Throw women into Water or Fire— Hammurabi (Post No.5959)

Written by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date:19 JANUARY 2019


GMT Time uploaded in London – 20-56
Post No. 5959
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Rare Pictures from Siva Purana (Part 3) சிவ புராணத்திலிருந்து அபூர்வ படங்கள்- 3(Post.5928)

Compiled by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 13 JANUARY 2019


GMT Time uploaded in London –10-33 am
Post No. 5928
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Part 3 of Rare Pictures from Siva Purana

Picture 11

God of Fire Agni Deva comes in the form of a pigeon and on the other side God Kartikeya is born in Saravana Region (Reed filled area) of Ganges.

Picture 12

Lord Subrahmanya (Kartikeya/Muruga/Skanda) is destroying the demon Taraka.

Picture 13

Siva burns down the Tri Pura- three hanging forts of demons.

Picture 14

Viswakarma is  distributing Shiva Lingas to Devas

Picture 15

All Devas performed Linga Puja in the presence of Lord  Vishnu.

Picture 16

Thazam Pu (Flower of Pandanus Plant- Pandanus odoratissimus; Ketaki flower)is cursed and banned from Shiva Worship.

Picture 17

Lord is fighting with Ganapalan.

Picture 18

Lord Ganesh is crowned.

Picture 19

Ganesh is marrying Siddhi and Buddhi.

Picture 20

Siva in the guise of a beggar and Vishnu in the guise of a beauty reached Taruka forest

To be continued with 25 more pictures……………..

–subahm–

MY VISIT TO ST PAUL’S CATHEDRAL TO SEE MANU SMRTI (Post No.5927)

Written by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 13 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London –7-25 am
Post No. 5927


Pictures shown here are taken by London swaminathan. This is a non- commercial blog.

Sir William Jones who worked as a judge 200 years ago was a philologist. He translated several works from Persian and Sanskrit. He translated Manu Smrti with the help of Sanskrit scholars and published it. He is more famous for his comparative linguistic studies. He showed the world the relationship between Sanskrit and other European languages. He was one of the co- founders of Asiatic Society in Calcutta. He published many research articles in the magazines of the society and encouraged many people to write research works.

His statue is in St Paul’s Cathedral in London. This is the most famous cathedral in London frequented by thousands of tourists every week. The statue of Jones was sculpted with the Manu Smrti in his hand. The Sanskrit word Manu is visible. English spelling for Manu is given as Menu, probably that is the spelling he used in his publication.

The statue was sculpted by John Bacon in 1799 after Jone’s death. Jones died at the age of 47. William Jones was knighted in 1783 and died in 1794.

When I went to the Cathedral on 11 January, there was an entrance ticket priced at £20. So I wanted to make sure whether the statue of William Jones is inside the cathedral or outside. Nobody knew who he was. Many other statues of famous persons like Nelson and Samuel Johnson inside the cathedral are known to those people. But I bought the ticket and went inside and asked one of the staff. She was surprised when I asked for William Jone’s statue. She told me,

“It is strange that you asked for this man’s statue. He is the least known persons in the cathedral. Tell me about him”

 and then she showed me the statue.

I told  her about William Jones and said that he is one of the famous Indologists and even a stamp was released in India to celebrate his contributions to the study of Indian culture.

Though photography was not allowed inside the cathedral I asked her permission to take pictures of only that statue. She gave me the permission and I took the pictures from various angles (Please see the attached pictures).

St Paul Cathedral was seen by millions of people around the word when Charles and Diana married there in 1981. The cathedral has a chequered history. It  was burnt down several times and rebuilt in the past 1400 years. The last fire accident was in 1666, what is known as the ‘Great Fire of London’. The fire was raging for four days destroying the heart of London. Now the cathedral looks beautiful and it is one of the tourist attractions. It is huge like our South Indian Temples. Though £20 entrance ticket is too much, they need money to maintain such a beautiful architecture. I was happy when I took the pictures of William Jones with Manu Smrti in his hand.

–subham–

HOW POETS WERE SUPPORTED IN ENGLAND- INTERESTING ANECDOTE! (Post No.5909)

Compiled by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 9 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London –21-14
Post No. 5909
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial 

Manu Smrti in South East Asia (Post No.5873)

swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 2 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London –16-26
Post No. 5873
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.


I have already given the influence of Manu Smrti in Cambodia. See my article posted yesterday. Now let us look at his impact in Thailand and Indonesia

In ancient Indonesia 8th and 9th chapters of Manu Smrti are the main source of law books relating to civil and criminal law. Two law books called Devaagama and Svarajambu followed Manu. A Brahmin named Kaundinya II reformed the laws in the light of the Indian system according to Liang Shu.

Indian influence is seen in ViIetnam (Champa) as well. An inscription states that king Hari varma deva (1074-1080) was versed in four ,Upays and 18 titles or subjects of dispute . Jaya Indra varman IV of `12th century was conversant with all the Dharmasastras.

In Thailand also we see 18 titles of dispute, division of slaves into seven classes. Interest can’t exceed the principal and persons who can’t be witnesses  (in Thailand’ s Dhammasatha ( Dharma sastra))

In the legal treaties Sivasasana or Purvadigama , rules prescribed by Manu are used. It is stated in the Rsisasana that Manu was the first monarch who introduced the Sivasasana.

The Javanese treaties


Kutaramanava,
Svarajambu,
Adigama
are composed on the basis of Manu Smrti


Eight kind of thieves,six kind of great sinners (Atadayins) , homicide etc are discussed on the basis of Manu Smrti

There are other works in old Javanese which used Manu Smrti.


Malaya


Manu’s influence is quite considerable on the laws of Malay according to Winstedt; most of the patriarchal law of this country was of Indian inspiration

Most of the ten crimes for which death penalty are prescribed are like those in Hindu law. And heavier punishment for a person offending against a person of superior caste, modes of punishment like the cutting of the tongue, shaving the head etc, marrying a forcibly abducted girl, fine for sexual offences also reflects of Manu Smrti.

Manu Statue in Philippine

The installation of Manu’s Statue, in early times in the Philippines, is an index to the reverence to this great law giver. It is preserved in Art Gallery of the Senate Chamber of the Philippine republic

Burma


The Pali Dhammasaththa written by Dhammavilasa in 1174 has many of Manu’s rules


Next I will give Dr S Radhakrishnan’s (Philosopher  and President of India) views on Manu Smrti

Source book- Cultural Reciprocation between India and the World,  Sures Chandra Banerji, 1999, Delhi

–subham-


INDIAN WONDER- MANU SMRTI IN LONDON CATHEDRAL! (Post No.5868)



Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 1 JANUARY 2019
GMT Time uploaded in London –15-29
Post No. 5868
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.


Tags- Statue of William Jones with Manu Smrti, St Paul’s Cathedral, Original Manu Smrti

காலன் அழைத்தாலும் காத்து விடும் அதிர்ஷ்டம்! (Post No.5855)

Written by S Nagarajan


Date: 30 DECEMBER 2018


GMT Time uploaded in London – 5-29 am


Post No. 5855

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

காலன் அழைத்தாலும் காத்து விடும் அதிர்ஷ்டம்!

ச.நாகராஜன்

 வாழ்வில் ஏற்படும் சில விஷயங்கள் நம்மை வியப்பில் ஆழ்த்தி விடும். ஏன் அப்படி நடந்தது என்றால் யாருக்கும் சொல்லத் தெரியாது.

நல்ல விஷயம் என்றால் அதிர்ஷ்டம் என்று சொல்லி விடுவோம். கெட்ட விஷயம் என்றால் என் விதி; எனக்கு மட்டும் ஏன் இப்படி என்று கூறிப் புலம்பி அழுது தீர்ப்போம்.

அடுத்த கணம் என்ன நடக்கும் என்பதைச் சொல்ல முடியாது என்பதை உணர்ந்தாலும் எதிர்காலம் எப்படி இருக்கும் என்பதை அறிய எல்லோருக்குமே ஒரு ஆவல் இருக்கிறது.

ஜோதிடத்தில் மனிதனுக்குத் தீராத ஆசை ஏற்படுவது எதிர்காலத்தை அறியத் துடிக்கும் மனிதனின் இந்த மனப்பான்மை தான்!

 இருபதாம் நூற்றாண்டின் தலை சிறந்த ஆஸ்டிரிய – பிரிட்டிஷ் தத்துவஞானியான சர் கார்ல் ரெய்மண்ட் பொப்பர் ( Sri Karl Raimond Popper – பிறப்பு 28-7-1902 மறைவு 17-9-1994) , ‘தர்க்கரீதியாகப் பார்த்தால் வரலாற்றின் எதிர்காலம் பற்றி  நம்மால் முன்கூட்டி கணிக்கவே முடியாது’ ( for strictly logical reasons, it is impossible for us to predict the future course of history) என்றார்.

அடுத்த விநாடி நடக்கப் போவதை அறியாதவன் ஆயிரம் ஆண்டுக்கு ஜோஸியம் சொன்னானாம் என்று அவர் எள்ளி நகையாடுகிறார்.

பல சம்பவங்களைப் பார்க்கும் போது நமக்கு வியப்புத் தான்  மேலிடுகிறது.

மூழ்கவே மூழ்காத கப்பல் என்று விளம்பரம் செய்யப்பட்ட டைட்டானிக் கப்பல் ஐரோப்பாவிலிருந்து அமெரிக்காவிற்கு 1912 ஏப்ரலில் தனது பயணத்தை ஆரம்பித்தது.

வட அட்லாண்டிக்கில் பனிப்பாறை ஒன்றின் மீது மோதி அது உடைந்தது; அதில் பயணித்த 2224 பயணிகளில் 710 பேர் மட்டுமே உயிர் தப்பினர்.

அது மூழ்கியவுடன் தான் அதில் பயணிக்கத் தவறியவர்கள் யார் யார், ஏன் அவர்கள் அதில் பயணிக்கவில்லை என உலகினரால் விசேஷமாகப் பார்க்கப்பட்டார்கள்.

அவர்கள் ‘Just Missed It’ Club – அதாவது ‘மயிரிழையில் பிழைத்தவர்கள்’ என அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

இந்தப் பட்டியலில் ஏராளமானோர் இருந்தனர்.  அவர்களுள் குறிப்பிடத்தகுந்தவர்களுள், தொழிலக முன்னோடிகள் என்று சொல்லக் கூடிய ஹென்றி க்ளே ஃபிரிக் (Henry Clay Frick),  ஜே.பி. மார்கன் (JP Morgan), ஜே. ஹொரேஸ் ஹார்டிங் (J. Horace Harding) ஆகியோரும் அடங்குவர்.

இந்த மூவருமே டைட்டானிக் கப்பலில் பயணப்பட ஏற்பாடுகளைச் செய்தவர்கள்!

ஹென்றி க்ளே ஃபிரிக் அமெரிக்காவின் தலைசிறந்த செல்வந்தர்களுள் ஒருவர். எஃகு, உருக்குத் தயாரிப்பாளர். பிப்ரவரியிலேயே தனக்கும் மனைவிக்குமாகச் சேர்த்து டிக்கட்டை முன்பதிவு செய்திருந்தார் அவர். ஆனால் திடீரென்று அவர் மனைவிக்கு ஒரு சின்ன விபத்து ஏற்பட்டது. கணுக்கால் எலும்பில் முறிவு ஏற்படவே, இத்தாலியில் அவர் மருத்துவ மனை ஒன்றில் சேர்க்கப்பட்டார். ஆகவே அவர்களால் டைட்டானிக்கில் பயணிக்க முடியவில்லை. இவர்களுக்காகப் பதிவு செய்யப்பட்டிருந்த B-52,54,56 ஆகிய மூன்று சூட் ஜேபி மார்கனுக்கு ஒதுக்கப்பட்டது. வங்கித் தொழிலில் கொடி கட்டிப் பறந்த மார்கனும் மிகச் சிறந்த செல்வந்தர் தான். ஆனால் ஐரோப்பாவில் அவரது வணிக சம்பந்தமான திட்டத்திற்காக அவர் கொஞ்சம் அதிக காலம் தங்க வேண்டியதாயிற்று. அவரும் பயணத்தை ஒத்திப் போட்டார். இந்த முறை இவருக்காக ஒதுக்கப்பட்ட அறைகள் ஜே. ஹொரேஸ் ஹார்டிங்கிற்கும் அவரது மனைவிக்கும் ஒதுக்கப்பட்டன. இவரும் வங்கித் தொழிலில் ஈடுபட்டிருந்த பணக்காரர் தான்! ஆனால் இவர்களுக்கு இதற்கு முன்னர் கிளம்பிய கப்பலில் இடம் கிடைத்ததால் இவர்கள் முந்திக் கொண்டு அதில் சென்றனர்; காலன் பிந்திக் கொண்டு விட்டான்!

துரதிர்ஷ்டவசமான அந்த அறைகள் வொய்ட் ஸ்டார் லைன் சேர்மனான ஜே. ப்ரூஸ் இஸ்மேக்குப் போய்ச் செர்ந்தது.

மூன்று தொழிலதிபர்களும் டைட்டானிக் ஆபத்திலிருந்து எப்படி பிழைத்தனர்!

யாராலும் சொல்ல முடியவில்லை. துரதிர்ஷ்டவசமான அந்த அறைகளுக்கு அவர்கள் செல்லவே இல்லை!

இதே போல லண்டனில் உள்ள செயிண்ட் பால் சர்ச்சை சேர்ந்த பாதிரியாரான ஜே. ஸ்டூவர்ட் ஹோல்டனும் (J. Stuart Holden) இதில் செல்ல திட்டமிட்டிருந்தார். அவரது மனைவியின் உடல்நிலை திடீரென்று பாதிக்கப்படவே பயணத்திற்கு ஒருநாள் முன்னர் ஏப்ரல் ஒன்பதாம் தேதியன்று தன் பயணத்தை அவர் தள்ளி வைத்தார்; பிழைத்துக் கொண்டார். இப்படி ஏராளமானோர் துரதிர்ஷ்டவசமாக முடியப் போகும் பயணத்தைத் தவிர்த்தனர்.

இதெல்லாம் யாரால், ஏன் நிர்ணயிக்கப்படுகிறது என்பது யாருக்கும் புரியவில்லை.

இப்படி உயிர் பிழைக்க அதிர்ஷ்டம் காரணமாகும் நிகழ்வுகள் ஒரு புறம் இருக்க,  சில சிறிய நிகழ்வுகள் ஒருவருக்குப் பெரிய வாழ்வைத் தந்து விடுவதையும் பார்க்கிறோம்.

மன்னர் நான்காம் ஜார்ஜுக்கு ஒரு சமயம் திடீரென்று வலிப்பு வந்து விட்டது. தற்செயலாக அங்கு சென்றிருந்த ஒரு கிராம வைத்தியர் அவருக்கு உடனடி சிகிச்சை கொடுத்தார்; மயக்கமடைந்த மன்னருக்கு உணர்வு வரும்படி செய்தார். மன்னரிடம் பேச்சுக் கொடுத்து அவரின் மனநிலையை மாற்றி அவரைச் சிரிக்கவும் வைத்தார். அவரை மன்னருக்கு மிகவும் பிடித்துப் போய்விட்டது. உடனடியாக அவர் அரண்மனை மருத்துவராக நியமிக்கப்பட்டார்.

இப்படி எத்தனையோ பெருக்கு அதிர்ஷ்ட வாய்ப்புகள் வருவதையும் பார்க்கிறோம்; அவர்கள் பிரபலமாவதையும் பார்க்கிறோம்.

விஷம் கொடுத்துச் சாகாமல் இருப்பவர்கள் என்ற விஷயத்தை நம்ப முடியாது என்றாலும் கூட ரஸ்புடீனை எடுத்துக் கொண்டால் சற்று பிரமிப்பு தான் ஏற்படும்.

அவருக்கு கடுமையான விஷம் தரப்பட்டது. ஆனால் விஷம் அவரை ஒன்றும் செய்யவில்லை. பிழைத்துக் கொண்டார்.

இதே போல பதினான்காம் மாடியிலிருந்து கீழே விழுந்த ஒரு குழந்தை புல்தரையில் விழுந்து ஜம்மென்று நடந்த கதையையும் செய்தித் தாளில் பார்க்க நேரிடுகிறது.

என்ன ஆச்சரியம் போங்கள், இந்த மனித வாழ்க்கை!

காலன் அழைத்தாலும் காத்து விடுகிறது அதிர்ஷ்டம்!

சில சமயமோ நல்ல விஷயம் நடப்பதில்லை; எதிர்பார்த்ததற்கு மாறாக  ஏடாகூடமாக ஏதாவதொன்றில் சிக்கிக் கொள்கிறோம்.

வரலாற்றின் எதிர்காலம் இருக்கட்டும்; வரக் கூடிய அடுத்த கணமே நமக்கு எப்படி இருக்கும் என்பது தெரியாது, அது பற்றிச் சொல்லவும் முடியாது என்பது தான் உண்மை போலும்!

***

31 Nanneri (Tamil Book) quotations from Sivapragasar (Post No.5847)

WISH YOU ALL A VERY HAPPY NEW YEAR

2019 JANUARY ‘GOOD THOUGHTS’ CALENDAR (Post No.5847)

Compiled by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 28 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London –18-34
Post No. 5847


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

31 Nanneri (Tamil Book) quotations from Sivapragasar of Thuraimangalam

AUSPICIOUS DAYS- JAN.23, 27, 30

FESTIVALS- JAN.1 NEW YEAR, 14- BOGI PANDIKAI, 15- MAKARA SANKRANTI- PONGAL, ALSO UTTARAYANA PUNYA KALA, 16- PONGAL FOR CATTLE AND TIRUVALLUVAR DAY, 21- THAI PUSAM, 25-THYAGA BRAHMA ARADHANA, 26- INDIAN REPUBLIC DAY.

JAN.12 SWAMI VIVEKANDANA BIRTH DAY-NATIONAL YOUTHS DAY.

AMAVASYAI-NEW MOON DAY- JAN.5

PURNIMA- FULL MOON DAY- JAN.20

HINDU FASTING DAYS/EKADASI- JAN.1/2, 17 AND 31

JANUARY 1 TUESDAY

Harsh language of pure in heart is better than the sweet language of impure heart, Nanneri verse-2

JANUARY 2 WEDNESDAY

Milk of a cow is obtained with the help of her calf. In the same way get help through your friend from his friend-3


JANUARY 3 THURSDAY
Riches from a man who is not ready to help others will go to one who is ready to help like the salt water of the ocean is taken by the clouds for distributing to people as fresh water-4


JANUARY 4 FRIDAY
Both the eyes look at the same objects. In the same way husband and wife should perform their domestic duties without disagreements-6

JANUARY 5 SATURDAY
Don’t boast that you have ocean wide knowledge. Even the ocean of water was drunk by a Rishi-7

JANUARY 6 SUNDAY
Controlling anger is a virtue. It is like controlling the floods with the banks-8

JANUARY 7 MONDAY

The weak will not be afraid of their powerful foe if they secure the friendship of one who is more powerful- Nanneri verse 9

JANUARY 8 TUESDAY


The moon instead of removing its own dark spots tries to remove the darkness of the world. Great people alleviate the calamities befallen on others and care not to satisfy their wants- 10


JANUARY 9 WEDNESDAY
The five senses will have power over fools and lead them to sin, but not over those who have true wisdom -11

JANUARY 10 THURSDAY
It is truly wonderful that how the soul subject to various suffering s is kept in the body with nine holes . It is like a vessel full of holes holding water in it- Nanneri verse12

JANUARY 11 FRIDAY
The great will not be proud, because they possess immense wealth. Even Mount Meru was once bout as a bow- 14


JANUARY 12 SATURDAY

To one who is destitute of love, of what use is it to possess wealth, house and property? To the blind, of what use is light? -15

JANUARY 13 SUNDAY
The people of the vast earth are delighted not with the harsh but pleasant words . The sea is raised not by the burning rays of the sun but by the cool beams of the moon-18

JANUARY 14 MONDAY

The great will rejoice and put on a smiling countenance at the approach of the good; and will grieve at the sight of the wicked-Nanneri verse19

JANUARY 15 TUESDAY
The great will look upon the affliction of others as though it were their own and they will be, in heart, butter on fire-20

JANUARY 16 WEDNESDAY



All the knowledge gained by the illiterate will vanish in the presence of thorough scholars-21

JANUARY 17 THURSDAY
Seek not to be high or low by birth but by knowledge-22


JANUARY 18 FRIDAY
By frequent conversation with women , the strength of the heart, will be shaken-23

JANUARY 19 SATURDAY
In this world although one possesses virtue, the low minded will catch at his defects and speak of them. In the thriving grove of trees the winged insects love the flower bed: but the crow love fruit of the neem tree-24

JANUARY 20 SUNDAY
In the assembly of low people who possess some slight knowledge acquired without study, a thorough scholar will not be appreciated and honoured-25

JANUARY 21 MONDAY

Because of the littleness of their body, the ocean wide knowledge of the poets of bright genius is neither less appreciated nor despised -26


JANUARY 22 TUESDAY
With no expectation of a return for their favour the learned afford aid to their neighbors as much as they could from what they gain by hard labour -27

JANUARY 23 WEDNESDAY


Even in anger the great will afford aid to their neighbors; the mean will not give even in the warmth of their heart. The fruit of the plantain tree is good for food whether it is ripe or not. The fruit of the Etti tree is poison even when it is ripe- Nanneri verse 28


JANUARY 24 THURSDAY


Though it be a crore of bodily evils that cause nigh, those who constantly direct their thoughts to the Supreme Being, will not fear-29

JANUARY 25 FRIDAY


Before the approach of cruel Yama, to take away our lives, let us live in the practice of virtue with matured mind-30

JANUARY 26 SATURDAY
The virtues practiced by those who have no knowledge of the precepts contained in the shastras will not be valid. It is like a house without a bolt-32

JANUARY 27 SUNDAY


Great persons love those who have acquired knowledge; but mean persons regard them not-35


JANUARY 28 MONDAY
Gifts are bestowed not on unworthy but on worthy persons. Hence the noble minded confer their gifts on the worthy. Water is stored in reservoirs only for paddy, not for wild plants- Nanneri  verse 36


JANUARY 29 TUESDAY


The kings that put on gold ornaments are not to be compared to the learned who wear them not. Body parts that bear the ornaments cannot see; eyes wear no ornaments, but can see- Nanneri 40

JANUARY 30 WEDNESDAY

Very close friendship formed by the illiterate though it last long will  be productive of evil; flower with perfume give its fragrance only on the day it blooms- 39

JANUARY 31 THURSDAY

Friendship formed by  the good  will increase daily ; if the green fruit ripens I is good for food-  Nanneri Verse 38

TAGS– JANUARY 2019 CALENDAR, NANNERI QUOTATIONS, SIVAPRAGASAR

–SUBHAM–

BHAGAVATA PURANA – RARE PICTURES-PART 6 (Post No.5841)

BHAGAVATA PURANA – RARE PICTURES-PART 6 (Post No.5841)

Compiled by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 27 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 6-27 am
Post No. 5841


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

பாகவத புராணம் அபூர்வ படங்கள்- பகுதி 6

கடந்த 5 நாட்களில் வெளியான அபூர்வ படங்களையும் கண்டு களிக்கவும்.

PART SIX OF  BHAGAVATA PURANA PICTURES ; PLEASE SEE THE PICTURES POSTED IN THE PAST FIVE DAYS. THESE ARE FROM A 100 YEAR OLD BOOK, available in the British library in London.

Durvasa falls at the feet of Ambarish and asks for pardon

Sita’s Wedding

Rama’s Coronation

Krishna’s Birth- His Father Vasudeva crssing the flodded River Yamuna at the dead of night. River divides into two and gives him way in the middle.

Kamsa tried to kill the Yoga Maya, but it flew away in the sky.

Krishna, as a boy, killed Bhutana who tried to poison him

Krishna smashed the wheels that were sent to crush him. A demon rolled the wheels against Krishna

The heron demon is killed by Krishna

Another demon called Agasura ( a dinosaur) is killed by Krishna

Krishna saved his colleagues by devouring the Forest Fire.

–to be continued………………………………………..

RIVER ORDEAL IN MANU, HAMMURABI, TAMIL PERIYA PURANA AND MAHABHARATA (Post No.5837)

Research Article by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 26 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 13-54
Post No. 5837


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

River ordeal or Water ordeal and Fire ordeal are found in Vedic literature and later books. We read about Sita’s Fire Ordeal in Ramayana and Fire walking in Jaiminiya Brahmana. It is interesting to see the Babylonian king Hammurabi also listed River ordeal as one of the punishments.

As I have explained in my article posted yesterday, Manu lived before Hammurabi (1792 BCE). Manu is in the oldest book Rik Veda. The following sloka not only showed Manu lived during the days of flowing mighty Sarasvati River but also water ordeal was one of the punishments or atonements.

In chapter 2 Manu says

“The country that the gods made between the two divine rivers, the Sarasvati and Drsadvati, is what they call  the Land of the Veda”- Manu 2-17

In chapter 11 he says,

A priest killer……………

“Throw himself three times, head first, into a blazing fire -11-74

Or he may eat food fit for an oblation and walk the length of the Sarasvati river against the current”-11-78.

Manu lived before 2000 BCE; later the river dried up according to the latest scientific discoveries.

Water Ordeal in Code of Hammurabi

Witchcraft

(2)If a man has laid a charge of witchcraft against another man but cannot substantiate his guilt, the person against whom witchcraft is alleged shall go to the river and jump into the river.

And if the mighty river overpowers him, the one who laid the allegations against him shall take possession of his house.

But if the river cleanses him of the guilt, he shall go away restored.

The one who laid a charge of witchcraft against him shall be put to death; the one who jumped into the river shall take possession of the house of the one who made the allegations against him

Tamil Periya Purana

Fire and Water ordeal figured also in the Pariyapurana which gives the life stories of 63 great Saivite saints.

When the politically motivated Jains set fire to the Brahmin boy Sambandar’s residence he came out without any harm. Later the Jains challenged him in various ways. One of the tests they held was Fire ordeal. Both the Jains and Sambandar placed the palm leaf manuscript with their holy Mantras. Sambandar’s palm leaf remained intact whereas the Jains’ one burnt to ashes. Then the water ordeal took place. Both of them placed their palm leaf manuscripts in the Vaigai River. Jains’ palm leaf was washed away; but Sambandar’swent against the river current and reached the banks 12 miles away Madurai. That place is called Thiru Edu Akam (Thiruvedakam). This water ordeal is at least 1400 year old.

River Ordeal in Mahabharata

Bandi was a Vedic scholar in the court of King Janaka . He used to hold learned discussions and debates on Vedic scripture s with visiting scholars who after being defeated, were thrown into river. One such unfortunate loser was Kahoda. Later Kahodas son Ashtavakra mastered all the scriptures by the age of twelve. He defeated Bandi and he was thrown into a river. But being the son of god Varuna , no harm came to him and he ended his earthly existence. Kahoda was restored to life. Later Ashtavakra bathed in the River Samang and his crooks in the body straightened out. This shows the miraculous powers of the river or water. Ashtavakra got eight crooks in his body when he was in the womb of his mother and his father Kahoda spelt the Vedas with mistakes.



What is Water Ordeal?


In Mesopotamia, from the old Babylonian period on, if the sworn testimony by the parties in a legal dispute conflicted or if for some reason the case was not solvable by rational means , it was usual to refer the decision to the river god; in other words to decide by means of a river ordeal . This solemn expedient was in effect a form of divination and the judgment would then be declared in the name of Id, the Divine River, or Shazi, son of the Divine River or Ea, Enki.

It seems likely that one of the litigants, selected by lot, underwent the ordeal. He had to submerge himself in the river at a special location in the presence of the authorities, and possibly swim to a certain distance. If he came out safe he was cleared. If he was overcome by the current and sank, he was guilty and had to return to court for sentencing—- fine or execution. It was not intended that he should drown.

Sometimes a holy river was specified. Daban, Diyala, Hubur , all rivers outside Babylon.


Sources


Hammurabi’s Laws, M E J Richardson, Sheffield Academic Press
Who is who in the Mahabharata, Subash Mazumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay
Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, British Museum
Periapuranam
Manu Smrti


–subham–