மஹாபாரதத்தில் புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள்! (Post No.4659)

Date: 24 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London- 6-06 am

 

Written  by S NAGARAJAN

 

Post No. 4659

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may not be related to the story. They are only representational.

 

 

WARNING: PLEASE SHARE MY ARTICLES; BUT DON’T SHARE IT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S NAME AND THE BLOG NAME. BE HONEST; OTHERS WILL BE HONEST WITH YOU

 

 

(தமிழை வளர்க்க விரும்புபவர்கள், தன் மனைவி, மகன்கள், கணவர்கள் , ஆளும் அரசாங்கத்தினர் ஆகியோர் தன்னிடம் நேர்மையாக இருக்க வேண்டும் என்று எண்ணுவோர் என் எழுத்துக்களைத் திருட மாட்டார்கள். எழுதியவர் பெயருடன் பகிர்வார்கள்; பிளாக் பெயரை நீக்க மாட்டார்கள்)

 

 

மஹாபாரதம்

 

மஹாபாரதத்தில் புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள்!

 

ச.நாகராஜன்

1

உலகின் ஆகப் பெரும் இலக்கியமான மஹாபாரதத்தில் புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள் மட்டும் சுமார் எட்டாயிரம் உள்ளன. ஒரு லட்சம் ஸ்லோகங்களில் 8000 என்றால் 8 % என்று ஆகிறது.

வியாஸர் மஹா கண்பதியை அணுகி தனக்கு இந்த இதிஹாஸத்தை எழுத உதவி புரிந்து அனுக்ரஹிக்குமாறு வேண்ட, அவரோ ‘எழுதுகிறேன், ஆனால் தங்கு தடையின்றி நிற்காமல் சொல்ல வேண்டும்’ என்று நிபந்தனை போடச் சற்றுத் திகைத்துப் போனார் வியாஸர். பதில் நிபந்தனையாக, ‘புரிந்து கொண்டு எழுத வேண்டும்’ என்று சொல்ல அதற்கு ஒத்துக் கொண்டார் விநாயகர். ஆகவே தான் எழுந்தன இந்த அற்புதமான புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள். ஆங்காங்கே முடிச்சுகளைப் போட, அதைப் புரிந்து கொள்ள விநாயகருக்குச் சற்று நேரம் ஆனது. அதற்குள் அடுத்த பல நூறு ஸ்லோகங்களை மனதிற்குள் கவனம் செய்து கொண்டார் வியாஸர்.

இந்த ஸ்லோகங்களுக்கு ‘ கூட ஸ்லோகங்கள்’ என்று பெயர்.

இவை அனைத்தையும் தொகுத்திருக்கும் புத்தகம் இருக்கிறதா என்று தெரியவில்லை.

ஆங்காங்கு பல காலமாக பல்வேறு விற்பன்னர்கள் நடத்திய உபந்யாசங்களில் இவை இடம் பெறும். கேட்போர்களின் மனதைக் கவரும். அவர்களையும் யோசிக்க வைக்கும்.

2

மஹாபாரத ஆராய்ச்சியில் ஈடுபட்ட அறிஞர் சி.வி. வைத்யா 1905ஆம் ஆண்டு எழுதி வெளியிட்ட புத்தகம் ‘தி மஹாபாரதா – எ கிரிடிஸிஸம்’ (‘The Mahabharata: A Criticism” – C.V.Vaidya). இதில் அவர் மஹாபாரதத்தின் முதல் பர்வங்களில் நிறைய புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்களும், பின்னால் உள்ள பர்வங்களில் குறைந்த அளவு புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்களும் உள்ளன என்று கூறுகிறார்.

ஆதி பர்வத்தில் 3; சபா பர்வத்தில் 2; வன பர்வத்தில் 3; விராட பர்வத்தில் 4; உத்யோக பர்வத்தில் 3; பீஷ்ம பர்வத்தில் 1; துரோண பர்வத்தில் 5; கர்ண பர்வத்தில் 3; சாந்தி பர்வத்தில் 2;அஸ்வமேத பர்வத்தில் 1; ஆக மொத்தம் 27  புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்களை எடுத்துக்காட்டாகக் காட்டுகிறார். ஆனால் எட்டாயிரம் ஸ்லோகங்களையும் புரிந்து கொண்டு தொகுப்பார் இல்லையோ என்னவோ!

1915ஆம் ஆண்டு  மஹாபாரதத்தைச் சிறந்த முறையில் தமிழில் மொழிபெயர்த்து அளிக்கும் மகத்தான பணியில் இறங்கிய கும்பகோணம் காலேஜ் ரிடையர்ட் தலைமைத் தமிழ்ப் பண்டிதர் பாஷாபாரத துரந்தர, மஹாமஹோபாத்யாய, ஸ்ரீ ம.வீ. இராமானுஜாசாரியார் பல ஸ்லோகங்களுக்கு மஹாபாரத விற்பன்னர்களாலும் அர்த்தம் கண்டுபிடிக்க முடியாமல் போனதென்றும் அதற்கான சரியான அர்த்தத்தைக் கண்டுபிடித்து வெளியிட முயன்றதால் சில பர்வங்களை வெளியிடுவதில் கால தாமதம் ஆனதாகவும் தெரிவிக்கிறார்.

ஆக புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள் அனைத்தையும் ஒரு சேரப் படிக்க முடியாமலேயே உள்ளது.

 

3

விநாயகருக்கே சவாலாக அமைந்த தனது ஸ்லோகங்களைப் பற்றி வியாஸர் கூறும் போது, “அதன் கருத்தை நான் அறிவேன்; சுகன் அறிவான்; ஸஞ்சயன் அறிவானோ! மாட்டானோ!” என்று குறிப்பிடுகிறார்.

எடுத்துக் காட்டாக ஒரு புதிர் ஸ்லோகத்தை இங்கே காண்போம்:

நதீஸ லங்கேஅ ஸவநாரி கேது: நகாஹ்வ யோநாம நகாரி |

ஸுநு: ஏஷோங்க நாவேஷதா: கிரீடி:|

ஜித்வாவய; நேஷ்ய திசாத்ய காவ: ||

இதில் உள்ள முடிச்சை அவிழ்ப்பது கஷ்டமான ஒன்று.

சரியான இடத்தில் பதத்தைப் பிரித்து அர்த்தத்தைக் கண்டுபிடிக்க வேண்டும்!

அர்ஜுனன பேடியாக மாறி உத்தரனை தேரோட்டும் சாரதியாகக் கொள்ளும் விராட பர்வத்தில் கோக்ரஹண காலத்தில் வரும் ஸ்லோகம் இது.

துரோணர், பீஷ்மர், துரியோதனன் ஒரு சேர இருக்கின்றனர்.

பக்கத்தில் உள்ள துரியோதனன் அறியாத வண்ணம் பீஷ்மருக்கு, துரோணர், “ அவன், பசுக்களை மீட்க வந்த அர்ஜுனன்” என்பதைப் பூடகமாகத் தெரிவிக்கும் ஸ்லோகம் இது.

விநாயகர் கூடச் சற்று திகைத்து விட்டு அர்த்தம் கண்டுபிடிக்கும் படியாக அமைந்த ஸ்லோகமும் இது தான்;

பொதுவாக கவனித்தால் அர்த்தமே விளங்காது!

“ நதீ ஜலம் கேசவ நாரி கேது நநாஹ்வயோ நாம நகாரி ஸுநு:”

ஆற்றின் ஜலம், கேசவன், பெண், கொடி, கொடி மரத்தின் பெயர், மலையின், சத்ரு, பிள்ளை – என்ன இது? ஒன்றுக்கொன்று சம்பந்தம் இல்லாத சொற்கள்!

இதில் என்ன அர்த்தம் இருக்க  முடியும்?

ஆனால் பதம் பிரிக்கும் போது நதீ ஜலம் என்று பிரிக்காமல் நதீஜ என்று கொண்டால் நதீஜ – நதியின் புத்திரனான பீஷ்மன்- அதாவது கங்கைக்குப் பிறந்த பீஷ்மன் என்று அர்த்தம் வரும்.

லங்கேசவந – இலங்கையில் உள்ள அசோக வனம்.

அரி சத்ரு  – அந்த அசோகவனத்திற்கு எதிரி ஆஞ்சநேயர்.

கேது – அவரைக் கொடியாக உடையவன்

நகாஹ் வய – அர்ஜுன என்ற மரத்தின் பெயரைப் பெற்றவன்

நகாரி ஸுநு: – மலைச் சத்ருவான இந்திரனின் குமாரனான அர்ஜுனன்

என்று இப்படிப் பிரித்து ஸ்லோகத்தின் சரியான பொருளை உணர வேண்டும்!

பெண் வேஷத்துடன் கிரீடம் தரித்த அர்ஜுனன் நம்மை ஜயித்து பசுக்களை ஓட்டிச் செல்வான் என்பது இதன் பொருள்.

4

 

சபா பர்வத்தில் வரும் ஒரு சொற்றொடர் இது: “மனஸாதாளம் பேரிம்”

மனஸா என்றால் 12;

தாளம் என்றால் ஒரு சிறிய இடைவெளி.

ஆக இதன் உண்மையான அர்த்தம் 12 வெளியை விட்டமாகக் கொண்ட ஒரு பேரிகை!( A Drum with 12 spans as diameter)

5

மஹா பாரதத்தை நூற்றுக் கணக்கான கோணங்களில் அலசி ஆராய்ந்து படித்து வியக்கலாம். அதில் ஒன்று தான் கூட ஸ்லோகம் – புதிர் கவிதைகள் – கண்டு படிப்பது! புத்திக்குச் சவாலாக அமையும் இந்த புதிர் ஸ்லோகங்கள் மஹாபாரத்தைப் படிக்க ஆவலைத் தூண்டுபவை மட்டும் அல்ல; விநாயகரையே மலைக்க வைத்த வியாஸரின் புத்தி கூர்மையைக் காட்டும் ஸ்லோகங்களும் ஆகும்!

இப்படி ஒரு புதிர் செய்யுள்களைக் கொண்டுள்ள இன்னொரு இலக்கியம் உலக மொழிகளில் எதுவும் இல்லை என்பதும் குறிப்பிடத் தகுந்தது!

படிப்போம்; வியப்போம்; புதிரை அவிழ்த்து மகிழ்வோம்.

***

 

RAMAYANA & MAHABHARATA QUIZ- SEERS, SAINTS AND RISHIS (Post No.4595)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 8 JANUARY 2018

 

Time uploaded in London-11-08 AM

 

Post No. 4595

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

1.We all know that Vyasa muni wrote Mahabharata with the help of Lord Ganesh. What is the full name of Vyasa?

2.Ashtavakra was the Rishi (seer) who was born with eight bends in his body because of the bad sound effect; his father recited the Vedas with mistakes; who told this story to Yudhisthira?

3.Who was the rishi that visited the Pandavas in the Dwaitya forest and advised them to surround themselves with Brahmanas?

  1. What is Dronacharya’s father’s name?

5.Which Muni (saint) gave Dronacharya the Agni Astra (fire weapon)?

 

6.Who was the one who told Yudhisthira the story of Nala and Damyanti in the forest?

7.Who was the chief priest of Pandavas who advised them on religious ceremonies?

8.What is the name of the Rishi who gave boons to Kunti for serving him?

9.Name the rishi learned in astrology and astronomy who visited Balarama during the Mahabharata war.

10.Name the Inter Galactic traveller (rishi) who advised Dhritarashtra  to keep Duryodhana in check.

11.Parikshit, posthumous son of Abimanyu, was cursed by whom for throwing a dead snake on a seer?

Kalakshetra Picture

 

 

 

12.Who was Shrungi’s father on whose neck the dead snake fell?

  1. Who taught Sanatsujatiyam to Dhritarashtra to come out of ignorance or wordly attachment?

 

RAMAYANA SEERS SAGES AND RISHIS

 

14.Who performed the Pattabisheka (coronation ceremony) of Lord Rama?

 

15.where did Sita Devi live when Lakshmana left her in the forest?

16.Who taught Rama the famous Surya Hymn Aditya Hrudaya ?

  1. When young who gave the miraculous Bala, Abala mantras to Rama Lakshmana?

18.Who did Putra Kameshiti Yajna for Dasaratha?

19.Rama met a seer before going to the Ashrama of Agastya. He Gave all his taposakti (austerity earned by doing penance). Who was he?

20.Who was the Guru of Janaka?

21.Who was the seer who turned down the invitation of Indra and entered fire after worshipping Rama?

22.Who gave a big feast to the army of Bharata by his power earned through penance?

23.Anasuya gave lot of jewels to Sita/ Who was her husband?

24.Rama’stouch turned Ahalya into a woman from stone. What is the name of Ahalya’s husband?

25.Who wrote Ramayana in Sanskrit?

 

ANSWERS

1.Krsihna Dwaipayana, 2. Lomana rishi, 3. Bakadalbhya, 4. Bharadwaja, 5 Agnivesha Muni, 6. Brihadashwa, 7.Dhaumya Rishi, 8. Durvasa, 9. Gargacharya, 10. Narada 11.Shrungi, 12. Shamika, 13. Sanatsujata, 14.Vasishtha, 15.Valmiki’s Ashram/hermitatge, 16. Agastya, 17.Viswamitra 18.Rishya shrnga 19. Sutikshna, 20.Sadananda 21.Sarabhanga, 22.Bharadwaja,  23.Atri,  24. Gautama and 25. Valmiki

 

–Subham–

 

 

 

Gambling, Women, Theft- That is what Wise Men do- Chanakya! (Post No.4556)

 

Gambling, Women, Theft- That is what Wise Men do- Chanakya! (Post No.4556)

 

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 28 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am

 

 

Post No. 4556

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Chanakya is not only a statesman and an economist but also a poet. His Chanakya Niti has very interesting riddles. He used symbols and metaphors to illustrate his points. Here is one of the metaphorical poems:

 

praatardhyutaprasangena madhyaahne striprasangena

ratrau charyaprasangena kaalo gacchati dhimataam

–chanakya niti, chapter 9, verse 11

 

Meaning:

Applying themselves to gambling in the morning, to women in noon and theft in the night the wise spend their time.

 

There is a metaphoric reference here to three texts. Dyuaprasanga here refers to a text where there is gambling, i.e Mahabharata. The whole epic is the cause of gambling between the Panadava and Kauravas. If the game had not been played, there wouldn’t be any story. Wise people read Mahabharata in the morning.

The second reference is about the woman. This is referring to Sita devi of Ramayana. Without Sita devi’s wrong decision and wrong desire there wouldn’t be any Ramayana story. Knowing that there is no golden deer on earth, she desired a (fake) golden deer and then all the disasters followed. Wise people read Ramayana in the noon.

 

The third reference is to chaurya prasangena- meaning theft. This is a reference to Bhagavata Purana where Krishna’s life is narrated. He is shown as a thief of butter at home, thief of saris on the banks of River Yamuna and a thief who steals the hearts of millions of people around the world- his devotees. Wise men do read his story, i.e. Bhagavata Purana in the night.

 

Thus, wise men spend their time usefully. Chanakya has made his point in a way which would amuse people and at the same time keep it ever green in the memory of his readers.

 

My comments:

Why did Lord Krishna steal the saris of Gopi girls? Though we knew all the saris were duly returned and the Gopi girls went home sari clad, there is another secret in it. He wanted to tell the world that whatever he steals will be returned in multi fold. If he steals butter, the world will be supplied with enormous quantity of dairy products. If he steals saris, he would give them without stopping to any one in need of saris,which we saw in the Derobing of Draupadi in the Mahabharata. When Duryodana ordered his younger brother to take away the sari of Pandava queen Draupadi in public, she prayed to Lord Krishna. And she got a continuous supply of saris and saved her honour. In the same way when a devotee gives his heart a little to Lord Krishna, he showers back on the devotee his heart million times – his grace for ever.

 

Source for the verse: Canakyaniti translated by Satya Vrat Shastri

–subham–

Arthasastra,Ramayana and Tirukkural Compared (Post No.4534)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 23 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London- 7-56 am

 

 

Post No. 4534

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks

 

 

Part 4 of Tirukkural- Bhagavad Gita Comparison by Rev. G U Pope and V R R Dikshitar (Post No.4534).

 

In this fourth part, Arthasastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Kamandaka and Manu’s verses are compared.

 

 

In the first two parts Tirukkural, Bhagavad Gita and Manava Dharma Sastra are compared,

 

In the third part Kautilya’s Arthasastra is also compared with Kural

It is continued in the Fourth Part

 

Kural 471 (Forethought)

 

In the opinion of Valluvar,

 

The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,

The force of friends: these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.

 

On this Kautilya observes:

 

The conquering monarch shall acquaint himself with the comparative strength and weakness, of himself and of his enemy in regard to power, lace, time, season for march, season for recruiting the army, consequential advantages and difficulties arising from anger, diminution and loss and decide on expedition if he would feel assured of superiority in his force.

–Book 9, chapter 1

 

xxx

 

KURALS 472, 476, 477 (Assessment of Relative Strength)

 

 

Who know what can he wrought, with the knowledge of means, on this

Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss (Kural 472)

 

Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise

Beyond the branch’s tip, with life the forfeit pays (476)

With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you, give!

That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live (477)

Kautilya says,

 

The power of mantra (counsel) is better. The king who possesses the eye of Sastraic knowledge can press his knowledge into service even with little effort. He can over reach the enemy with enthusiasm and power by means of conciliation, and application of strategic means. In this way success is due to enthusiasm, power, force of mantra/counsel of in the ascending order – Book 9, chapter 1

 

xxxx

Kural 481 and 482 (Right Time)

 

According to the author of Kural,

 

A crow will conquer owl in brad day light;

The king the foes would crush, need fitting time to fight.

 

The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made

Strictly observant still of favouring season’s aid.

 

Says the Kautilya, “That season is best which is suited to the manoeuvre of one’s own army and unsuited to ones enemny. The reverse is the worst. The ordinary season is the middling one. Book 9, Chap. 1

 

Time alone is better say some. For on this account the crow kills the owl in the day and the owl the crow in the night.

 

xxxxx

 

Kural 493 and 494 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

Even weak ones mightily prevails, if place of strong defence

They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.

 

The foes who thought to trimph, find their thoughts in vain

If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain

 

According to Arthasastra, ‘one should endeavour the means to increase the strength of one’s own force. That desa is the best which is the ground for manoeuvre of one’s own army but disadvantageous to the enemy. Otherwise it is the worst. That which is common is neither best nor worst.- Book 9, chap.1)

 

xxx

Kural 495, 497, 500 (Choice of Right Arena/ TACTIS)

 

The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide;

If this it leaves, it is slain by anything beside

 

Save their own fearless might they need no other aid, If in right place they fight, all due provision made

 

 

The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen

The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.

 

In the Arthasastra, it is said:

The ground is better, some say. On this account the dog on the ground can overreach even a crocodile, and the crocodile in the low ground the dog. –Book 9- Chapter 1

 

Thus we come across similar ideas both in the Arthasastra and Tirukkural. While the Arthasastra has dealt in one chapter all the three means of Sakti, Desa and Kala, the Kural devotes three separate chapters of the Kural Venbas each

 

xxx

 

Kural 501(On choosing the right men)

 

How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life is at stake,

Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make

 

Says Kautilya:

 

The ministers shall be tested by the Upadhas which are in the nature of temptations. These are for kinds, the temptation of virtue, wealh, lust and fear- Book 1, chap.10

 

xxx

 

Kural 510 On choosing the right men)

 

Trust where have you not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,

Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal

 

The Arthasastra says:

The Acaryas (teachers) have prescribed that the king should appoint government servants in their respective posts after the four-fold test according to the satisfaction afforded by such test.

–Book 1, Chapter 10

 

xxx

 

Kural 518 and 520 (Employment of Chosen men)

 

As each man’s special aptitude is known

Bid each man make that special work his own

 

Let king search out his servants’ deeds each day;

When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way

 

is corroborated by the Arthasastra

 

Those who have come out successful from the Dharmopadhaa are to be appointed as judges and commissioners, from the Arthopadhaa to office of treasurer and he collector-general, from Kaamopadhaa to guarding frontiers, harem and sporting grounds and from the Bhayopadhaa in the king’s household.

 

Those who have gone through the four ordeals are to be chosen as ministers.

 

Having thus chosen his servants by the four fold tests, the king shall endeavour through his spies to get at their loyalty or otherwise –Book 1, Chapter 10

 

xxx

 

Kural 517(Employment of Chosen men)

 

This man, this work halt thus work out, let thoughtful king command:

Then leave the matter wholly in his servant’s hand

 

Kamandaka says,

 

He whose capacity is too well known for a particular job is appointed to it, just like the different senses which are employed to perceive particular objects – Kamandaka 5-75

 

xxxx

Kural 541 (Just Rule)

 

Search out, to no one favour show, with heart that justice loves,

Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.

 

The Ramayana furnishes a parallel

If the punishment accorded to the offenders is meted out according to the laws of the land, it leads the monarch to heaven

–Ramayana 7-79-9

 

Kural 543 (Just Rule)

 

Learning and virtue of the sages spring

From all-controlling sceptre of the king

 

According to the Arthasastra,

That state which is disciplined by the established laws of the Aryas, which is rooted in the organisation of castes and orders, and which is protected by the three Vedas, progresses and never deteriorates – Book 1-3

 

Kural 545 (Just Rule)

 

Where king, who righteous law  regards, the sceptre wields,

There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields

 

A Parallel is furnished in the Ramayana,

The fields are rich with crops, the rains shower in proper seasons, and the soldiers are free from disease during Satrughna’s rule.

–Ramayana 7-70-10

 

xxxxx

 

Kural 554 (On Tyranny, Oppression)

 

Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,

At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.

 

Manu rules,

 

The king who allows the kingdom to deteriorate owing to sheer neglect and lethargy will soon fall from his position and life with all his relatives -Manu 7-111

 

Kural 560 (Oppression, Tyranny)

 

Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry

And Brahmin’s sacred lore will all forgotten lie

 

 

The Mahabharata furnishes a parallel,

When Dandaniti is given the death blow and when the ancient Raja Dharma of the Kshatriyas become lost, the sacred lore gets extinct, as also all the dharmas including those dharmas pertaining to the asramas

–Santi Prava Chap.112-28

 

xxxxxxxxxx

 

Kural 562 and 569 (Penalties)

 

For length of days with still increasing joys on heaven who call

Should raise the rod with bow severe, but let it gently fall.

 

Manu furnishes a parallel,

The king should be harsh and mild according to the nature of the work. He endears himself to the people, being harsh and soft—Manu 7-140

 

Kural 569

 

Who builds no forth whence he may foe defy,

In time of war shall fear and swiftly die

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

The enemies do not wrong those resident in fortresses, as they do not attack the king who shelters under a fort – Manu7-73

 

 

to be continued……………………

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

 

 

How Hindu Women Tackle Those who Make Advances! (Post No.4509)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 17 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  19-10

 

 

Post No. 4509

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

There are one or two episodes or couplets which show how Hindu women of the old world tackled men who made advances. Those were the days when women don’t even stand in front of men, leave alone talking. They did it out of modesty, shyness and the tradition of the land.

 

If some men approach a woman amorously or sexually now, she will threaten him with words and then warn him that she would call the police or at least raise alarm. They may even scold the men as b****ds. But in those days women never speak a single word in front of unknown men.

 

Look at the couplet in Chanakya Niti where a middle- aged woman tackled a man who made overtures to her:

 

A young man asks a middle -aged woman: he addresses her in chuckle “ Oh You Young beauty!  Why are you looking down? What of yours has fallen down on the earth?”

The middle-aged woman knew his intentions. So she gave him a fitting reply:

“Oh You fool! You do not know; The pearl in the form of my youth has fallen (I am looking for it)”.

She indirectly told him that she cannot neither entertain people like him nor he would find anything interesting in her because her charm is already gone.

–from Chanaya Niti, chapter 17 last sloka

adhah pasyasi kim bale patitam tava kim bhuvi

re re muurksha na jaanaasi gatam taarunya mauktikam

 

xxx

 

Ramayana Painting on the Wall

Gata Sapta Sati in Prakrit language, has 700 couplets mostly dealing with sex, family life, Illicit intimacy and love.

There is an interesting couplet; it was composed by Salivahan (GSS 1-35)

A newly married couple set up a family; but her husband had gone out on a business trip. Brother in law stepped into her house and eyed on her; she knew he was trying to make advances. He came for romance. She is newly married and even if she tells the truth to anyone no one is going to believe her. Even her husband may criticise her for accusing his own brother.

 

Thank god, a Ramayana painting on the wall of the house came to her rescue. Lakshmana, Rama’s brother was famous for maintaining chastity and integrity in the 14 year stay in the jungle with his brother Rama and sister in law Sita. Ramayana says that he never looked at Sita’s face and he knew only her holy feet with the toe rings. This painting was on the wall.

This newly married lady, looking at the picture, started telling the story of Lakshmana to her brother in law who came with amorous thoughts. Th way she praised Lakshmana for never looking at the face his sister n law conveyed the message very strongly. She made it very clear that she was not his cup of tea.

WHERE THERE IS RAMA , THERE IS NO KAMA!

Hindu women who never talk about sex or love to men, have their own way of conveying the message!  They are born clever in such matters!

xxx

 

God came in the form of Prostitute!

I used to attend Bhajans every Saturday with my father and mother in Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India). One night a beautiful Bhajan singer (i.e. a male with a beautiful voice) narrated an incident. He neither felt shame nor any hesitation in narrating it to us. Like Mahatma Gandhi admitting his childish mistakes (smoking secretly etc) to his father, he admitted in front of 20 to 25 Bhajan singers. Despite the holy atmosphere, during the Prasad distribution, he told us this:

Once I had some sexual urge and I went to a woman’s house, who was notorious for her bad behaviour. Knowing that I went for sex. But as soon as I entered her house she brought both here hands together to give me a big Namaste, saying ‘oh , holy singer! I have listened to your beautiful Bhajans now and then; God has given you a great gift. I am not that fortunate. Please take a seat. I will bring you some water and food. I will be blessed if you eat something in this poor woman’s house. As soon as I heard her words, all my sexual urge had disappeared. Then I pretended that I was looking for some address of XYZ and by mistake came into her house. Once again she heaped all the praises on me and I slipped out of the house without anybody seeing me. On that day God came to me in the guise of a prostitute and warned me not to entertain such thoughts. This was a great lesson.”

 

If you constantly think of God, even if you want to go astray he wouldn’t allow you to go bad.

Here the woman knew that he came with bad intentions, but she did not want to spoil him and tacked him in her own way!

–Subham–

Lord Rama’s Sixteen Quotations on Fate (Post No.4335)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 25 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 17-06

 

 

Post No. 4335

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Rama’s speech on Fate is a good collection of sixteen slokas in Ayodhya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana. I give below Srinivasa Sastri’s translation and then the actual slokas from Valmiki Ramayan.net

 

“All accumulations come to an end by depletion. Elevations end by crumbling and falling. Unions end by separation. Life ends by death.

 

As ripe fruits must inevitably fall to the ground , so must a man born inevitably perish.

Just as a building supported by strong pillar s decay in time and come s down, so do men pass away, victims of age and death.

 

The night, when it passes away, never returns. The Yamuna discharge s her waters into the great ocean but never turns back in her course.

 

Days and nights pass over heads of all the creatures on earth and soon consume their lives as the sun’s rays dry up the water in summer

 

Whether you stand still or move, your days diminish. Grieve then for yourselves. Why grieve for aught else?

 

Death travels with one; death rests with one. However far one goes, one cannot leave death behind but it returns too.

The skin is wrapt in folds and wrinkles. The hair s turn white. Age destroys a man. What can he do to avoid this?

 

At sunrise men rejoice thinking they may work and earn. At sunset they rejoice also thinking they can enjoy themselves. But they do not realise that their lives are shrinking.

 

As the season s come around, men fancy they are ever fresh and feel happy. But with each cycle of the season s our lives are shortened.

 

As logs of wood come together on the wide ocean, and having drifted together for a time, part from each other, so do wives, sons, kinsmen and possessions come together, and separate. This separation is unavoidable Two slokas together given.

 

 

No one on earth ever escapes the course of nature. So mourning for the dead cannot avail one when ones turn comes.

 

As a man falling in with a caravan on the move says to those there, ” I too will accompany you ” so is the journey of life, which has been already performed by our fathers and grandfathers. When one joins the journey, which knows no change, how can one complain?

 

Like a stream that never reverses its course, so one’s life ever lessens in duration. One must therefore strive for happiness, through righteousness, for it is well known that all men seek happiness.

 

FULL VERSION

सर्वे क्षय अन्ता निचयाः पतन अन्ताः समुग्च्छ्रयाः |
सम्योगा विप्रयोग अन्ता मरण अन्तम् च जीवितम् || २-१०५-१६

  1. sarve= all; nichayaaH= that is piled up; kSayaantaaH = is finally disbursed; samuchchhrayaaH = what rises; patanaantaaH = ends in a fall; samyogaaH = union; viprayogaantaaH = ends in separation; jiivitam = life; maraNaantam = ends in death.

“All that is piled up, is finally disbursed. What rises, ends in a fall. Unio ends in separation. Life ends in death.”

Verse Locator

यथा फलानम् पक्वानाम् न अन्यत्र पतनाद् भयम् |
एवम् नरस्य जातस्य न अन्यत्र मरणाद् भयम् || २-१०५-१७

  1. pakvaanaam= ripe; yathaa= how; phalaanaam = fruit; na = does not fear; anyatra = for anything other; patanaat = than falling; evam = so also; narasya = a man; jaatasya = once born; na = does not; bhayam = fear; anyatra = for anything other; maraNaat = than his death.

“How a ripe fruit does not fear for anything other than its falling, so also a man once born, does not fear for anything other than his death.”

Verse Locator

यथा अगारम् दृढ स्थूणम् जीर्णम् भूत्वा अवसीदति |
तथा अवसीदन्ति नरा जरा मृत्यु वशम् गताः || २-१०५-१८

  1. yathaa= how; dR^iDhasthuuNam= (even) a stron-pillared; agaaram = house; jiirNam bhuutvaa = gets worn out; avasiidati = and decays; tathaiva = so also; naraaH = human beings; siidanti = perish; jaraa mR^ityu vashamgataaH = having been subjected to the old age and death.

“As a house that is solidly contructed ultimately falls into decay, human being too is subject to age and death.”

 

Verse Locator

अत्येति रजनी या तु सा न प्रतिनिवर्तते |
यात्येव यमुना पूर्णा समुद्रमुदकाकुलम् || २-१०५-१९

  1. rajanii= the night; yaa= which; atyeti = has passed; saa = that; na pratinivartate = does not return; puurNaa = and the bountiful; yamunaa = River Yamuna; yaatyeva = just marches on; samudram = towards the ocean; udakaakulam = which is (again) full of water.

“The night that has passed, does not return and the buntiful River Yamuna just marches on towards the all-sufficient abounding in water.”

Verse Locator

अहो रात्राणि गग्च्छन्ति सर्वेषाम् प्राणिनाम् इह |
आयूम्षि क्षपयन्त्य् आशु ग्रीष्मे जलम् इव अंशवः || २-१०५-२०

  1. gachchhanti= the passing; ahoraatraaNi= days and nights; iha = in this world; aashu = quickly; kSapayanti = decrease;aayuumSi = the life-span; sarveSaam praaNinaam = of all living beings; griiSme iva = as in the summer; aamshavaH = the rays of the sun; (dry up); jalam = the water ( in a pool).

“The pasing days and nights in this world quickly decrease the life-span of all living being as in the summer, the rays of the sun dry up the water (in a pool).”

Verse Locator

आत्मानम् अनुशोच त्वम् किम् अन्यम् अनुशोचसि |
आयुः ते हीयते यस्य स्थितस्य च गतस्य च || २-१०५-२१

  1. sthitasycha= even while you stay (at home); gatasya cha= or departed (to another place); yasya = which; te = your; aayuH = life-span; hiiyate = gets shortened; tvam = you; anushocha = grieve; aatmaanam = for yourself; kim = why; anushochasi = do you grieve for; anyam = another?;

“You grieve for yourself. Why do you grieve for another? Even while you stay at home, or departed to another place, your life-span gets shortened.”

 

Verse Locator

सह एव मृत्युर् व्रजति सह मृत्युर् निषीदति |
गत्वा सुदीर्घम् अध्वानम् सह मृत्युर् निवर्तते || २-१०५-२२

  1. mR^ityuH= Death; vrajati= walks; sahaiva = just with us; niSiidati = (we) sit; saha mR^ityuH = along with death; gatvaa = and having travelled; sudiirgham = a very long; adhvaanam = distance; nivartate = (we) return; saha mR^ityuH = along with death.

“Death walks just with us (as we walk) and sits with us (as we sit). Having travelled a very long distance (with us), death returns along with us (as we return).”

Verse Locator

गात्रेषु वलयः प्राप्ताः श्वेताः चैव शिरो रुहाः |
जरया पुरुषो जीर्णः किम् हि कृत्वा प्रभावयेत् || २-१०५-२३

  1. valayaH= (When) folds; praaptaaH= have appeared; gaatreSu = on limbs; shiroruhaashchaiva = and even hari; shvetaaH = have turned grey; kim hi = on what expedient; puruSaH = can a man; kR^itvaa = having got; jiirNaH = decayed; jarayaa = with age; prabhaavayet = come to the original splendour?

“When folds have appeared on limbs and hair have turned grey; on what expedient can a man having got decayed with age, come back to the original splendour?”

Verse Locator

नन्दन्त्य् उदित आदित्ये नन्दन्त्य् अस्तम् इते रवौ |
आत्मनो न अवबुध्यन्ते मनुष्या जीवित क्षयम् || २-१०५-२४

  1. manuSyaaH= people; nandanti= are delighted; aaditye = when the sun; udite = has risen; nandati = and delighted; ravon = when the sun; astamite = has set; naavabudhyante = and are not able to know; aatmanaH = their; jiivitakSayam = loss in life-span.

“People are deligted when the sun has risen and also when the day ends. But they are not able to perceive the waning in their life-span.”

Verse Locator

हृष्यन्त्य् ऋतु मुखम् दृष्ट्वा नवम् नवम् इह आगतम् |
ऋतूनाम् परिवर्तेन प्राणिनाम् प्राण सम्क्षयः || २-१०५-२५

  1. dR^iSTvaa= seeing; R^itumukham= the onset of the season; hR^iSyanti = people rejoice; aagatam = as though it has come; navam navam = fresh and new; parivartena = but the succession; R^ituunaam = of the seasolns; praaNa samkSayaH = devours the life; praaNinaam = of living beings.

“Seeing the onset of season, people rejoice, as though it has come something newly. But the succession of the seasons devours the life of being.”

Verse Locator

यथा काष्ठम् च काष्ठम् च समेयाताम् महा अर्णवे |
समेत्य च व्यपेयाताम् कालम् आसाद्य कंचन || २-१०५-२६
एवम् भार्याः च पुत्राः च ज्नातयः च वसूनि च |
समेत्य व्यवधावन्ति ध्रुवो ह्य् एषाम् विना भवः || २-१०५-२७

26; 27. yathaa = how; mahaarNave = in a great ocean; kaaSThamcha = a drift-wood; kaaSThamcha = and another drift-wood;sameyaataam = meet; sametya = together; aasaadya = getting; kamchana = a certain; kaalam = time; vyapeyaataamcha = and separate; evam- in the same manner; bhaaryaashcha = wives; putraashcha = children; jJNaatayashcha = relatives; dhanaanicha = and riches; sametya = come toghether; vyapadhaavanti = and separate; eSaam = their; vinaabhavaH = parting; dhruvohi = is indeed inevitable.

“As pieces of drift-wood floating on the ocean coe toghether for a span, so wives, children, kinsmen wealth and property come together for a while and part with us. Their parting in deed inevitable.”

Verse Locator

न अत्र कश्चिद् यथा भावम् प्राणी समभिवर्तते |
तेन तस्मिन् न सामर्थ्यम् प्रेतस्य अस्त्य् अनुशोचतः || २-१०५-२८

  1. atra= here; na kachchit praaNii= no being; samabhivartate = can escape; yathaabhaavam = its destiny (in the form of birth and death); tena = for that reason; saamarthyam = the power; tasmin = to avert his own death; naasti = does not ingrain; anushochataH= in a man mourning; pretasya = for a dead person.

“Here, no being can escape its destiny ( in the form of birth and death). For that reason, the power to avert his own death does not ingrain in a man mourning for a dead person.”

 

Verse Locator

यथा हि सार्थम् गग्च्छन्तम् ब्रूयात् कश्चित् पथि स्थितः |
अहम् अप्य् आगमिष्यामि पृष्ठतो भवताम् इति || २-१०५-२९
एवम् पूर्वैर् गतो मार्गः पितृ पैतामहो ध्रुवः |
तम् आपन्नः कथम् शोचेद् यस्य न अस्ति व्यतिक्रमः || २-१०५-३०

29; 30. yathaa saartham = as a caravan; gachchhantam = is passing; pathi = on a raod; sthitaH = one stationed at the way-side; iti bruuyaat = thus says; ahamapi = I too; aagamiSyaami = will come; pR^iSThataH = behind; bhavataam = you; evam = in the same manner; behind; bhavataam = you; evam = in the same manner; dhruvaH = (we should) inevitably (follow); maargaH = the path; gataH= taken; pitR^ipaitaamahaH = by fathers; grand fathers; puurvaiH = and ancestors; katham = why;shochet = distress; aapannaH = by the man who obtained; tam = that path; yasya = for which; naasti = then is no; vyatikramaH = return?

“As a caravan is passing on a road, one stationed at the way-side says, I too will come behind you. In the same manner, we should inevitably follow the path taken by fathers and fire fathers. Why a man who obtained that path, for which there is no return, distress himself.

Verse Locator

वयसः पतमानस्य स्रोतसो वा अनिवर्तिनः |
आत्मा सुखे नियोक्तव्यः सुख भाजः प्रजाः स्मृताः || २-१०५-३१

  1. vayasaH= (while) the age; patamaanasya= reshes on; anivartinaH = without return; srotasovaa = like a stream; aatmaa = one’s self; niyoktavyaH = should be emplyoed; sukhe = in a pursuit leading to blessedness; smR^itaaH = It is said; prajaaH = that beings; sukhabhaajaH = are meant to be happy.

“While the age reshes on, without any return like a flowing river, one’s self should be emplyoed in a pursuit leading to blessedness. It is said that beings are meant to be happy?”

Verse Locator

धर्म आत्मा स शुभैः कृत्स्नैः क्रतुभिः च आप्त दक्षिणैः |
धूत पापो गतः स्वर्गम् पिता नः पृथिवी पतिः || २-१०५-३२

  1. saH= that; pR^ithiviipatiH= king; dasharathaH = Dasaratha; naH = our; dharmaatmaa = pious minded; pitaa = father;kR^itsnaiH = (performed) almost all; shubhaiH = auspicious; kratubhiH = sacrifices; aapta dakSiNaiH = and paid plentiful sacrificial fees (to the officiating priests and Brahmins); gataH = and went; svargam = to heaven.

“The king Dasaratha, our pious minded father performed almost all auspicious sacrifices and paid plentiful sacrificial fees (to the officiating priests and Brahmins) and went to heaven.”

–SUBHAM–

 

 

 

 

Serious Argument between Rama and Bharata on Two Words! (Post No.4332)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 24 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-42

 

 

Post No. 4332

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Serious Argument between Rama and Bharata on Two Words! (Post No.4332)

All of us know the outline of Ramayana, one of the two great Hindu epics in India. Ramayana has got lot of materials on Dharma or righteousness. During the meeting of Bharata and Rama in the forest, each one tried to outsmart the other. The context is Bharata persuading Rama to return to Ayodhya and take over the reins. Most of us miss the minute points; only those who read it in full original slokas (Sanskrit couplets) will observe and digest those things. Right Honourable Silver tongue V S  Srivasa sastri gave some lectures on Ramayana in 1944 touching those minute and very useful points. Madras Sanskrit Academy arranged those talks. He gave 30 lectures on Valmiki Ramayana.

 

Here is an excerpt: –

In the middle of the argument Bharata says, “Have pity on me. It was when I was away that Kaikeyi behaved in this fashion, fancying that it would please me. She deserves to be severely punished but I don’t punish her because I am afraid of violating the rule of Dharma. I am also afraid of your serious displeasure. As for my father, Dasaratha, he was an old man and a dotard. He was in the hands of my mother. The old saying has it that people weaken in their old age, become somewhat senile,

‘anta kale hi bhutaani muhyantiti puraa sruthi:’

This old saying has abundantly testified to by our father. (V R 2-106-8 to 14)

 

Apatya

Then Bharata ventures on advising his own elder brother!

You know the word APATYA means son. It is grammatically neuter in gender but it means son. It comes from a peculiar belief that the son saves father from ‘falling’ (apatya), that is, from perdition we say. That is why he is called APATYAM. He prevents father’s fall. Bharat uses the word in its literal sense and ventures his brother in the truth.

Bharata says to Rama,

“Our father thinking that he was under some obligation or perhaps in fear of the anger of the wife, whatever it was, through some mistake, passed an unjust order. The transgression of our father, you had better undo it. Put it right. Father did wrong some mistake, may be he was a fool.

He is called a son in this world who when the father has gone wrong, puts the matter right:

piturhi samatikraantam puto ya: sadhu manyate- 2-106-15

If a son doesn’t do it but obeys his father in the wrong course, then he must not be called APATYA (preventing falling). He helps his father’s fall, brings it about. You had better be an APATYA.

Maa Bhavaan duskrtam pitu:- 2-106-16

Do not carry out the wrong order passed by the father. Do not confirm him in the error of his ways and thus bring down Heaven’s punishment on him. Do the right thing and save him”

See how a clever man can twist things to his own purpose.

 

(After giving new interpretation to the word Apatya, Bharata shows all those assembled in support of his request that Rama should return to Ayodhya)

Right Honourable Srinivasa sastri continues……………

“Then Sri Rama Says: You think that I , being the eldest son, must obey father and that you need not. Is that your opinion? Father has laid on me one duty,  going to the forest. He has laid on you another duty, being king at Ayodhya and ruling the kingdom. You forget that is your duty. Go and get yourself crowned. Do not waste time here. Carry out your father’s wish as I  carrying out his wish.

Please your mother by carrying out your father’s wish.”

Significance of going to Gaya Kshetra

Rama continues……….

“There was once a great mannamed Gaya who in the place called Gaya performed a great Yajna and saved his Pitris (departed souls).That man having saved his Pitris has laid it down for posterity.

 

putraamno naarakaadhyasmaatpitaram traayate suta:

tasmaan putra iti prokta: pitruun ya paathi sarvata: (2-107-12)

 

Because a son saves the father from the Naraka called ‘Put’ by performing what is called Ishtaputra, be it in wealth, in temples and so on, he is called PUTRA. A son who performs these benevolent offices and dedicates them for the benefit of his father is called a PUTRA.”

Now Rama says to Bharata,

You had better be a PUTRA. You asked me to be an APATYAM, I ask you to be a PUTRA.

 

(Both Putra and Apatyam meant the same; but Bharata gave a new interpretation and Rama corrected him by explaining Putra)

 

The prescription is that the man should bear many sons. One wont do, no, not even two; for life is subject to so many mutations and vicissitudes. We want one son at least to go to Gaya and perform Sraddha.

 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, how famous must this Gaya must have been for it to get this sanctified flavour even in the  time of Sri Rama! What an ancient place it must have been! One must wish to get many sons of whom someone may go to and perform Sradhdha.

 

At the end Rama outsmarted Bharata by using the word Putra which has the same meaning of Apatyam.

–subham–

Asuras and Rakshasas: Foreigners’ Interpretation!! (Post no.4309)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date:17 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 10-36 am

 

 

Post No. 4309

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Foreigners who came to rule India and destroy Hinduism spread a big lie that Asuras and Rakshasas were aborigines and they opposed the invaders because they tried to encroach their lands. But any Hindu can see this is nonsense from the following facts:

 

1.The Brahmana literature and the epic literature clearly say that the ASURAS and DEVAS were all born to the same parents.

2.The ‘Da Da Da’ Upanishad story clearly show that they went to the same gods to get advice.

Da……………Da……………Da Story – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/02/19/dadada-story/

19 Feb 2014 – Da….Da: The Thunder Said”- is the most popular story in the Upanishads. Most of you know it already. In our own times, Kanchi Paramacharya …

 

3.Ravana and other Rakshas were great Siva devotees/Bhaktas. They got boons from Brahma or Siva.

  1. Krishna’s son Pradyumna married a Rakshasa girl; Arjuna married a Rakshasa girl; Bhima married Hidimba, a Rakshasa woman.

 

  1. From Pasmasura to xyz everyone prayed, and did the penance in the same way.
  2. Even in the churning of the ocean anecdote they were also called to churn the ocean
  3. In the Rig Veda gods Agni, Varuna and Indra were called Asuras. Then it meant Supreme spirit and person of great strength. Later they denoted exactly opposite meaning.

But why did the Devas fight against the Asuras? Because they were immoral, lawless criminals. Like we have filled all our jails with criminals, Devas punished all the criminals. Dasyus were described as Dravidians by cunning, divisive foreigners, but second century BCE poet Kalidasa used it for thieves.

Dasyus, Asuras and Rakshas were born to same parents, but they did not care for the law or rule of the land. Like we have murderers, rapists robbers, thieves, money launderers, cheats, frauds in our society, Vedic society had Asuras, Rakshasas and Dasyus. They raided the civilised community in the night time and killed the people, carried their women and cattle. They obstructed the Yagas and Yajnas. Throughout Hindu literature they were described as cannibals. They ate human beings like the non vegetarians eat chicken and mutton. This is a big difference between the Devas and Rakshasas. All these things are crystal clear in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Brahmana literature.

 

Foreigners knew that majority of the Hindus don’t read the Hindu scriptures and so they easily misled the laymen. Hindu scriptures are huge in volume, incomparable with any religious literature in the world. And the wonder of the wonders, all the Brahmanas and Vedic samhitas were written before the old testament of the Bible, Tamil literature, Greek literature and latin literature.

 

Since Muslims ruled India for 700 years and Christians ruled for 300 years, intellectuals kept quiet or their voice was not heard by many. Foreign “scholars” were paid coolies and they had to support the government or their pay masters. There is a proof for this. No where in the world so many people were studying another religion just to criticize it. If there are equal number of scholars studying and critically analysing another holy book then we may consider them ‘scholars’.

 

Now we shall look at the actual proof from our literature which no foreigner told us:-

Rakshas were called night walkers; no honest person  or a warrior will attack anyone in the night. Only cowards or criminals do it.

They were described as taking different forms or shapes during the attacks. That means they wore masks or came in different disguises. No honest person would do it.

Born from Prajapati!

 

According to Taittiriya Brahmana, the breath (asu) of Prajapati became alive and with that breath he created the Asuras. Satapata Brahmana also says that Asuras were created from the lower breath of Prajapati.

In another part of the same book, it is said that Prajapati became pregnant and he created the Asuras from his abdomen.

Taittiria Aranyaka says that Prajapati created Gods, Men, Fathers, Gandharvas and Apsarasses from water and that the Asuras, Rakshasas, Pisachas sprang from the drops which were split.

Manu says they were created by Prajapati.

Puranas says that Asuras were created from the groin of Brahmaa/Prajapati.

The word Asura has been used for long as a general name of the ‘enemies of the gods’, including the Daityas and Danavas and other descendants of Kasyapa, but not including the Rakshasas, who descended from Pulastya. Both of them were Brahmins and Vedic seers!

Asura has another explanation; ‘a’ is taken as the negative prefix, and a+sura signifies ‘not a god’; sura means god.

Another meaning for Asura is those who are not fond of Sura (liquor). There are over 40 theories about their origin and meaning.

RAKSHASAS

Goblins or evil spirits are called Rakshas. There are categories in it: Yakshas, not so bad, and Danavas/Rakshas and Pisachas, who occupy crematoriums and cemeteries. Chief of the Rakshas was Ravana, who descended from Pulastya Maharishi.

There are more explanations:

Vishnu Purana says that they were descendants of Kashyapa Maharishi and Khasa, daughter of Daksha, through their son Rakshas.

 

Ramayana says they were created by Brahma, who were appointed as the guardians of water .Raksha means ‘protect’ in Sanskrit. According to Ramayana they were in different forms and shapes, most of them very crude.

 

Rakshasas had many epithets

Hanushas= killers or hurters

Ishti pachas= stealers of offerings

Sandhya balas= strong in twilight

Naktan charas, nicicharas= night walkers

Kiilaalapas, rakta pas= blood drinkers

Dandasukas = biters

Malina- mukhas = black faced

Karburaas=  users of rude words

 

— SUBHAM—

 

Interesting Geographical Details in the Mahabharata-4 (Post No.4203)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 11 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-48

 

Post No. 4203

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

(This is the fourth and the last part)

 

 

My comments: The geographical details in the MBH gives lot of scope for research; it is amazing that Vyasa or his disciples have accumulated so much information in an epic. Modern approach will give a better picture. We can divide them into different categories such as 100% sure, 755 certain etc.

Janapadas of the East

1.ANDHAKA: Mathura area

2.ANGA: area between Videha and Magadha;modern Bihar

3.ANTARGIYA: Badri-Kedara region

4.ATREYA: Garwala region

5.BHADRA:Bhadranagara of Rajasthan

6.BHARGA: State of Vatsas; between Vaisali and Sravasti

7.BHARGAVA: West of Assam

8.GAYA: modern Bihar

9.KALAKUUTA:Kulinda region

10.KASI:Region between rivers Ganga and Gomati

11.KIRATA:Ladakh area

12.KUNTI: Gwalior area

13.KURU:Meerut area

14.KOSALA: Sarayu river area.

15.MATSYA:Bharatapura, Jaipura area

16.MALLA:Deoria district of UP

17.MAGADHA: Patna area; Bihar

18.MALADA: Malda of West Bengal

19.MAADHYAMIKA: Nagari area of Chittoor

20.MANAVARJAKA:Vardhamana in West Bengal

21.NAIMISA: Sitapura of UP

22.PATACCARA: Pataidi near Gugaon

23.PRAYAGA: Allahabad, Triveni Sangam

24.PANCALA:Punjab

25.PRAGJYOTISA: Gauhati in Assam area

26.PUNDRA: Rangpur, Rajasahi, Bogra in Bangladesh

27.STRI RAJYA: Western tip of the Buddhist Majjimadesa

28.SUHMA:Tamralipti and Medhinipura of Bangladesh

29.SASAKA: Murshidabad of West Bengla

30.Surasena: area around Mathura

31.TAMRALIPTA:Midnapur District of West Bengal

32.VANGA:Dacca and Mymensingh of Bangladesh

33.VATSA: Allahabad area

34.VAHIGIRYA:Mussori, Nainital areas

35.VIDEHA: Mithila area of Bihar

 

xxx

 

JANAPADAS OF THE WEST

1.APRAANTA:also Kuttapraanta Kalyana, Supara districts

2.ARBUDA: Abu mountain area

3.AANARTA:  Southern part of Ahmedabad, Baroda

4.AABHIRA: Ophir of the Bible; Averia of the Greeks;Sindhu delta

5.AARATTA: pancanada state

6.KAAKSA: Inner Narmada area; Bharukacca port

7.KUKKURA: western Vindhyas

8.KONKANA: Ratnagiri district

9.KOLVAGIRYA: Colaba area of Mumbai

10.KSUDRAKA:Montgomery area

 

11.GOPARAASTRA: area around Nasik

12.JANGALA: Bikaneer area

13.TUNDIKERA: Chindwada area of MP

14.TUMBUMA: Guna District of MP

15.DVAIPEYA: Island Diu

16.NAVARAASTRA: Maharashtra state

17.BRGHU: around ancient AAnarta

18.MARU BHUMI: Desert area of Jodhpur

19.MAAHEYA: river Mahi basin

20.SUUDRA: identified with State Abhira

21.LAATA: modern Gujarat

22.VITIHOTRA:  south of Avanti

23.SURASSTRA: Kathiawad region

24.SAMUPTA NIKUTA: island area of Kathiawada

25.SAARASWATA: river Saraswati basin, west of Ahmedabad

26.SINDHU: river Indus area

27.SAUVIRA modern Rodj in Pakistan

 

–Subham–

INTERESTING GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS IN MAHABHARATA- PART 3 (Post No.4199)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 10 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 10-41 am

 

Post No. 4199

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

PREVIOUS TWO PARTS ARE PUBLISHED IN THE PAST TWO DAYS; THIS IS THE THIRD PART

 

JANAPADAS OF THE SOUTH

The countries of the Vindhya mountain region along with the south, south east and south west have been dealt in this chapter. The peculiar point is that Lanka has not been mentioned anywhere. It means the city of Lanka was submerged long before. But Simhala (Ceylon or Sri Lanka) is mentioned.

 

The second unique description is the knowledge of the western horizon up to the northern Atlanti ocean, Roma, Antioch and Yavananampuri according to Pande Syam Narayan, the author of the book

 

1.ANUPA: Nimar district; on the northern bank of Narmada; also known as Haihai country.

 

2.AVANTI: Malwa region; capital Ujjaini; Panini called it Ujna.

 

3.ASMAKA: District of Ahmednagar and Bodhan are of Andhrapradesh; capital Prathistanapura; Asmaka, son of Kalmasavad founded the city of Paudanya.

4.ANDHRA: Aitareya Brahmana refers to it; region between the mouths of Godavari and Krsna rivers.

5.BALIRASTRA: MBG mentioned only four countries with RASHTRA ending:Aadirashtra, Pamsurashtra, Goparashtra and Balirashtra.It is Bali island of Indonesia. Mahabharata mentioned that Rama spent ten years in this area.

6.BHOJA: modern Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh; Aitareya Brahmana mentioned title of Bhoja of the monarchs of the south.

7.COLA: districts of Thanjavur and Trichy; There was a king named Sagraaha Cola whose capital was Kanchi.

 

8.CUCUKA: Cecu near Hyderabad in Andhra.

9.DASAARNA: erastern part of Malwa country; capital- Vidhisa.

 

10.DANDAKA: East of Nasik up to Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra.Rama spent ten years here.

 

11.DRAVIDA: Sahadeva conquered this country according to MBH. region from Madras upto Rangapattam

and the peninsula of Kumari; another opinion country north of Kaveri up to Ailamalaya and Nilgris.

12.DEVAPRASTHA: region between Amarakantaka and Kanchipura

13.GANDAKA: Ahemedabadregion

14.HAIHAI: modern NIMADA; northern banks of Narmada

15.KARNATAKA:modern Karnataka

16.KAARUUSA: modern Baghelakand area

17.KUNTALA: Solapura and Bijapura area in river Bhima basin

 

18 and 19. KUMAARA and KUMAARIKAA: towards Kumari peninsula

 

20.KERALA: modern Kerala

21.MAHISAKA: modern Bellari, Citradurga and Shimoga;

22.MAALAVA:Nakula conquered the country during his dikvijay towards west.Greeks refereed to them Maloi; they lived on the baks of Ravi 2400 years ago.

23.MEKALA: region stretching from Riva to Khairagarha from where the rivers Narmada and Sona originate.

24MUSAKA: also known as Suutika and Musika. near Hyderabad on the river Musi.

25.NISHADA: modern Gwalior region

26.NALAKAANANA: Bellari-Anantpur regions

27.PANDYA: Ramnad, Madurai, Tirunelveli areas Sahadeva conquered it. There were Agastya and Kumari pilgrimages.

28.RSIKA: Khanadesa of Madhya Pradesh

29.SIMHALA: modern Sri Lanka

30.SABARA: Ganjam and Vizagapatnam districts on river Sabari.

31.TALAJANGHA: north of Narmada near Haihai country. Haihai wre divided into five groups: Talajangha,Tundikera,Vitihotras, Bhojas, Avantis

32.TALAKATA: western side of river Ganga

33.UDRA: modern Odisah(Orissa); Utkala, Kalinga

34.VANAVASAKA: modern Vanvasi; Kannada and Karwar areas on river Tungabadra

35.VIDARBHA: garuda, Vaidharna; region near origin of the tributaries of Godavari, tapti, Penganga; modern Vidharba

36.VINDHYA VIPULA: southern foothills of Vindhya- Satpura mountains; inhabitants were called Vindhya culika or culaka or muuliiya.

 

to be continued………………………….