Opera and Concerts Anecdotes (Post No.4485)

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 12 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  19-24

 

 

Post No. 4485

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Mouths wide open; eyes staring!

Walking with a friend one day, Fritz Kreisler passed a large fish shop where a fine catch of codfish, with mouths open and eyes staring, were arranged in a row. Kreisler suddenly stopped, looked at them, and clutching his friend by the arm exclaimed,

“Heavens! That reminds me — I should be playing at a concert!”

 

Xxx

Hired Audience!

So dependent on the adulation of the audiences was Franz Litsz that he is said to have paid women 25 Franks to faint at the concerts. The swoon was always timed to occur just before the climax of his most popular run. Litsz would stoop from his piano stool , pick up the swooner and leave the rest of the audience impressed by his brilliance and dismayed by their own stolidity. Once, however, the hired fainter forgot to faint. Liszt s fingers flew up the keys — but he could not finish the run. So, he fainted himself!

 

XxX

No Taste for Music

 

Joseph Choate, the lawyer, had no taste for music. Once he was persuaded by his daughter to accompany her to the opera. He looked at the libretto helplessly and said,

Helen, expound to me this record lest I dilate with the wrong emotion.

 

Xxx

True Listeners!

 

After his concert at a Midwestern town, Paderewski was found backstage in a silent, preoccupied mood. One of his aides asked if he were ill.

No, no, the great musician replied, but some friends were missing. The grey hired couple. They were not in their usual seats in the fourth row.

The aide was surprised. I didn’t know you had friends in this town. Did you know them well?

I knew them very well, explained Penderecki, but I never met them. I liked the way they listened. Every time I have played here for 20 years I have always played for them. He shook his head gravely. I hope there is nothing seriously wrong.

 

Xxx

Lower Classes like Music more

According to C R W Nevinson , it was a privilege to paint Mark Hambourg , a dear friend. Never have I met a man with such a gift for penetrating to the heart of things and by the use of a few vivid phrases he will lift any conversation out of the ordinary. I remember sitting beside him in an after dinner concert, when Moiseivitch was playing. The audience, all men and women of culture were anything but attentive, smoking, drinking, coughing, picking wriggling, but the waiters and waitresses stood entranced, their eyes on the master.

Look, said Mark, look at effects of education. It kills all concentration. The lower classes are the only people left who can listen and can respond to the highest emotions.

 

Xxx SUBHAM Xxx

 

இந்திய ஜீவனைத் துடிக்க வைக்கும் ஏழை – ஹிந்துப் படகோட்டி! (4482)

Date: 12 DECEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 5-19 am

 

WRITTEN BY S NAGARAJAN

 

Post No. 4482

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may not be related to the story. They are only representational.

 

 

இது தான் இந்தியா

 

இந்திய ஜீவனைத் துடிக்க வைக்கும் ஏழை – ஹிந்துப் படகோட்டி!

ச.நாகராஜன்

1

 

கல்கத்தாவில் உள்ள ஹிந்து ஸ்கூலின் ஆக்டிங் ஹெட்மாஸ்டரான “வித்யா வைபவ், ஸ்ரீ அபானி ரஞ்சன் சென்குப்தா, இரண்டு தொகுதி அடங்கிய ஒரு புத்தகத்தை வங்க மொழியில் தொகுத்துள்ளார் – ஹிந்துக்களின் புகழோங்கிய பெருமையை விளக்கும் நூல் இது!

அவர் 1942இல் நடந்த ஒரு நிஜ சம்பவத்தைத் தொகுப்பில் விவரிக்கிறார். அது இது தான்:

 

 பிரயாகையிலிருந்து ஒரு கனவான் எழுதுகிறார்:

“கும்பமேளாவில், திரிவேணி சங்கமத்தில் என் குடும்பத்தைச் சேர்ந்த சில பெண்மணிகளுடன் அமாவாசை புண்ய காலத்தன்று புனித ஸ்நானத்தை  செய்வதற்காக நான் ஒரு படகை (க்விலா அல்லது கோட்டை எனப்படும்) கெல்லா காட்டிலிருந்து வாடகைக்கு எடுத்தேன்.

 

படகோட்டியின் பெயர் மோதிலால்.

 

 

கனவான்:  மோதிலால், காலையிலிருந்து நீ எவ்வளவு சம்பாதித்தாய்?

 

மோதிலால்:- “ஐயா. ஒரு கனவான் சில பெண்மணிகளுடன் என் படகை வாடகைக்கு எடுத்தார். 10 ரூ என்று ஒத்துக் கொண்டோம். சங்கமம் ஆகும் இடத்தில் மொட்டை அடிக்க வேண்டுமென்று அவர்கள் விரும்பினார்கள்.நாங்கள் வர லேட்டாகும். அதற்குள் மற்ற யாரையாவது அழைத்துக் கொண்டு போ என்றார்கள். எட்டு ரூபாய்க்கு இன்னொருவரை அழைத்துச் சென்றேன். ஆனால் வருகிறேன் என்று சொன்ன அந்தக் கனவான் திரும்பவே இல்லை.பின்னர் தான் நீங்கள் வந்தீர்கள்.

 

கனவான்: என்ன? அந்த ஆள் உன்னை ஒரு புனிதமான நாளில் ஏமாற்றி விட்டானா?

 

மோதிலால்:- என்னை அவன் ஏமாற்றியிருக்கலாம்.அது என் தலை விதி. அவனை போன ஜன்மத்தில் நான் ஏமாற்றி இருந்திருப்பேன். அல்லது இன்னொருவனை ஏமாற்றியிருந்திருப்பேன். எனது கெட்ட செயலுக்காக இப்போது அனுபவிக்கிறேன். யாரை நான் குறை கூற முடியும்?

 

கனவான்: மோதிலால், நீ நல்ல மனதைக் கொண்டவன். உன் கதையைக் கேட்கவே சந்தோஷமாக இருக்கிறது.

 

 

 

மோதிலால்: ஐயா, நான் கங்கா, யமுனா மாதாவின் குழந்தை. அவர்களால் தான் என் ஜீவிதமே நடக்கிறது. அவர்களே எனக்கு நல்ல சிந்தனையைத் தருகின்றனர்; சம்பாத்தியத்தையும் தருகின்றனர்.

 

கனவான்: ஆஹா! அற்புதம்!

மோதிலால்: ஒரு முறை என் மனைவி ஒரு ஆபரணம் வேண்டுமென்றாள். நான் யமுனை மாதாவைக் கேட்டேன். கொஞ்ச நேரம் கழித்து ஒரு பிரபு என் படகை ஐந்து ரூபாய் வாடகைக்கு எடுத்தார். அதை வைத்து ஒரு ஆபரணத்தை வாங்கி என் மனைவியிடம் சொன்னேன் -“ யமுனை அம்மா இதை உனக்குப் பரிசாகத் தந்திருக்கிறாள். நமது முன்னோர்கள் பிரபு ஸ்ரீ ராமசந்திர மூர்த்தி, சீதம்மா மற்றும் லக்ஷ்மணன் ஆகியோரை சித்ரகூடத்தை நோக்கி அவர்கள் வருகையில் உதவி புரிந்திருக்கின்றனர். அதனால் எனக்குக் கொஞ்சம் புண்ணியம் சேர்ந்திருக்க வேண்டும்.”

 

அந்தக் கனவான் மோதிலாலுக்கு நிறைய பணத்தைப் பரிசாக அளித்து விட்டுச் சொன்னார்:” நீ ரொம்ப நல்லவன். கங்கா மாதா, யமுனா மாதாவின் அருளும் அதே போல மிகவும் அற்புதமாக இருக்கிறது!”

 

இதன் ஆங்கில மூலத்தைக் கீழே காண்லாம். இது ஆங்கில வார இதழான Truth  இல் 1-12-17 (தொகுதி 85; இதழ் 30) தேதியிட்ட இதழில் வெளி வந்துள்ளது.

நன்றி: Truth

 

 

2

 

Noble Righteous Hindus: Righteous Thinking

 

Vidya Vaibhav, Shri Abani Ranjan Sengupta, Acting Head Master, Hindu School, Calcutta compiled a book (two Volumes) in Bengali– Hindu Suhrid focusing on Hindu Glory.

 

 

He quotes a report of an incident that happened in 1942. A gentleman from Prayag writes – “I hired a country boat from Kella (Fort or Quila) Ghat for bathing in Triveni Sangam with few of ladies from my family during New Moon day of Kumbha Mela. The boatman’s name was Motilal”.

 

 

Gentleman – Motilal, How much did you earn since morning?

 

Motilal – “Sir, in morning one gentleman along with few ladies hired me. We agreed on Rs10. They went to perform the head tonsure ceremony at the sangam and told me. ‘We shall be late. You can make business with other persons meanwhile’. I secured Rs 8 with another party but could not find the gentleman out there on return. Then you came.”

 

 

Gentleman – What? That person cheated you on such an auspicious day?

 

Motilal– He could cheat me because it was my fate. I might have cheated him or someone else in my previous birth. I am suffering due to my own misdeeds. Whom should I blame?

 

 

Gentleman– Motilal, you are noble hearted.

 

It is such a delight to hear your story.

 

 

Motilal– Sir, I am the child of Mother Ganga and Yamuna. I make my living on them only. They only give me noble thinking and earning.

Gentleman – Great!

 

 

Motilal– “Once my wife wanted a garment. I asked Mother Yamuna. A little while after one gentleman hired me for Rs 5. I bought a garment with the same and told my wife. —“Mother Yamuna gifted you this. Our ancestors helped Lord Sri Ramchandra, Mother Sita and Lord Laxman to cross here on their jouney towards Chitrakut. I might have inherited some Punya.”

 

The gentleman tipped him generously and said “You are so Noble. Graces of Mother Ganga and Yamuna are equally great.”

 

*

3

இந்த தேசம் எதனால் இன்னும் ஜீவனுடன் இலங்குகிறது என்பதை இப்போது புரிந்து கொள்ள முடிகிறது. அன்றாட வாழ்க்கைக்கே அல்லல் படும் ஏழைப் படகோட்டி. ஆனால் அவனோ அப்படி அலுத்துக் கொள்ளவில்லை. அவனை ஏமாற்றவும் பல பேர். அதனால் அவன் மனமுடையவில்லை.

கங்கா மாதா, யமுனா மாதாவின் அருள் தன் மீது பொழிகிறது என்பதை அவன் உள்ளார்ந்து நம்புகிறான். அந்த நம்பிக்கையே அவனுக்கு எல்லாமாக இருக்கிறது.

 

அது, அவனை வாழ வைப்பதோடு இந்த தேசத்தையும் உயிர்த்துடிப்புடன் இருக்கச் செய்கிறது.

 

நகர்ப்புறத்தில் ஏமாற்று வேலையையே தொழிலாகக் கொண்டிருக்கும் ஆயிரக்கணக்கான ஃபிராடு கும்பலை இப்போது நினைத்துப் பார்த்தால் நெஞ்சம் பகீர் என்கிறது.

அந்த திருட்டுக் கும்பல் இந்த தேசத்தை அரித்துப் பீடித்தாலும் தேசத்தின் ஜீவனை உயிர்மூச்சைத் துடிக்க வைப்பது மோதிலால் போன்ற ஏழைப் படகோட்டிகளே.

 

நன்றாக உற்றுப் பாருங்கள், உங்கள் அருகிலும் கூட ஒரு  மோதிலால் இருக்கக் கூடும். அவனைக் கையெடுத்துக் கும்பிடுங்கள்!

***

Valluvar and Manu agree on Violence, Non-Violence, Leadership and Householder (Post No.4477)

Valluvar and Manu agree on Violence, Non-Violence, Leadership and Householder (Post No.4477)

WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 10 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  15-13

 

 

Post No. 4477

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Rev. G U Pope in the Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar compared the Tirukkural with Manu and Bhagavad Gita; he gave it in the appendix of his book published in 1886. This is another article in the series.

 

Householder

Tiru Valluvar says,

He is the true householder who helps the three orders of the virtuous (Brahmachari, Vanaprastan, Sanyasin) in their home life is the fruit of love begotten by a harmonious, right path of life.- (Kural 41)

 

Manu says,

“3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order (Manu).”

 

Valluvar says,

The true house-holder gives succour to the forsaken, the poor and the departed (Kural 42)

The paramount duty of a house-holder is to cherish daily the manes, the gods, his guests, his relations and himself (43)

If a man acquires wealth by fair means and is charitable to whom charity is due his progeny will never become extinct (44)

 

Manu says,

3-71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders).

3-72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he breathes.

3-117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.

3-118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men.

xxxxxxxxxx

 

Ahimsa (non-killing)  chapter 33 of Tirukkural

Tiru Valluvar deals with Killing animals in the chapter Ten. He says,

Non-killing is a matchless virtue according to teachers of ethics. Truthfulness ranks as second in merit to non-killing (Kural 323)

Killing leads to all other sinful acts. Therefore non-killing is the highest virtue (321)

 

 Manu says on Ahimsa

5-43. A twice-born man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his own) house, with a teacher, or in the forest, must never, even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the Veda.

10-63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

xxxx

LEADERS and KINGS

 

Valluvar says,

He is a lion among leaders who has these six: an army, subjects, wealth, ministers, allies, fortification (Kural 381)

Courage, wisdom, liberality and zeal – these four qualities form royal features (382)

The three things alertness, learning and bravery should never be wanting in the ruler of a country (383)

A noble leader must be brave, virtuous, adventurous and free from vices and injustice (Kural 384)

An able leader makes and and earns wealth; guards and apportions it for people’s good (385)

Death Sentence:

The judge gives capital punishment to wicked killers like removing weeds from a flourishing field (Kural 550)

 

Manu says,

7-20. If the king did not, without tiring, inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would roast the weaker, like fish on a spit;

7-99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has gained let him carefully preserve; let him augment what he preserves, and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.

7-100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.

7-101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow (on worthy men).

7-102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.

7-103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.

Manu says in the Third Chapter,

 

xxx

 

Marriage Types in Manu and Tolkappiam

Manu says,

3-20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

3-21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).

3-32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

Oldest book Tolkappiam (Porul Adikaram ) refered to the eight types of marriages.

Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiyam refers to eight types of marriages which is already said by Manu and other Hindu law books/smrtis. Most famous Tamil commentator Nachinarkiniyar explained them in detail.

xxx

More articles on Manu and Tirukkural

MARRIAGE – TWO OPPOSSING TAMIL VIEWS (Post No.4462) | Tamil …

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/marriage-two-oppossing-tamil-views-…

 

9 hours ago – Post No4462. Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. (Tamil Joke: Husband:While I read my love … Dr G U Pope compared couplet 41 with Manu’s 3-78 and showed Naladiyar, the poems of Jains were opposed to marriage.

 

 

Tamil Literature | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/category/tamil-literature/

 

MANU IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURALRev GU Pope and Father Beschi compare -1 ( Post No.4459). MANU … RevG U Pope, a Tamil scholar and Christian preacher published The Sacred Kural of Tiruvalluva Nayanar in 1886 with his English translation. Throughout the book he had used his predecessors’ views. He had .

 

–Subham–

 

 

எண்ணற்ற கீதைகள்! (Post No.4475)

Date: 10 DECEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 6-55 am

 

WRITTEN BY S NAGARAJAN

 

Post No. 4475

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may not be related to the story. They are only representational.

 

 

 

ஞான ஆலயம் ஆன்மீக மாத இதழ் திருமதி மஞ்சுளா ரமேஷ் அவர்களை ஆசிரியராகக் கொண்டு சென்னையிலிருந்து வெளி வருகிறது. அதில் டிசம்பர் 2017 இதழில் வெளியாகியுள்ள கட்டுரை.

 

ஏற்றம் தரும் எண்ணற்ற கீதைகள்!

 

ச.நாகராஜன்

 

பகவத் கீதையின் பெருமை

 

Miss World Manushi Chillar in Gita Mahotsava in Kurukshetra

கீதை என்றால் அது பகவத் கீதையை மட்டுமே குறிக்கும் என்ற அளவிற்கு அளவிலாப் புகழ் பெற்றது கண்ணன் அர்ஜுனனுக்கு மஹாபாரதப் போர்க்களத்தில் உபதேசித்த கீதை.

கீதைக்கு உரையைப் பல நூறு அறிஞர்கள் எழுதி உள்ளனர். சமீப காலத்தில் பால கங்காதர திலகர்,மஹாத்மா காந்திஜி, அரவிந்தர், வினோபாஜி உள்ளிட்டோர் கீதைக்கு விரிவுரை எழுதியுள்ளனர்.

கீதையே எனக்கு ஆறுதல் தருவது என்றார் காந்திஜி. இறுதி வரை கீதையைத் தன்னுடன் வைத்திருந்தார் நேதாஜி.

இதைக் கண்டு வியந்த வாரன் ஹேஸ்டிங்ஸ் பிரிட்டிஷ் சாம்ராஜ்யம் ஒரு நாள் மறைந்தாலும் மறையலாம்; கீதை மறையாது என்றார். அவர் கூறியது போலவே பிரிட்டிஷ் சாம்ராஜ்யம் அஸ்தமித்தது. கீதையோ வழக்கம் போல பல்லாயிரக்கணக்கானோருக்கு வழிகாட்டி மிளிர்கிறது; ஒளிர்கிறது.வேதத்தின் சாரம் எனப்படுகிறது பகவத் கீதை.

 

 

பதினெட்டு அத்தியாயங்கள்; எழுநூற்றி ஒன்று ஸ்லோகங்கள்;  6446 பதங்கள் 8990 பதச் சேதங்கள் (சப்தங்கள்) உள்ள பகவத் கீதை உலகில் கோடானுகோடி பேருக்கு காலம் காலமாக வழி காட்டி வருகிறது. இப்படி ஒரு நூல் அற்புதமான நூலன்றி வேறென்ன?

‘என் ஒருவனையே சரண் அடை; உன்னை சகல பாவங்களிலிருந்தும் விடுவிக்கிறேன்; வருந்தாதே’ ( மாம் ஏகம் சரணம் வ்ரஜ்; அஹம் த்வாம் சர்வ பாபேப்யோ மோக்ஷயிஷ்யாமி மா சுச -கிருஷ்ணர்) என்பதே கீதையின் அருள்வாக்காக அமைகிறது.

 

சிரத்தை நம்பிக்கையுடன் இறைவனை சரண் அடைபவன் முக்தி அடைகிறான் என்பதே ஹிந்துத்வம் காட்டும் தத்துவம்.

ஆனால் ஹிந்து மதத்தில் பகவத் கீதை போல வாழ்வின் மரமங்களையும் பிரபஞ்ச ம்ரமங்களையும் இறை மர்மங்களையும் சுட்டிக் காட்டும் கீதைகள் பல உண்டு.

 

 

143 கீதைகள்

பேரறிஞர் டாக்டர் வி.ராகவன் 123 கீதைகளின் பட்டியலைத் தனது ‘ரீடிங்ஸ் இன் பகவத் கீதா’ என்ற நூலில் தந்திருக்கிறார்.

இந்த ஆராய்ச்சியில் ஈடுபட்ட இந்தக் கட்டுரை ஆசிரியர்  சுமார் 143 கீதைகளின் பட்டியலைத் தொகுத்திருக்கிறார்.

 

 

மஹாபாரத கீதைகள்

 

மஹாபாரதத்தில் மட்டும் பகவத் கீதை, பராசர கீதா, ஹம்ஸ கீதா, அனு கீதா, உத்தர கீதா, ஷட்ஜ கீதா, ப்ராம்மண கீதா, வ்யாத் கீதா, பக கீதா, நகுஷ கீதா, சௌன்க கீதா உள்ளிட்டவை இடம் பெறுகின்றன.

 

ஒவ்வொன்றும் அபூர்வமான தத்துவங்களை விளக்குகின்றது.

பாதை காட்டும் கீதைகள் பலவற்றில் சிலவற்றை மட்டும் இங்கு பார்ப்போம்.

உத்தர கீதை ; பிரமாண்ட புராணத்தில் இடம் பெறும் கீதை இது. ப்கவத் கீதைக்கு இது ஒரு அநுபந்தம் போன்றது. உண்மையை இடையறாது தியானி என்ற சுலபமான வழியை இது கூறுகிறது. இதற்கு ஆதி சங்கரரின் குருவான கௌடபாதர் ஒரு விளக்கவுரை எழுதியுள்ளார்.

 

 

வேணு கீதை: பாகவதத்தில் பத்தாவது ஸ்காந்தத்தில் இடம் பெறுவது இது. கோபிகள் கிருஷணர் பசுக்களை மேய்த்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும் போது மிகவும் பக்தி மேலிட அவரது புகழைப் பாடத் தொடங்குகின்றனர். கிருஷ்ணரின் குழலோசை அவர்களை புளகாங்கிதம் அடைய வைத்து இறை உணர்வை ஊட்டுகிறது.

 

 

சுருதி கீதை: பாகவதம் பத்தாம் ஸ்காந்தத்தில் இடம் பெறும் இக்கீதை சுருதிகள் நாராயணனைப் பிரார்த்திப்பதை விளக்குகிறது.

 

கபில கீதை: பாகவதம் மூன்றாம் ஸ்காந்தத்தில் இடம் பெறுவது இது. கபிலர் தன் தாயாரான தேவஹூதிக்கு செய்த பிரமாதமான போதனை இதில் உள்ளது.

 

யுதிஷ்டிர கீதை. மஹாபாரத்த்தில் வரும் பிரசித்தமான சம்பவம் ய்ட்சனும் யுதிஷ்டிரரும் செய்த சம்வாதம். யட்சனின் கேள்விகளுக்கு அனாயாசமாக பதில் கூறி அவனிடம் வரம் பெற்று இறந்த தன் சகோதரர்களை உயிர்ப்பிக்கிறார் தர்மர்.  யட்ச ப்ரஸ்னம்  என்று புகழ் பெற்றுள்ளது இதுவே.

 

அஷ்டாவக்ர கீதை; மாமன்னன் ஜனகன் ஒரு கனவு காண்கிறான். அதில் அவன் பசியால் வாடி பிச்சை எடுப்பது போலவும் இறுதியில் சிறிது கஞ்சி கிடைக்க, அதை வாயருகில் கொண்டு போகும் போது இரு எருதுகள் சண்டையிட்டுக் கொண்டு அவன் மீது மோத கைக்குக் கிடைத்த கஞ்சி வாய்க்குக் கிடைக்காமல் கஞ்சி சட்டி கீழே விழுந்து சுக்கு நூறாக உடைவது போலவும் காண்கிறான்.. அப்போது கனவிலிருந்து விழித்த ஜனகன், “இதுவா, அதுவா , எது உண்மை?” (மன்னனாக இருப்பதா, பிச்சை எடுப்பதா?) என்ற கேள்விக்கு ஆளாகிறான். அவனை சந்திக்கும் அஷ்டாவக்ரர், “இதுவும் உண்மையல்ல; அதுவும் உண்மையல்ல” என்று கூற அவன் தன் குழப்பம் நீங்குகிறான். ‘அப்போது எது உண்மை?’ என்று ஜனகன் கேட்க உண்மைப் பொருளை அஷ்டாவக்ரர் விளக்குகிறார். அதுவே இந்த அஷ்டாவக்ர கீதையாக மலர்கிறது.

 

சௌனக கீதை ; மஹாபாரதத்தில் சௌனக முனிவர் தர்மபுத்திரருக்கு உரைக்கும் உபதேச மொழிகளே சௌனக கீதையாக அமைகிறது. பிரபஞ்ச வாழ்வு பற்றி இதில் எடுத்துரைக்கப்படுகிறது.

 

 

பக கீதை; மஹாபாரதத்தில் இடம் பெறுவது இது.

பக முனிவர் பல கற்பங்கள் வாழ்ந்தவர். அவருக்கும் இந்திரனுக்கும் நடக்கும் இந்த சம்பாஷணையில் கற்பனைக்கும் அப்பாற்பட்ட மிக மிக நீண்ட காலம் வாழ்ந்த முனிவர் தன் அனுபவங்களை எடுத்துக் கூறுகிறார்.

 

 

நஹுஷ கீதை: மஹாபாரதத்தில் வரும் ஒரு சம்பவத்தை ஒட்டி எழும் கீதை இது. நஹுஷன் என்ற பாம்பிடம் பீமன் பிடிபடுகிறான். அவனை விடுவிக்க விரைகிறார் தர்மபுத்திரர். தர்மரிடம் நஹுஷன் கேள்விகள் கேட்க அதற்குத் தக்க விடை அளிக்கிறார் தர்மர். அதனால் மனம் மகிழ்ந்த நஹுஷ பாம்பு பீமனை விடுவிக்கிறது. நஹுஷனின் கேள்விகளும் தர்மரின் பதில்களும் மிக்க சுவையானவை.

 

அவதூத கீதை; உயர்ந்த அத்வைத ஞானம் பற்றி அறிய விரும்புவோருக்கான  கீதை இது. பரமாத்மா சிவம். சிவம் என்றால் மங்கலமானவர். அவரைப் பற்றிய உண்மையில் ஆரம்பித்து அத்வைத சித்தாந்தத்தைக் கூறுகிறது இது.

தத்தாத்ரேய முனிவருக்கும் ஸகந்தனுக்கும் நடந்த இந்த சம்பாஷணை உயர் நிலையில் உள்ள சாதகர்களுக்காக அமையும் ஒரு கீதை.

 

 

அனு கீதை; மஹாபாரதத்தில் இடம் பெறுவது இது. மஹாபாரதப் போர் முடிந்த பின்னர் கிருஷ்ணரை மீண்டும் பகவத் கீதையை உரைக்குமாறு அர்ஜுனன் வேண்ட அவனை கிருஷ்ணர் கடிந்து கொள்கிறார். நினைத்த நேரம் எல்லாம் சொல்லக் கூடிய ஒன்று அல்ல கீதை. இருந்தாலும் அருள் மீதூற சுருக்கமாக கீதை தத்துவத்தை கிருஷ்ணர் அர்ஜுனனுக்கு அருளி உரைப்பது இது.

 

 

தேவி கீதா ; தேவி பாகவதத்தில் ஏழாம் ஸ்கந்தத்தில் 32ஆம் அத்தியாயமாக மிளிர்கிறது தேவி கீதா. இதே நூலில் பகவதி கீதாவும் இடம் பெறுகிறது.

 

ஹம்ஸ கீதை ; அன்னப் பறவை வடிவில் இருந்த விஷ்ணுவிற்கும் பிரம்மாவின் புத்திரரகளுக்கும் இடையில் நடந்த சம்பாஷணையே ஹம்ஸ கீதை.

 

 

 

இதர கீதைகளில் முக்கியமானவை சில

 

வராஹ புராணத்தில் ருத்ர கீதா மற்றும் அகஸ்திய கீதா இடம் பெறுகின்றன.

கூர்ம புரணமோ ஈஸ்வர கீதா மற்றும் வியாச கீதாவை எடுத்துரைக்கிறது.

ரிபு கீதா:  விஷ்ணு புராணத்தில் இடம் பெறும் இதில் ரிபு முனிவர் தனது சீடரான நிதகருக்கு வேதாந்த தத்துவத்தை எடுத்துரைக்கிறார்.

சிவ பார்வதி சம்வாதமான குரு கீதா குருவின் பெருமையை எடுத்துரைக்கிறது.

ஹனுமானுக்கும் ராமருக்கும் இடையில் நடந்த சுவையான உரையாடல் ராம கீதையாக அத்யாத்ம ராமாயணத்தில் அமைகிறது.

வசிஷ்ட கீதையில் வசிஷ்ட முனிவர் ராமருக்குப் பல பேருண்மைகளைக் கூறுகிறார்.

 

 

நாரத கீதை கிருஷ்ணருக்கும் நாரத முனிவருக்கும் நடந்த சம்பாஷணையைக் கூறுகிறது.

இன்னும் சூர்ய கீதா, பஞ்ச தச கீதா, சக்தி கீதா, பிங்கல கீதா, சம்பு கீதா, சப்த ஸதி கீதா, ப்ரமர கீதா, ராஸ கீதா, விஷ்ணு கீதா, பித்ரு கீதா, பிருத்வி கீதா, சாந்தி கீதா, போத்ய கீதா, துளஸி கீதா, வைஷ்ணவ கீதா, ஹரித கீதா, பீஷ்ம கீதா, ஞான கீதா, ஜன்ம கீதா, ம்ருத்யுஞ்சய கீதா,ப்ரணவ கீதா என்று இப்படி பெரிய கீதை பட்டியல் தொடர்கிறது.

ஒவ்வொன்றும் ஒரு பிரம்மாண்டமான பேருண்மையை உபதேசிக்கிறது.

 

 

ஆன்மீக நாட்டம் உள்ளவர் உயரிய நிலைக்குச் செல்ல வழி வகுக்கும் கீதைகள் இவை; அதே சமயம் இக உல்க வாழ்க்கையை எந்த வித சிரமமும் இல்லாமல் கடக்க வழி காண்பிப்பவையும் இவையே.

 

இவற்றைத் தொகுத்துப் படிப்பவர் பாக்கியசாலி. ஹிந்துத்வம் பல்வேறு நிலைகளில் உள்ளவர்களுக்கும் அருளுரைகளை அற்புதமாகத் தரும் என்பதை இந்த நூற்றுக்கும் மேற்பட்ட கீதைகள் நிரூபிக்கின்றன.

 

பாதை காட்டும் கீதைகளில் நமக்குப் பிடித்த கீதையைப் பயின்றால் இசைவான வாழ்வைப் பெறலாம்!

 

***

ஞான ஆலயம் முகவரி: பழைய எண் 7, புதிய எண் 32, அருணாச்சலபுரம் இரண்டாவது தெரு, அடையாறு, சென்னை  600020 . (வருட சந்தா ரூ 300/)

 

MARRIAGE – TWO OPPOSSING TAMIL VIEWS (Post No.4462)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 5 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  7–49 am

 

 

Post No. 4462

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

(Tamil Joke: Husband:While I read my love letters now which i sent you before marriage, i feel they were nonsense/rubbish; Wife: Oh, for me they looked nonsense/rubbish even before marriage!)

Manu in his Manava Dhrama Shastra and Tiru Valluvar in his Tamil Veda Tirukkural support marriage; but Jain Munis who composed several hundred poems in Tamil in Naladiyar and Pazamozi had different views. Dr G U Pope, Christian priest and Tamil scholar, Father Constantine Beschi, Jesuit priest from Italy and a Tamil scholar had compared several couplets in Tirukkural and Manu’s Law book. Dr G U Popes puts forth several arguments in his translation of Tirukkural, published in 1886, to prove that Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural was not a Jain. One of the arguments is about marriage.

 

Tiruvalluvar, an ardent Hindu supports marrying. Dr G U Pope compared couplet 41 with Manu’s 3-78 and showed Naladiyar, the poems of Jains were opposed to marriage.

 

We know the views of the Greek philosopher Socrates:

“By all means marry; if you get good wife, you will become happy; if you get a bad one, you will become a philosopher.”

 

Tamil poet Valluvar says,

He is the true householder who helps the three orders of the virtuous (Brahmachari, Vanaprastan, Sanyasin) in their home life is the fruit of love begotten by a harmonious, right path of life.

 

Even before Valluvar, Manu said the same in Sanskrit:

“3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order (Manu).”

Marriage is throwing Stones at you!

Naladiyar, the didactic book has 400 verses composed by Jain saints of Tamil Nadu who were great Tamil scholars. Here are two poems opposing marriage:

“Since it is a hard thing for a husband to reject his wife though she may neither have borne children nor have a good disposition, the wise have, on account of the misery entailed by matrimony, called it a thing to be eschewed – Naladiyar verse 56.

“Though one is advised to eschew marriage, he eschews it not; though the sound of death-drum pierces his ear , he heeds it not. He moreover takes in another wife and indulges in the delusion of matrimonial pleasures. These the wise say ‘ like one stoning himself’ “- Naladiyar 364

 

‘to be or not to be’ is up to you!

–subham–

 

 

Interesting Story of Dirgatamas in the Veda and Mahabharata (Post No.4456)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 3 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  15-07

 

 

Post No. 4456

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Dirgatamas of Rig Veda was one of the famous blind poets like Homer of Greece. But he lived at least a few thousand years before Homer of Odyssey and Iliad. Dirgatamas meant ‘Long Darkness’. He was the son of Mamata and Ucathya. So he is known with two surnames Mamateya and Aucathya. His son was Kakshivan who was also a famous poet in the Rig Veda.

Though he was born blind he recovered his vision at the end. He lived a full hundred years. His name is found in the Rig Veda and Sankayana Aranyaka. In the Aitareya Brahmana, he was praised as the priest of the most famous king Bharata, whose name is given to India that is Bharat. He was thrown in to the river Ganga

 

In his old age by his servants. Traitana attacked him but killed himself. When he was floating in a raft in the River Ganga, he was rescued by the king of Anga Desa. There he married a slave girl by name Usij.

Though there are some contradictions in the Mahabharat version given below, we are able the get the outline of his life story.

Mahabharata version

He was the son of a Brahmana coupe- Uthathya and Mamata. His father’s younger brother Brihaspati forcibly possessed Mamata while she was pregnant.  The child inside her asked Brihaspati not to enter as there was very little space. When Brihaspati still insisted the child inside Mamata’s womb pushed out Brihaspati’s seed. Brihaspati became angry and cursed the baby in the womb to become blind. Thus, Dirgatamas was born blind.

 

He became a very learned seer and married Pradveshi. They had five children including Gautama. Some of the seers in the community hated Dirgatama and persuaded Pradveshi and his sons to send him out. They asked the servants to float him in a raft in the River Ganga so that he could find a better place to live.

 

Dirgatama was lucky to be found by the King Baliraja of Anga Desa. Hearing his full story he wanted to get him a child through his wife Queen Sudeshna. She had no issues and in those days kings without wards to succeed approached Brahmin seers to get them children.

Though Dirgatamas consented, queen Sudeshna did not like the idea of going to bed with a blind man. she feared her child would also be born blind and so she sent one of her maids to him. They had several children including Poet Kakshivanth.

One day the king asked Dirgatamas whether all of the children were his own, Dirgatamas told him the truth. The king insisted that Sudeshna should have a child through Dirgatamas and as a result they had five children: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhya. Each one of them was given a region to rule and they started their own dynasties.

 

This anecdote was narrated by Bhishma to Queen Satyavati to support the suggestion that a Brahmana be invited to produce children in the wives of Vichitraveerya who had died childless.

 

This is in the Adi Parva of Mahabharata.

 

From the stories in the Rig Veda, Aranyakas, Brahmanas and the epic, we are able to get the facts:

Dirgatamas was born blind. He was married and had children. He was hated by some jealous seers. They made his wife and children to send him out of his home. So he was floated in the River Ganges. He was rescued by a king. He produced children thorough King’s wife at the request of the king. They started new dynasties.

The reason attributed to his blindness is also based on medical science. If a pregnant woman was put under pressure through domestic violence o rape, then the child would be affected due to stress. Since Mamata was forcibly taken by her husband’s brother, it was possible that the child was born handicapped.

 

Dirgatamas became famous for his number symbolism and his quotations on one god with different names, four types of sounds and Adam and Eve story (At/dma= adam; Eve= Jeeve Atma) in the two birds on the same branch episode, in which one eating an apple and another being a passive observer. This is in the sculptures of India and post Vedic Upanishads as well. Bible used this story and gave Atma and Jeevatma as Adam/a and Eve/jeeva.

 

Dirgatamas hymn with 52 couplets in the Rig Veda 1-164 is the longest one and most often quoted. His number symbolism made this hymn a very interesting and debatable one. And the subjects he dealt with made this an encyclopaedic verse.

 

–Subham–

 

MEN OF FEW WORDS ARE THE BEST MEN; SHAKESPEARE AND TIRUKKURAL- 4 (Post.4435)

MEN OF FEW WORDS ARE THE BEST MEN; SHAKESPEARE AND TIRUKKURAL- 4 (Post.4435)


Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 26 NOVEMBER 2017

Time uploaded in London- 15–08

 

 

Post No. 4435

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Please read the three parts posted in the last few days and continue here with the fourth part.

Speech

Shakespeare says,

Men of few words are the best men.

–Henry V (3.2.41)”

Tiruvalluvar in Tirukkural says,

one who speaks useless words is despised by all (Kural 191)|

If you speak at all speak profitably. Speak not empty words which produce no good (Kural 200)

The wise would refrain from empty words though they might speak unpleasantly (kural 197)

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World is a Theatre

 

Shakespeare says,

“ All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players,
They have their exits and entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,

………………..

Tiruvalluvar in Tirukkural says,

 

Fortune coming to one and its departure are likened to assembling of a crowd to witness a drama and its dispersal respectively—Kural 332

The same simile is in Dhammapada 147 and Bhagavd Gita (18-61)

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Compassion

Shakespeare says,

 

“TIMON
Commend me to them,
And tell them that, to ease them of their griefs,
Their fears of hostile strokes, their aches, losses,
Their pangs of love, with other incident throes
That nature’s fragile vessel doth sustain
In life’s uncertain voyage, I will some kindness do them:
I’ll teach them to prevent wild Alcibiades’ wrath.

–Timon of Athens

Tiruvalluvar in Tirukkural says,

The world exists and functions, because of the gracious compassion of the king,

Where this quality is absent, he becomes a burden to good earth (Kural 572)

 

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Forgive and Forget

Shakespeare says,

 

Pray you now, forget and forgive:

(King Lear. Act 4. Scene 7. Lear speaking.)

 
I have forgiven and forgotten all;

(All’s Well That Ends Well. Act 5. Scene 3. King speaking.)

 

 

Mercy but murders, pardoning those that kill.

(Romeo and Juliet. Act 3. Scene 1. Escalus speaking.)

 

Is there any cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?

(King Lear. Act 3. Scene 6. Lear speaking.)

Tiruvalluvar in Tirukkural says,

The best way to punish those who harm you is to make them feel abashed by doing them good and thinking no more of it. (Kural 314)

 

Of what avail is perfection if it does not do good even to them that have done evil? (Kural 987)

Forget not a good turn done to you; but it is proper that you should forget forthwith the wrong done to you (Kural 108)

 

xxxxx SUBHAM xxxxxxxxxxxxx

LOVE ALL, TRUST A FEW, DO WRONG TO NONE! SHAKESPEARE IN TIRUKKURAL- 2 (Post No.4426)

LOVE ALL, TRUST A FEW, DO WRONG TO NONE! SHAKESPEARE IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL- 2 (Post No.4426)


Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 23 NOVEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-46

 

 

Post No. 4426

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

I have posted the first part yesterday with a brief introduction to Tirukkural and Shakespeare.

This is the second part. Shakespeare and Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar see eye to eye on many issues.

 

Shakespeare says,

Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none.

-All’s Well that Ends Well

Al the three points are in Tirukkural, Pancha tantra, Vidura Neeti and the Hindu epics. Let us look at what Tiruvalluvar says in the Tamil Veda Tirukkural

Tiruvalluvar has done ten couplets on Love or Affection (couplets 71 to 80)

LOVE

Of what avail are all the external features to those who have no love in the depths of their heart (Kural 79)

Even as the sun scorches the boneless body, so does the god of virtue torture the loveless man (77)

TRUST

About trust Valluvar says,

Never trust a man without testing him; when the test is over

decide what you can entrust with him (Couplet 509)

Even among deep scholars of spotless hearts , it is difficult to find one perfectly free from ignorance (503)

DO WRONG TO NONE

Do not wish for another’s ruin even absent mindedly. If you do, your own rain is certain to befall (204)

The man who does not want to be consumed by evil, as by a burning disease,

Shall not ever think or do evil to others (206)

 

INGRATITUDE

This is a very big topic in Hindu scriptures. We see it all the didactic works in Tamil and Sanskrit.

Shakespeare says,

blow, blow, thou winter wind

Thou art not so unkind

as men’s ingratitude

–As You Like It

And in Julius Caesar drama Shakespeare says  Et tu Brute through the mouth of Caesar, when he was stabbed by his dearest friend Brutus.

Tiruvalluvar says,

There may be salvation for those who have killed all other virtues

But not for the one who has killed gratitude (Kural 110)

Tiruvalluvar has sung nine more couplets on the same virtue- Gratitude.

 

PERSEVERANCE

OUR REMEDIES OFT IN OURSELVES DO LIE WHICH WE ASCRIBE TO HEAVEN- says Shakespeare in All’s Well That Ends Well.

Valluvar says,

Though god of fate stands in the way, strenuous efforts yield ready fruit. Labour compensates what fate denies (Kural 619)

Effort will produce success; indolence brings poverty and disgrace (616)

–to be continued…………………..

–Subham–

 

SHAKESPEARE IN TAMIL VEDA TIRUKKURAL- Part 1 (Post No.4423)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 22 NOVEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-58

 

 

Post No. 4423

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

WHAT IS TIRUKKURAL?

Tirukkural is a book of ethics in Tamil. Tirukkural means a ‘book of sacred couplets’. It has 1330 couplets divided into 133 chapters. It is divided into three sections dealing with Dharma (Virtue), Artha (wealth) and Kama (Love between man and woman). It was written by Tiruvalluvar, who lived approximately 1500 years before our time. The book is praised as Tamil Veda by his contemporaries. All the Hindu ideals are incorporated into the book. Some of the couplets can be compared with the sayings of Shakespeare.

 

Who is Shakespeare?

Shakespeare (1564-1616) was an English dramatist and poet. He wrote 37 plays and over 150 poems. His quotations are used very often in English essays and other literary articles. Tiruvalluvar and Shakespeare agree on many issues. When one reads them one thinks that the famous saying ‘Great men think alike’ is proved once again.

Here are some comparisons culled out from various books:

Compassion and Mercy

Tiruvalluvar says

Those who are merciful are really the men of virtue

because they have compassion for all living creature (Kural 30)

In the Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare say that people with mercy are the real sages of the world.

 

The quality of mercy is not strain’d,

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven

Upon the place beneath: it is twice blest;

It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:

‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes

The throned monarch better than his crown;

His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,

The attribute to awe and majesty,

Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings;

But mercy is above this sceptred sway;

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,

It is an attribute to God Himself;

And earthly power doth then show likest God’s

When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,

Though justice be thy plea, consider this,

That in the course of justice, none of us

Should see salvation. We do pray for mercy;

And that same prayer doth teach us all to render

The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much

To mitigate the justice of thy plea;

Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice

Must needs give sentence ‘gainst the merchant there.

 

(Portia in The Merchant of Venice, Act 4, Scene 1)

Chastity

Tiruvalluvar says

Of what avail is watch and ward? A woman’s will

is the best safeguard of her honour (Kural 57)

Prison walls, pad-locks and chastity belts are absolutely of no use to ensure a woman’s chastity. Her own conscience and inner strength will alone keep her really pure.

Sakespeare says,

“My chastity is the jewel of our house bequeathed down from many ancestors”

DIANA.
I see that men make hopes in such a case,
That we’ll forsake ourselves. Give me that ring.

BERTRAM.
I’ll lend it thee, my dear, but have no power
To give it from me.

DIANA.
Will you not, my lord?

BERTRAM.
It is an honour ‘longing to our house,
Bequeathed down from many ancestors;
Which were the greatest obloquy i’ the world
In me to lose.

DIANA.
Mine honour’s such a ring:
My chastity’s the jewel of our house,
Bequeathed down from many ancestors;
Which were the greatest obloquy i’ the world
In me to lose. Thus your own proper wisdom
Brings in the champion honour on my part
Against your vain assault.

All is well that ends well, Act 4, Scene 2

 

Wife,The Helpmate

Tiruvalluvar says,

If a man’s wife does not bring him credit and honour, he cannot walk

with proud leonine gait in the face of his distractors- (Kural 59)

 

Shakespeare says,

‘A light wife doth make a heavy husband’

-The Merchant of Venice, Act 5, Scene 1

 

It is a sarcastic remark.

It’s a pun (a play on words to make a joke) because “light” and “heavy” have many meanings.

“A light wife” is an adulteress.
We also say someone is “heavy” if they carry an emotional burden, e.g. an unfaithful wife.

Light and heavy most commonly refer to the weight of something and are opposites, as are husband and wife, as are an unfaithful and faith spouse.

Enter BASSANIO, ANTONIO, GRATIANO, and their Followers.
  Bass.  We should hold day with the Antipodes,
If you would walk in absence of the sun.
  Por.  Let me give light, but let me not be light;         145
For a light wife doth make a heavy husband,
And never be Bassanio so for me:
But God sort all! You are welcome home, my lord.
  Bass.  I thank you, madam. Give welcome to my friend:
This is the man, this is Antonio,         150
To whom I am so infinitely bound.

 

–to be continued

 

–Subham–

Why did Hindu Gods lose their Heads? (Post No.4420)

Written by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 21 NOVEMBER 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 21–04

 

 

Post No. 4420

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Why did Lord Ganesh lose his head?

 Why did Lord Vishnu lose his head?

Why did Lord Brahma lose his head?

Why did Daksha lose his head?

Why did Bhrigu lose his head?

Daksha got goat’s head!

We have various versions of Daksha’s fire sacrifice in the Puranas and epics. In one of the versions Bhrigu loses his head. In another version Daksha himself lost his head. All this happened when he refused to invite Lord Siva for the sacrifice. Siva married Daksha’s daughter Sati.  Siva became angry and destroyed the Yaga. He decapitated Daksha and threw his head into fire. Later Siva was propitiated and he couldn’t find Daksha’s head. So he replaced it with that of a goat.

(We have goat headed figures in Indus valley civilisation)

 

Ganesh got Elephant’s Head

Ganesa is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles. There is a variety of legends accounting for his elephant’s head. When his mother Parvati proudly asked Saturn to look at him he looked at him. Immediately Ganesa’s head was burnt to ashes. Brahma told Parvati in her distress to replace the head with  whatever she finds in the first place. Since she found only an elephant’s head , it was fixed on Ganesa’s head.

Another story is that Ganesh was guarding the bath room door of Parvati. Siva was refused permission. In his rage he cut off the head . When Parvati felt sad, Siva replaced it with an elephant’s head just to pacify her.

 

Brahma lost his head for lying

Again there are different versions about Brahma losing his head. One point is common in all these stories. Brahma had five heads and Siva also had five heads. And Brahma lost one. When Parvati got confused and went near Brahma thinking it was Siva, Lord Siva became angry and cut off one of the five heads to avoid future confusion.

 

Another version is Siva decapitated one of the 5 heads of Brahma, because he spoke disrespect fully. Now Brahma has only four heads.

 

Another version is that he was looking at his daughter Satarupa with bad intention and his head was cut off as a punishment.

 

All these Head losing stories are symbolic. They were told to illustrate certain points.

Why did Vishnu lose his Head?

There is a strange story of Vishnu losing head in Satapata Brahmana:

Satapata Brahmana (SB) belongs to the White (Sukla) Yajur Veda (Vajasaneyi Samhita). It consists of 100 sections (sata+path) and so it is known as the Satapata Brahmana. This is the most important Brahmana (SB) because it deals with various fire sacrifices, both minor and major. Most of the stories told in the Brahmana re symbolic. One of the stories is about Vishnu and ants.

The 14th book contains a legend concerning a contention among the gods in which Vishnu came off victorious. So it is customary to say ‘Vishnu is the luckiest (Sreshta) of the gods’ or ‘Vishnu is the most excellent of the gods’. Vishnu has brought into prominence for the first time. Earlier the legend of his three strides was known. The three stride episode is mentioned in the Satapata Brahmana also. Later the Puranas shifted this to the Vamana (Trivikrama) Avatar.

 

When Indra came to know that Vishnu won, he struck off his (Vishnu’s)  head in jealousy, says the SB. There is another version :-

 

The gods sent forth ants to gnaw the bow string of Vishnu. They did it out of jealousy. When Vishnu was standing leaning on the bended bow they sent the ants. They thought once the ants cut off the string, the bow will strike on Vishnu and knock him down. The string snapped as expected and sprang upwards, severed his (Vishnu’s) head from the body. The same legend appears in Taittiriya Aranyaka as well.

 

–Subham–