MAHABHARATA AT ONE GO! Bullet Point Summary of 18 Chapters! (Post No.3758)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 26 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 16-00


Post No. 3758


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.




Most of us including me, find it difficult to read all the 100,000 couplets, 200,000 lines, one million words in the world’s longest epic, Mahabharata. They say about this epic,

“What is found in this epic may be elsewhere;
What is not in this epic is nowhere else”.

It is an ever inspiring, never tiring and most interesting Hindu encyclopaedia. From Time travel to Test Tube Babies, from Siamese Twins surgery to Sex Change Operation – everything is here (Please look at the bottom for my research articles on these topics). Vyasa, the author of the epic, was the most prolific writer. He had compiled the voluminous Vedas as well.


Mahabharata has 18 chapters (Parva);

Following are the names of the 18 Parvas:

1.Adi Parva

2.Sabha Parva

3.Vana Parva

4.Virata Parva

5.Udhyoga Parva

6.Bhishma Parva

7.Drona Parva

8.Karna Parva

9.Shalya Parva

10.Sauptika Parva

11.Stri Parva

12.Shanti Parva

13.Anusasana Parva

14.Asvamedha Parva

15.Ashramavasika Parva

16.Mausala Parva

17.Mahaprastanika Parva

18.Swaraga Arohana Parva



a).Longest Parva

Shanti Parva with over 14,000 slokas


b).Shortest Parva

Maha Prastanika Parva


c).Where is Bhagavad Gita in this epic?

In the Bhishma Parva

d).Where is Vishnu Sahsranama (1000 names of Lord Vishnu) in this epic?

In the Anusasana Parva

e).What is the name of the first Parva?

Adi Parva


f).What is the name of the last Parva?

Swarga Arohana Parva


1.Adi Parva

The Book of the Beginning is the name of the chapter.

Beginning of the Lunar Dynasty

Birth of Pandavas and Kauravas (Kuru Dynasty)

Separate rule of 5 Pandavas and 100 Kauravas from two capitals


2.Sabha Parva

The Book of the Assembly Hall.

Construction of a beautiful Palace for Pandavas which kindled the jealousy of Duryodana (Kaurava Chief). Yudhisthra did a Rajasuya Yajna.

He called Pandavas for a Gambling and defeated them with the help of his uncle Sakuni.

As per the rules of the games Pandavas lost everything and banished for 12+1 year (13th year incognito)


3.Vana Parva (Aranya Parva)

The Book of the Forest

Pandavas spend their 12 years with Draupadi in the forest.

They learnt a lot from seers like Markandeya.

Arjuna did a penance and received Pasupata Astra from Lord Shiva;

Arjuna did a space jouney and spent some time in the heaven.


4.Virata Parva

The Book of the Virata.

Pandavas with their wife Draupadi were hiding in the country of Virata. They were in different disguise, doing different jobs.

Keesaka, who tried to molest Draupadi was killed by Bhima.

Duryodana tried very hard to identify the Pandavas, but failed


5.Udhyoga Parva

The Book of the Effort.

When the Pandavas came back and asked for their share of the kingdom, Duryodana refused to give them.

Several messengers were sent to avoid war.

Krishna also went as a messenger, but in vain.


6.Bhishma Parva

The Book of Bhisma

When Arjuna said that he did not want to fight for the land, Krishna gave him some lessons – which are in compiled as the Bhagavd Gita

War began; Bhisma took the command of Karava army.

He was knocked down on the 10th day of the 18 day war.

He was lying on the Bed of Arrows.


7.Drona Parva

The Book of Drona

Drona took over as the commander in chief following Bhisma’s fall;

he was killed on the 13th day of the war, when he heard  a lie from the mouth of Yudhisthra (Pandava’s chief); Asvattama is the name of an elephant as well as son of Drona. When Drona heard Asvattama killed (uttered by Yudhisthra), he thought that hi son was killed and lost control and got killed.


8.Karna Parva

The Book of Karna

Karna took over the post of commander in chief of Kaurava Army;

He was killed on the 17th day;

Yudhisthra felt very sad when he knew Karna was the eldest of the Pandava brothers.


9.Shalya Parva

The Book of Shalya

Shalya served as the commander following Karna’s death.

On the 18th day Shalya was killed;

then Duryodhana and Bhima wanted to have a mace fight; Duryodhan was killed when Bhima stuck him on the thigh against the rules.

Duyodhanawas killed and the war came to an end.


10.Sauptika Parva

The Book of the Sleeping Warriors

After the rout of the Kaurava army, asvattama, son of Drona, wanted to take a revenge on the Pandavas.

He watched an owl killing the crows at the dead of night in tree and decided to kill the Pandavas the sameway.

Lord Krishna knew it by premonition and hid them at a diiferent place; only Pandavas’ children were killed; but Pandavas escaped unharmed.


11.Stri Parva

The Book of the Women

All the women who lost their husbands cried.

Pandavas did the water oblations for the departed souls on both sides.


12.Shanti Parva

The Book of Peace

Dharma alias Yudhisthra lost mental peace even after crowned as the Emperor.

Bhishma gave him lot of examples from the scriptures, lying on the Bed of Arrows



13.Anusasana Parva

The Book of Instructions

Bhishma gave him more instructions


14.Asvamedha Parva

The Book of Asvamedha Yaga

Yudhisthra did an Asvmedha Yajna (Horse sacrifice);

Lord Krishna gave Arjuna another dose of lessons in the name of Anu Gita.


15.Ashramavasika Parva

The Book of Hermitage

Dhritarashtra and his wife Gandhari went to forest with Kunti;

they were doing meditation at the fag end of their lives; forest fire burnt them alive. Before that they listened to Vidura who consoled them


16.Mausala Parva

The Book of the mace fight.

Following the curse of a seer, Yadavas fought among themselves and killed each other; musal means mace; each of the normal grass they pulled for fighting became a mace andkilled them.

Lord Krishna was killed by a hunter while he was sitting on the tree.


17.Mahaprastanika Parva

The Book of the Great Journey.

Hearing that Krishna died and the Kali Yuga began, Pandava brothers along with Draupadi did a ritual walk towards North to reach the Meru mountains. A dog followed them. Pandava brothers, fell one by one and lost their lives. Yudhisthra and the dog continued their journey.


18.Swaraga Arohana Parva

The Book of the Ascent to Heaven

When Yudhisthra died, he was taken along the route of Hell for saying one lie in the war. At the end, he reached the heaven and saw all his relatives there; he felt immensely happy; the dog that followed them was nothing but the God of Dharma.





Old Articles on Mahabharata from my blogs:–

Following articles are written by London swaminathan

1.Stars are Gods! We are Stars!!

Post No 1241; Dated 18th August 2014.

2.Medical Science solves Ten Mysteries in the Mahabharata !

Post No. 933 Date 26th March 2014

3.PANDU- TIGER AMONG MEN! (Post No.3697) Date: 6 March 2017

4.Sex Secrets! Satyabhama boldly asks Draupadi in Mahabharata!!

Post No.2220; Date: 6   October 2015

5.Draupadi and Tamil Heroines;17 May 2012

6.Four Wings of Hindu Army: Blow to Aryan- Dravidian Theory!;Post No.1230 ; Dated 13th August 2014.

7.Strange Bird Stories in Mahabharata!

Research Article no. 1711; dated 12 March 2015

8.One Minute Mahabharata! One Minute Bhagavatha!! 27 March 2015

9.Yellow clad Krishna and Blue Clad Balarama! 2 October 2014


Following articles are written by S Nagarajan


1.MEMORY QUEEN DRAUPADI; Written by S Nagarajan

Research Article No. 1689; Dated 4 March 2015.


Please read also my articles on CONCEPT OF TIME:


1.TIME TRAVEL by TWO TAMIL SAINTS, posted on 14-2-2012

2.Do Hindus believe in ETs and Alien Worlds?, posted on 28-1-2012

3.Is Brahmastra a Nuclear Weapon?, posted on 5 June 2011

4.Hindus Future Predictions Part 1 (posted 20 May 2012)

5.Hindus Future Predictions Part 2 (Posted on 20 May 2012)

6.Five Beautiful Stories on Hindu Concept of Time; Article No.1869; Dated 16 May 2015.

7.Einstein’s Hindu Connection!; Article No.2017; Date : 25  July 2014





Ramayana cures Curses! Rajatarangini Episode! (Post No.3754)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 24 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-58


Post No. 3754


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.




Kalhana, author-poet-historian of Kashmir, in his book gives an interesting anecdote about Ramayana in his book Rajatarangini.

From First Taranga of Rajatarangini:–


“Then Damodara (Damodara II) who was either descended from the House of Asoka or was born in some other dynasty, protected the land as the king.

“Highly resplendent with material resources was the king who was the crest jewel of Siva worshippers, and one hears of his spiritual power even to this day as a marvel of the world.

“Like Kubera this foremost among kings held under his own sway the Guhyakas; by ordering them he built the extensive dam at Gudda.

“When a lofty minded man is about to do some remarkably beneficent act, alas! impediments arise owing to the meagreness of the past merits of men.


“For he had tried with the help of Yakshas to build in his kingdom extensive dykes of stone to mitigate the havorc of inundations.

Spiritual Power of the Brahmins

“The spiritual power of the austerities of Brahmans of radiant enlightenment is unfathomable, since it could reverse the fortune of even such as he was.


“The prosperity of kings when destroyed by the forces of kinsmen and other rivals one has seen restored once more; it has no chance of being re-established if lost through disregard of the Brahmans.

“When he had risen to bathe to perform the  Sraaddha Ceremony (oblations to the departed souls), the king was requested by some hungry Brahmins, on one occasion, before he had taken his bath, to give them food.

“Desirous of proceeding to Vitasta (river) when he ignored this, they, by their spiritual power, then placed that river in front of him—‘Behold! here is Vitasta; now feed us. Even though addressed in this wise, he perceived that the production of the river was a delusion.


“I shall not offer food without bathing, O Brahmins!move on now for the time being; when they had been thus addressed by him, they cursed him as follows: May you become a snake.”


“Your sin will be atoned by listening in one single day to the whole of the Ramayana – thus they declared after they had been placated.

“In Damodara Suda, wandering fa through thirst, by the vapour of his breath, which is hot in consequence of the curse, he is recognised by the people even today.

“Then there ruled in this very land the founders of cities called after their appellations, the three kings named Huska,Juska and Kanishka”.

—-Chapter 1/ First Taranga of Rajatarangini

Ramayana was popular even before 2000 years from the Southernmost tip Kanyakumari to Kashmir. Even 2000 yeal old Tamil Sangam Literature (Purananuru) has verses containing Rama’s stories!


We have 3000 different versions of Ramayana, spreading over a vast geographical area up to Indonesia, Thailand and China.


We have continuous production of Ramayana for over 2000 years. No other epic was treated that way.

Added together all the Ramayanas will run into millions of lines.

Ramayana was composed in more languages than any other language.

Ramayana is called Adi Kavya (the first classic in the world); Soka (sadness) turned into Sloka (Sanskrit couplets);

When Valmiki saw, a hunter shooting down one of the two love birds, he felt sad (Soka) and burst into poetry (sloka).

Ramayana has over 3400 similes. Grand message in simple Sanskrit!

Ramayana was the epic done by all the oriental religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.


Hunchback Manthara, Bird caught in a Noose! (Post No.3750)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 23 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 22-24


Post No. 3750


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





There is a very interesting episode in Valmiki Ramayana, which many of you would have missed. Shatrugna, brother of Rama and Lakshmana, was about to slay Manthara, the hunchback. But Bharata who was equally angry at her, saved her. He gave two reasons for saving her:


1.Women should not be killed, however evil they were, according to Hindu Law Books.

2.If Rama knew that we have killed Manthara, the hunchback, then he would not even meet us.


But before Bharata admonished Shatrugna, what happened there was interesting.

It is in chapter 78 of Ayodhya Kanda of Ramayana. Shatrugna was the younger brother of Lakshmana. He wondered how come Lakshmana allowed this unjust thing to happen (banishing Rama for 14 years). When he was fuming with anger, this wretched woman Manthara appeared before him with all the bling on her body. This infuriated Shatrugna.

Everyone in the palace knew that she was the main cause for this misfortune. So the guards roughed her and brought her before Shatrugna. He said Let this woman receive the ‘fruit of her action’. He seized hold of her with his strong hands. she rent the palace with her shrieks. The women who were with her fled in different directions in fear. They thought Shatrugana would kill all of them and went to Kausalya for protection.


In the meantime, enraged Shatrugna gave her severe blows. When he showered blows on Manthara, she fell down on the ground. Then he redoubled his strokes and her ornaments were scattered. Valmiki says the floor with her bling looked like the autumn sky with stars!


Shatrugna holding her with his strong hands started scolding Kaikeyi, who fearing him, ran to Bharata.

Bharata said to Shatrugna: “one should avoid slaying any woman, therefore control yourself. I would have killed even Kaikeyi for her heinous conduct. But if Rama hears that this hunchback Manthara was slain, he would not approve it.


Hearing this he let her go and she fell at the feet of Kaikeyi, breathless and weeping. The hunchback looked like a Krauncha bird that was  caught in a noose!

When we read this, we ourselves feel that we should punch on the face of Manthara. Had we lived at that time, given an opportunity, we would have done so!




Written by London swaminathan


Date: 6 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 10-42 am


Post No. 3697


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.




Pandu was the father of Pancha (five) Pandavas in the Mahabharata. He was born to Ambalika and Vyasa. There is a big scientific truth in the birth story of Pandu. If any woman has sex with a man in disgust or hatred, the child born may be handicapped or sick or a baby with a rare syndrome.


Pandu’s older brother was Dhritarashtra who was born blind. Because of brother’s blindness Pandu took over the reins of the Kingdom. He was ruling from Hastinapura. He married Kunti, who chose him as her husband in a Swayamvara ( a princess choses her own husband in an open competition). Later he married Madri from Madra Kingdom. In the olden days, a king could marry as many princesses as possible from neighbouring kingdoms to strengthen the country and save it from invasions.


Kunti, taught Madri the mantra (magic spell) she learnt from Durvasa, a seer, to get children. Through that mantra she invoked the Vedic twins Aswini kumaras and got twins Nakula and Sahadeva. Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna with these twins were called Pancha/Five Pandavas.

Science behind their births!

Vyasa was asked to help Amba and Ambika in getting children, since both had no issues. They couldn’t have children with their husband Vichitraveerya. This was an ancient custom allowed to continue the lineage. So, Vyasa agreed to produce children, but neither he was  a handsome man nor dresses properly. He was more involved in the Vedic studies. When Ambika looked at him she hated him and shut her eyes while she had conjugal bliss with him. Because of her mental state she gave birth to a born blind, Dhritarshtra. Ambalika also was not happy, but had sex with him with a feeling of disgust and the child born to her was pale, Pandu.


So, if someone doesn’t feel comfortable or happy while having sex, that will affect the children born to them physically or mentally. Western country statistics also show that children brought up in an atmosphere of violence, squalor, bad habits such as drink and drugs become anti-social elements.


How Pandu died?

Hunting and gambling were two big vices of Hindu kings. When Pandu went for a hunt in the forest he mistook a rishi and his wife as deer and shot and killed them. At that time they were having sex. Since Rishis (seers) of ancient India wore deer skin, they were easily mistaken. When the seer (Kindama) died, he cursed Pandu that he would also die when he has sex with his wife.


Pandu felt very sad and went to the forest to practice yoga and penance. Both his wives Kunti and Madri accompanied them. As fate, would have it, one day Pandu felt very happy and decided to enjoy conjugal pleasure. He died immediately and Madri also died with him in the funeral pyre, feeling that it was her fault to allow him to come closer to her despite the seer’s curse.

Kunti took care of her children.

Tiger among Men

Pandu did not get much coverage as others, outside the epic. But Mahabharata praised him very much. He had great qualities and he was used as similes in many passages Let us look at a few couplets about Pandu from the epic:-


“This tiger among men comes again, the knower of virtue, the one who protects us in accordance with what is right, as his own relatives”

ayam sa purusa Vyaagrah punar aayaati dharmavit

yo nah svaan iva daayaadaan dharmatah pariraksati ( 1-199-17)


“Pandu, while practising penance in the forest behaved like a brother to some, like a friend to others; the sages, however, protected him like their own son”


kesaam cid abhavad bhraataa

kesaam cid abhavad sakhaa

rsayas tv apare cai ‘nam

putravat paryapaalayan 1-113-3


Pandu, though a Kshatriya (king), he looked like an enlightened sage in the forest: brahma rsi sadrsah paandur – 1-111-4


He is one of the unsung heroes of Mahabharata.






Two Interesting Stories about Mandodari! (Post No.3678)

Picture: Mandodari stopping Ravana


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 28 FEBRUARY 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-09


Post No. 3678


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





Mandodari was daughter of Demon king Maya and wife of Ranvana, King of Sri Lanka. She was the mother of Indrajit and died immediately after Ravana’s death.


Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa gives an interesting anecdote about Mandodari:-


Mandodari told her royal husband Ravana, “If you are so intent upon having Sita as your queen, why don’t you impose on her assuming the form of her husband Rama with the help of your magical powers?”


“Fie upon you!”, explained Ravana, “Can I stoop the pleasures of the senses while I am in the holy form of Rama – a form the very thought of which fills my heart wih such unspeakable joy and blessedness that even the higest heavens appears to me worthless?”


Hindu women remember five women’s names every day to purify themselves. Mandoari was one of the five great women. This explodes the Aryan- Dravidian Racist theory. Though Mandodari was a Rakshasa’s wife, every Hindu prays to her. More over all the 18 Hindu mythologies say that the demons got these powers by worshipping to Hindu Trinity. That also explodes the Aryan Dravidian racist theories concocted by the westerners.

Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara ,Manodari   thatha

Pancha kanya smaren nithyam sarva papa vinashanam


(All the sins of those who think about the five great women Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara and Mandodari will be destroyed).

Manikkavasagar’s Story

Great Tamil saint Manikkavasagar mentioned Mandodari in his Tiruvasagam (Kuyil Pathu and Tiruvarthai).

A strange legend is given in the explanatory nots for the verse in the Tiruvarthai section of Tiruvasagam as follows:

Ravana’s wife Mandodari was praying to Lord Shiva. He came in the form of a Guru. He was so handsome that Mandodari forgot herself and fell for him and asked for sensual pleasures. But Lord Shiva did not want her to fall a prey to sensual pleasures and so he disappeared. Then she repented her action. But later she gave birth to baby girl and set it afloat in the sea. That baby girl reached the country of Janaka (Bihar in India) and he found her when he went to plough the land. That baby girl was Sita. In other words, Sita was Mandodari’s daughter!

Manikkavasagar said that she was blessed by Lord Shiva. Only the commentators added this strange story. Whatever may be the story, she was one of the five chaste women every Hindu remembers.


Where does Lakshmi reside? (Post No.3561)


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 20 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-30


Post No.3561



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






In the ancient Tamil Sangam literature, a beautiful verse is found in the Purananuru. The verse is composed by Valmiki. Dravidian frauds and foreign “scholars” have spread out a lie that Tamil culture is different. Those who read 30,000 lines of Sangam literature will know that the culture is same from Kanyakumari to Kashmir with some regional specialities.


Valmiki is not the only Sanskrit name in Sangam literature. There Damodara, Kesava, Markandeya, Sangavaruna, Kapila, Parana, Mamula and so many other Sanskrit names. This will explode the racist Aryan Dravidian theory. One third of the poems were composed by Brahmin poets. If Sanskrit words are removed from Sangam Tamil verses it would like virus affected software!


Valmiki who composed verse 358 of Purananuru is different from Valmiki of Ramayana. But he was given this name because he liked Ramayana very much. According to some commentators this is a verse about Rama.

The gist of the verse no. 358 is, “ Life is so impermanent that this land has seen seven kings on a single day. If you compare worldly life with ascetic life, life of an ascetic is far better/ greater. Asceticism is so great and the earth is not one iota of it. It is because asceticism is difficult people became family men.  Those who strived for liberation became ascetics. Those who don’t ask for wealth (Lakshmi) will get it. Those ask for it wont get it and suffer as family men”.


Lord Rama said that he did not want Rajya Lakshmi (kingdom) but he got it.


Apart from the philosophical interpretation, it gives some historical information of having Seven Kings on a Single Day!

There is another verse in later Tamil literature, which lists the places where Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth resides: Lotus, Flag of a kingdom, City, Lightning, Tulsi leaves, Vilva/Bilva leaves, Sheath of paddy, Chank, Sea, Lamp, Horse, Marriage House or Mandap, Milk pot and the hearts of the good people.


Apart from the above list there is a belief that Lakshmi resides at the backside of a cow and the parting of a woman where she applies Kumkum every day. The list explains why Hindus boil milk in the new house, why Vishnu gets Tulsi and Shiva gets Vilva every day, why Hindus light lamp every day, why grains ae called Dhanya Lakshmi etc.







Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 23 October 2016


Time uploaded in London: 6-53 AM


Post No.3279


Pictures are taken from Facebook and other sources; thanks. (Pictures are used only for representational purpose; no connection with the current article.)





This article is available in Tamil as well


Sir Moiner Williams gives the following translation of the definition of a wife as found in the Mahabharata :


A wife is half the man, his friend;

A loving wife is a perpetual spring

Of virtue, pleasure, wealth; a faithful wife is his best aid in seeking heavenly bliss;

A sweetly- speaking wife is a companion

In solitude, a father in advice,

A rest in passing through life’s wilderness,”



The woman is part of her husband and so she worships through him; what he does, she does.

The “Yajur Veda says

“The wife is half the self of her husband”.

Ardhova esha atmenoyatpatnii


Upon this there is a comment by Brihaspati, some what as follows:

“It has been said that the wife is half the self of her husband, and in consequence she shares equally with him all the good and evil done by him.”


A Passage on this subject is quoted from the Padma Purana:

The husband is the beloved of the wife

He is more to her than all the gods. Herself and her husband

Be it known are one person.

Without the consent of her husband

Any kind of worship she must not perform.”

Patireva priya striinaam

Brahmaadibyopi sarvasah

Atmaananca svabarataara mekapindamaniisayaa

Bharturaaknjaam vinaa naiva kinchitdharmam samaasaret


With the consent of her husband a wife may go on short pilgrimage without him when he is unable to accompany her, but this is very seldom. Strictly with his consent, she may also perform and keep vows for instance, to do without salt in her food for a stated period or to abstain from milk or various of eatables for a given time. All this is one the object of obtaining for herself or some on to her something desired- wealth, or children, or deliverance from disease.


Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar also says,

Even the clouds will obey and pour out rain at the bidding of a wife

Who prefers to worship her husband rather than any other God

-Tirukkural 55



There is also a most touchingly beautiful piece in the Ramayana to be found translated into English by Ward (History of the Literature and Mytholoogy of the Hindus (Vol.II, page 408)


It purports to be the address of Sita to her husband Rama. Rama was banished by the king, his father Dasaratha, at the instigation of his third wife Kaikeyi, who wished the succession for her own son, Bharata. He was doomed to perpetual exile in the forest, and his wife expresses her determination to go with him.


As a beautiful expression of tender affection I cannot refrain from quoting the piece at length. It serves to show that the affectionate nature of a true woman is ever the same, despite its surroundings.


“Son of the venerable parent! hear,

‘Tis Seeta speaks. Say art not thou assur’d

That to each being his allotted time

And portion, as his merit, are assign’d

And that a wife her husband’s portion shares

Therefore with thee this forest lot I claim.

A woman’s bliss is found, not in the smile

of father, mother, friend, nor in herself:

Her husband is her only portion here,

Her heaven hereafter. If thou, indeed,

Depart this day into the forest drear,

I will precede, and smooth the thorny way.

O hero brave, as water we reject

In which our nutriment has been prepared

So anger spurn, and every thought unkind,

Unworthy of thy spouse, and by thy side,

Unblam’d, and unforbidden, let her stay.

O chide me not; for where the husband is,

Within the palace, on the stately car,

Or wandering in the air, in every state

The shadow of his foot is her abode.


My mother and my father having left,

I have no dwelling place distinct from thee.

Forbid me not, for in the wilderness,

Hard of access, renounce’d by men, and fill’d

With animals and birds of various kind,

And savage tigers, I will surely dwell.

This horrid wilderness shall be to me

Sweet as my father’s house and all the noise

Of the three worlds shall never interrupt

My duty to my lord. A gay recluse,

On thee attending, happy shall I feel

Within this honey-scented grove to roam,

For thou e’en here canst nourish and protect

And therefore other friend I cannot need.

To-day most surely with thee I will go,

And thus resolved, I must not be deny’d.


Roots and wild fruit shall be my constant food

Nor will I, near thee, add unto thy cares,

Not lag behind, nor forest-food refuse;

But fearless traverse evr’y hill and dale,

Viewing the winding stream, the craggy rock.

And, stagnant at its base, the pool or lake.

In nature’s deepest myst’ries thou art skill’d

O  hero– and I long with thee to view


Those sheets of water, fill’d with nymphaas

Cover’d with ducks, and swans, and silvan fowl

And studded with each wild and beauteous flow’r

In these secluded pools I’ll often bathe

And share with thee, o Rama, boundless joy

Thus could I sweetly pass a thousand years

But without thee e’en heav’n would lose its charms

A residence in heaven, O Raghuvu,

Without thy presence, would no joy afford.

Therefore, though rough the path, I must, I will

The forest penetrates, the wild abode

Of monkeys, elephants, and playful fawn.

Pleas’d to embrace thy feet, I will reside

In the rough forest as my father’s house.

Void of all other wish, supremely thine

Permit me request-I will not grieve

I will not burden thee refuse me not

But shouldst thou, Raghuvu, this prayer deny,

Know, I resolve on death-if torn from thee.



The main question is whether a woman can have any worship at all apart from her husband; she has a kind of daily worship of her own.


At the time of her marriage, at the marriage of her children, and at certain other periods and at some festivals, the wife must sit with her husband during the time he is engaged in the performance of certain acts of worship, though she seems to be there only as a kind of complement of her husband takes no and active part in the ceremonies. If a man has lost his wife, he cannot perform any sacrifices by fire (oupasana) which shows that the wife has some indirect connection with the ceremony, and also in part accounts for the anxiety of a widower to remarry.


At the midday service when the man per forms the ceremonies before taking food, the wife may attend upon him and hand him the things used by him, but she can take no real part with him. The woman is not a twice-born (dvija) nor does she wear the sacred thread (which is the mark of the second birth (upanayana). She cannot read the Vedas, or even hear them read, nor can she take part in her husband’s sacred services.



Music Mystery in Asvamedha Yajna! (Post No.3169)


Compiled  by London swaminathan

Date: 19 September 2016

Time uploaded in London:15-15

Post No.3169

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


“Several pentatonic and hexatonic series of notes (Taanas) of music were named after Vedic rites. For example

Ni-dh-pa-ma-ga-ri- was called Agnistoma

Ri-nidha-pa-ma-ga- was known as Asvamedha


Ma-ga-sa-ni-dha-pa was called Mahaavrata

This musical aspect of the rites needs further investigation”. (See Matanga’s Brhaddesi. Also see Bharata Muni’s Natyasastra (Ghosh 1967)


–from Subhash Kak’s ‘The Asvamedha’



Astronomy in Asvamedha Yajna

The Asvamedha rite is the ritual sacrifice of the Sun (time) to regenerate it. The narrative touches upon the inner and outer Asvas through the symbolism of the horse.

The Satapata Brahmana says that the year begins with full moon of Phalguna (SB 6-2-2-18), which is when the Asvamedha was performed. On the other hand, in the Mahabharata the performance culminates on the full moon of Caitra(Mbh 14-76).The beginning of the year used in the M Bh is different from the one in the SB.


The precession of the earth causes the month to shift with respect to seasons at a rate of 2000 years per month, therefore a time gap of about 2000 years exists between its descriptions in the SB and in the MBh. The word ‘precession’ is from the fact that that this circuit runs opposite to that of the normal sequence, so in the precessional shift, Caitra precedes Phalguna. Thus the M BH appears to remember a tradition that was earlier than that of the SB.


Recent estimates of the date of the SB using new hydrological evidence are relevant o his discussion. Briefly, it is now believed that the Sarsvati river dried up around 1900 BCE due to a massive earthquake that caused its tributary Yamuna to be captured by the Ganga. Since the Rig Veda lauds the Sarasvati as the great River that flows from the mountain to the sea,this Veda should be prior to the date of 1900 BCE. According to other authorities, the river stopped flowing all the way to the sea a thousand years earlier, which is why the Harappan sites are not all the way down to the sea, and 1900 BCE represents a further desiccation which led to a collapse of the Harappan economy.

The astronomical references in the SB about the Krittikas never swerving from the east and the Saptarishis rising from the north correspond to this general time period. In a new study Achar argues that these observations indicate around 3000 BCE. The SB itself recorded old tradition, so its own compositional date could be several centuries later.


Earth’s precession makes the seasons shift by a nakshatra every thousand years.

Asvini- 200 BCE

Bharani – 1200 BCE

Krittika – 2200

Rohihi – 3200

Mrgasiras – 4200

The lists in the brahmanas begin with the Krttikas indicates that it was drawn up in the third millennium BCE. The legend of cutting off of Prajapatis head indicates a time when the year began with Mrgasirsa in the fifth millennium BCE.

The SB story of the marriage between the seven sages, the stars of Ursa Major, and the Krittikas is elaborated in the Puranas where it is stated that the Rishis remain for a hundred years in each nakshatra. In other words, during the earliest times in India there existed centennial calendar with a cycle of 2700 years. Tis Saptarishi calendar is still used in certain parts of India even today.


Its current beginning is taken to be 3076 BCE., but the notices by the Greek historians Pliny and Arrian suggest that, during the Mauryan times, this calendar was taken to begin in 6676 BCE. All this indicates that there was a very ancient tradition of calendars in India.


The holding of the Asvamedha in Caitra points to this rite having been celebrated in the 3rd or 4th Millennium BCE.

–from Subhash Kak’s ‘The Asvamedha’



Conquer Evil Doers by Saintliness, Anger by peacefulness (Post No. 2839)


Article written by London swaminathan


Date: 25 May 2016


Post No. 2839


Time uploaded in London :–  16-35


( Thanks for the Pictures)




(for old articles go to OR

 vyasa 2

There is a beautiful sloka/couplet in the Mahabharata:


Akrodhena jayet krodham, asaadhum saadhunaa jayet

Jayet kadaryam daanena, jayet satyena caanrutam



Conquer the anger of others by non-anger

Conquer evildoers by saintliness,

Conquer the miser by gifts

Conquer falsehood by truth

-Udhyogaparva, 38-73,74


It is interesting to compare it with what the Budhha said:-

Overcome anger by peacefulness

Overcome evil by good

Overcome the mean by generosity

And the man who lies by truth

–Dhammapada 223

buddha tree upades

Buddha came approximately 2500 years after Vyasa, the author of Mahabharata.


Now Tiruvalluvar who came 2500 years after the Buddha says


“Where is the superiority of the worthy man, if he does not choose to make,

A good turn even to those who do him wrong”

-Tirukkural 987


The idea of forgiving, forgetting and doing good in return, had been developing among philosophers, prophets and great men of the world over centuries. Noble characters forget injuries; base ones forget benefits.


Lao Tse of China said, “requite injury with kindness” which is very different from the law of Hammurabi, based on, “eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth”.


The bible says , “whoever strikes thee on the right cheek,

Turn to him the other also”.

-Mathews 5,39


The best way to punish those who harm you is to make them feel abashed by doing them good and thinking no more of it.

-Tirukkural 314



That is, the best punishment for those who do evil to you, is to shame them by returning good for evil.


Dr S M Diaz in his commentary says,


“I am reminded of JR Lowell’s poem ‘Youssouf’ in which the great and generous sheik of the desert avenged the killing of his first born son by speeding the murderer to safety with enough gold and a speed horse. In his heart

Youssouf’ felt that in doing thus he was acting ‘as one lamp lights another, nor grows less, so nobleness enkindleth nobleness’.


Youssouf’s conduct in this connection went one step ahead of just forgiveness. It is n line with Seneca’s view  that ‘the mark of true greatness is not to notice that you have received a blow’ –that a wrong has been done to you”.



தமிழ் மொழி பற்றி கம்பன் (Post No.2819)


Written by london swaminathan


Date: 17 May 2016


Post No. 2819

Time uploaded in London :– 15-15


( Thanks for the Pictures)




(for old articles go to OR



தமிழ் மொழி பற்றி கம்பன் பாடிய பாடல்கள், அவனுக்கு தமிழ் மீதுள்ள அன்பைக் காட்டுகிறது. ராமன் புகழ் பாட வந்த கம்பன், தமிழின் புகழ் பாட மறக்கவில்லை. எங்கெங் கெல்லாம் முடியுமோ அங்கெல்லாம் தமிழையும், தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் வகுத்த அகத்தியனையும் போற்றிப் புகழ்கிறான்.


‘’நீண்ட தமிழால் உலகை நேமியின் அளந்தான்’’


ஆரண்ய காண்டத்தில் ராமன், அகத்தியன் சந்திப்பு பற்றி வருணிக்கும் கம்பன்,

ஆண்தகையர் அவ்வயின் அடைந்தமை அறிந்தான்

ஈண்டு உவகை வேலை துணை ஏழ் உலகம் எய்த

மாண்ட வரதன் சரண் வணங்க எதிர் வந்தான்

நீண்ட தமிழால் உலகை நேமியின் அளந்தான்’’


பொருள்:– சக்கராயுதத்தை உடைய திருமாலைப் போல, பெரிய தமிழ் மொழியால் இவ்வுலகத்தை அளந்தவனாகிய அகத்தியன், ஆண்மை மிகுந்த ராம, லெட்சுமணர் அங்கே வந்ததை அறிந்தார். அதனால் மகிழ்ச்சிக் கடல் 14 உலகங்களையும் அடைந்தது. அந்த மகிழ்ச்சியுடன், மாட்சிமைப்பட்ட வரங்களை வழங்கும் ராமன், தன் திருவடிகளில் விழுந்து வணக்குமாறு, அவன்  எதிரே வந்தான்.


உழக்கும் மறை நாலினுமுயர்ந்து உலகம் ஓதும்

வழக்கினும் மதிக் கவியினும் மரபின் நாடி

நிழல் பொலி கணிச்சி மணி நெற்றி உமிழ் செங்கண்

தழல்புரை சுடர்க்கடவுள் தந்த தமிழ் தந்தான்’’


பொருள்:- அந்த அகத்தியன் நால் வேதங்களையும் பயின்று உயர்வு அடைந்தான். தமிழ் உலகம் பேசும் முரை, தமிழ்ப் புலவரின் செய்யுள் ஆகியவற்றை முறைப்ப்ட ஆராய்ந்து, சிவபெருமான் கற்றுத்தந்த தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் செய்து தந்தான். சிவன், ஒளிவீசும் மழு ஆயுதம்,நெற்றியில் நெருப்பை உமிழும் சிவந்த கண்ண்ணை உடையவன்.

 shiva at Dwaraka

என்றுமுள தென் தமிழ் இயம்பி இசை கொண்டான்’’

“நின்றவனை வந்த நெடியோன் அடிபணிந்தான்

அன்று அவனும் அன்பொடு தழீஇ அழுத கண்ணால்

நன்று வரவு என்று பல நல் உரை பகர்ந்தான்

என்றுமுள தென் தமிழ் இயம்பி இசை கொண்டான்’’


பொருள்:– அங்கே நின்று கொண்டிருந்த அகத்தியனின் கால்களில் விழுந்து நெடியோனாகிய ராமன் வணங்கினான். அப்போது எக்காலத்திலும் நிலைத்து நிற்கும் இனிய தமிழுக்கு இலக்கண நூல் இயற்றிப் புகழ் பெற்றவனாகிய அகத்தியன், ராமனை அன்போடு அணைத்து, ஆனந்தக் கண்ணீர் விட்டு, உன் வரவு நல் வரவாகுக என்று பல உபசார மொழிகளைப் பகர்ந்தான்.



தமிழ்த் தலைவன் யார்? (எனது பழைய கட்டுரையிலிருந்து)


அலை நெடும் புனல் அறக் குடித்தலால் அகம்
நிலை பெற நிலை நெறி நிறுத்தலால் நெடு
மலையினை மண் உற அழுத்தலால் தமிழ்த்
தலைவனை நிகர்த்தது அத் தயங்கு தானையே

-கம்ப ராமாயணம், அயோத்தியா காண்டம், பாடல் 969

பொருள்: அலைகளை உடைய ஆறுகளின் (கடலில் போய்ச்சேரும்) நீரைக் குடித்தலாலும், பூமியைச் சம நிலையில் நிறுத்தியதாலும், போகும் வழியில் நீட்டிக் கொண்டிருந்த மலையை பூமிக்குள் அழுத்தியதாலும் பரதனின் படைகள் தமிழ்த் தலைவனான அகத்தியன் செய்த செயல்களைப் போல இருந்தது. அதாவது அகத்தியர் செய்த செயல்களும் பரதன் படைகள் செய்த செயலும் ஒரே மாதிரியாக இருந்தன.


இதைத் தொடர்ந்து வரும் இன்னொரு பாடலில்

அறிஞரும் சிறியரும் ஆதி அந்தமா
செறிபெருந் தானையும் திருவும் நீங்கலால்
குறியவன் புனல் எலாம் வயிற்றில் கொண்ட நாள்
மறிகடல் ஒத்தது அவ் அயோத்தி மா நகர்.

பொருள்: அகத்தியன் கடல் நீரை எல்லாம் குடித்து வயிற்றில் அடக்கிக் கொண்ட பின்னர், எப்படிக் கடல் வெறிச்சோடிக் கிடந்ததோ அப்படி இருந்தது அயோத்தி மா நகரம். ஏனெனில் பெரியோர் முதல் சிறியோர் வரை அறிஞர்களும், படைகளும் சீதையும் நீங்கிவிட்டனர்.

சொற்கலை முனிவன்

இன்னொரு செய்யுளில் அகத்தியனை “சொற்கலை முனிவன்” (பால காண்டம்) என்பான் கம்பன். தமிழுக்கு இலக்கணம் வகுத்ததால், அகத்தியனுக்குக் கிடைத்த அடைமொழி இது.

rama look

இராமபிரானுக்கு தமிழ் தெரியும்!

கம்பன் ஒரு அதிசயத் தகவலையும் தருகிறான். ராமனுக்கு தமிழும் சம்ஸ்கிருதமும் தெரியும் என்பான்:–

நன்சொற்கள் தந்து ஆண்டு எனை நாளும் வளர்த்த தாதை

தன் சொல் கடந்து எற்கு அரசு ஆள்வது தக்கது அன்றால்

என் சொல் கடந்தால் உனக்கு யாது உளது ஈனம் என்றான்

தென் சொல் கடந்தான் வடசொல் கலைக்கு எல்லை தேர்ந்தான்

பொருள்:- பரத கண்டத்தின் தென்பகுதியில் வழங்கும் தமிழ் மொழி எனும் கடலைத் தாண்டியவனும், வடக்கே வழங்கும் சம்ஸ்கிருத மொழியில் கூறப்பட்டுள்ள எல்லா கலைகளுக்கும் எல்லை கண்டவனுமான ராமபிரான், “இனிய சொற்கலைக் கூறி இந்நாள் வரை என்னைப் பாதுகாத்து வளர்த்த தந்தையின் சொல்லை மீறி அரசாள்வது எனக்குத் தகுந்தது இல்லை. ஆனால் என் சொல்லை நீ மீறி நடந்தாலோ உனக்கு இழிவு அல்லவோ” (நகர் நீங்கு படலம், அயோத்யா காண்டம்—லெட்சுமணனிடம் ராமன் சொன்னது)



எனது பழைய கட்டுரைகள்


தமிழ் தலைவன் யார்? கம்பன் பதில் (17 ஜூலை 2014)

தமிழுக்கு எத்தனை பெயர்கள்? – பகுதி 2 (26 டிசம்பர் 2014)

தமிழுக்கு எத்தனை பெயர்கள்? – பகுதி 1 (9 ஜூன் 2014)