Post No.7464

Date uploaded in London – 17 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.


One of the famous mathematical works of Bhaskara is Liilaavati. There is a tradition that this work was actually composed by the widowed daughter of Bhaskara whose name was Lilavati. We have also a story how Bhaskara failed to determine the auspicious moment for the celebration of his daughter’s marriage owing to a defect in the ‘ghati-yantra’ — an instrument for measuring time -Caused by a small stone that had fallen into it from the ornament of LilavatI.

Though there is no written proof for this story we believe that Bhaskara  was the author of the Lilavati  and he has honoured her by naming it after her. All the mathematical problems in the book are addressed to a girl, often expressions by like  ‘aye bale Lilavati-

 — o young Lilavati , although Bhaskara may have actually written the book Lilavati for teaching the subject to his own daughter.



In Bengal there are a large number of popular sayings that are attributed to a female astronomer named Khanaa or probably Kshanaavatii . These sayings are in old Bengali and relate to astronomy and astrology, often with special reference to agriculture.

Tradition has it that Khana was the wife of an astronomer named

Mihira , who was the son of another famous astronomer named

Varaha . This tradition has been apparently fabricated on the basis of the celebrated ancient Indian astronomer Varahamihira, who flourished in the sixth century CE, but had hardly anything to do with Bengal. But Khana may have lived in Bengal and she may be renowned female astronomer.



In the traditions that have grown around the illustrious name of

Shankaracharya , there is a story about a great woman philosopher of Mithila – probably named Ubhayabharati. It is said that in the course of his ‘dig-vijaya’ – visiting various institutions for scholarly debates resulting in victory – Shankara reached Mithila . There he was engaged in a debate with another famous philosopher named Mandana Mishra.  According to tradition Shankara defeated Mishra and Mishra’s wife Ubhayabharati was the mediator in the debate. When her husband was defeated by Shnakara, she challenged shankara with some questions about family life. Being a Brahmachari (celibate) he didn’t have any experience in Kama shastra. He asked for some time to answer her questions and then entered another king’s body who had  just expired. He was able to with his supernatural powers. After gaining some knowledge in family matters Shankara defeated Ubhayabharati also and both Mishras had become followers of Shankara.

People who has faith in tradition believe in these stories though we have no written records from that period. Even three Semitic religions of Christianity, Islam and Judaism believe in Moses though there is no historical proof for Moses until today. So there is no wonder Hindus also believe in their tradition.

–Source book – Great Women of India , Advaita Asrama, mayavati, 1953

tags – Lilavati, Ubhayabharati, Khana, Kshanavati



Post No.7460

Date uploaded in London – 16 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

The whole world knows about the importance given to trees in Hinduism. In fact 150 years ago, Christian preachers projected India and Hinduism as primitive, unlettered , illiterates mass and tree and snake worshippers. Now after the concerns regarding pollution and climate change hitting the headlines, the whole world salutes Hindus for respecting nature and for appreciating the value of natural resources.

Because of Buddha the Asvattha Tree (Pipal, Peepul, Ficus religiosa) became a worshipful tree. Now the world Buddhists flock to see the original Bodhi tree in India. But not many people know about the sacred trees of Jain religion. All the 24 saints (Tirthankaras) have sacred trees associated with them.

Just before going into the details, let me give some interesting tit bits:-

Lord Krishna said in  the Bhagavad Gita that he is the Asvattha Tree (Ficus religiosa) among the trees. Having read this, Buddha also went to the sacred tree and attained enlightenment. In Vishnu Sahasranama hymn, the three trees belonging to the same genus and  same family are given as Vishnu’s names (Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis and Ficus glomerata or racemosa of Family Moraceae).

Tamils went one step ahead and called the Asvattha as the KING TREE (Arasa Maram). Even today the women who are without children go around it to get children. The oxygen that it produces is higher than that of many other trees.

Vedic Hindus even named themselves after this tree such as Pippaladan (Mr Asvattha). Brahmins use the sticks of this tree till this day.

Regarding the Banyan tree, a lot of things are in our religion and litrature. It is Vishnu’s name (Nyagrodha); it is worshipped by women during Vata Savitri Vrata. It is in the name of the world famous Anghor ‘Vat’ Temple (vata is banyan tree). Alexander amazed at the sight of it. Panchatantra and Tamil literature have beautiful verses on it.

With this in background we have to look at the trees associated with Jainism. Unlike other sages, Jains attained Mukti or Kevala Jnan under the trees. They did not go to the top of the mountains or into the caves. So we can even say that the Buddha followed them. Sanit Mahavir,last of the 24 Tirthankaras, was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha.

Here is the list of 24 saints of Jain religion and the tree under which they did the penance to attain liberation:-

(I have taken the list from the article written by Rachana Jain in ‘Essays in Honour of Caarusrii’, Bangalore, 2019; She has taken it from Suchitra Jain’s article in the internet.)


Many of the plants mentioned above are worshipped by the Hindus. Tamil Hindus have one Sthala Vrksha for every big temple in South India. Tamil Hindu Kings are associated with one particular tree. They have one Kaaval Maram (Guard Tree) as well.  If any one harms it, that led to big fight or war.

Hindus named their country as Jambudwip after the Jambu Tree. Tamils also used this word from ancient days (Naavalan Thivu). Hindus named big land mass after trees or plants such Kusa Dwip, Salmali Dwip. Tamil Hindus also followed this and named big land tracts after plants such as Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham etc. Several town names in India are named after trees such as Patalipuram, Thillai, Kanchi.

In short, Indians excelled others in living one with the Nature. If we return to those golden days, we can save our environment and avoid the evil effects of climate change.

For those interested in botanical terms I have given the botanical names of 24 plants according to Rachana Jain-

1.Bargad, Vata, Nyagrodha – Banyan tree, Ficus benghalensis – Moraceae

2.Semala, Salmali, Saptaparna, Bombax ceiba, Bombacaceae

3.Sala, Asakanni – Shorea robusta , Dipterocarpaceae

4.Chir pine, Sarala – Pinus roxbhurgii, Pinaceae

5.Priyangu- Callicarapa macraphylla, Verbenaceae

6.same as above

7.Sirisa – Albizzia lebbeck, Mimosaceae

8.Nagakesara – Mesua ferrea , Guttiferae

(Wikipedia gives the family name as Calophyllaceae)

9.baheda, bibheleya, aksa- Terminalia Bellerica, Conbretaceae

10.Bela, Plaksa, Ficus lacor, Moraceae

11.Tendu, tindu- Dispyros melanaxylon, Ebenaceae

12.Patala, Kadamba- bignonia spp., Bignonioceae

13.Jamuna, Jambu- Syzygium cumini, Myrtaceae

14. Pippala, dhamarukha, Asvattha- Ficus religiosa, Moraceae

15.Visnukaanta, girikandi- Clitoria biflora, Cleomaceae

16.Nandi, nandirukha- Cedrella toona, Meliaceae

17.Tendu, tilaka- Dispyros melanaxylon, Ebenaceae

18.Mango, amba- Magnifera indica, Anacadiaceae

19.Asoka, asoga, kankeli- Saraca indica, Caesalpiniaceae

20.Naga campa, campakgumma- Michelia campaca, Magnoliaceae

21.bakula, nimbakarya- mimusops elengi, sapotaceae

22.Kokama, Ambilasaya, mesashrnga- Garcinia indica, Guttifereae

23.Dhav, dhava, Devadaru- Anogeissus latifolia, Combretaceae

24.Sala- Shorea robusta , Dipterocarpaceae.

Following are my old articles on Trees–

Nyakrodha tree | Tamil and Vedas

 of trees | Tamil and Vedas

Trees in literature | Tamil and Vedas

Picture of Deodar: Tree of the Gods. We have heard about people adopting children. But the greatest of the Indian poets Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil poets give …

save trees | Tamil and Vedas

Trees of Wisdom | Tamil and Vedas

Picture shows Newton under Apple Tree. Hindu Saints composed Upanishads under the Himalayan Trees. Buddha attained wisdom under the Bodhi Tree.

water and trees | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about water and trees written by Tamil and Vedas.

Peepal tree | Tamil and Vedas

19 Feb 2017 – Trees are used as similes and metaphors in Tamil and Sanskrit literature from very ancient times. The upside down Peepal Tree(Ficus …

Bodhi Tree | Tamil and Vedas

Mahabodhi Tree in Bodha Gaya. Research paper by London Swaminathan Post No.1325; Dated 3rd October 2014. This article is part of my series on …

Nature | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about Nature written by Tamil and Vedas. … “Trees that have fruit but no flowers are traditionally known as the Lords of the Forest; those that bear both …

Hindus’ Respect for Trees and Forests | Tamil and Vedas…/hindus-respect-for-trees-and-forests/

18 Feb 2015 – In the Vedas, Lord Shiva is called the Lord of the Forests (Vanaspathi), Lord of the Trees (Vrkshanaam pathi) and Lord of the Animals …

Tamarind Tree | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about Tamarind Tree written by Tamil and Vedas.

Magic of Trees! | Tamil and Vedas

25 Nov 2012 – Buddha attained wisdom under the Bodhi Tree. Vaishnavite saint Nammalvar attained wisdom under a Tamarind tree. Sanatkumaras attained …

Tansen and Tamarind Tree! Ghosts in Tamarind … – Tamil and Vedas

26 Mar 2016 – Tansen and Tamarind Tree! Ghosts in Tamarind Trees! (Post No 2666). tansen tomb. Research Article by london swaminathan. Date: 26 March …

Indian Wonder: The Banyan Tree | Swami’s Indology Blog

26 May 2012 – There is a beautiful verse in the Panchatantra about Banyan Tree: “Deer recline in its shade; Birds in multitude gather to roost. Darkening its …

Swami’s Indology Blog

Nov 6th. வேதத்தில் மரங்களின் கதை (Post No.4372). Nov 6th. STRANGE STORIES ABOUT TREES IN VEDAS –Part 2 (Post No.4371).

Plants in Mahavamsa | Swami’s Indology Blog

3 Oct 2014 – In the same chapter we come across the story of Nigrodha (MrBanyan Tree). When Emperor Asoka killed his elder brother Sumana, his …

Significance of Neem Tree in Hinduism – Swami’s Indology Blog

11 Jun 2017 – 18 Mar 2013 – Reand and enjoy this article about “Banyan Tree” from Mr. Santhanam Swaminathan. Tamarind Tree | Tamil and Vedas.

tags – sacred trees, Jainism, Jain religion, Kevala Jnan, Tirthankaras

 Xxxx subham xxxxx


Sugarcane for Sankaranti
Pongal Greetings


Post No.7457

Date uploaded in London – 15 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

MAKARA SANKARAANTI is celebrated by the Hindus throughout India. Tamils call it PONGAL and celebrate it on a grander scale. Actually, it is a three day festival of Hindus. Sankranti/Pongal eve is celebrated as Bhogi. And the next day to Pongal is celebrated as Cattle Pongal , i.e. In Tamil Maattup Pongal.

First let me explain the way Tamil Hindus celebrate it.

On Bhogi Pandikai/festival day they burn all the old things in a bonfire in front of their houses. The old things include all old clothes, furniture, mats, carpets old pots etc.,

Just two weeks before the festival, they start cleaning the house and white wash the house. Then they apply red border along the floor near the wall with saffron coloured red mud. Saffron colour is called Kaavi in Tamil. Wherever the red border is seen it means  some auspicious things are happening. Hindus draw such things on all auspicious occasions such as wedding, puberty ceremony, Valaikappu/Seemantham, Punul/sacred thread ceremony etc.

All the Hindu festivals are associated with one special dish. On the Bhogi day they make Boli and Vadai.

Pongal Celebrartions


Pongal means rice pudding. They don’t use white sugar. They use jaggery and ghee to make sweet Pongal. ‘Pongu’ is a Tamil verb which means boil to the brim of the pot. When the rice is boiled in milk and water with jaggery and ghee, it boils and come to the brim of the new pot, usually a new mud pot. Then they make happy shouting/noise with the words ‘Pongal O Pongal’. The mud pot is decorated with turmeric plant and holy Kunkum and Vibhuti/holy ash.,

The mud pot is usually placed on a Kolam/rangoli and women do the cooking surrounded by children and men. Sugar cane and newly harvested turmeric plants are kept on both sides of the Pongal pot.

Orthodox Hindus draw a picture of Sun God and do Puja with flowers. All these things are done in an open place in the house, mostly backyard or in front of the house.

All the family members bathe in the morning and wear new clothes. Since Pongal follows the harvest season they will have new rice, new sugarcane etc.

Farmers get lot of money from the sale of harvested grains and hence there is a saying in Tamil, “ Thai Piranthaal Vazi Pirakkum” meaning if the month of Thai is born, a new way is born/found or seen. That is girls will get married sooner with the available money.

Cattle Pongal

Next day to Pongal is called Maatu Pongal (Maatu in Tamil means cattle). It is a thanks -giving day to Cows and Bulls. They decorate the cows and bulls with flower garlands and paint the horns with colour paints. They are taken in a procession and the chief of the cowherds Lord Krishna will follow the cows and bulls. If there is a temple of Vishnu, then the idol procession will follow the cows and bulls with big tom tom and music. Earlier in the day they give Sweet Pongal to the cattle.

Orthodox Hindus celebrate it on a wider scale. They wake up in the morning and use the left- over food to feed the birds. It is done ritually. They draw Kolams/Rangolis and on those Rangolis they spread turmeric leaf and make balls of food with different colours and spread it on the leaves. All women take part in this ritual. It is called Kanu Pongal.,

Meaning of Makara Sankraanthi

Pundit S M Natesa Sastri in his book Hindu Feasts (year 1903) had explained the word Bhogi-

Explaining the meaning of Bhogi festival he says the word ‘Bhoga’ comes from the Sanskrit root ‘BHUJ’, to enjoy ; so Bhogi Pandikai is a feast of enjoyment. It is celebrated to honour INDRA who helps us to get rains for the crops and good gravest.

Sankranti comes from the word Sankramana . Sun enters zodiac sign Makara/ Capricorn. And the Tamil month ‘Thai’ begins on that day. Thai is ‘Pausa’ in Sanskrit .,

This day is observed throughout India and South East Asia (see my research article about Thailand and Laos given below) for the worship of sun god. Rich men regard this day as a meritorious one for making charitable donations and every Hindu raja/king gives away large sums in charity. An assembly of pandits sits on this day in Baroda and gives rewards to Hindu scholars who have passed examinations in Vedas, Tarka, Vyakarana . Other Rajas also observe the same custom.

The Uttarayana Punyakala – northward journey of sun -begins on this day. The season for marriages in Hindu families commences on this day and lasts for six months up to the end of Uttarayana. Brothers send presents and gifts to their sisters. Newly wedded brides get special presents on the day.,

Bull fighting

There is a custom in the Yadava community- Lord Krishna’s caste—whoever tames a bull that is let loose will get a gift. This custom started with Lord Krishna who tamed seven bulls according to Bhagavata purana. Youngsters have to tame a bull to get a girl in the olden days.

Sangam  Tamil book Kalitokai describes in great detail the bull fighting or – taming the bull – by cowherd community/ Yadava caste. Now it is tamed by any strong man. In the olden days they used to tie some valuables or money to the horn of the bull and whoever tames the bull gets the money.,

Kite flying

In Gujarat state of India huge kite flying events take place.

Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sang (RSS) celebrates six traditional festivals and Sankranti is one of them. North Indians distribute sweet sesame balls to everyone on this day.

Thiruvalluvar day

Tamil Nadu government declared Cattle Pongal Day as Thirvalluvar day in honour of great Tamil poet Valluvar.

Orthodox Hindus pay homage to departed souls by doing Tarpana on the Sankranti day.,

Sankranti, being a solar festival it falls on the same day every year, either on 14th or 15th of January.


In his Madras discourse on 14th January 1958, Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) said,

“Plant life is necessary for the growth and sustenance of animal life. The entire vegetable kingdom derives its  nourishment through rain and dew which fall during the Dakshinayana and attain fruition during Uttarayana by the warmth that it obtains from the sun. it is the all merciful Narayana who is ‘antaryamin’ in the Sun and who is the source of all this nourishment and fruition. And so, we devoutly offer the plants and vegetables which sustain human life to the Giver of all Good on this day – Makara Sankranti day – or Thai Pongal day – and use them with His Grace.,

Giving up all luxuries, we must restrict ourselves to necessities and use them with gratitude as gifts of the All Merciful God. We worship the sun on Makara Sankranti day as the agency through whom Iswara (God) bestows on us he necessities of life.

Fresh turmeric, which is evident in puja, is symbol of auspiciousness. Sugarcane stands for whatever is sweet in life. Grain, plantain and coconut are symbolic of the plenty of the season, which along with sweetened rice are offered to the sun.

In the same manner, the cowherds offer these gifts of god to domestic animals such as cow on the next day.

The observance of this day, betokening plenty and auspiciousness, is a reminder to all of us, including the unlettered masses, that the overflowing and abundant good things that support our life are the gifts of All Merciful Providence, personified by the sun, who enters the northward course. This is equated in the Bhagavat Gita and the Upanishads with a path with which a devotee is destined to reach the ultimate divinity.,

May plenty and spirituality overflow by His Grace , especially in the world of today where they are most needed.

–From Acharya’s Call, Part 2, B G Paul &co, Madras-1

tags – Pongal, Sankranti, Kanu, Bhogi, Bull fighting, Kite flying

sankranti in Laos and Thailand



Sankaranti | Tamil and Vedas › tag › sankaranti


Tamils in South India celebrate it as Pongal– Harvest Festival. Other parts of India celebrate it as a solar festival. All over India worship Sun God on that day.

பொங்கல் பண்டிகை | Tamil and Vedas › tag › பொங்கல்-ப…


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9 May 2018 – பொங்கல் என்று சொல்லும் பண்டிகையின் உண்மைப் பெயர் சங்கராந்தி. ஒரு உணவுப் பண்டத்தின் பெயரில் பண்டிகை இராது என்பது …

பொங்கல் வாழ்த்து! (Post No.5937) | Tamil and … › 2019/01/15 › பொங்க…


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15 Jan 2019 – வந்தது இன்று பொங்கல் – நனி. தந்தது இன்று … வேணும் பொங்கல் மகிழ்ச்சி – நாம் … Tamil and Vedas posted: ” Pongal picture from Bank of Baroda calendar > Written …,


Pongal Kolam or Sankranti Rangoli



Post No.7454

Date uploaded in London – 14 January 2020

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Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Hundreds of Sanskrit words found in the RIG VEDA , the oldest book in the world, are used by us today. They are found in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and later Indian languages. Nemi which means Wheel is found in the . Rig Veda and Sangam Tamil literature. But this word has extended meaning , mainly the God who holds Sudarsana Chakra, ie.Vishnu/Krishna. It  is also found in Sangam Tamil literature.

It has other meanings such as Chakra/Indra, Varuna, Sun, sea, wheel of a Chariot, Chakravarti/emperor, chariot etc.

Indus-Sarasvati Civilization has many symbols in the shape of a wheel. So it is interesting to study the symbol. It may mean any one of the above meanings or the sound, if we believe the Indus language is phonetic. Many scholars believe it is logo-syllabic and not phonetic.

I have already written one article many years ago saying that the elephant with a person standing on it with wheel symbol is Indra. Indra’s name is Wheel/chakra and his Vahana is Airvavatha elephant.

Let me give the Vedic and Tamil references of NEMI first:-

Rig Veda  1-32-15; 1-141-9; 2-5-3; 5-13-6; 7-32-20; 8-46-23; 8-75-5 and many other places in later Vedic literature.

Linking Chakra/wheel with the Chakravarti/emperor is a unique Hindu concept. The Vedic concept is found in later Tamil Sangam poems. There’ Aazi’ is used for chakra. Strange coincidence is  Tamil ‘Aazi ‘and Sanskrit ‘Chakra’ mean sea as well. If we continue our research we may find more meanings. In the oldest part of the Vedas, Nemi meant wheel, particularly of Ratha/ Chariot.,

Nemi is found in the following places in Sangam Tamil literature:–

Akananuru.14-19, 175-14, 251-13, 324-11, 400-21.

Kalitokai .104-9; Kuruntokai.189-3, 227-1, 36-4, . Narrinai .394-5.

Paripatal.1-55, 3-94, 13-6, 9, 15-3, 19-46;

Purananuru .3-4, 17-7.,

In Purananuru verse 58- Nemiyon refers to the holder of the wheel -Lord Krishna. In Kalitokai, Nemiyaan refers to Vishnu with the wheel.

In short NEMI is connected with Vishnu or Emperor. Thus it is interesting to connect  Indus- Sarasvati civilisation with Nemi. Among the ancient civilisations all foreign encyclopedias and history books written by the British, which is followed in Indian educational institutions until today, India is the only country that has no kings for 2000 years! They wrote that we had kings only from the period of Buddha. They ignored all the kings mentioned in Vedic literature and Hindu Puranas. It is an urgent task to rewrite our history.

Neminatha -Indus connection

Some years ago we read that the submarine archaeologists  have discovered the Dwaraka port that was devoured by the sea long ago. Historians dated it around Indus Sarasvati Riverbed civilization period. Hindu Puranas say that the city Dwaraka went under the sea after the demise of Lord Krishna around 3100 BCE. We had very well developed transport facilities then because Krishna shuttled between Dwaraka and Mathura. They were 700 miles apart. More over we read about Krishna’s Naval Expeditions in the Puranas. Along with this we read about Krishna’s cousin and the 22nd Tithankara Neminatha lived in the same city. His father’s name Samudravijaya shows that he was a sea merchant like the Ma Nayaka of Tamil epic Silappadikaram. Looking with this background we should study Jain literature, particularly the activities of Neminatha and his family in sea side port. Neminatha’s brother was called Rathanemi (Chariot wheel).


“Indus” Valley Civilization to “Ganges” – Tamil and Vedas › 2014/03/28 › change-indus-valley-civilization…


28 Mar 2014 – Following this morning’s news report of the discovery of an “Indus” valley site on the Ganges plains larger than Harappa, I wrote this article.

Indus Valley – Brahmin Connection! | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/05/10 › indus-valley-brahmin-connection


10 May 2014 – The world was misled by some scholars in the case of Indus Valley … Ram’s sons invaded Indus cities: Please see my earlier article Indus …

Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and Vedas › category › indus-valley-civilization


Posts about Indus Valley Civilization written by Tamil and Vedas. … Read more: …

Indra – Taranis – Thor in Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and … › 2014/09/05 › indra-taranis-thor-in-indus-valle…


5 Sep 2014 – On 29 May 2011, I posted an article with the title “Indus Valley Civilization- New Approach required” in this blog. I have posted the picture of a …

Tiger Goddess of Indus Valley | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/08/22 › tiger-goddess-of-indus-valley


22 Aug 2012 – Scholars who study Indus valley civilization are struggling to identify … Please read my previous articles on Indus/Saraswati Valley civilisation:.

Serpent Queen:Indus Valley to Sabarimalai | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/06/17 › serpent-queenindus-valley-to-sa…


17 Jun 2012 – We have a faience figure in Indus Valley with two snakes. Minoan Goddess … (Please read my other articles on Indus Valley 1. Bull Fighting: …

Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/10/31 › human-sacrifice-in-indus-valley…


31 Oct 2012 – Indus valley has two or three human sacrifice scenes. On a … Tamil articles: சிந்து சமவெளியில் பேய் முத்திரை. 10.

Indus Valley to Egypt: Lapis lazuli Export! | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/09/06 › indus-valley-to-egypt-lapis-lazul…


6 Sep 2014 – Earlier articles on INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION. Indus Valley-Brahmin Connection (Post No 1034, Date 10-5-14) Bull Fighting: Indus Valley to …

You’ve visited this page 2 times. Last visit: 21/02/17

Number 7: Rig Vedic link to Indus Valley Culture ! | Tamil and … › 2014/11/21 › number-7-rig-vedic-link-to-ind…


21 Nov 2014 – Sapta Mata (Seven Mothers ) seal from Indus Valley Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article No.1427; Dated 21st …

Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/12/18 › indus-valley-cities-in-ramayana


18 Dec 2012 – Ramayana Wonders Part 5 Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana The “destruction of Indus Valley cities” was debated by scholars at one time.

Missing: articles ‎| Must include: articles

Vishnu Seal in Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and Vedas › 2011/10/19 › vishnu-seal-in-indus-valley-civil…


19 Oct 2011 – Please read my article about a newapproach to solve the Indus … Ficus Indica in Latin) is drawn on many seals and objects in the Indus valley.

Manu on Indus Valley | Tamil and Vedas › tag › manu-on-indus-valley


28 Apr 2014 – Posts about Manu on Indus Valley written by Tamil and Vedas. … (First part of the article “30 Important Quotations from Manu” posted on 27th …

Which were the gods of the Indus Valley civilization and did they … › … › Eastern Religions and Philosophies

25 Sep 2016 – Click to … The Indian Express has an article called The riddle of Mhatoba, …



Complied by London Swaminathan

Post No.7445

Date uploaded in London – 11 January 2020

Contact –

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Art and literature in South India attained fulness and freedom of expression in the Vijayanagara epoch.

Gangadevi was the queen of Kumara Kampanna who conquered Shambuvaraya and Sultan of Madurai in 1361 CE, and brought thereby the whole of Tamil country as far as Rameswaram under Vijayanagar Empire.

Gangadevi was well educated and a talented woman and she accompanied her husband Kumara Kampanna to the South during his expeditions. She wrote a fine Sanskrit epic called the Mathura Vijayam describing the heroic deeds of her husband. In the eulogy on poets at the beginning of the book, she gives considerable prominence to the Sanskrit poets of the Telugu country such as Agastya, Gangadhara and Viswanatha, and the last of whom was her Guru/preceptor. Special interest is attached to the poet Tikkaya “whose poetry resembles the moonlight, drunk with avidity by thirsty poets like chakora birds”.  This Tikkaya is none other than the famous Tikkana Somayaji, the author of fifteen out of the eighteen parvans/books of the Telugu Mahabharata . it is obvious that Gangadevi, the pupil of Viswanatha and an admirer of Tikkana Somayaji’s poetry is a Telugu princess.

The Mathura Vijayam is a historical epic , which describes Kampannas’s victories in the Tamil country. Its value as a source book of early history Vijayanagara history cannot easily be overestimated.  As a poetess Gangadevi takes a high rank; she is perhaps the greatest of women writers of South India who chose Sanskrit as the vehicle of expression. The appraisement of her work by editors may be quoted here with advantage –

“The work is in the form of a classical Kavya , conforming to the rules laid down in the treatises on poetics and containing the usual lengthy of the seasons , the twilight, the rising of the moon and other necessary topics. The authoress writes in the Vaidharbi style , and her thoughts which  flow with ease and simplicity , are clothed in diction at once beautiful and charming. Her similes are grand and drawn direct from nature, with none of the conventional pedantry of grammar or rhetoric which so largely spoils the productions of later-day poets. she has adopted certain scenes and descriptions which are favourite with Kalidasa, but they are transformed at the mint of her imagination and invested with new significance.



Unlike Gangadevi,  Molla (1440-1530 CE) was not a lady of royal rank. She was of humble origin, being the daughter of Keshava Shetti, a potter of Gopavaram , a few miles to the north of Nellore on the bank of river Pennai. Molla is the earliest and perhaps the greatest of the Telugu poetesses. Though her date is not definitely known, it is not at all unlikely she flourished in the palmy days of Emperor Krishnadevaraya  or a little earlier. In the eulogy on poets of her Ramayanam she refers to the famous poet Shrinatha , who lived in the closing years of fourteenth century or later. Nothing is known about her personal life except that she wrote Ramayanam.

Molla’s Ramayanam, though small in size , is a poem of considerable poetic excellence and literary merit. Until recently it used to be studied as a text book in village schools, where boys were taught to learn it by heart. Molla is a vigorous writer. Though simple, her style is dignified and her verse easy flowing and forcible. She is at her best in Sundara Kandam; the brief pen picture of Ravana , Hanuman ads Sita are unsurpassed in the whole range of Telugu literature. It is not known whether Molla wrote any other work; but her Ramayanam is enough to secure for her an abiding place in the galaxy of the immortals who enriched the Telugu language and literature.

(Note- Wikipedia has latest information from research scholars)

Source book

Great women of India, Advaita Ashrama,

Mayavati, Almora , Himalayas , 1953


Research into Sixteen Janapadas of Ancient India! (Post No.7442)

Research article written by London swaminathan

Post No.7442

Date uploaded in London – 10 January 2020

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Gandhara warrior from Wikipedia

Punch marked coins are available from sixth century BCE-wikipedia image

coins from wikipedia



Abhirami bhattar praying to goddess.

Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.7439

Date uploaded in London – 9 January 2020

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Tamil devotional poet Abhirami Bhattar is a house hold name in Tamil Nadu. Equally famous was Kalamegham whose name means that he pours down poems like a black rainy cloud. These two poets and and an anonymous poet prays to God and Goddess to pay them SIXTEEN GREAT THINGS.

Whenever a newly married couple seeks the blessings of the elders, they used to bless them saying LET BOTH OF YOU GET THE SIXTEEN and LIVE A LONG LIFE.

So there are at least three Tamil poems giving the List of 16 Great Things. Though the lists slightly vary, I will give below the most popular one of Abhirami Bhattar, a great devotee of Goddess Uma/Parvati/Abirami

English Translation
O, Goddess of old Kadavur, Younger Sister of Vishnu who is ‘sleeping’ on the ocean, who is inseparable from Amutheesar, O Abhirami, please bless me with the following:–

1)Good and Proper Education,

2) Long life,

3)Good Friends,

 4)Inexhaustible Prosperity,


6)Disease free (healthy) body,

 7)Calm mind (tranquillity),

8)Affectionate wife,

9)Children with good character,

10)Name and Fame,



13)Theft free Wealth,

14)Good government,

15)Worry free life, and

16) Association with your great devotees.

An alternative translation runs like this :– Life long Learning, Long life, Untarnished Friendship, Undiminished Prosperity, Eternal youth, Healthy Life, Unending exuberance, Ever loving Spouse, Unfaltering Children, Ever rising reputation, Truthfulness, Generosity at all times, Wealth that never ceases to grow, Honesty/ Fair play ( a country with a just government), Life free of sorrows, Love of God or association with god loving people/devotees.



A Prayer Found in Chester Cathedral

Give me good digestion, Lord,
And also something to digest;
Give me a healthy body, Lord,
With sense to keep it at its best.

Give me a healthy mind, good Lord,
To keep the pure and good in sight;
Which, seeing sin, is not applauded,
But find a way to set it right.

Give me a mind that is not bored,
That does not whimper, wine and sigh;
Don’t let me worry overmuch
About the fussy thing called “I”.

Give me a sense of humour, Lord,
Give the grace to see a joke;
To get some happiness from life,
And pass it on to other folk.



Enormous Wealth

What We Need

A little dash of purpose,
An effort made to cheer,
A little more of courage,
And less of doubt and fear;
A little more of lifting,
And pulling all our weight,
A little less of leaning,
And leaving it to fate.

A little less of grabbing,
Of selfishness and greed,
A little more of helping,
A fellow that’s in need;
A little more of working,
With smiles instead of frowns,
A little less of kicking,
A fellow when he down.

A little less complaining,
About the things that mar,
A little more adapting,
To all the things that are;
A little more of caring,
And willingness to fight,
A little more of daring,
For what we feel is right.

A little splash of humour,
To brighten up the way,
A little joy to follow,
And linger through the day;
A little touch of laughter,
To cause a little mirth,
Is simply what we’re needing,
To gladden this old earth.

Hope Spencer


about life

Hindus use cow’s urine for its anti-bacterial properties

Hindus’ greatest contribution to civilization is cow and its milk. They domesticated it and found out the value of milk.

16 Types of Gifts

(From Wisdom Library)

Mahādāna (महादान).—There are sixteen Mahādānas or “Great gifts”. They are: (1) Tulāpuruṣadāna, (2) Hiraṇyagarbha dāna, (3) Brahmāṇḍa dāna, (4) Kalpakavṛkṣadāna, (5) Gosahasradāna, (6) Hiraṇyakāmadhenudāna, (7) Hiraṇyāśva dāna, (8) Hiraṇyāśvaratha dāna, (9) Hemahastiratha dāna, (10) Pañcalāṅgalakadāna (11) Dhārādāna, (12) Viśvacakradāna (13) Kalpalatā dāna, (14) Saptasāgaraka dāna, (15) Ratnadhenu dāna, (16) Mahāpūtaghaṭa dāna. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 210).

Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions say that the great kings did 16 Daanaas (gifts or Donations). The list slightly differs in different Hindu scriptures. But all include Food, Gold, Cows, Land.

Other common gifts were golden images of a Pipal tree, Meru Hills, Divine Tree Karpaka Vruksha, Divine Cow Kamadhenu etc.

The lists say that giving a girl to a worthy man is a good gift and it is known as Kanyaa Dhaanam.

Giving education and helping someone to get married are also great gifts.

The general term for Great Gifts is Maha Dhanam. But the actual meaning of the word is giving gold to a Brahmana equal to one’s own weight.

Great Tamil king Cheran  Senguttuvan weighed himself against gold and gave it to a Brahmin known as Matalan, according to Tamil Epic Silappadikaram.

Hindu king Mulavarman of Indonesia of fourth century CE and Krishna Devaraya of 14th century did 16 Gifts Ceremony.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mahadana in Sanskrit glossary (from Wisdom Library)

Mahādāna (महादान).the gift of gold equal to one’s own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम् (athāta sapravakyāmi mahādānasya lakaam).

Derivable forms: mahādānam (महादानम्).

Mahādāna is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and dāna (दान).

Tamil Encyclopaedia ‘Abidana Chintamani’ by Singaravelu Mudaliyar gives a list of over 30 Daanaas (gifts) with full information.

English word donation is derived from Sanskrit word Dhaana.

Hindus worship cow on festival days

Xxxx Subham xxxx


Compiled by London swaminathan

Post No.7437

Date uploaded in London – 9 January 2020

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English newspapers in Britain have published a news item that the British believed in gem power. The news appeared yesterday (8-1-2020). Hindu beliefs about gem power existed in Britain 500 years ago.

The lovers’ ring lost in a field 500 years ago

A MEDIEVAL gold ring discovered in a field is likely to have been a 15th century love token, an expert says.

The band, found by a detectorist in York in 2016 and now on display at the Yorkshire Museum, is thought to have been owned by gentry or those ‘associated with royalty’ because it is set with a ruby and an emerald.

Adam Parker, of the Yorkshire Museum Trust, which bought the ring for £20,000, said emeralds were linked with chastity and rubies with love so it could have been ‘a betrothal charm’.

He said the ‘exotic’ ring, which was buried for 500 years, may have been dropped, or stolen and hidden.

It was likely to have had its origin in the Middle East or North Africa.

But experts, while describing the gold ring set with ruby and emerald as an ‘incredible treasure’, say its provenance cannot be proved.

Mr Ibbotson, 52, from Blackpool, found it in a field at Fulford, near York, in December 2016. It was officially declared treasure and he and the landowner received £10,000 each. Now, after more than two years of research, Mr Ibbotson believes it could be the ring on the index finger of Anne of Cleves in Hans Holbein’s 1539 portrait.



ஷான் கானரி, பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி, நடிகை ஜேன் பாண்டா (Post No.7427)

ஷான் கானரி, பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி, நடிகை ஜேன் பாண்டா (Post No.7427)

Written by London Swaminathan

Uploaded in London on  – 6 JANUARY 2020

Post No.7427

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1992ம் ஆண்டு ஜனவரி மாதம் நான்  தினமணியில் எழுதிய மூன்று பழைய விஷயங்கள்

1.பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி இரண்டாம் எலிசபெத் (Queen Elizabeth II) – இன்னும் பதவியில் நீடிக்கிறார். விக்டோரியா மகாராணியின் 64 ஆண்டு ஆட்சி சாதனையை முறியடித்த பின்னர் பதவி விலகி இளவரசர் சார்லசுக்கு வழிவிடுவார் என்று நம்பப்பட்டது . ஆனால் இப்போது அவர் 67 ஆண்டுகளாக பதவியில் உள்ளார். தற்கால உலகில் நீண்ட காலம் ஆடசி செய்யும் ராணி இவர்தான்


ஜேன் பாண்டா (Jane Fonda) வின் மணம் முறிந்தது.

மூன்றாவது கணவரான டெட்டுடன் 2001 வரை வாழ்ந்தார்.

பின்னர் நாலாவது கணவராக ரிசர்ட் பெறி வந்தார். அவர்கள் திருமண வாழ்வு 2009ல் துவங்கி 2017ல் முடிந்தது. இப்போது ஜேனுக்கு வயது 82.


ஷான் கானரி

ஷான் கானரிக்கு (Sean Connery) வயது 89. அமைதியான வாழ்வு வாழ்ந்து கொண்டு இருக்கிறார்.

TAGS —ஷான் கானரி, பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி , இரண்டாம் எலிசபெத்,நடிகை ஜேன் பாண்டா


Written by London Swaminathan

Uploaded in London on  – 6 JANUARY 2020

Post No.7427

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pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

1992ம் ஆண்டு ஜனவரி மாதம் நான்  தினமணியில் எழுதிய மூன்று பழைய விஷயங்கள்

1.பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி இரண்டாம் எலிசபெத் (Queen Elizabeth II) – இன்னும் பதவியில் நீடிக்கிறார். விக்டோரியா மகாராணியின் 64 ஆண்டு ஆட்சி சாதனையை முறியடித்த பின்னர் பதவி விலகி இளவரசர் சார்லசுக்கு வழிவிடுவார் என்று நம்பப்பட்டது . ஆனால் இப்போது அவர் 67 ஆண்டுகளாக பதவியில் உள்ளார். தற்கால உலகில் நீண்ட காலம் ஆடசி செய்யும் ராணி இவர்தான்


ஜேன் பாண்டா (Jane Fonda) வின் மணம் முறிந்தது.

மூன்றாவது கணவரான டெட்டுடன் 2001 வரை வாழ்ந்தார்.

பின்னர் நாலாவது கணவராக ரிசர்ட் பெறி வந்தார். அவர்கள் திருமண வாழ்வு 2009ல் துவங்கி 2017ல் முடிந்தது. இப்போது ஜேனுக்கு வயது 82.


ஷான் கானரி

ஷான் கானரிக்கு (Sean Connery) வயது 89. அமைதியான வாழ்வு வாழ்ந்து கொண்டு இருக்கிறார்.

TAGS —ஷான் கானரி, பிரிட்டிஷ் மஹாராணி , இரண்டாம் எலிசபெத்,நடிகை ஜேன் பாண்டா



Geek Sphinx from Thebes

Research article Written by London Swaminathan

Uploaded in London on  – 1 JANUARY 2020

Post No.7408

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pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


Another interesting thing about the hymn is that it has the Greek Sphinx Riddle. Sangam Tamil literature verses and post Sangam Tamil Tirukkural reflects the views in the hymn. Bhagavad Gita also shared the same thoughts. Let me compare the riddle first.

Gigantic 187 feet tall Egyptian Sphinx is a famous edifice with a long history. It has been dated a monument from 2600 BCE. It has the face of a man and the body of a lion. Greeks had a different Sphinx with a feminine face and wings. We have such figures from 500 BCE.

In the Greek conception, sphinx is the monstrous daughter of Typhon and Echidna. The sphinx demanded human sacrifice from the Thebans every time her riddle concerning the three ages of man was unanswered. when Oedipus answered, she committed suicide. It was adopted as an emblem of wisdom.

Her riddle was ‘which animal  went on four, then two and finally three legs’; the answer being humanity- crawling baby, adult and old man with a stick. Oedipus gave the right reply.

Rig veda 10-117-8 says

“He with one foot surpasses Two foot; and Two foot leaves Three foot behind. Four foot comes at the call of

Two foot watching his herds and serving him where five met together.”

Probably the Greeks copied it like they copied the Sarama dog story in Hermes episode.

The explanation given by the Vedic commentators is

One foot – Sun (Aja Ekapada is another word for Sun)

Two Feet – human being;

Three foot – old person with a walking stick (staff);

Four feet – Dog and other animals.

Five foot – Many people who watch all these things.


Before this stanza, there are other stanzas illustrating very high thoughts. This is from the 10th Mandala of the Rig Veda.

Rig Veda 10-117-1

The gods have not ordained hunger to be our death; even to the well-fed man comes death in varied shape.

Here the poet Bitsu Angiras says that don’t condemn the begging people that they have to suffer like this because of their past sins. That is not right. Death is not only for the poor. Even well-fed rich men die.



The man with food in store, who when the needy comes in miserable case begging for food

Hardens his hear against him – though in the past he had made use of him- he surely finds  no one with sympathy.

Tamil poet Tiruvalluar says,

Wealth in the hands of a liberal person is like a useful tree bearing fruits in the middle of a town square – Kural 216

The man who is in the habit of sharing his food with others will never be afflicted with the dire disease called hunger – 227


10-117- 3

The man who is truly generous gives to the beggar  who approaches him. He puts himself at the service of the man and makes him a friend for times to come.



That man is not a friend who does not give of his own nourishment to his friend. Let the friend turn away from him. Let him find another man who gives freely.

Here also we can compare a couplet from Tirukkural-

Genuine friendship hastens to redress distress like the hand that picks up the garment quickly that slips –788


10-117- 5

Let the rich satisfy the poor and bend his eyes upon a longer path way.

Riches come now to one, now to another  like the wheels of the rolling chariot.

This simile of wheel is used by several ancient poets. Naladiyar , another moral book, also uses this wheel simile for ever moving wealth.

Longer pathway means that the rich also can face ups and downs in future and so he must look into it.



The foolish man wins food without labour; I speak the truth; it will bring ruin to him. He cultivates neither a friend nor a patron. All guilt is who he eats alone without sharing.

Lord Krishna illustrates this point in harsher terms. He says that who he eats aloe is a thief; he eats nothing but sin.

The good people who eat what is left from sacrifice are released from all sins but those wicked people who prepare food for their own sake – verily they eat sin – Bhagavad Gita 3-13

He who enjoys the god given gifts without giving to them/gods in return is verily a thief – 3-12

Tiruvalluvar also says,

Enjoying one’s food, sharing it with others, and sustaining other lives is held out as the highest virtue by learned sages – Kural 322

Here Valluvar echoes the Vedic sages.



A man gets food by ploughing the field; the legs that walk puts the road behind them. The priest who speaks is better than the one who does not speak. The friend who gives surpasses the one who does not.

Griffith comments on it,

Active exertion is necessary for success.

The speaking brahman priest – the priest who duly discharges his task of recitation for which he is engaged.



Already given in the Greek Riddle comparison (see above)



The two hands though same, do not do the same thing.

Two cows from the same mother do not give the same amount of milk

The strength and valour of the twins are not the same.

Two kinsmen do not give with the same generosity.

Griffith explains,

All men should be liberal; but we must not expect all to be equally generous.

Here we see the ways of the world beautifully explained.

The similes of twins, ploughing field give a pen picture of the agricultural society.


Last but not the least, we may compare this with the 2000 year old Tamil Sangam Poems.

A Pandya king by name Ilamperu Valuthi says that Tamils share everything that is eatable, even if its Amrta from the world of Indra. He adds that they would do anything that brings fame and name for one and never do anything wrong even if they are given the entire world.- See Puranaanuru verse-182

In another verse a philanthropist was praised as a ‘Doctor who cures the disease of Hunger’ by a Chola king – See Puram. Verse 173.

The thought of sharing and giving  is praised from the Rig Vedic days till today, from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari.


Sphinx in Egypt