Asuras and Rakshasas: Foreigners’ Interpretation!! (Post no.4309)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date:17 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 10-36 am

 

 

Post No. 4309

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Foreigners who came to rule India and destroy Hinduism spread a big lie that Asuras and Rakshasas were aborigines and they opposed the invaders because they tried to encroach their lands. But any Hindu can see this is nonsense from the following facts:

 

1.The Brahmana literature and the epic literature clearly say that the ASURAS and DEVAS were all born to the same parents.

2.The ‘Da Da Da’ Upanishad story clearly show that they went to the same gods to get advice.

Da……………Da……………Da Story – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/02/19/dadada-story/

19 Feb 2014 – Da….Da: The Thunder Said”- is the most popular story in the Upanishads. Most of you know it already. In our own times, Kanchi Paramacharya …

 

3.Ravana and other Rakshas were great Siva devotees/Bhaktas. They got boons from Brahma or Siva.

  1. Krishna’s son Pradyumna married a Rakshasa girl; Arjuna married a Rakshasa girl; Bhima married Hidimba, a Rakshasa woman.

 

  1. From Pasmasura to xyz everyone prayed, and did the penance in the same way.
  2. Even in the churning of the ocean anecdote they were also called to churn the ocean
  3. In the Rig Veda gods Agni, Varuna and Indra were called Asuras. Then it meant Supreme spirit and person of great strength. Later they denoted exactly opposite meaning.

But why did the Devas fight against the Asuras? Because they were immoral, lawless criminals. Like we have filled all our jails with criminals, Devas punished all the criminals. Dasyus were described as Dravidians by cunning, divisive foreigners, but second century BCE poet Kalidasa used it for thieves.

Dasyus, Asuras and Rakshas were born to same parents, but they did not care for the law or rule of the land. Like we have murderers, rapists robbers, thieves, money launderers, cheats, frauds in our society, Vedic society had Asuras, Rakshasas and Dasyus. They raided the civilised community in the night time and killed the people, carried their women and cattle. They obstructed the Yagas and Yajnas. Throughout Hindu literature they were described as cannibals. They ate human beings like the non vegetarians eat chicken and mutton. This is a big difference between the Devas and Rakshasas. All these things are crystal clear in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Brahmana literature.

 

Foreigners knew that majority of the Hindus don’t read the Hindu scriptures and so they easily misled the laymen. Hindu scriptures are huge in volume, incomparable with any religious literature in the world. And the wonder of the wonders, all the Brahmanas and Vedic samhitas were written before the old testament of the Bible, Tamil literature, Greek literature and latin literature.

 

Since Muslims ruled India for 700 years and Christians ruled for 300 years, intellectuals kept quiet or their voice was not heard by many. Foreign “scholars” were paid coolies and they had to support the government or their pay masters. There is a proof for this. No where in the world so many people were studying another religion just to criticize it. If there are equal number of scholars studying and critically analysing another holy book then we may consider them ‘scholars’.

 

Now we shall look at the actual proof from our literature which no foreigner told us:-

Rakshas were called night walkers; no honest person  or a warrior will attack anyone in the night. Only cowards or criminals do it.

They were described as taking different forms or shapes during the attacks. That means they wore masks or came in different disguises. No honest person would do it.

Born from Prajapati!

 

According to Taittiriya Brahmana, the breath (asu) of Prajapati became alive and with that breath he created the Asuras. Satapata Brahmana also says that Asuras were created from the lower breath of Prajapati.

In another part of the same book, it is said that Prajapati became pregnant and he created the Asuras from his abdomen.

Taittiria Aranyaka says that Prajapati created Gods, Men, Fathers, Gandharvas and Apsarasses from water and that the Asuras, Rakshasas, Pisachas sprang from the drops which were split.

Manu says they were created by Prajapati.

Puranas says that Asuras were created from the groin of Brahmaa/Prajapati.

The word Asura has been used for long as a general name of the ‘enemies of the gods’, including the Daityas and Danavas and other descendants of Kasyapa, but not including the Rakshasas, who descended from Pulastya. Both of them were Brahmins and Vedic seers!

Asura has another explanation; ‘a’ is taken as the negative prefix, and a+sura signifies ‘not a god’; sura means god.

Another meaning for Asura is those who are not fond of Sura (liquor). There are over 40 theories about their origin and meaning.

RAKSHASAS

Goblins or evil spirits are called Rakshas. There are categories in it: Yakshas, not so bad, and Danavas/Rakshas and Pisachas, who occupy crematoriums and cemeteries. Chief of the Rakshas was Ravana, who descended from Pulastya Maharishi.

There are more explanations:

Vishnu Purana says that they were descendants of Kashyapa Maharishi and Khasa, daughter of Daksha, through their son Rakshas.

 

Ramayana says they were created by Brahma, who were appointed as the guardians of water .Raksha means ‘protect’ in Sanskrit. According to Ramayana they were in different forms and shapes, most of them very crude.

 

Rakshasas had many epithets

Hanushas= killers or hurters

Ishti pachas= stealers of offerings

Sandhya balas= strong in twilight

Naktan charas, nicicharas= night walkers

Kiilaalapas, rakta pas= blood drinkers

Dandasukas = biters

Malina- mukhas = black faced

Karburaas=  users of rude words

 

— SUBHAM—

 

Interesting Geographical Details in the Mahabharata-4 (Post No.4203)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 11 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-48

 

Post No. 4203

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

(This is the fourth and the last part)

 

 

My comments: The geographical details in the MBH gives lot of scope for research; it is amazing that Vyasa or his disciples have accumulated so much information in an epic. Modern approach will give a better picture. We can divide them into different categories such as 100% sure, 755 certain etc.

Janapadas of the East

1.ANDHAKA: Mathura area

2.ANGA: area between Videha and Magadha;modern Bihar

3.ANTARGIYA: Badri-Kedara region

4.ATREYA: Garwala region

5.BHADRA:Bhadranagara of Rajasthan

6.BHARGA: State of Vatsas; between Vaisali and Sravasti

7.BHARGAVA: West of Assam

8.GAYA: modern Bihar

9.KALAKUUTA:Kulinda region

10.KASI:Region between rivers Ganga and Gomati

11.KIRATA:Ladakh area

12.KUNTI: Gwalior area

13.KURU:Meerut area

14.KOSALA: Sarayu river area.

15.MATSYA:Bharatapura, Jaipura area

16.MALLA:Deoria district of UP

17.MAGADHA: Patna area; Bihar

18.MALADA: Malda of West Bengal

19.MAADHYAMIKA: Nagari area of Chittoor

20.MANAVARJAKA:Vardhamana in West Bengal

21.NAIMISA: Sitapura of UP

22.PATACCARA: Pataidi near Gugaon

23.PRAYAGA: Allahabad, Triveni Sangam

24.PANCALA:Punjab

25.PRAGJYOTISA: Gauhati in Assam area

26.PUNDRA: Rangpur, Rajasahi, Bogra in Bangladesh

27.STRI RAJYA: Western tip of the Buddhist Majjimadesa

28.SUHMA:Tamralipti and Medhinipura of Bangladesh

29.SASAKA: Murshidabad of West Bengla

30.Surasena: area around Mathura

31.TAMRALIPTA:Midnapur District of West Bengal

32.VANGA:Dacca and Mymensingh of Bangladesh

33.VATSA: Allahabad area

34.VAHIGIRYA:Mussori, Nainital areas

35.VIDEHA: Mithila area of Bihar

 

xxx

 

JANAPADAS OF THE WEST

1.APRAANTA:also Kuttapraanta Kalyana, Supara districts

2.ARBUDA: Abu mountain area

3.AANARTA:  Southern part of Ahmedabad, Baroda

4.AABHIRA: Ophir of the Bible; Averia of the Greeks;Sindhu delta

5.AARATTA: pancanada state

6.KAAKSA: Inner Narmada area; Bharukacca port

7.KUKKURA: western Vindhyas

8.KONKANA: Ratnagiri district

9.KOLVAGIRYA: Colaba area of Mumbai

10.KSUDRAKA:Montgomery area

 

11.GOPARAASTRA: area around Nasik

12.JANGALA: Bikaneer area

13.TUNDIKERA: Chindwada area of MP

14.TUMBUMA: Guna District of MP

15.DVAIPEYA: Island Diu

16.NAVARAASTRA: Maharashtra state

17.BRGHU: around ancient AAnarta

18.MARU BHUMI: Desert area of Jodhpur

19.MAAHEYA: river Mahi basin

20.SUUDRA: identified with State Abhira

21.LAATA: modern Gujarat

22.VITIHOTRA:  south of Avanti

23.SURASSTRA: Kathiawad region

24.SAMUPTA NIKUTA: island area of Kathiawada

25.SAARASWATA: river Saraswati basin, west of Ahmedabad

26.SINDHU: river Indus area

27.SAUVIRA modern Rodj in Pakistan

 

–Subham–

INTERESTING GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS IN MAHABHARATA- PART 3 (Post No.4199)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 10 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 10-41 am

 

Post No. 4199

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

PREVIOUS TWO PARTS ARE PUBLISHED IN THE PAST TWO DAYS; THIS IS THE THIRD PART

 

JANAPADAS OF THE SOUTH

The countries of the Vindhya mountain region along with the south, south east and south west have been dealt in this chapter. The peculiar point is that Lanka has not been mentioned anywhere. It means the city of Lanka was submerged long before. But Simhala (Ceylon or Sri Lanka) is mentioned.

 

The second unique description is the knowledge of the western horizon up to the northern Atlanti ocean, Roma, Antioch and Yavananampuri according to Pande Syam Narayan, the author of the book

 

1.ANUPA: Nimar district; on the northern bank of Narmada; also known as Haihai country.

 

2.AVANTI: Malwa region; capital Ujjaini; Panini called it Ujna.

 

3.ASMAKA: District of Ahmednagar and Bodhan are of Andhrapradesh; capital Prathistanapura; Asmaka, son of Kalmasavad founded the city of Paudanya.

4.ANDHRA: Aitareya Brahmana refers to it; region between the mouths of Godavari and Krsna rivers.

5.BALIRASTRA: MBG mentioned only four countries with RASHTRA ending:Aadirashtra, Pamsurashtra, Goparashtra and Balirashtra.It is Bali island of Indonesia. Mahabharata mentioned that Rama spent ten years in this area.

6.BHOJA: modern Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh; Aitareya Brahmana mentioned title of Bhoja of the monarchs of the south.

7.COLA: districts of Thanjavur and Trichy; There was a king named Sagraaha Cola whose capital was Kanchi.

 

8.CUCUKA: Cecu near Hyderabad in Andhra.

9.DASAARNA: erastern part of Malwa country; capital- Vidhisa.

 

10.DANDAKA: East of Nasik up to Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra.Rama spent ten years here.

 

11.DRAVIDA: Sahadeva conquered this country according to MBH. region from Madras upto Rangapattam

and the peninsula of Kumari; another opinion country north of Kaveri up to Ailamalaya and Nilgris.

12.DEVAPRASTHA: region between Amarakantaka and Kanchipura

13.GANDAKA: Ahemedabadregion

14.HAIHAI: modern NIMADA; northern banks of Narmada

15.KARNATAKA:modern Karnataka

16.KAARUUSA: modern Baghelakand area

17.KUNTALA: Solapura and Bijapura area in river Bhima basin

 

18 and 19. KUMAARA and KUMAARIKAA: towards Kumari peninsula

 

20.KERALA: modern Kerala

21.MAHISAKA: modern Bellari, Citradurga and Shimoga;

22.MAALAVA:Nakula conquered the country during his dikvijay towards west.Greeks refereed to them Maloi; they lived on the baks of Ravi 2400 years ago.

23.MEKALA: region stretching from Riva to Khairagarha from where the rivers Narmada and Sona originate.

24MUSAKA: also known as Suutika and Musika. near Hyderabad on the river Musi.

25.NISHADA: modern Gwalior region

26.NALAKAANANA: Bellari-Anantpur regions

27.PANDYA: Ramnad, Madurai, Tirunelveli areas Sahadeva conquered it. There were Agastya and Kumari pilgrimages.

28.RSIKA: Khanadesa of Madhya Pradesh

29.SIMHALA: modern Sri Lanka

30.SABARA: Ganjam and Vizagapatnam districts on river Sabari.

31.TALAJANGHA: north of Narmada near Haihai country. Haihai wre divided into five groups: Talajangha,Tundikera,Vitihotras, Bhojas, Avantis

32.TALAKATA: western side of river Ganga

33.UDRA: modern Odisah(Orissa); Utkala, Kalinga

34.VANAVASAKA: modern Vanvasi; Kannada and Karwar areas on river Tungabadra

35.VIDARBHA: garuda, Vaidharna; region near origin of the tributaries of Godavari, tapti, Penganga; modern Vidharba

36.VINDHYA VIPULA: southern foothills of Vindhya- Satpura mountains; inhabitants were called Vindhya culika or culaka or muuliiya.

 

to be continued………………………….

INTERESTING GEOGRAPHICAL DATA IN MAHABHARATA- PART 2 (Post No.4196)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 9 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 11-54 am

 

Post No. 4196

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

PART FIRST WAS POSTED YESTERDAY

 

JANAPADAS IN THE NORTH

A verse quoted by Nagesa provided a clue for dividing the northern region from that of the eastern. The river Sarasvati is said to be the dividing line in that verse. Amarakosa has also given such direction. It included Kamboja North eastern Punjab the mountainous union or Parvatiya sang indicated by Panini. MBH describes them as Parvatiya (mountainous), Girigahvaravaasi (those living in the caves of the mountains). The following 62 janapadas have been identified in the group:

ABHISARA: south of Kasmira the PunchaRajanr; Greeks called the north western districts of Peshwar – abisaris

AMBASTA: Lower parts of the Chenab river; Panini mentioned Ambasta and AAmbasta; it corresponds with the Greek—Sambastai and Avastanoi

AAHUKA: Kabul basin in Afghanistan

AUDUMBURA: federal state of Udumbura

BARBARA:situated in Oxus valley; Panini named a pot named Barbarika near Karachi in Pakistan

BODHA:they are identified with Yaudheyas; Bayaanaa and Johiaakara region of Bharatapura

 

BHARADWAJA:Western part of Assam

CARMAMANDALA: may be Samarakhandika

CINA: Modern Sinkiang or Chiense Turkestan

DARADI: Dardistan area of Giljit

DAARVA: Daggar Jammu area

DASAMAALIKAA: area between River Jhelam and Bias (Vyas)

also Dasanaamika; Girivraja capital

DASERAKA:Marwara region of Rajasthan

GRAMANIIYAKA:Panini also mentioned them; they are militant. Cave dwellers organised under leader GRAMANI.

GANDHARA: It has been famous from Vedic days; region stretching from Taxila to River Kabul; modern Khandahar in Afghanistan; Pushkalavati Takshsheelam capitals

 

GIRIGAHVARAVAASINAH: militant race organised under Gramani. also known as Gauri. they are called Parvatiya (mountainous)

17.HAMSAMARGA: name of the Hunja region. janapada of the Parvatiya sanga ( unio of mountainous group)

 

18.HARAHUNA: Harmurtika, land of black grapes; janapada in Herat.

19.HAIMAVATAH: living in the Himalays; north of Sikkim

20.HUNA:the race shifted to one place to another.Kalidasa points them towards Persia; lived near Oxus and its tributaries

 

21.JAGUDA: Gazni area of Afghanistan

  1. KAMBOJA:Pamir region; they say sa va to go according to Mhabhasya;its used in Galcha dialect; Dwaraka capita. some identifies with Kashmir.
  2. KASMIRA: Sarada country; blessed by Goddess of learning city-Adhistana; present Kashmir.

24.KALATOYAKA- near Suleman hills

25.KEKAYA: associated with the country of Dasamalika; Ramayana locates it near Ghandhara

26.KHASA:Baltistan; mid-oxus

27.KULINDA:region in the Himalayas

28.KULUUTA: Bhima killed Ksemamuurti, King of Kuluutas; ii is in modern Kulu

29.KURUJANGALA: region between river Sarasvati and Ganga; Haryana

30.LOHITA: Rohela of Afghhanistan

31.LAMPAKA:North of Kabul Laghamanas attacked Satyaki in the Jarasadha Vadha; alinagar valley

32.MADRAKA: capital- sakala; modern Sialkot; associated with princess Savitri and Vedic teacher Sakalya

33.MADREYA:Madri is from this country; same as madraka; janapadas of noth Punjab

34.MAULEYA: modern Malwa region

35.PRASTHALA: near Patiala

36.PANCABHEDA: five rivers=Punjab

37.PAHLAVA: who came from the tail of Vasistha’scow; Parthian’s of Iran; samarkhand to Iran

38.PARATAKA:Hingula region of Pakistan

39.PAARASIIKAS: IRAN= Persia

40.PISACA: neighbours of Lampaka janapada; Pasai Kafirs were the inhabitants

41.PULINDA: Panini called them SAALVAAVAYANA. part of salva janapada

42.RAMATHA: near Ghazni in Afghanistan

43.SUKUTTA: Suket estate

44.SAIRANDHRA: Sirhind region

45.SAKA: Modern Seistan in Iran

46.SAAKALA: modern Sialkot; Panini referred to it.

47.SAATVAKA: Mandi on the northern bank of Sutlej

48.SALVA:Panini mentioned threeSaalva, Saalveya and Saalvaavayana. Near Matsyas

49.SIVI:Rik Veda mentioned them; country ath the confluence of Jhelam and Sindhu in Pakistan.

50.TANGADA PARATANGANA: country of Mleccas; Bhota country;Kullu Kangda region; mountainous

51.TRGARTA: Panini mentioned people of this country lived on arms. There was a union of six countries in Trgarta: Kaundiparatha, Dandika, Krautsika, Jaalamani, Brahmagupta and Jaanika

52.TUSAARA:Tokharistan (former USSR) They were present at Rajasuya Yajna of Yudhidthira

53.TOMARA:Tibetan region near Bhutan

54.UTSAVASANKETA: Ramapura, Basahara region of valley of Satluj

55.URAGA:Hazara district; between the Rivers Sindhu and Jhelum

56.VANAYU: Wana valley of Waziristan in Pakistan

57.VAATADHAANA: region east of Pancanada between Rivers Satluj and Ravi

58.VAAHLIKA: Balkh; Bactria of the Greeks; Skanda Purana mentioned this country out of 72 regions including 400,000 villages.

59.VAHIKA: according to Panini it is a synonym of Usinara; durin Panini’s times whole of Punjab was called Vahika.

60.VAIYAMAKA:identified near DARADI

61.YAVANA: The Greeks were called Yavanas with yellow coloured bodies; part of Jambudwipa; north west India

62.YUGANDHARA:Yugasila country near Dehradun of UP on the bank of River Yamuna

 

In the third and  part we will look at southern regions.

………………….to be continued

 

Interesting Geographical details in Mahabharata (Post No.4193)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 8 September 2017

Time uploaded in London- 17-04

Post No. 4193

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

I was reading a book titled Geographical Horizon of the Mahabharata by Pande Syam Narayan published in 1980. Following are some interesting data:

The epic contains much of the geographical material relating to India and outside. There are 230 Janapadas (states) mentioned in the MBH. Out of these 230, 62 are towards the North, 35 towards the East, 27 towards the West and 36 towards the South.

(the author’s description of the seas and countries and their identification may not be correct; but it can be used a starting point)

He adds

Janapadas of Sakadwipa

Udaivarsa (Malaya, Jalada)

Sukumaravarsa of Jalandhi mountain; it is the Komroi of the Greeks

Kaumaravarsa Or Narada mountain

Manicara or Anandaka Varsa; it has been identified as Mustag mentioned in the Zend Avesta

Mainaka varsa of the Ambikeya mountain

It seems the author of the Bhisma Parva and the Greeks had the similar knowledge

Janapada of Pushkala Dwipa

The MBH gives only one janapada by the name Saba having a quadrangular habitation divided into 33 divisions of mandala. Vamana, Airavata, Supratika and Anjana are said to be the guards of the four directions.

Janapadas of Kusadwipa

There is a great bush of Kusa or poa grass and there are the following seven varsas:

Umigada, Venumandala, Surathaakaara, Kambala, Dhrimana, Prabhaakara and Kapila

Janapadas of Krauncadwipa

There are seven varsas in the dwipa:

Kusala, Manonuga, Usna, Pravaraka, Andhakaraka Muniand Dundubhiswana

Janapadas of Jambudwipa

They are scattered in four directions. There is neither any sequence nor any classification; their identification becomes very difficult

Adhiraja

Aparaparjata

Asvaataka

Agneya

Aj-neya

Adhirastra

Averekah

Ahvaayaka

Aupakah

Aurasikah——10

Balitha

Carmakara

Civuka

Cicchila

Darsaka

Dasamiyaa

Dirgavenu

Drptaaksha

Govasana

Krakhadaah———— 20

Karabhanjakaah

Karavataah

Kuraka

Krmi

Karakaraah

Kayavya

Kaalaamukh

Kundamaana

Kusavindu

Kaisika—————- 30

Lalaataksa

Lalitya

Lohajanga

Manga (mrga)

Mandaka

Mandiika

Madaka

Majeeecha

Mavillakah

Mundaajh————– 40

Murucipatan

Modanaah

Maukaah

Nalakalaka

Naula

Natakeya

Pacakarpata

Panitaka

Pasu

Prakuttsakah——————- 50

Prakira

Pravrseya

Prahuta

Rajanya

Suukara

Sanjayanti

Sansthaanah

Sudesnu

Suparsva

Saivala—————— 60

Saubha

Tumbuna

Trayaksa

Trayainga

Taaratoyah

Uparyakah

Upaavrta

Ulluukha

Varmakah

Vanarasya———————– 70

In the second part I will give the Janapadas in the north, south and west where known places figure.

—–to be continued

HINDU RITUALS IN GREECE (Post No.4129)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 4 August 2017

Time uploaded in London- 17-31

Post No. 4129

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.
 

When I went to Acropolis Museum in Athens (Greece) in July 2017, I entered the museum shop. Normally I buy only fridge magnets as mementos and stick them to my fridge in London. But the picture post cards in Athens shop were very attractive. So, I bought a few of them and one of them shows a Hindu ritual. I already wrote a research article about the Hindu customs in Sumerian civilization. One of the rituals is offering certain votive objects to get married or to get issues (children) or to get cured of sickness.

People who have problems pray to god with votive offerings either before or after the solution to the problem. South Indian temple Hundis get lot of metal objects in the shape of eye, ear, leg, hand, nose , baby etc. Devotees offer these either to thank the god for solving the problems or to get the problems solved.

 

I found two similarities in the Greek picture:-

  1. Like in Hindu temples, the votive offerings were given to a GODDESS.
  2. The offerings were made with a special request or prayer to solve a specific problem.

The Greek picture post card shows Clay spinning whorls, offered by young women to the sanctuary of Nymph, the protectress of marriage. They are dated around sixth century BCE. This ritual has been there in Greece at least 2500 years ago. Now they are in museum. But Hindu culture is older by thousands of years to Greek culture. And ours is a living culture and you can see such votive offerings even today in Sankarankoil and Bhagavathy temples in Kerala and hundreds of temples around the country.

 

      NEW IDEAS FROM GREECE

NEW IDEAS FROM GREECE: When I came back from New York, San Francisco, Rome, Stockholm and Indian cities, I posted some new ideas for business. In Athens (Greece) I saw playing cards with the famous Greek philosophers. We may also do some playing cards with Indian philosophers or temples or Tourists spots. Foreigners will buy them because it is a memento as well as playing cards. But it must be of good quality. I paid 2-50 euros for the playing cards pack.

 

MORE NEW IDEAS FROM GREECE; I KNOW INDIAN BOOKSHOPS SELL BOOK MARKS WITH QUOTATIONS. BUT I BOUGHT A SET OF BOOK MARKS WITH QUOTATIONS FROM THE GREATEST GREEK WRITERS. WE MUST SELL SOMETHING LIKE THIS IN ALL THE BOOK SHOPS WITH HINDU QUOTES OR TAMIL LITERATURE QUOTES. QUALITY AND ACCURACY ARE MORE IMPORTANT.

SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS FROM GREECE; This picture post card shows the surgical tools and suction cups. Carved on the base of a statue, now lost. Dedicated to the sanctuary of Asklepios , 320 BCE. From Athens museum stall.

 

CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA HAD MORE SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS; WE HAVE THE NAMES OF HUNDREDS OF SURGICAL TOOLS IN THE BOOKS OF CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA IN SANSKRIT. WE MUST SELL PICTURE POST CARDS WITH THOSE INSTRUMENTS

Statue of a young girl, probably depicting the goddess Artemis; Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece; around 530 BCE. I bought this picture post card last week in Athens.

All Indian Temples must have a book shop cum stall with high quality books and pictures.

Every Indian museum must have a stall with a cafe. Western countries do roaring business buy selling artefacts, picture cards, books etc in such museum stalls. They are of high quality. India can do it.

 

 

BOOK ON SANTORINI ISLANDS, GREECE

   

The house where we stayed in Santorini (Thera) islands had a book on the table which contained some pictures about wine making and archaeological finds.

 

CHRISTIAN MUSLIM ATROCITIES: –

In the past few days I wrote some articles comparing Hindu culture with the Greek culture. I wrote that I will list the atrocities of Christians and Muslims in Athens. But encyclopaedias such as Wikipedia have very elaborate writeups about it. So I will just give you the bullet points

 

How Parthenon, Temple of Goddess was destroyed?

First, Persian invasion caused some damage in the fourth century BCE

After the introduction of Christianity in Greece, they banned all the pagan temples.

One of the kings, who was a Christian fanatic, took the beautiful, valuable statue of Athena made up of gold to  Turkey and destroyed it.

Later Christian kings converted Temple of Athena in to a church; made architectural changes; in other words, defaced it. Gave new names to old Greek gods to show them Christian. Virgin Athena changed into Virgin Mary.

After Ottoman Turkish attack, the Parthenon structure and temple were destroyed.

They converted it into a mosque. The Venetian- Turkish war destroyed this structure with cannon balls. They used it arms depot.

It is a systematic destruction similar to what Muslim invaders did to Hindu temples in India and what Portuguese and Spanish invaders did to Mayan, Aztec, Olemec and Inca civilizations.

Wherever these invaders went there was bloodshed, plundering and destruction.

 

Last but not the least, people like Elgin “stole” the remaining marbles “legally” and now they are in British, Louvre and Metropolitan museums around the world. My Greek tourist guide was furious when she explained about how Elgin took the historical marbles to Britain.

More in Wikipedia.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Why did Valmiki name Rama’s Children Lava and Kusha? (Post No.3875)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 3 May 2017

Time uploaded in London: 19-34

Post No. 3875

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Kalidasa, the greatest poet, describes the naming ceremony of Lava and Kusha in the hermitage of the Sage Valmiki. Lava and Kusha, sons of Rama and Sita were born in the hermitage when Sita was separated from Rama.

 

They were named Lava  and Kusha after the ceremonial materials used by Valmiki, i.e. Cow’s tail and Sacred Kusha grass. But Valmiki differs from Kalidasa in one matter.

 

Kalidasa, in his classic Raghuvamsa, says,

सखा दशरथस्यापि जनकस्य च मन्त्रकृत्।
संचस्कारोभयप्रीत्या मैथिलेयौ यथाविधि॥ १५-३१

sakhā daśarathasyāpi janakasya ca mantrakṛt |
saṁcaskārobhayaprītyā maithileyau yathāvidhi|| 15-31

That expounder of the hymns, namely Valmiki, being the friend of Dasharatha as well as of Janaka, out of regard for both, procedurally performed purificatory ceremonies with regard to both the sons of Maithili. [15-31]

 

स तौ कुशलवोन्मृष्टगर्भक्लेदौ तदाख्यया।
कविः कुशलवावेव चकार किल नामतः॥ १५-३२

sa tau kuśalavonmṛṣṭagarbhakledau tadākhyayā |
kaviḥ kuśalavāveva cakāra kila nāmataḥ|| 15-32

Verily the poet gave the names Kusha and Lava to the two sons of Seetha from the names of the wiping materials, namely kusha grass and the hair of the tuft of the cow’s tail (lava), since the infants had been wiped of the post delivery uterine moisture by means of those two materials. [15-32]

–o)0(o–

साङ्गम् च वेदमध्याप्य किंचिदुत्क्रान्तशैशवौ।
स्वकृतिम् गापयामास कविप्रथमपद्धतिम्॥ १५-३३

sāṅgam ca vedamadhyāpya kiṁcidutkrāntaśaiśavau |
svakṛtim gāpayāmāsa kaviprathamapaddhatim|| 15-33

 

No sooner had the boys come out of the stage of infancy than Valmiki taught them the Vedas with their ancillaries, and then made them chant his own composition RAMAYANA which was the first guiding principle for all later time poets. [15-33]

–o)0(o–

रामस्य मधुरम् वृत्तम् गायन्तो मातुरग्रतः।
तद्वियोगव्यथाम् किंचिच्छिथिलीचक्रतुः सुतौ॥ १५-३४

rāmasya madhuram vṛttam gāyanto māturagrataḥ |
tadviyogavyathām kiṁcicchithilīcakratuḥ sutau|| 15-34

Singing the pleasant legend of Rama before their mother the two sons slightly lessened her grief of separation from Rama. [15-34]

–o)0(o—

 

VALMIKI’S  VERSION

 

Valmiki’s version in the Uttara Kanada  (Chapter 66 )

of Valmiki Ramayana is slightly different from Kalidasa’s.

“During the night Shatrughna passed in the leaf thatched hut, Sita gave birth to two children, and at midnight the youthful ascetics brought the pleasant and auspicious tidings to Valmiki. Immediately he went to see the newly born children. On beholding those two infants, his heart was filled with delight and he performed the Rakshasa Rite ( to avert evil).

Taking a handful of Kusha grass with its roots, Valmiki pronounced the formula of protection for the destruction of evil forces, saying:-

‘Since they will rub the first born of the children with the Kusha grass blessed by the aid of Mantras, his name shall be Kusha and, as the last born will be carefully dried by the female ascetics with the roots of the grass, he shall be called Lava, and by these names that I have given them, they will become renowned.

 

Thereafter the female ascetics purified themselves and reverently received the grass from the hands of the Muni (Vamiki), applying it to the two children

xxx

 

Four Brothers had Eight Sons!(4 X 2=8)

Another interesting coincidence is that all the four brothers had two sons each. Not many people know the names of the wives of Rama’s brothers and their sons!

Rama and Sita were the parents of Lava and Kusha

Bharata and Mandavi were the parents of Dakshan and Pushkalan

Lakshmana and Urmila were the parents of Angathan and Chandraketu

Shatrughna and Sruthakeerthi were the parents of Shatrugathi and Subahu

 

इतरेऽपि रघोर्वंश्यास्त्रयस्त्रेताग्नितेजसः।
तद्योगात्पतिवत्नीषु पत्नीष्वासन्द्विसूनवः॥ १५-३५

itare’pi raghorvaṁśyāstrayastretāgnitejasaḥ |
tadyogātpativatnīṣu patnīṣvāsandvisūnavaḥ || 15-35

 

The other three scions of the race of Raghu, namely Lakshmana, Bharata, Shatrughna, who were as resplendent as the triple sacred fires, became the fathers, each begetting two sons on their wives who were pre-eminent ‘as wives’ by being married to them. [15-35]

 

Then Kalidasa describes their achievements.

 

(Sanskrit slokas are taken from sanskritdocuments.com; thanks)

 

–Subham–

 

 

Meticulous Details of Funerals of Vali, Jatayu and Ravana (Post No.3791)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 5 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:-19-37

 

Post No. 3791

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

 

First part of this article, “Interesting Funerary Customs during Ramayana Period” (Post No.3782) was posted on 2nd APRIL 2017

 

 

 

Valmiki amazes us by giving us very minute details.

 

Following is the second and final Part:-

 

“On the 11th day of the funeral of Dasaratha, Bharata donated gold and gems to the Brahmins. The donation list includes cows and goats, male and female servants, chariots and special mansions!

 

When Bharata broke the news of Dasaratha’s death to Rama in the forest Rama fainted and looked like an elephant crushed by a landslide. Another simile Valmiki used was Rama fell like a tree with its flowering branches that is severed by an axe in the forest.

 

Sita also felt sad and Rama consoled her. Then he said to Lakshmana, “ Bring the pressed pulp of the Ingudi tree and fresh bark so that we may proceed with the water rite for our magnanimous father. Let Sita go first, you follow her and I will be the last in the funeral procession. Sumatara, Chief Minister, held Rama’s hand and led them to the Mandakini River. There they offered the water to Dasaratha, saying ‘Father, may this prove agreeable to you.’ Then Rama turned towards south and offered water again saying, ‘I offer it to you. Let it reach you in the region of your ancestors. Then Rama offered Pinda. He placed the pulp of the Ingudi tree mixed with Badari fruits on the Dharba grass.

 

( Though we don’t use Ingudi pulp and Badari fruits nowadays, Dharba grass is used until now.)

 

Then Rama killed demon Viradha, by throwing his body into a pit, at his request. We didn’t know what happened to his body. Viradha was the one ho suggested that he must be thrown into a pit

 

Jatayu cremated! (Aranya Kanda)

 

When Jatayu died half way through his speech, Rama decided to give the honour by cremating him. He instructed Lakshmana to bring the fuel. Then Rama himself placed the King of Winged Creatures on the funeral pyre and ignited the flame. Then Rama went into the forest with his brother, killing a few fat Rohi deer, stewed the flesh on the green grass as an oblation to the bird. Tearing off the flesh of those deer and kneading it into balls, he offered it. He recited those sacred formulas uttered by the Brahmins so as to send Jatayu’s soul to heaven. Both the brothers went to the river, bathed and did Udaka ceremony (ritual presentation of water to the ancestors).

 

Vali’s Funeral Rites (Kishkinda Kanda)

 

Vali (Bali) was the monkey king. When he was killed by Rama, Sugriva, Tara and others were grief stricken. Lakshmana says to Sugriva, “Inaugurate obsequies without delay with the assistance of Tara and Angada. Issue the order that a large quantity of dry would be gathered together with the sacred sandal wood, for the funeral pyre. Let Angada bring garlands and robes of every kind, together with butter, oil, perfumes and all that is requisite. O Tara, you do find a palanquin without delay. Let those who are skilful and strong, accustomed to palanquins, hold themselves in readiness to bear Vali away.

Vali’s body was placed in a chariot with beautiful carvings. Priceless ornaments, strings of pearls and splendid crowns gave it a dazzling appearance; it was covered with clay, painted red and sprinkled with sandal paste. Festooned with wraths of lotuses, shining like the dawn, it was strewn with innumerable flowers.

 

“ Having laid the corpse on its couch, Sugriva covered the body with ornaments of every kind together with wreaths and cloths. The great monkey leader preceded the litter, scattering jewels of every kind in profusion. All the wives of Vali accompanied the procession. Angada ignited the funeral pyre. He circumambulated it. Rama officiated at the funeral rites.

 

Valmiki gave all the minute details of the funeral ceremony. Normally people consider it inauspicious to talk about it. But Valmiki was very descriptive. Thanks to him, now we know how it was done several thousand years ago. For great saints like Valmiki, life and death are like changing worn-out clothes.

 

Ravana’s Funeral (Yuddha Kanda)

 

When Ravana was killed by Rama in the final battle, his brother Vibhishana refused to do the cremation. But Rama asked him to do it saying, “ Death brings enmity to an end”.

 

At these words of Raghava, Bibishana hastened to carry out the funeral rites.

 

Entering the City of Lanka, that Indra began to prepare for the Agnihotra Ceremony in honour of his brother. Carts, wood of varying essences, fire utensils, sandal, logs of every kind, fragrant gums, perfumes, cloths, jewels, pearls and coral were all assembled by him and he soon returned surrounded by titans, whereupon accompanied by Malyavan, he initiated the sacrifice.

Having placed Ravana, the Supreme Lord of the titans, wrapped in linen cloth, s on a golden bier, the Twice born with Bibishana at their head, their eyes suffused with tears, raised the litter decorated with many fragrant and divine symbols to the sound of innumerable music instruments and funeral chants and all, turning their faces towards the south took up pieces of wood which had been distributed among them.

 

Then the Brahmins, versed in the Yajur Veda, bearing flaming brands went forward and those who had taken refuge with them and the women of the inner apartments followed sobbing with tottering steps, running hither and thither. And Ravana was placed in a spacious ground, amidst profound lamentation and a great pyre was built with pieces of sandal and Padmaka wood and grass, according to tradition; and he was covered with antelope skins.

 

Thereafter in honour of the King of the Titans, a rare offering was made to the ancestors and the altar was installed to the south-west with the sacred fire in its proper place. Then curd and clarified butter were poured on Ravana’s shoulder and a wooden mortar placed at his feet with one between his thighs. Vessels of wood and the lower and upper sticks, with a spare pestle, were set there to the prescribed rules.

 

Now the titans sacrificed a goat in honour of their king, according to tradition, as taught by the great Rishis, and, dipped a cloth in butter, they covered the face of their sovereign, who was adorned with garlands and sprinkled with perfumes. Thereafter Bibisbana’s companions, their faces bathed in tears, covered the body with cloths and every kind of roasted grain, whereupon Bibishana kindled the fires according to the sacred rites and, having laved him with a cloth which had been previously wetted with water and mingled with linseed and sacrificial grass, be bowed down to him; then he addressed the consorts of Ravana again and again in order to console them, finally entreating them to return home. And when they had all re-entered the City of Lanka, that Indra among the Titans, took up his place by Rama in an attitude of reverence.

 

A lot of details are here about the funeral of a Rakshasa King. It differs in many ways with the modern funeral. But in a vast country like India with thousands of castes and sub castes the funeral rites differ widely from area to area.

In Dasaratha’s funeral Sama Veda was used and here in Ravana’s funeral Yajur Veda was used.

 

Earlier in Aranya Kanda, we came across the shapeless demon Kabandha who was killed by Rama and Lakshmana. he was also cremated by the brothers; though he melted like butter in the fire, he rose up from the ashes, wearing spotless raiment ad a celestial garland. Now he looked very handsome and wore ornaments in his limbs and ascended a chariot drawn by swans. Before ascending to heaven he instructed Rama and Lakshmana to meet Sabhari, a female ascetic.

The chapters on funerals raise many questions. If Vyasa was the one who divided Vedas into four, how come Valmiki mentioned two different Vedas. Probably the Vedas were known as Rik, Sama and Yajjur already and Vyasa allocated the portions to his four disciples for preservation. Why two different Vedas were used in two different funerals is also another debatable matter.

 

The funeral processions were pompous, but we must remember they were ones for kings like Dasaratha,Bali (Vali) and Ravana

 

Lot of Dhanams (gifts) were given to Brahmins. Bird Jatayu, Demon Ravana, Monkey Vali/Bali and Human Dasaratha were cremated according to the scriptures. So there were no caste differences among them. Thanks to Valmiki we learnt a lot which can be compared with the funeral rites in the Smrtis and other cultures.

 

–Subham–

Interesting Funerary Customs during Ramayana Period (Post No.3782)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 2 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 15-30

 

Post No. 3782

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

There are very interesting funerary customs in Valmiki Ramayana. Since they are only minor details, many of us miss them. Some of the dead were cremated; some were buried. We don’t know why. Let us look at them one by one:-

 

Bhagiratha performing the funeral rites for his ancestors occurs in the Balakanda. Bhagiratha made the Ganges water to flow on the ashes of ancestors and liberated them. He also performed the funeral rites with the sacred water in accordance with the tradition.

Here we come across some important points:

1.Dissolving the ashes of the dead in Ganges water existed at least from the days of Bhagiratha. Even today Hindus dying in different parts of the world, make arrangements for their ashes to be dissolved in the Holy Ganges. From Vedic days, Hindus were mostly cremated.

2.Even During Bhagiratha’s days there was a tradition of performing funeral rites.

3.Water is used in all the rites.

  1. In the Rig Veda, the oldest religious book in the world and in the Sangam Tamil literature, we come across both burials and cremations.

 

When Dasaratha died….

Dasaratha’s body was immersed in a vat of oil for preservation.

 

“Raising the body of King Dasaratha from the earth, where it had been immersed in oil, seeming as it were asleep, the face like the colour of gold, he (Bharata) placed it on a magnificent couch, adorned with every kind of precious stones, and, plunged in grief, said to his father……”

(Ayodhya Kanda, Chapter 76)

Vasishtha said to him, “ O Valiant Prince, without hesitation or repining, carry out the funeral rites of the king that should be performed”.

Be it so! answered Bharata, and obedient to Vasishtha’s command, he summoned the priests speedily from all side with their attendants and sages. The fires for that Indra among men were prepared outside Agnyagara (Fire Chamber) and kindled in accord with the rituals by the priests and sacrificial attendants. Thereafter the servants placing the body of the king on a litter, with dejected minds bore it away, weeping the while; the people scattering gold, silver and cloths of many kinds went before the king, whilst others assembled sandal wood, sweet aloes and different fragrant essences with heaps of Sarala, Devadaru and Padmaja wood in order to build the funeral pyre. Then drawing near where the king lay, the Ritvijas offered sandal, stalks of water lilies, sweet roots and perfumes, and, pouring oblations into the fire, began the recitation of the silent prayer; thereafter, as laid down in the scriptures, the singers of the Sama Veda started their chanting.

Then the women of the inner apartments left the city in palanquins and chariots according to their rank, escorted by aged guards; and the priests circumambulated the royal pyre, keeping it on their left and the women plunged in grief followed, led by Kauslaya. Thereupon piercing cries, like unto ospreys, arose, which was the wailing of the women, who in their despair emitted innumerable plaints as they descended from their chariots on to the banks of the Sarayu River.

Having performed the water ritual (The Funeral rites consist of two parts, the burning and the cooling of the body by libations, called Tarpana. Each attending is required to offer an Anjali of water – that which can be contained in the hollow of the hands – to the deceased.), the wives of the monarch, as also the counsellors and priests, in company with Bharata, returned to the city, their eyes bathed in tears, and for ten days, observing deep mourning, slept on the ground.

(The Smriti lays down twelve days for the kings and sixteen for other Kshatriyas, but the sage Parasara fixes ten days for Kshatriyas in general).

My comments:

1.Hindus and the Government of India observe a mourning period of ten to thirteen days until today.

2.Funeral pyre is made up of sandal, aloe, agar and other fragrant woods.

3.Holy water from different sources are used

  1. Our forefathers knew the technique of preserving dead bodies. Since Bharata had to travel very fast in Chariot from the border of Iran-Afghanistan to Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh (India), Chief Priest ordered the body to be preserved in medicinal oil.
  2. Royal women also came in palanquins to attend the funeral.

6.Note that there was no Suttee (wives dying with husband in the funeral pyre); all the three queens returned home after bathing in Sarayu.

7.Tarpan (water oblation) continues until today. We can’t see such a continuity in any other parts of the world. For over 5000 years the ceremonies are kept almost intact. Only now it is changing because relatives have spread far and wide.

  1. Going around the dead body in the anti-clock wise direction is done even today.

Chapter 77 of Ayodhya Kanda gives following details: –

Ten days have passed; on the eleventh day Bharata and Shatrugana fainted during the ceremonies; those who watched them also felt sad. The bothers fell like Indra Dwaja (standard).

 

This simile use in the chapter twice shows Valmiki lived long before other poets. Indra dwaja (flag of Indra) is knocked down during the festival. Tamils also celebrated according to Tamil epics. But later it stopped.

 

On the 13th day, the virtuous and gentle spiritual preceptor Vasishtha said, “O,Lord, this is the thirteenth day since the death of your father. Why do you delay in collecting the bones and ashes? All beings, without exception, suffer three things. Once cannot eschew them.”

 

Three things= Hunger and thirst, Pleasure and pain, Life and Death.

 

Then helped by the Chief Minister Sumantra both brothers completed the funeral rites.

In some communities, the ashes are collected on the second day and the ceremony finishes on the 12th day; on the thirteenth day, they do the purification ceremony.

 

We will see what Rama did with the bodies of demons, Bird King Jatayu and others in the next article.

 

Source book: The Ramayana of Valmiki, Translated by Hari Prasad Shastri

 

—Subham–

 

MAHABHARATA AT ONE GO! Bullet Point Summary of 18 Chapters! (Post No.3758)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 26 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 16-00

 

Post No. 3758

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Most of us including me, find it difficult to read all the 100,000 couplets, 200,000 lines, one million words in the world’s longest epic, Mahabharata. They say about this epic,

“What is found in this epic may be elsewhere;
What is not in this epic is nowhere else”.

It is an ever inspiring, never tiring and most interesting Hindu encyclopaedia. From Time travel to Test Tube Babies, from Siamese Twins surgery to Sex Change Operation – everything is here (Please look at the bottom for my research articles on these topics). Vyasa, the author of the epic, was the most prolific writer. He had compiled the voluminous Vedas as well.

 

Mahabharata has 18 chapters (Parva);

Following are the names of the 18 Parvas:

1.Adi Parva

2.Sabha Parva

3.Vana Parva

4.Virata Parva

5.Udhyoga Parva

6.Bhishma Parva

7.Drona Parva

8.Karna Parva

9.Shalya Parva

10.Sauptika Parva

11.Stri Parva

12.Shanti Parva

13.Anusasana Parva

14.Asvamedha Parva

15.Ashramavasika Parva

16.Mausala Parva

17.Mahaprastanika Parva

18.Swaraga Arohana Parva

 

IMPORTANT PARVAS

a).Longest Parva

Shanti Parva with over 14,000 slokas

 

b).Shortest Parva

Maha Prastanika Parva

 

c).Where is Bhagavad Gita in this epic?

In the Bhishma Parva

d).Where is Vishnu Sahsranama (1000 names of Lord Vishnu) in this epic?

In the Anusasana Parva

e).What is the name of the first Parva?

Adi Parva

 

f).What is the name of the last Parva?

Swarga Arohana Parva

BULLET POINTS

1.Adi Parva

The Book of the Beginning is the name of the chapter.

Beginning of the Lunar Dynasty

Birth of Pandavas and Kauravas (Kuru Dynasty)

Separate rule of 5 Pandavas and 100 Kauravas from two capitals

 

2.Sabha Parva

The Book of the Assembly Hall.

Construction of a beautiful Palace for Pandavas which kindled the jealousy of Duryodana (Kaurava Chief). Yudhisthra did a Rajasuya Yajna.

He called Pandavas for a Gambling and defeated them with the help of his uncle Sakuni.

As per the rules of the games Pandavas lost everything and banished for 12+1 year (13th year incognito)

 

3.Vana Parva (Aranya Parva)

The Book of the Forest

Pandavas spend their 12 years with Draupadi in the forest.

They learnt a lot from seers like Markandeya.

Arjuna did a penance and received Pasupata Astra from Lord Shiva;

Arjuna did a space jouney and spent some time in the heaven.

 

4.Virata Parva

The Book of the Virata.

Pandavas with their wife Draupadi were hiding in the country of Virata. They were in different disguise, doing different jobs.

Keesaka, who tried to molest Draupadi was killed by Bhima.

Duryodana tried very hard to identify the Pandavas, but failed

 

5.Udhyoga Parva

The Book of the Effort.

When the Pandavas came back and asked for their share of the kingdom, Duryodana refused to give them.

Several messengers were sent to avoid war.

Krishna also went as a messenger, but in vain.

 

6.Bhishma Parva

The Book of Bhisma

When Arjuna said that he did not want to fight for the land, Krishna gave him some lessons – which are in compiled as the Bhagavd Gita

War began; Bhisma took the command of Karava army.

He was knocked down on the 10th day of the 18 day war.

He was lying on the Bed of Arrows.

 

7.Drona Parva

The Book of Drona

Drona took over as the commander in chief following Bhisma’s fall;

he was killed on the 13th day of the war, when he heard  a lie from the mouth of Yudhisthra (Pandava’s chief); Asvattama is the name of an elephant as well as son of Drona. When Drona heard Asvattama killed (uttered by Yudhisthra), he thought that hi son was killed and lost control and got killed.

 

8.Karna Parva

The Book of Karna

Karna took over the post of commander in chief of Kaurava Army;

He was killed on the 17th day;

Yudhisthra felt very sad when he knew Karna was the eldest of the Pandava brothers.

 

9.Shalya Parva

The Book of Shalya

Shalya served as the commander following Karna’s death.

On the 18th day Shalya was killed;

then Duryodhana and Bhima wanted to have a mace fight; Duryodhan was killed when Bhima stuck him on the thigh against the rules.

Duyodhanawas killed and the war came to an end.

 

10.Sauptika Parva

The Book of the Sleeping Warriors

After the rout of the Kaurava army, asvattama, son of Drona, wanted to take a revenge on the Pandavas.

He watched an owl killing the crows at the dead of night in tree and decided to kill the Pandavas the sameway.

Lord Krishna knew it by premonition and hid them at a diiferent place; only Pandavas’ children were killed; but Pandavas escaped unharmed.

 

11.Stri Parva

The Book of the Women

All the women who lost their husbands cried.

Pandavas did the water oblations for the departed souls on both sides.

 

12.Shanti Parva

The Book of Peace

Dharma alias Yudhisthra lost mental peace even after crowned as the Emperor.

Bhishma gave him lot of examples from the scriptures, lying on the Bed of Arrows

 

 

13.Anusasana Parva

The Book of Instructions

Bhishma gave him more instructions

 

14.Asvamedha Parva

The Book of Asvamedha Yaga

Yudhisthra did an Asvmedha Yajna (Horse sacrifice);

Lord Krishna gave Arjuna another dose of lessons in the name of Anu Gita.

 

15.Ashramavasika Parva

The Book of Hermitage

Dhritarashtra and his wife Gandhari went to forest with Kunti;

they were doing meditation at the fag end of their lives; forest fire burnt them alive. Before that they listened to Vidura who consoled them

 

16.Mausala Parva

The Book of the mace fight.

Following the curse of a seer, Yadavas fought among themselves and killed each other; musal means mace; each of the normal grass they pulled for fighting became a mace andkilled them.

Lord Krishna was killed by a hunter while he was sitting on the tree.

 

17.Mahaprastanika Parva

The Book of the Great Journey.

Hearing that Krishna died and the Kali Yuga began, Pandava brothers along with Draupadi did a ritual walk towards North to reach the Meru mountains. A dog followed them. Pandava brothers, fell one by one and lost their lives. Yudhisthra and the dog continued their journey.

 

18.Swaraga Arohana Parva

The Book of the Ascent to Heaven

When Yudhisthra died, he was taken along the route of Hell for saying one lie in the war. At the end, he reached the heaven and saw all his relatives there; he felt immensely happy; the dog that followed them was nothing but the God of Dharma.

–subham–

 

 

xxxxxx

Old Articles on Mahabharata from my blogs:–

Following articles are written by London swaminathan

1.Stars are Gods! We are Stars!!

Post No 1241; Dated 18th August 2014.

2.Medical Science solves Ten Mysteries in the Mahabharata !

Post No. 933 Date 26th March 2014

3.PANDU- TIGER AMONG MEN! (Post No.3697) Date: 6 March 2017

4.Sex Secrets! Satyabhama boldly asks Draupadi in Mahabharata!!

Post No.2220; Date: 6   October 2015

5.Draupadi and Tamil Heroines;17 May 2012

6.Four Wings of Hindu Army: Blow to Aryan- Dravidian Theory!;Post No.1230 ; Dated 13th August 2014.

7.Strange Bird Stories in Mahabharata!

Research Article no. 1711; dated 12 March 2015

8.One Minute Mahabharata! One Minute Bhagavatha!! 27 March 2015

9.Yellow clad Krishna and Blue Clad Balarama! 2 October 2014

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Following articles are written by S Nagarajan

 

1.MEMORY QUEEN DRAUPADI; Written by S Nagarajan

Research Article No. 1689; Dated 4 March 2015.

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Please read also my articles on CONCEPT OF TIME:

 

1.TIME TRAVEL by TWO TAMIL SAINTS, posted on 14-2-2012

2.Do Hindus believe in ETs and Alien Worlds?, posted on 28-1-2012

3.Is Brahmastra a Nuclear Weapon?, posted on 5 June 2011

4.Hindus Future Predictions Part 1 (posted 20 May 2012)

5.Hindus Future Predictions Part 2 (Posted on 20 May 2012)

6.Five Beautiful Stories on Hindu Concept of Time; Article No.1869; Dated 16 May 2015.

7.Einstein’s Hindu Connection!; Article No.2017; Date : 25  July 2014

 

–Subham–