடர்களையும் சங்கத்தமிழில் காண்கிறோம். தமிழ்ப் புலவர்கள் எழுதியதை எல்லாம் காளிதாசன் படித்துக் “காப்பி” அடித்திருந்தால் அவனை உவமை மன்னன் என்று உலகம் போற்றாது. ஆனால் பல தமிழ் கவிஞர்கள் காளிதாசனைக் கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாகப் பின்பற்றினார்கள் என்றால் அதை நம்ப முடியும்.

 

கோணல் பார்வை வெள்ளைக்காரர்கள், பிராக்ருத மொழியில் எழுதப்பட்ட காமச் சுவை சொட்டும் காதா சப்த சதியை காளிதாசனுக்கு முன் வைத்து பல கதைகளைக் கட்டிவிட்டிருந்தனர். ஆனால் அந்த நூலோ தமிழ் முருகனைக் கண்டுகொள்ளவே இல்லை. வினாயகர் பற்றி ஓரிடத்தில் பேசுகிறது. காளிதாசனோ பழம்தமிழ் நூல்களோ கணபதியைப் பற்றிப் பேசவே இல்லை. ஏனெனில் இரண்டும் கணபதி வழிபாடு பெரிய அளவில் பரவும் முன்னரே எழுதப்பட்டவை. (கட்டுரையின் இரண்டாம் பகுதியில் மேலும் பால சான்றுகளைத் தருவேன்).

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