Post No.7566

Date uploaded in London – 12 February 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world, the oldest anthology in the world and the oldest document of Hinduism, throws many challenges to Hindu and western scholars. The eighth Mandala of the book is very interesting. We see a lot of foreign stuff here extending up to Iran including Dhana/gifts of camels to Brahmins. Number symbolism seen here is one of the challenges which allows commentators to interpret a verse differently. Tamil Siddhas ad Saivite poet Tirumular followed this style with great enthusiasm.

In all ancient religions, mythology came first and then the religious hymns. But in Hinduism the hymn book Rig Veda is placed at least two thousand years before the 18 Hindu Puranas (Hindu Mythology). Though linguistically speaking the prose Puranas can be placed after the Vedas, the stories in them go back several thousand years. For instance, if a Saivite Purana talks about the Blue throated Shiva and the story behind the blue throat (Neela kanda), the words (Neela Kanda) are already in the Veda.  If a Vaishnavite Purana talks about Vishnu’s Three Steps, the reference can be found in the Rig Veda. So it is clear that Puranaic episodes came first and written later.

The story of Maruts (Rig Veda 8-28) is in the Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana.


7X7 gods, 7X9 gods in Rig Veda 8-28

Here is a reference about the origin of Maruts. Briefly described as sons of Rudra and attendants of Indra. The storm god is found even in Sumerian (Babylonian) worship as God Martu.

In later days we have

Maruti –  son of wind god is worshipped in nook and corner of India as Hanuman, Anjaneya

Maruti car is running in India everywhere.

Sanda maarutam (gale fore wind) and Mantha maarutham (breeze) are used in Tamil novels etc.

These Maruts are found in Rig Veda with interesting and puzzling Numbers!

Here is the hymn 8-28 from Rig Veda

1.The Thirty Gods and the Three besides, whose seat hath been the sacred grass,

From time of old have found and gained

2.Varuna, Mitra , Aryaman, Agni, with the

Consorts sending boons,

To whom our Vasat! is addressed

3.These are our guardians in the west and

 northward here, and in the south

And on the east , with all the tribe.

4.Even as the gods desire so verily shall it

 be. None minisheth this power of theirs,

No demon and no mortal man.

5.The Seven carry Seven spears; Seven are

the splendours they possess

And Seven glories they assume.

For our number symbolism and the origin of Maruts, let us take stanza/mantra 5 only. Griffith whose translation is given above, comments —

The seven

The Maruts, seven  or seven times nine, or seven times seven  in number. Saayana mentions the legend of their birth, which will be found in Ramayana book 1, cantos 46,47. The meaning is merely that the Maruts carry lances , that is their, lightnings, and are splendidly adorned.

We get 33 gods and then 49 and then 63.

Thirty three is expanded as thirty three crores of gods (330 million) in Puranas , just an exaggeration to boost  their importance. Hindus always add a big decimal number for exaggeration.

They used to say

King Dasaratha has 60,000 wives (meaning is ‘several wives’, unusually high)

In Weddings priests announce ‘Uncle of the bride gifts ‘laksham katti varahan’ (one hundred thousands of gold bars consisting of Varahan gold coins) – meaning is his ‘Rs100 is worth billions’.

Hindus have 33 crore (330 million) gods (meaning is Hindus can worship God in every form, every object)

But later Puranas explained 33 gods as 8 Vasus+12 Adityas+ 11 Rudras + Indra+ Prajapaati (or Two Asvins).


Story of Maruts from Ramayana

When Diti’s sons were killed in the Churning of the Milky ocean incident, she requested her husband that she should have one son who will be the slayer of Indra ; her husband Kashyapa asked her to do a penance for 1000 years. She did so, but when ten years were remaining, Indra came and entered her when she was lying in the wrong posture. Indra cut the foetus into seven parts and she cried  Indra said ‘Ma Ruda= Cry Not = Marut’.

She requested Indra to allow them to live and Indra told her they will be the guardians of seven winds. They were divided into three parts (7+7+7)


The Puranic dictionary by John Dowson summarises it in the following passage: –

“The storm gods who hold a very prominent place in the Vedas and are represented as friends and allies of Indra. Various origins are assigned to them. They are the sons of Rudra, sons and brothers of Indra, sons of the oceans, heaven and earth (7+7+7). They are armed with lightning and thunderbolts, and ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm.

The number of them is said in one place to be thrice sixty ( 3+60) and in another only twenty seven.

In the Ramayana they are represented to have their origin in an unborn son of Diti whom Indra dashed into 49 pieces with his thunderbolt (7X7), and in compassion converted into Maruts.

Another commentator on Vedas say , that after their  Siva and Parvati beheld them in great affliction, and the latter asked Siva to transform the lumps on flesh into boys of like form, like age and similarly accounted, and gave them to Parvati as her sons and hence they are called the sons of Rudra.

The legend is invented to explain those passages of the Vedas which make Maruts the sons of Rudra.


It is very simple. If you collect all the English poems on rain or thunder, you will see different interpretations, imageries, similes etc from different poets.

Vedic poets described thunder and rain of Indra assisted by storm and lightning of Marut.

What is the purpose?

The dialogue poems of Rig Veda show that after every sacrifice, there was an Entertainment Show in which two groups acted sitting opposite. Dialogue Hymn between Indra and Marut is the proof for it (RV 1-165).

Probably the Diti – Indra chapters in Ramayana (1-46, 47) are also acted on stages and Viswamitra recited this story to Rama and Lakshmana.

But on another plane, these poems have hidden meaning. In all Tamil Sangam Akam verses (Family/ sex verses) all the natural phenomena have hidden meanings as explained by the later commentators. Sangam Tamil Poems are from first few centuries of Common Era and the commentaries are from 13th century or later. We find the names of the poets and words in the verses are explained as fancifully as Ma Ruda- Don’t Cry- Maruta!

Since Rudra is also a storm god in the Vedas, Maruts/lightnings are described as sons of Rudra.

 In short, a poem on lightning is explained/interpreted in different ways.

Why different numbers (21, 27, 49 and 63) are given?

You can count the lightning streaks in any number depending based on your imagination. But Hindus has a fascination for Number Seven. Anything holy or everything holy is divided into Seven. We see this Number Seven in Indus- Sarasvati Civilization seals more than other numbers. Another holy number 3 is also seen in it.


Interesting Facts about Vayu Bhagavan!

vayu in NY
Vayu Deva in Brooklyn Museum, New York

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1376; Dated 28th October 2014.

Vayu is one of the Vedic gods that Hindus worship every day. Brahmins do Sandhyavandhanam thrice a day in which they worship Agni, Vayu, Arka, Vageesa, Varuna, Indra, Visvedeva:. Not only Brahmins but also those who do Havan or Homam or Yagam through a priest also do it. Vayu Bhagavan is installed in the Havan fire pit. He occupies the north western corner. Vayu is the god of air or wind. People of all castes in India perform Vastu Puja, Bhumi puja, Graha Pravesam, Vivaham (wedding) etc. in which all the Vedic gods are invoked. So, Vedic religion is a living religion. Vedas are recited in all the temples rituals all over India.

Hindus divided the breath into five different airs:
Prana – comes from heart
Apana – bottom
Samana– neck
Udana – belly button
Vyana — whole body

vayu in nilali shobaneswara tem
Vayu in Nilali Shobaneswaram Temple

Mahabharata santi parva gives another category of seven types of winds –
Avahan = oxygen
Pravahan = produces rain bearing clouds
Udvahan = produces rain – probably cold air
Samvahan = makes everything dry – probably hot air from the desert
Vivahan = this supports the water in the heaven ( only now NASA talks about some water elsewhere in the universe; when we get more information we may be able to understand certain words)
Parivahan = this supports sun and moon
Paravahan = not controlled by anything or anyone; beyond control

Whether the above classification is scientific or not, one can boldly say Hindus started thinking in a scientific way to classify all the plants, animals, continents etc. In the same ways they are the first in etymology, logic, poetics, sexology, astrology, decimal system, psychology, linguistics, grammar, metaphysics, universal welfare, religion, philosophy etc. To attain such a height in all the fields even before the Greeks and other civilizations they must have lived and matured for a longer period than any ancient civilization. This serves as a proof for the antiquity of the Hindus.

Vayu in Birla Museum

Colour of Vayu is dark blue in Hindu mythology – probably they mean the clouds through which the presence of wind is noticed.

His vehicle was deer (antelope)
Vayu is worshipped by the Buddhists and Zoroastrian religions.
Greeks worshipped him as Eolus or Aeolus
Vedic Hindus worshipped him as Maruts
Mesopotamians worshipped him as martu (Marut got corrupted into martu)
Many Hindu temples such as Guruvayur, Kalahasti and Vayu lingam of Tiruvannamalai are associated with Vayu.


Vayu on his vahana gazelle

Twenty names of Vayu

Amarakosa, the first thesaurus cum dictionary in the world, gives 20 names of Vayu and they are as follows:

Svasana: one who helps to breathe; also the name of a tree called Mathana vrksa

Sparsana: one can feel it when it touches one
Vayu: Vathi means that which blows
Matariswan – that which travels in the anthariksha – in between – atmosphere
Sathagathi: always moving
Prushathasva: that which sprays; that which is grey; also one who has rain drops as his vehicle

Gandharba: one who carries sweet smell
Gandhavaha: one who carries sweet smell; also the name of musk deer
Anila: that which is not stable
Asuka: quick, fast
Samiira: that which spreads quickly
Maruta: that which helps living beings
Marut – one who causes mrtyu by stopping air
Jagatprana: — breathe of the earth
Samiirana — that which spreads quickly

Nabaswan/vath — one who travels in sky
Vata: one who blows
Pavana: one who purifies everything; also kitchen, potter
Pavamana: one who purifies
Prabanchana: that which causes destruction

Vedic gods

Maruts or Marut gana are gods of wind.
The sons of Rudra and attendants of Indra are called Maruts .
There are a few hymns addressed to Vayu in the Vedas. In the Purusasukta hymn, Vayu is said to have sprung from the breath of Purusa .He is also called the son in law of Tvashtri.

Maruts are storm gods in the Vedas. Maruti, also known as Hanuman, got his name from this word. Their weapons are lightning and thunder and they are called friends of Indra. Their number is given as thrice sixty in one place and 27 in another place. In the Ramayana, Indra is said to have created 49 Maruts from the unborn son of Diti by his thunderbolt. Indra said to them “weep not” –“ma rodih” — and it became Maruts.

Maruts are said to have deformed the 100 daughters of Kusa Nabha and they became Kanya-kubja (hunch backed).
All these stories are episodes convey some geological or medical facts in the way of popular stories. Puranas use a funny way of saying all the historical, medical and geological facts. Perhaps the ancient Hindus understood in the proper way.
Indian Air Force Bomber Marut

Vayu created Sri Lanka

Bhagavatha Purana gives an interesting story of Vayu. Narada asked Vayu to break the summit of the Meru mountain and the gale force wind / Vayu broke down a part of Meru. That part fell into the ocean and became Sri Lanka.
Ramayana’s Hanuman and Mahabharata’s Bhima are considered sons of Vayu. Vayu always stand for tremendous strength.
Vayu is one of the deities with a Purana in its name- Vayu Purana. it is devoted to the praise of lord Siva.
Martu is a Mesopotamian storm god; the patron god of the city of Ninab mentioned in the texts. I guess this is the Vedic god Maruts.

Greek Vayu deva Aeolus

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