Development Tamil Culture and Tamil Language through Charitable activities (Post No.4013)

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 18 June 2017
Time uploaded in London- 21-49
Post No. 4013
Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.



MITRA SEVA TALK by London Swaminathan on 17TH JUNE 2017


I was asked to give a talk on the charity work done by me in London at the First Anniversary meeting of Mitra Seva, an organisation started to serve the Elderly people in London, particularly from the South Indian community. It was held in Kenton, London on 17th June 2017.


Good Evening and thanks for inviting me to talk about my charity work. I thought it was irrelevant to talk about it to you bcaeuse of most of you known about it and you were also part of it. But yet it is important to place everything on record. And there is another part of charity work I did in India which many of you may not know.

Since I was given every limited time first let me give my work in Bullet points.




I raised over 200,000 pounds in London for seven charities. The beneficiaries were :-




South Indian Society



Bharatiya Vidhya Bhavan


I have executed the following projects through the funding I received. When I say I, it means I was the one who ordinated, but you the people helped me through out these projects








SINDHI CULTURE and Language Teaching



TAMIL BOOKS DIGITIZATION: I got a small funding for Tamil Heritage  Foundation to digitize ten old books from the British Library in London. They are available even now in T H F site.

TAMIL HERITAGE PROJECT: We interviewed thirty artistes in London who have settled here 25 years ago to record the history and development of Tamil culture in London. The recordings were put on a CD and the CDs were distributed to the  libraries.

MILLENNIUM GEM PROJECT : This is to give another chance to showcase their talents who have alredy staged their debut show and let it to get rusted.

RECENTLY I WAS ON THE  SOUVENIR COMIITEE OF  Nagapooshani Amman temple in London

RELIGIOUS EVENTS are organised by WHM Sagam


(For Bharatiya Viddhya Bhavan we staged a Tamil Drama and raised over 1500 pounds. We staged a Tamil drama for South Indian Society and raised over 1500 pounds. I took the main roles in both the dramas.


Awards for all

National Lottery

Paul Hamlyn Foundation

Harrow Council (for Black History Month)

Paul Hamlyn Foundation

New Ham council

Camelot foundation

Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation

I received



Any number of books you read would not inspire youto do charity work un less you have a role model in front of you; for me my father (V Santanam) was the role model. He was a freedom fighter who fought the British rule in India. He was imprisoned with K Kamaraj in Vellore Jail. Because he was a freedom fighter he allowed us to do all community activities. First myself and my bothers started an organisation called Literary and Cultural Association in Madurai with the help of our friends. All the famous personalities such as Solomon Pappaiah, Kundrkkudi Adigalar, K V Jagannathan. Later I joined RSS and took over the secetaryship of Vidyarthi Parishad and my bother became the secretary of Visva Hindu Parishad. The Madurai RSS Pracharak Shivaram Jogelakarwho has M.Sc and came from Pune inspired us very much. He was a man of few words but man of action, full of inspiration.


And  at that time the Vivekananda Rock Memorial was set up by Eknatha Ranade who was also an embodiment of inspiration. He asked us to got to every office school, college etc to sell one rupee donation ticket just to make them the part of this mighty national memeorial. As a result of this I contacted thousands of office workers and sold the donation picture cards. ( We did a month long exhibition in the Pudumandapam (built by King Tirumalai nayak) which attracted a huge crowd every day. In the same way when Swami Shanthanantha did a Sahasra Chandi Yajna in Madurai, since my father was on the committee we all helped as volunteers).


For any project, we need a role model who practise it. Years ago Swami Omkarananda visited London and I was organising several meetings for him. As a part of meetings at the Hindu temples here, I took him to Sivan Temple at Lewisham, London. The previous day I contacted the temple trustee who was in charge of programmes  to find out how many people were expected and what age group was targeted etc. To my surprise he told that he would be addressing little children from ween end Tamil school. I challenged him saying that Swami Omkarananda who is a great scholar delivering lectures on Kaivalyopanishad and Brhad Aranyaka Upanishad would be disappointed. Then he explained me the reason for arranging such a meeting for children. “These young students had seen the saffron clad Sanyasins only in films and dramas. They had never seen a real life true Sanyasi (ascetic)So they may think this is also an act and there may not be a Sanyasi at all. If they see a real life ascetic that will impress them at this young age.

This explanation opened my eyes. I realised  that a man of action, a man of truth can inspire several thousand people. So role models are important to inspire future workers.


At present I am part of the Hindu Forum of Britain, the umbrella organisation of Hindu organisations. I am the chairman of the Chaplaincy borad. As a life time trustee of W HM sangam, I do organise religious events.


Tomorrow the Second Part of my talk will cover the following topics:-





NOW 5 POUND NOTE and Government’s Promise.



















Comments on Vedic Women Poets (Post No.3923)

Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 19 May 2017


Time uploaded in London: 22-15


Post No. 3923


Pictures are taken from various sources such as Face book, google and Wikipedia; thanks.






VEDA SAMHITAS have at least twenty women poets (rsikas).  Prof. Rahurkar has shown, the names and contents of hymns, i.e .the nature of their prayers reveal the social background of their composers who thus become fairly representative of their society.


Ghosa was a maiden anxious to get married while Suryaa was the newly wedded wife. In Sasvati we have an affectionate and faithful wife. Indrani is a jealous wife while Romasa and Lopamudra are voluptuous women. Apala’s plea is moving, she is sick and abandoned by her husband. Visvavara is a happy and contented matron, while Aditi is a proud mother. Poor Godha was a modest and righteous woman. The nymph Urvasi, as her lover says has the heart of a hyena and Yami is eager to seduce her twin brother Yama. Thus no two women are exactly alike and together they offer glimpse into the feminine world in Vedic society.



Lopamudrs was the author of I- 179;

Apala Maitreyi of VIII-91

Yami of X -10

Vasukra’s wife X :28

Kaksivat Gbosa X 39-40;

Surya -X 85;

Urvasi of X 95

Vac, daughter of Ambhrna  X 125;

Brahma Jaya X 139;

Yami, daughter of Vivasvat X 145;

Indrani X: 145;

Sraddha Kamayani X: 151:

Paulomi Saci X 159.

From V G Rahurkar, “The Rsikas of flie Baveda” in Dandekar felicitation Volume


Also, Pouruchlila, Zarathustra’s daughter was a woman seer, the author of Gatha 53.




Women! I like their Beauty, their Delicacy, their Vivacity and I like….(Post No.3895)

Compiled by London Swaminathan


Date: 10 May 2017


Time uploaded in London: 20-13


Post No. 3895


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.




Talking Anecdotes -Part 1


Dr Johnson was one day in conversation with a very talkative lady, of whom he appeared to take very little notice.

“Why, Doctor, I believe you prefer the company of men to that of the ladies?”

Madam, replied he, I am very fond of the company of ladies, I like their beauty, I like their delicacy, I like their vivacity and I like their silence.



Mark Twain and Winston Churchill


Mark Twain met Winston Churchill in 1900, when the latter was just coming into prominence as a young statesman. The occasion was a dinner in London   Churchill and Twain went out for a brief time to have a smoke. Sir William Vernon Harcourt observed, as they departed, that whichever one got the floor first would keep it. He speculated that inasmuch as Twain was an older and more experienced hand, Churchill’s  voice would get the first good rest that it had had in years .

When the two men returned, Harcourt asked Churchill whether he had enjoyed himself, and the young man replied, “Yes”, most enthusiastically.

Turning to Twain, Sir William put the same question.

Twain hesitated and said,

“I have had a good smoke”.



In Silence!


A talkative barber was trimming the hair of King Achelous ,and asked, “how shall I cut?”

“In silence”, replied the King.


Hush Money to Barber!

King Archelaus , perpetrator of that ancient joke about replying, in silence, to the barber who asked him how he should cut his hair, would be pleased to know that his tradition is being carried on in the modern era.

A man who might well stem from this kingly line, handled the barber a coin and then climbed into the chai .

“Why, sir, thank you”, said the astonished barber,” never before have I been tipped in advance”.

“That is not a tip”, snarled the customer. “It’s hush money”.



Need to Talk to Someone

The need to talk to someone finds its expression in everything from friendly confidences, to the confessional, to the psychoanalyst. Recently it has been commercialised by an organisation calling itself The Southern Listening Bureau of Little Rock, Arkansas.

Their advertisement proclaims

“We offer well trained and experienced listeners who will hear you as long as you wish to talk, and without interruptions, for a nominal fee. As our listeners listen, their faces portray interest, pity, fellow feeling, understanding; where called for, they exhibit hope despair, hate, sorrow or joy.  Lawyers, politicians, club leaders, reformers can try their speeches on us. You may talk freely about your business or domestic problems without fear of having any confidence betrayed. Just let off steam into the discreet ears of our experts and feel better”.



At a party, someone observed to Dorothy Parker that their hostess was outspoken

“By whom?”, asked Miss Parker.



Definition of a Woman by a Tamil Poet! (Post No.3841)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 22 APRIL 2017

Time uploaded in London:- 17-43

Post No. 3841

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


Neethi Venpa is a Tamil Didactic work by an anonymous author. It has got lot of four line verses similar to Samskrita Subhashitas of didactic nature. Two verses are about good women and talkative women.

The poet gives the definition of a good woman:

A woman is one who has the following six attributes:

1.One who showers Love and Affection like a Mother who has got Patience like the Earth

(Tamil and Sanskrit literatures compare Patience with the Earth) who serves like a servant who looks beautiful like goddess Lakshmi who gives pleasure (to her husband in bed) like a courtesan who give advice like a minister

that one is called a WOMAN

If women chat……………….


In another verse the poet describes what would happen if talkative and bad women chat:

If one woman speaks the earth will shake;

if two ( bad) women chat the stars will fall from the heaven;

if three (bad) women chat the sea will become dry;

if many women chat, Oh My God!, what will happen?


We have similar verses in Sanskrit as well (Please go to my old posts).


My Old Articles on the same subject:

1.Most Intelligent Woman in the Ancient World; 7 August 2013

2.‘Women’s Freedom’ by Bharatiyar; Post No.989; Date :— 19th April 2014.

3.Only Religion where Woman is worshiped!

Post No. 1775; Date 4th April 2015

4.‘Women in state affairs are like Monkeys in Glass Shops’ (Post No 2625)

D ate: 12 March 2016

5. Manu Smrti on Low Caste Women (Post No.2946) Date: 5 July 2016

6.Gems of Women: Varahamihirar’s Definition; Research Article No.1650; Dated 14th February 2015.

7.Are Women always demanding?

Post No.1244; Dated: 22nd August 2014.


Date: 23 October 2016


9.Mahabharata–about Women! (Post No.2813) ; Date: 15 May 2016


10).31 Good Quotations on Wife! Post No. 1439; Date: 26 November 2014.


11.One Mother is greater than 1000 Fathers! 7 June 2013

12. Wonderful Syllabus for Women! Post No.1020 ; Date 4th May 2014.




Husband is God!!! Who will believe Valmiki, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Poets? (Post No.3717)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 12 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 19-37


Post No. 3717


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





There is a saying in all old Sanskrit and Tamil books that ‘Husband is God’; I don’t know how many modern Hindu women would agree with this ‘old fashioned’ thought. When I was a school by there was, a film titled ‘Kanavane Kankanda Deivam’ i.e. Husband is the visible God! Now people may laugh at this idea, leave alone believing it!


The second idea repeated very often in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature and Sanskrit literature is that the ‘same husband must come as her husband in future births’!! How many women would dare to say this to her husband in private or in public? How many women can tolerate such a thing if it happens!! Is in it horrible?


My mother had never said my father’s name in public! This is the third old fashioned idea that Hindu women had in the past. Now, my wife says my name loud and clear ten times in public when there was an opportunity to say it. But I myself had the difficulty of finding a gentleman’s’ name in a village, when I was working as the secretary of Madurai District RSS (Jilla Karyavah). The woman refused to say her husband’s name when I asked her and she gave me lot of tips and clues! It was like a puzzle I had to solve!


For instance if her husband’s name is Rama chandran, she would say her husband’s name is Sita’s husband name. If I say just Rama , then she will say ‘yes’ and add the moon with that name! Then I have to derive Rama Chandra from that! (Chandran is the Sanskrit word for moon)!


I don’t know how many Hindu women still believe in these ‘’old fashioned’’ views.


If you dare to put these views to any woman and ask her opinion, she may say ‘NO’ or a conditional YES (if my husband is like Rama, ‘YES’, if he is like Krishna ‘NO’)!


Let me give examples from Tamil and Sanskrit books:-

“Supressing his sobs, Rama replied to his mother, who was weeping, and said:- As long as sge lives, a woman’s god and her master is her husband; further the king is thine absolute lord as well as mine.”


This is a conversation between Rama and Kausalya about Kaikeyi and Dasaratha.


“By obedience to her husband, a woman attains the highest heaven, even if she has failed to render due homage to the Gods.”


–Ayodhya kanda, chapter 24, Vlmiki Ramayana

Tamil Poet supports Valmiki

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda, Tirukkural says

“A wife who may not worship God but wakes up with worshipful devotion to her husband has the power to make rainfall at her bidding”- Kural 55


In fact Tiruvalluvar’s wife Vasuki is attributed with so many miracles because of her devotion to her husband.


Valmiki has repeated this in many places; one more instance from the same Ayodhya kanda:

“O, son of an illustrious monarch! a father, a mother, a brother, a son or a daughter-in-law enjoy the fruit of their merits and receive what is their due, a wife alone follows the destiny of her husband. For a woman it is not her father or her son nor her mother friends nor her own self, but the husband who in this world and the next is ever her sole means of salvation.”

Sita said this to her husband Rama.

In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa Kavya, Sita says that she would do penance to get Rama as her husband in her next birth!

साहम् तपः सूर्यनिविष्टदृष्टिः
ऊर्ध्वम् प्रसूतेश्चरितुम् यतिष्ये।
भूयो यथा मे जननान्तरेऽपि
त्वमेव भर्ता न च विप्रयोगः ॥ १४-६६

sāham tapaḥ sūryaniviṣṭadṛṣṭiḥ
ūrdhvam prasūteścaritum yatiṣye |
bhūyo yathā me jananāntare’pi
tvameva bhartā na ca viprayogaḥ  || 14-66


Thus situated, I shall, after the birth of the child, endeavour to practise penance with my eyes fixed on the sun in such a manner that I may gain you as my unseparated husband. [14-66]

But, once Thy son is born,/Unswerving I shall fix my weary eyes/On yon bright Sun, and by severest modes/Of penance strive that in some future life/Thou only be my Lord, my Lord for aye!

(It is called Panchagni penance, i.e. Five Fire Penance. Uma did this type of penance to get Siva s her husband in Kalidasa’s Kumara sambhava. On four sides there will be fire and one would stand in the sun which is the fifth fire. And in this heat the penance would be done).


Tamil Epic Silappadikaram has the following passage:


In a divine chariot at the side of Kovalan, Kannnaki went up to heaven.. Because it is a fact that Gods will worship her who worships not God but worships her husband, Kannaki, that jewel among women of the earth, became a goddess and the guest of the ladies of heaven (Katturai Kaathai, Silappadikaram)

Manimekalai, another Tamil epic, has a similar passage.

Sangam Poets


Tamil work Kuruntokai (49) of Sangam Period has a similar poem:

A man left the courtesan and returned to his lady love. Immediately the lady was over the moon and said, “ O , My Lord, even in the next birth you must be my lord and I must be your lover.—Poet Ammuvanar.

A wife cried because…………………………..

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkura says,

“The moment I said we will not part IN THIS LIFE

Her eyes were filled with tears” – Kural 1315


the idea is that when her husband stated that they will not part in the PRESENT LIFE, she immediately held, that he was envisaging the possibility of their parting in the next life, which she did not kindly take to. Hence the tears.


Kalidasa says Aja and Indumati became husband and wife again in this birth. (Raghuvamsa 7-15)


रतिस्मरौ नूनमिमावभूताम् राज्ञाम् सहस्रेषु तथा हि बाला।
गतेयमात्मप्रतिरूपमेव मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम्॥ ७-१५

ratismarau nūnamimāvabhūtām
rājñām sahasreṣu tathā hi bālā |
mano hi janmāntarasaṁgatijñam || 7-15

“These two are undoubtedly Rati Devi and Manmatha in human form… that is why this maiden has chosen Prince Aja as her own match from among thousands of kings… after all, it is heart that cognises connubial tie-ups existing in all lifecycles… [ raghu vamsa 7-15]


Natrinai  (Verse 397 by Poet Ammuvanar) is another book in the Sangam literature. A woman laments: I am not worried about death; whoever is born must die. But if I am born as a non-human being in my next birth I may not get this man as my husband. That is what worries me much”.

There are lot of such examples in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is a common thought reflected in Manu Smrti and other Sanskrit works. It is amazing to see the same though from land’s southernmost end to the Northern Himalayas. The absence of such a view in other cultures explode the Aryan Dravidian divisions. India is one and there is no different culture. There is only one culture which is unique in the world.





Custom of Garlanding and Flower Giving in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3550)

Giving Flowers to a woman began in India.


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 16 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-06


Post No.3550



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






Garlanding statues of Gods and leaders, garlanding visiting dignitaries are common sights in India. Exchanging garlands is a marriage ritual as well. Giving flowers to women, offering flowers to Gods are also an everyday sight in India. All these started with the Hindus thousands of years ago according to Sanskrit and Tamil literature.


Jayamala ceremony is part of a marriage in North and South, showing Indian culture is one.

In my article FLOWERS IN TAMIL CULTURE posted on 25th August 2012, I have dealt with the Flower vendors in Sangam Tamil Literature, Kapilar’s listing of 99 flowers, Tamil classification of flowers, Tamil’s obsession with flowers even in the wars, 27 leaves to God Vinayaka, Famous Andal garland of Srivilliputtur, Onam Pukkolam and Pushpanchali.


Garlands are used from the Swayamvara (A princess choosing a King as her husband by garlanding) days.


Giving flowers to women was also started by the Hindus at least 2000 years ago. Let me give some examples from Kalidasa’s works:-


In the most famous drama of Sakuntala (Act 7-1), we read about garlands:

“Glancing up with a smile at Jayanta, his son

who stood beside him longing inwardly for the same,

Hari placed around my neck the Mandara garland

tinged with golden sandal rubbed off his chest”




In the Kumara Sambhava (3-22), the Master’s command is imagined to be a garland offered as a gift of favour.

In the Raghu vamsa (18-29)the king was, as it were, the crest garland of his race suggesting thereby the marks of a good rule.

The Love god whose energy had diminished with the departure of spring seems to be regaining his vim and vigour through the head hair of pretty women, for they are letting it loose after a bath aesthetically, per-fumigating it tastefully, and slicing evening jasmine flowers pleasingly. [16-50]


(Kiraataarjuniiyam also has a reference).



In the Raghuvamsa (6-80), Indumati’s glance itself was like the Swayamvara garland to Aja. The flowers in the garland were fresh and white and her steady glances were also white.

Keeping flowers in the ear or just above the ear is also mentioned in Kalidasa:-

Meghaduta. – 28, 67


“Where women toy with a lotus held in hand

twine fresh jasmines in the hair

the beauty of their faces glows pale gold

dusted with the pollen of lodhra flowers

fresh amaranth blooms encircle the hair-knot

a delicate Sirisa mestles at the ear

and on the hair parting lie Kadamba blossoms

born at your coming (verse 67, Megaduta)


Sakuntala : 1-4; 1-30; 6-18; in the prologue as well.


Raghu.7-26; 9-28, 9-43, 16-62

In the Tamil literature

Flower or tender plant in the ear:

Kurinjip paattu (Kapilar) 119-120

Tiru murukku-(Nakkirar)-30-31; 207

Paripaatal – 11-95; 12-88



Kuruntokai belongs to Sangam period. The very first verse is about a man giving flowers to a woman he loves. It is sung by Tiputolar.


Natrinai, part of 2000 year old Tamil Sangam Literature, describes the garland worn by a man who came to see his lady love. He came wearing a garland made up of wild jasmine flowers and Bilva (Vilvam) leaves. Kalidasa also mentioned jasmine flowers in the hair of women. It showed that there was only one culture from the southern most part to the Northern Himalayas.


one of the verses in Marutham genre describes that when the farmers go to the fields, heroines (women) get flowers and garlands.

Natrinai verse 173 says that the women gathered flowers and made into a garland for Lord Skanda. She did it to so that her lover would marry her soon.

Purananuru verse 106 by Kapilar mentions that god wont reject even leaves and grass offered, reflecting the Bhagavad Gita verse 9-26 (Patram pushpam phalam toyam……)
This flower giving and garlanding is another proof to show that Indian culture is one from south to north and the Aryan-Dravidian Race theory is a fake one. No ancient culture has this flower culture.



Causes of Destruction: Woman and Brahmin (Post No.3541)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 13 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-44


Post No.3541



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






What causes one’s destruction? Sanskrit scholars (Pundits) have a list; they have compiled the list out of past experience. I am pretty sure we can find lot of examples for each category.


Vinaasahetavah (causes of destruction):

Strii – ruupam = woman is destroyed by her beauty.

Chittoor Rani Padmini is a good example; her beauty made Aaludin Khilji to invade the Rajput Kingdom and she had t jump into fire along with her friends to save her honour.

Brahmana-rajaseva = Brahmins by service to the king

Nanda vamsa kings are typical xamples; they ridiculed all the Brahmins including Chanakya; first the Brahmins suffered at the hands of the Nava Nandas and then Chanakya destroyed them. Parasurama’s clash with kshatriyas is also famous


Gavah duurapracaarana= Cows by grazing distant field

Many of the village disputes are due to the cows grazing someone else’s field, usualy away fom one’s own field.


Hiranya lobhalipsaa – Gold by greed; here gold stands for all sorts of wealth. Most of the non violent prisoners are jailed because of their greediness.

Strii vinasyati ruupena braahmano raajasevayaa

Gaavo duuraprachaarena hiranyam lobhalipsayaa

–Subhasita ratna bhadaagaaram 153/19


Garuda Purana also has a similar couplet (sloka):-

ruupena strii = woman by beauty

krodhena tapah = penance by anger

duuraprachaarena gaavah = cows by distance gracing

ksudraannena dvijaah = Brahmins by eating unhygienic food.


Striyo nasyanti ruupena tapah krodhena nasyati

Gaavo duuraprachaarena kshudraannena dwijottamaah

Garuda Purana 115-7


xx x

Causes for the Fall of Brahminhood: Manu

Viprasya naasahetu

Veda- anabhyaasa = not learning the Vedas

Acaaravarjana = abandoning the codes of conduct

Aalasya = lethargy

Annadosa = disrespect for food


anabhyaasena vedaanaamaachaarasya sa varjanaat

aalasyaadannadoosaaccha mrtyurvipraandhaamsati

–Manu Smrti 5-4


Source Book: Encyclopaedia of Numerals (Volume 1)

The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Chennai 600 004, Year 2011


Pearl is available from Twenty Sources! (Post No.3538)


Written by London swaminathan


Date: 12 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 20-20


Post No.3538



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.




Tamil literature lists 20 places as the sources of pearls . Biologists know only one place where pearl is born. Sanskrit literature lists only eight places but these are not scientifically proved.

Twenty places according to Tamil verse from Uvamana Sangraham and Rathina Surukkam:
Horn of elephant/tusk
Horn of boar


Areca nut Tree

Special Type of Banana Tree

Chalanchalam (Rare Type of right whorld Chank

Hear of Fish

Head of Crane


Neck of women

Sugar cane


Snake (cobra)





Head of a crocodile
Teeth of cows

Varahamihira lists the following eight places in his Brhat Samhita:-


Following is from 2015 post: “Eight Types of Pearls: Varahamihira’s 1500 year old Price list”


Pearls are produced by:

Elephants, Oysters, Snakes, Clouds, Chanks, Bamboos, Whales, Boar (Brhat Samhita, Chapter 81)

Pearls come from eight areas


Simhalaka (Sri Lanka), Paraloka (Travancore coast), Surashtra (Gujarat), Tampraparani River (in South Tamil Nadu), Parasava (Iran), a Nothern country, Pandya vataka and the Himalayas.

Kautilya’s Artha Shastra (Third Century BCE) mentioned Pandya Kavata pearl. Fahien (399-414 CE) mentioned Simhala/Sri Lankan pearls.

Paraloka is a confusing term. There is one river called Parali in Kerala and there is an island Parali in the Lakshadweep. But the interesting thing is that itself sounds pearl in Tamil (Paral in Tamil is pearl in English and this town name is Paral+i).

Elephant Pearls:


Pearls are also obtained from the head and tusks of Bhadra class of elephants, says Varahamihira. But Varahamihira makes it clear that he repeats what the ancients believed about the elephant pearls. (This means they are not found even in Varahamihira days who lived around 510 CE)

He speaks about the pearls found in Boar tusk, Whales etc. Then he gives details about the pearls that are found in the seventh layer of winds. But the heaven dwellers will catch them before it falls on to earth!

Then he categorises Nagaratna as pearls. If the kings wear Nagaratna pearls enemies will be destroyed and his reputation will increase.
Kalidasa speaks of pearls from the head of elephants


From my 2012 post “Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Sangam Literature”

Pearl in the Oyster


If the rain falls on Swati star day the oysters open their mouth to drink the rain drops and the rain drops become pearls-This was the belief of ancient Indians including Tamils.
Bhartruhari and Sangam Tamil literature say that the pearls are created by the oysters on a particular day,I.e. The oysters open their mouths when there is rain falling down on a day under the star Swati(one of the 27 stars ). Biologists say that the sand particles that enter the living oysters secrete a liquid which covers the irritant to become a pearl.
Malavi.1-6: Kalidasa says , ‘the skill of a teacher imparted to a worthy pupil attains greater excellence, as the water of a cloud is turned in to a pearl in a sea shell.In Puram 380 ,Karuvur Kathapillay says the same about the origin of pearls. Bhartruhari makes it more specific by saying the rain on Swati Nakshatra days become pearls. Biologits also confirm on full moon days lot of sea animals like corals release their eggs or spores. So far as India is concerned it might have happened in that particular (Swati star with Moon) season.

Kalidasa gives more similes about pearls. He describes the river that is running circling a mountain as a garland of pearls ( Ragu.13-48 and Mega.-49)

Other references from Kalidasa: sweat drops as pearl:Rtu.6-7; tears as pearls: Mega 46, Ragu VI 28,,Vikra V 15; smile-KumarI-44, water drops on lotus leaf:Kumara VII 89


Pearls obtained from the head of elephants:Kumarasambhava 1-6, Raghu.9-65; In Tamil literature: Murugu 304, Malaipadu 517, Puram 170Natri.202, Kurinchi.36, Akam.282 etc.


In Tamil the teeth are compared to the pearls: Ainkur. 185, Akam 27

Since Gulf of Mannar is the main source of pearls in India ,thre are innumerable references to pearls in Tamil literature. Even Kautilya refers to the pearls from Pandya country. Korkai was the harbour city where the pearl fishing was flourishing. Aink 185,188, Akam 27,130 and Natri 23mention pearls from Korkai.

(for more information, go to  the two articles mentioned  by me



பெண்கள் விளையாட்டுகள் (Post No.3537)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 12 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 9-31


Post No.3537



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.





பெண்கள் விளையாட்டுகள்:


அந்தக் காலத்தில் திருமணமாகும் வரை பெண்கள் என்ன என்ன விளையாடினர் என்று ஒரு பாட்டின் மூலம் தெரிகிறது. இது முற்றிலும் சரி என்பது சங்கத் தமிழ் பாடல்களாலும், ராமாயண, மஹாபாரத நூல்களாலும் உறுதியாகிறது:-


மருங்குவளர் பூங்கா மலர்வாவி யூச

றிருந்துமணி செய்குன்று தேமா- விரும்பமுத

பானங்கிளி பூவை பந்துகன்னங் கழங்கன்ன மயின்

மான்முல்லை பந்தர் வளர்ப்பு

–உபமான சங்கிரஹம் இரத்தினச் சுருக்கம்


1.பூங்காவில் பூக்கள் பறித்து விளையாடினர்.

2.பொய்கை, கிணறுகளில் நீராடிப் பொழுது போக்கினர்.

3.வீட்டிலும் மரத்தடியிலும் ஊஞ்சல் கட்டி ஆடினர்.

4.பணக்காரர் வீடுகளில் செயற்கையாக குன்று எழுப்பி அதில் ரத்தினக் கற்களைப் பதித்துவைத்து அதன் மேல் ஆடி ஓடி சாடினர்.

5.தேமாமரம் விளையாடினர் (மாமரத்தில் ஏறி அல்லது கல் விட்டெறிந்து மாங்காய், மாம்பழம் எடுத்துச் சாப்பிடுதல்) .

6.அமிர்தம் போன்ற பானங்கள் செய்து குடித்தனர்.

7.காய்களை வைத்து கழங்கு ஆடினர்;

8.பூப்பந்து ஆடினர்.

9.கிளி, பூவை (சாரிகைப் பறவை), அன்னம், மயில் ஆகிய பறவைகள் வளர்த்து பொழுது போக்கினர்.

10.முல்லைப் பூச்செடிக்கு பந்தல் கட்டி வளர்த்து அதைப் பராமரித்தனர். முல்லை என்றால் அது போன்ற பிறவகை மலர்ச் செடிகளும் அதில்  அடங்கும்.


ஐந்து தொழில்கள்

அம்பொற்றொடியணிமினார் தங்கைக்கைந்து தொழில்

செம்பவள மென்விரலைச் சேர்த்தெண்ணலம்பெழுதல்

பூசித்திலை கிள்ளல் பூத்தொடுத்தல் பண்ணெழில்யாழ்

வாசித்தலென்றுரை செய்வார்

–உபமான சங்கிரஹம் இரத்தினச் சுருக்கம்



அழகிய பொன்னினாற் செய்யப்பட்ட வளையலை அணிந்த மாதர் கைகளுக்கு ஐந்து தொழில்கள் உண்டு. (அவையாவையெனின்) 1.செம்பவளம் போன்ற மென்மையான விரல்களைச் சேர்த்து எண்ணுதல்,

2.அம்பின் உருவத்தை எழுதல்,

3.பூசை செய்து இலை பறித்தல்,

4.மலர் தொடுத்தல்,

5.பண்ணொடு கூடின அழகாகிய வீணை வாசித்தல் என்று சொல்வர்.


சங்க இலக்கியத்திலும் சம்ஸ்கிருத இலக்கியத்திலும் இந்த விளையாட்டுகள்வரும் இடங்களை தனியே எழுதுகிறேன்






32 அறங்கள், 16 பேறுகள், 8 மங்களச் சின்னங்கள் (Post No. 3507)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 2 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:-  9-27 am


Post No.3507



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.







பூங்கா வைத்து மலர்ச் செடிகளை வளர்த்தல், கோவிலில் நந்தவனம் அமைத்து பூஜைக்கு வேண்டிய மரம் செடி கொடிகளை வளர்த்தல். தல மரங்கள் என்ற பெயரில் பல்வேறு மரங்களுக்கு சிறப்பான இடம் தருதல், ஏழைகளுக்கு சத்திரம் அமைத்து உணவு கொடுத்தல், மருந்து கொடுத்தல், பிராணிகளுக்கு உணவும் நீரும் கிடைக்க ஏற்பாடு செய்தல் முதலிய ஏராளமான அறப் பணிகள் அந்தக் காலத்திலேயே நடைபெற்றன.


சிறைச்சாலைக் கைதிகளுக்கு உணவு கொடுத்தல் மேலை நாட்டிலும் இல்லாத ஒரு நூதன விஷயம். மன்னர்களின் பட்டாபிஷேகம், இளவரசர் பிறப்பு, திருமணம் ஆகிய காலங்களில் கைதிகளை மன்னித்து விடுதலை செய்தல் போன்ற பல அறப்பணிகள் நடந்துள்ளன. அறப்பணிகளுக்கான ஆதாரபூர்வ கல்வெட்டு அசோகர் சாசன காலத்திருந்து கிடைக்கின்றன. மஹாபாரத, ராமாயணம், அர்த்த சாத்திரம் முதலிய நூல்களிலும் கிடைக்கின்றன. மிகவும் நாகரீக முன்னேற்றம் உடைய ஒரு நாட்டில் மட்டுமே இத்தகைய சிந்தனைகள் எழும். சமூக சேவையில் பாரதம் உலகிற்கு வழிகாட்டியது என்று சொன்னால் மிகையில்லை


உவமான சங்ரகம் என்ற நூலில் எட்டு மங்கலச் சின்னங்கள் (அஷ்ட மங்கலம்), 16 பேறுகள், 32 அறங்கள் செய்யுள் வடிவில் உள்ளன.

செய்யுள் வடிவில் இருப்பதால் இரண்டு நன்மைகள்:- ஒன்று மனப்பாடம் செய்து நினைவில் வைப்பது எளிது. இரண்டாவது  இடைச்செருகலுக்கோ, மாற்றங்களுக்கோ வாய்ப்புகள் குறைவு.



1).வண்ணான் புன்னாவிதன் காதோலை சோலை மடந்தடம் வெண்

சுண்ணாம் பறவைப் பிணஞ்சுடற் றூரியஞ் சோறளித்தல்

கண்ணாடி யாவிற்குரிஞ்சுதல் வாயுறை கண்மருந்து

தண்ணீர் பந்தற் றலைக்கெண்ணை பெண்போகந் தரலையமே


2).மேதகுமாதுலர்க்குசாலை யேறுவிடுத்தல் கலை

யோதுவார்க் குண்டி விலங்கிற் குணவோடுயர்பிணிநோய்க்

கிதன் மருந்து சிறைச் சோறளித்தலியல் பிறரின்

மதுயற்காத்தநற்கந்நியர் தானம் வழங்கலுமே


3).கற்றவறுசமயத்தார்க் குணவு கருதும் விலை

உற்றதளித்துயிர் மீட்டல் சிறார்க்குதவனற்பான்

மற்று மகப்பெறுவித்தல் சிறாரை வளர்த்த்லெனப்

பெற்றவிவற்றினையெண்ணான்கறமெனப் பேசுவாரே

-உபமானசங்கிரஹம், இரத்தினச் சுருக்கம்


32 அறச் செயல்களின் பட்டியல்:-

1.ஆதுலர்க்குச் சாலை (ஏழைகள்=ஆதுலர்)

2.ஓதுவார்க்கு உணவு (மாணவர்களுக்கு)

3.அறுசமயத்தோர்க்கு உண்டி (உணவு)

4.பசுவிற்கு வாயுரை (உணவு)

5.சிறைக் கைதிகளுக்கு உணவு

6.ஐயமிட்டு உண் (பிச்சை போடுதல்)

7.திண்பண்டம் நல்கல் (விழாக் காலங்களில் பொங்கல், வடை)

8.அறவைச் சோறு (அன்னதானம்)

9.மகப்பெறுவித்தல் (பிள்ளை பெறுதல்)

10.மகவு வளர்த்தல் (பிள்ளைகளை வளர்த்தல்)

11.மகப்பால் வார்த்தல் (அவர்களுக்கு பால் வழங்கல்)


12.அறவைப் பிணஞ்சுடல் (அனாதைகள் இறுதிச் சடங்கு)

13.அறவைத் தூரியம் ( தூரியம்=மேள வாத்தியம்


14.சுண்ணம் அளித்தல்

15.நோய்க்கு மருந்து வழங்கல்






21.தலைக்கு எண்ணெய்



23.பிறர்துயர் காத்தல்

24.தண்ணீர் பந்தல்

  1. மடம் அமைத்தல்

26.குளம் வெட்டல்

27.பூங்கா வைத்தல்

28.ஆவுறுஞ்சுதறி (பசு முதலிய பிராணிகளுக்கு நீர்)


30.ஏறுவிடுத்தல் (இனப்பெருக்கத்த்துக்கு காளைகள்)




எட்டு மங்களச் சின்னங்கள்


சாற்றுங்கவரி நிறைகுடந்தோட்டிமுன் றர்ப்பணமா

மேற்றிய தீபம் முர்சம் பதாகை யிணைக்கயலே

நாற்றிசை சூழ்புவி மீதஅட்ட நன்குழையின்

மேற்றிதழ் வேற்றடங்கட்செய்ய வாய்ப்பைம்பொன்ந்த் மெய்த்திருவே


கவரி, நிறைகுடம் (பூர்ணகும்பம்),  தோட்டி(அங்குசம்),  தர்ப்பணம் (கண்ணாடி), தீபம், முரசம், பதாகை (கொடி), இணைக்கயல் ( இரட்டை மீன்)– ஆகியன அட்டமங்கலம் எனப்படும்.



வேண்டுநற்சுற்ற மிராசாங்க மக்கள்மேவு பொன்ம ணி

யாண்டிடுந்தொண்டு நெல்வாகன மாமிவை யட்டசெல்வங்

காண்டவி சீதல் கால்கெழு நீரொடு முக்குடி

நீராண்டளித்  தேபுனலாட்டனல் லாடை யணிதல்பினே


நல் சுற்றம், ராஜாங்கம், பிள்ளைகள் தங்கம், அணிவதற்குரிய ஆடை, ஆளுதர்க்குரிய அடிமை, நெல் முதலிய தானியம், வாஹனம் – இவையே அட்ட ஐஸ்வர்யம் (எட்டு செல்வங்கள் ) எனப்படும்.


16 பேறுகள்


பதினாறு பேறுகள் பற்றிய ஐந்து பாடல்களை ஏற்கனவே கொடுத்துள்ளேன். 16 பேறுகள்;


அழகு, வலிமை, இளமை, நன் மக்கள், நல்ல உடல்நலம், நீண்ட ஆயுள், நிலம், பெண், தங்கம், அறிவு, உற்சாகம்,கல்வி, வெற்றி, புகழ், மரியாதை, தானியம் (உணவுப் பொருட்கள்).


ஐந்து கவிஞர்கள் பாடிய “பதினாறும் பெற்றுப் பெறுவாழ்வு வாழ்க”! –Posted on 2nd July 2014.