TAMIL POETESSES AVVAI, ANGAVAI AND SANGAVAI (Post No.7350)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 16 December 2019

Time in London – 18-10

Post No. 7350

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Tamil women are great poetesses, temple builders and social reformers. Andal ,a devotee of Vishnu, and Karaikkal Ammaiyar, a devotee of Shiva are known to many. Avvaiyar is a household name in Tamil Nadu; but many Avvais existed in various ages. Probably the word AVVAI was used for an old woman completely devoted to God; that is a full timer on public service, widowed OR not married . Scholars think that six women known as Avvai lived in Tamil Nadu. But linguistically speaking, we can see at least four Avvais clearly. One belong to Sangam age , another belongs to middle age and the third one is from our times. The language of the poems draws a clear cut line. Fourth one is in between them.

The most famous Avvai existed during Sangam age i.e. 2000 years ago. She was well versed in Tamil and bold enough to challenge and advise the mighty Tamil kings. But she was respected by one and all. The Tamils were fighting among themselves from the very beginning of history. The longest infighting race in the world. Avvai was bold enough to advise them to stop fighting.

A great Chola king Peru Narkilli did a Rajasuya Yagam like Yuthisthiraa of Mahabharata. Chera king and the Pandya king attended the Hindu fire ceremony. Grand old lady of Tamil country Avvaiyar came there and blessed them. She sang that they must be united like this for ever and live longer in years than the number of stars in the sky and the number of drops in the rain. She advised them to give a lot of gold to worthy Brahmins (See Purananuru verse 366).

She went to another inexperienced king and advised him not to fight with his enemy. She used very subtle language and said to him “your weapons are brand new and shining like silver whereas your enemy’s weapons are blunt, rusty and bloody. The message she hinted was ‘Oh, you idiot, you don’t know what a battle is like, where as your enemy is an experienced fighter.”

She was in the court of Neduman Anji, the Adigamaan Chief of Tagadur (Dharmapuri). He held her in high esteem and even gave her the Nelli (amla) with rare medical properties. He entrusted her an embassy to the Chief of Tondaimandalam. She composed many poems on the generosity of Adigaman. For vigour and depth of feeling her odes to Adigaman are second to none in the Purananuru collections.

After the death of Adigaman she visited several places in Tamil Nadu. Avvai took her themes from life in the palace and in the country farm. The simple pleasures and the daily cares of the lowly appealed to her even more than the chivalry of heroes and the magnificence of princes. Her odes which are included in the   Sangam collections Akananuru, Purananuu, Natrinai and Kuruntokai, are a true mirror of contemporary Tamil life.   With a rare economy of words she creates marvellous pen pictures , and some poetic imagery; she adds choice moral precepts. She is a great exponent of morality.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                   

We see one Avvai as most famous Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar’s sister (probably around fourth or fifth century CE) and another Avvai with Sundarar and Cheraman Perumal (probably ninth century) and another Avvai who composed Athichudi and other poems in simple Tamil during modern times. She is the one devoted to Lord Skanda/Muruga and author of Vinayakar Akaval. So one can easily see four different Avvais. Pithy aphorisms of later Avvai are lisped by Tamil children even today as introduction to Tamil poetry and a guide to a moral life.

Tradition ascribes to Avvai a strange parentage- a Brahmana father and a low caste mother brought up in a Brahmana family. She has six siblings along with Tiru Valluvar. This story is found in all books that were published 75 years ago. This Avvai came after Sangam age. Her poetic talents were first discovered by Buuda, a petty chieftain of Pulveluur on the River Pennaaru.

( Tamils killed each other continuously for 1200 years and then invited Muslim invaders to kill all the Tamils. For 150 years Tamils were ruled by Muslim invaders and then Telugus saved Tamil Nadu, Tamil Culture, Tamil temples and Hinduism. Kumara Kampannan came with his wife Ganga Devi to Madurai and sounded the death knell to Muslim Rule. Tamils are ever grateful to the Telugus. Without them Tamil Pakistan would have emerged 500 years before the actual Pakistan.)

Angavai and Sangavai


One of the great Tamil philanthropists is Chieftain Vel Pari. He had two daughters named Angavai and Sangavai. They were well educated and could compose poems. Paari was ruling a small area called Parampunaadu. Three great Tamil kings of Chera, Chola and Pandya wanted to marry those girls. When Pari refused they laid a siege around his small kingdom. Kabilar, a brahmin poet was his close friend . He helped him to break the siege by training thousands of parrots to bring grains from around the kingdom. But at the end Chieftain Pari was killed . Since Kabilar took care of Pari’s daughters, the three kings could not touch them . Kabilar contributed highest number poems to the Sangam corpus . He was the only poet sung and praised by other poets. He was praised as a  Brahmin of spotless character . He was a revolutionary who broke the barriers of caste 2000 years ago. He got them married and then entered fire like several Hindu saints. That place is called Kabilar Rock near Tirukkovalur in Tamil Nadu.

One of the Purananuru collections is sung by these two daughters.
An unconquerable hero, he fell a victim to foul treachery and his orphaned girls were exiled from their home . The hymn is an exquisite pen picture of their sufferings in exile, presented in sharp contrast to their past life of affluence and luxury in their palace at Parambu Naadu.
See Puram verse 112.

Xxx subham xxx

AVVAIYAR

TELUGU HEROINE NAYAKURALU; COCK FIGHT USED TO WIN THE KINGDOM! (Post No.7341)

WRITTEN By London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 14 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 14-23

Post No. 7341

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Two Tamil kings used elephant garlanding to win the kingdoms. When elephants garlanded the strangers in the crowd, Karikal Choza and Murthi Nayanar became kings according to legends. In Andhra Pradesh a cock fight was used to decide the Ruler.

The story of Telugu heroine Naayakuraalu is celebrated in song and legend. As an infant she was abandoned by her parents and was discovered and cared by others. One farmer bought her and named her Naagammaa. She married a rich man and on his death inherited a vast fortune.  She succeeded in winning the favour of Anuguraja, a Haihaya prince, who ruled over the small principality of Palnad. He had received that as a wedding present. He ruled in the 12th century.the chief had three wives and several sons.

The growing influence of Nayakuralu in the court was resented by the minister Dodda and he resigned his office in favour of his son Brahma. Brahma soon brough about the assassination of the chief.  

Nayakuralus influence continued in the reign of net chief Nalagama and she was practically the ruler the minister Brahma persuaded the chief to partition the country. Mallideva , one of the half brothers of the chief , established his rule at Macherla. Brahma became his minister. Other brothers of the chief also lived with Mallideva.

Nayukarulu did not like the division of the country. She challenged Mallideva and Brahma to a cock fight, the wager being that the defeated party should surrender all territory to the victor and live in the forest for seven years. In the contest Brahma’s cock was killed and he along with his master and his half brother retired to the forests in Nallagonda.

Harassed constantly by the agents of Nayakuralu , their life in exile was miserable. On the expiry of seven years , they returned and demanded the restoration of their territory. But Nayakuralu refused.  In the fight that ensued , Nayakuralu donned the armour and fought  at the head of her army, but was defeated and captured. The battle was a bloody one and all the half brothers of Nalagama perished. Brahma generously restored the whole kingdom to Nalagama.

The battle she fought was known as Palnati Yuddham. Two films were taken based on this battle that happened approximately 1000 years ago. Now there is a statue for Nagamma in Dachepal in in Palnadu area of Guntur District.

Nayakuralu had a talent for intrigue and organisation, and her life of adventure was cast in a heroic mould.

Source book – Great Women of India, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Year 1953

Tags- Nayakuralu, Nagamma, Palnadu, Cock fight, Palnati Yudhdham

–subham–

MORE UNKNOWN POETESSES -MARULA, MORIKA, BHAVAKA DEVI, LALITANGI (Post No.7317)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 8 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 16-24

Post No. 7317

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Ivab7oKFYDQ/Xe0hMt2MZhI/AAAAAAABFOc/Gg1ANvZq1uktyFzzzJW3yQaaziFQ_bd7gCLcBGAsYHQ/s640/dhyana%252C%2Bwoman.jpg

Dhanadeva is a poet quoted by Sharngadhara Paddhati (1363). His verse mentions eloquent achievements of Shiilaa, Vijjaa, Maarulaa, Morikaa and others as poetesses of distinction.


We have already seen the works of Shila and Vijja.


Vijja alias Vidyavati lived before Rajasekhara’s time. One of her poems is in the Abhidhaa vrtti Maatrikaa of 855 CE . This work is written by Mukula who lived during the period of King Avantivarman of Kashmir (855-883 CE).

Vijja’s most often quoted verse is

Nilotpala dala shyamam Vijjakam mamajanata
Vrithaiva Dandinapyuktam Sarma shukla

Mearning
“Without knowing me ,Vijjaka , dark like the petal of a blue lotus, vainly has the poet Dandin said that the goddess of learning is all white.”

Some people change the word ‘maam’ in the verse to ‘taam’ and attribute it to a different person.


Of Marula and Morika little is known; but some of their stanzas are quoted in Jalhana’s SUkti Muktavali, 1258 CE


The Kavindra vachana Samuchchaya quotes some stanzas of poetess Bhaavadevi. Another book also gives her stanzas.


Another ancient poetess is Phalguhastini. Some of her stanzas appear in later anthologies. Since Vamana’s Kavylankara Sutra vrtti is quoting her one Stanza ,she must have lived before 800 CE. Vamana was the Minister King Jayapida of Kashmir 779-813 CE.


Chandala vidya!
Sadukti karnamrita quotes a verse under the joint authorship of Chandala vidyaa, Kalidasa and Vikramaditya. So she must be from Gupta Period.

Another poetess is Jaghanachapalaa. Her stanza is found in Kavindra Vachana Samuchchaya.

We see two stanzas jointly composed by Bilhana and Rajakanya.
Raja Kanya means Princess. Her real name was Shashikala or Chandrakala.
Verses of a poetess named Sarasvati hav ebeen quoted in several anthologies beginning with Sadukti Karnamrita. But she lived before eleventh century.


Rajasekhara Charita mentions the following poetesses:-
KaAmaliIla
Kanakavalli
Sunandaa
Lalitaangi
Madhu Ranga
Vimalaanghi


Of these the last three are from Malwa (Madhya Pradesh).
We don’t know much about others.
We have lost their original works and only quoted stanzas are available now.
No where in the world and in no other language we find such a galaxy of poetesses.
Sanskrit stands far higher than other ancient languages when it comes to Poets and Poetesses.

We are going to see more poetesses.

–subham–

GREAT WOMAN SCHOLAR AVANTI SUNDARI (Post No.7306)

WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 6 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 12-29

Post No. 7306

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

One thousand years ago there lived a great scholar by name Avantisundari whom even her husband quoted in his books many times. Like Sarasavani who was moderating the debate between her husband Mandana Mishra and Adi Shankara and Gargi Vachaknaavi of Vedic lore who challenged Yajnavalkya in the All India Philosophical Congress even before Greeks started writing books, we had  great women scholars in India.

Rajasekara was the court poet of Mahendrapaala, a king in Gurjara Pratihara vamsa. Avantisundari ws the wife of Rajasekhara. He lived around 880 CE and his wife Avanti Sundari was Chauhan from Maharashtra. Perhaps he is the only ancient poet who has given credit to his wife. He says in his Kaavya Mimmasaa, “Women also can be poets like men. Genius is inherent in persons irrespective of sex differences. It is heard and seen that princesses, daughters of ministers, courtesans and concubines are possessed of extensive knowledge of the ‘shaastraas’ (scriptures) and poetic genius.”

Rajashekara knew about the great Vedic poetesses, Sangam Tamil poetesses and Sataasi (Gatha Sapta Sati= GSS) Prakrit poetesses. Hinduism has the highest number of poetesses. Ancient India is the country with the highest number of poetesses and scholars. Even before Homer began his Iliad and Odyssey, Ms. Gargi was challenging a great seer for an open debate in a conference held in Bihar 3000 years ago.

Though we have the names of hundreds of scholars most of their works are lost. Some poems are in the Rig Veda, Sangam Tamil literature and GSS. Specimens are quoted in other books as well. Very rarely we have got a full book like Mathura Vijayam of Ganga Devi.

Gatha Sapta Sati (GSS), Prakrit anthology was compiled by Satavahana king Halan approximately 2000 years ago. We find the following poetesses in the anthology:-

Anulkshmii

Asuladdhii

Maadhavii

Prahataa

Revaa

Rohaa

Shashiprabhaa

Baddhavahii

But we don’t know from which of their works Halan compiled their poems or where they were living. Satavahana Dynasty covered areas of Andhra and Maharashtra. Their capital was Pratisthaana (Modern Paithaan on the banks of Godavari, near Aurangabad in Maharashtra).

Served three kings

Avanti Sundari’s husband Rajasekhara was the court poet for three kings- Gurjara Prathihara king Mahendrapaala I (885- 908 CE) and his son Mahipaala I (914-945 CE) and the Kaalachuri king Yuvaraaja.

Avanti sundari is credited with Paaiyalachchii, a Prakrit dictionary. Author Sundaraa is identified with Avanti Sundari. She compiled it for her brother Dhanapaala.

Rajasekhara has quoted Avanti sundari’s views thrice in his work on poetics Kaavya Miimaamsaa (Kavya Mimamsa). He also wrote a famous Prakrit Drama Karpuura Manjarii to entertain her.

Hemachandra (1088- 1172), a later poet also quoted three of her stanzas in his book Deshi Naama maalaa to illustrate the meaning of certain Prakrit expressions. These facts show beyond doubt that Avantisundari was recognized as a rhetorician and poetess of outstanding merit. Unfortunately, none of her works has so far been discovered.

QUEEN SHILA BHATTARIKA

Some verses attributed to Rajasekara in Jalhana’s Suukti Muktaavalii( (1258 CE) speak of the following poetesses:-

Shiilaa Bhattaarikaa

Vikata nitaambhaa

Vijayaanka of Karnataka

Prabhu  devii of Laata desa(Gujarat) and

Subhadraa.

Of these the Karnataaka poetess Vijayaanka is described as Sarasvati incarnate and as a peer of Vaidharbi style of Kaalidaasa. She is sometimes identified with Vijja, Vijjakaa, Bhijjakaa (Vidhyaa= Vidhyaavatii). Her poems are found in most of the Sanskrit anthologies. She is further identified with Vijaya Bhattaarikaa -Queen of Chalukya Prince Chandraaditya, who flourished around the middle of seventh century.

Shiilaa bhattaarikaa is placed by Rajasehara side by side with Baana as having the merit of writing in a type of the Paanchaali (Paanchaala= Punjab) style of composition. Bhataarikaa is attached to queen’s names.  She may be the queen of Bhoja who ruled from Kanauj around 836 CE. Many of her verses are found in anthologies.

Story of Vikatanimbaa

Several of Vikatanimbhaa’s poems are also found in Sanskrit anthologies. Aanandhavardhana’s ‘Dhwanyaaloka’ has a stanza done by her. According to a tradition Vikatanimbaa became a widow and married for the second time. Her husband was a fool who couldn’t even pronounce words properly.

Nothing is known about Prabhudevii; but  a stanza of Subhadraa is quoted in Vallabhadeva’s ‘Subhaasitaavalii’.

Rajasekhara’s Karpura Manjari mentions Tribhuvana Sarasvati as the elder sister of Mahiitala Sarasvati. She may be the poetess of that name, two of whose stanzas are quoted in the Sadukti Karna amrita complied by Sidhra daasa in 1206 CE.

A stanza of a poetess named Siitaa, which is found in anthologies, is quoted by Rajasekhara in his ‘Kavya Mimamsa’. The poetesses Sita and Tribhuvana Sarasvati therefore flourished before the middle of the tenth century.

xxx

School syllabus for girls should include all the ancient poetesses and the girls must be given assignments to collect and compare them with the poetesses of other languages.

At least they must know their names and what they wrote one thousand or 2000 years ago.

Long Live Hindu Poetesses!

xxx

Source book- GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA – editors Swami Madhvananda and Ramesh Chandra Majumdhar, Advaita Ashram, Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas, Year 1953.

–subham–

Bhartruhari Notes- Part 4 (Post No.7296)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 3 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 20-48

Post No. 7296

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000



Verse 53
Solar and Lunar eclipse
Rahu revenging on a chosen pair at fixed time. He effects eclipse of the luminous Lords of night and day.

Eclipse and Rahu are in Tamil literature as well.

Verse 54
Ornament for the ear is not Kundala, but Vedas
Ornament for the hand is not Kankan, but doing charity
Ornament for the body is not sandal paste, but good deeds.

Verse 55
Chemistry of a Poet
Victorious are the favoured master Poets
Skilled in the sentiments alchemy
In their body of fame they feel
No threat of old age, death and rebirth


Verse 56
There is a Tamil proverb
Even if milk runs like a river, a dog will only drink it by licking.
B says,
Perceive that a jug draws its measure
Of water from a well or from the sea

Dog and Elephant- Who commands respect?


Verse 57
Look at the world
The dog is obedient, wags its tail and eats and grateful for ever, but people treat it without respect;
The elephant is arrogant, eats carelessly, but people praise it and give respect.

Compare this with Bhagavad Gita (5-18) sloka where Krishna says Pandithah samadarsinah. The scholars look at la earned Brahmin, a dog, an elephant, an outcast with an equal eye.


Verse 58
It is about taxation
Through out India kings adopted same taxation laws,i.e. one sixth of the income is paid to the king. Here B uses cow and calf simile.


In Sangam Tamil literature, in a Purananuru (184) verse, poet says if an elephant is fed grains in the proper way it will come for a long time. But if the elephant is allowed into the field for food grains, everything will be damaged. In the same way a king must tax his people little by little.


B says
King, if you wish to milk your realm like a cow, first nourish the world as you would a calf. When it is nurtured with constant care , a kingdom yields fruits like a wish granting vine , Kalpalatha.


Verse 65
It is about Suryakanta stone, magnifying glass. Several poets including Tirumular  in Tamil use this simile.


Verse 67
It is difficult to correct bad people.
You can’t straighten the tail of a dog, says Tamils.
B says
Trying to correct the bad people is like trying to sweeten the ocean with a drop of honey;
Trying to tie the elephant with lotus stems;
Trying to polish the diamond with a flower.

Verse 68
B says
The silence of fools serves to adorn them.
We see this maxim in all Indian literature

Verse 90


Through out Tamil and Sanskrit literature we see same descriptions of women’s beauty. The similes are unique to Indian literature.


B says
A face to rival the moon,
Eyes that make mockery of lotuses
Complexion eclipting God’s lustre
Thick tresses that shame the black bee
Breast s like elephants swelling losses
Heavy hips,
A voice enchanting and soft
The adornments in maidens is natural.


(If I have to give comparisons, I have to quote from 1000 books.)

Homeopathy Principle



Verse 91
Women is compared to poison and ambrosia by B.
It is the basis of homeopathy.
The germs which gives you the disease is the medicine
The amorous looks of a beauty causes mental disturbance, but the medicine is not outside. She is the cure as well.
Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar also uses this in Tirukkural 1091, 1102

“Her eyes painted black, has two glances; one pains me; the other heals that pain”-1091

“The medicine for a disease is always something different from it : but for the disease caused by this beautiful maid, she herself is the cure”.1102 of Tirukkural

This Homeopathy principle is in the Achamanam or sipping of water done by Hindus whenever they visit different towns. First, they take in small quantity of  water Three times from the temple tank or the village well by repeating God’s names. They won’t get any disease from that particular water. Since they take the germs or poison in  minute quantities it would save them from attacks from those germs. Likeness cures lLkeness is the dictum.

TO BE CONCLUDED TOMORROW WITH THE LAST PART

–subham–

பெற்றோர் மீது மகன் DIVORCE வழக்கு! (Post No.7290)

Written by london swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 2 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 16-29

Post No. 7290

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

நான் 18-1-1992 தினமணியில் எழுதிய பின்னர் நடந்த கதை–

27 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் பெற்றோர் மீது DIVORCE வழக்கு  தொடுத்த

கிங்ஸ்லி அதில் வெற்றி பெற்றான்.அவனைத் தொடர்ந்து வேறு

ஒரு பெண்ணும் பெற்றோரிடமிருந்து டைவர்ஸ்  கோரி வழக்கு தொடுத்தாள் .

கிங்ஸ்லியின் வழக்கின் அடிப்படையில் இரண்டு டெலிவிஷன் திரைப்படங்கள்  வந்தன .

The Gregory K case has been portrayed in two made-for-television filmsSwitching Parents (1993) with Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Gregory and A Place to Be Loved (1993) with Tom Guiry as Gregory.

XXX

மற்றோர்  வழக்கில் குழந்தைகளைப் பூட்டி வைத்துக் கொடுமைப்படுத்திய

பெற்றோர்களுக்கு 25 ஆண்டு சிறைத் தண்டனை விதித்து அமெரிக்க நீதிமன்றம் தீர்ப்பு வழங்கியது

‘House of horrors’: California couple sentenced to life in prison for torturing their children

Colin Atagi and Shane Newell and Christopher Damien and Joseph Hong  Palm Springs Desert Sun

Published 1:49 PM EDT Apr 21, 2019

RIVERSIDE, Calif. – The Southern California couple who pleaded guilty in February to torture, false imprisonment and endangering their children – some for dozens of years – were sentenced Friday to life in prison for charges involving 12 of their 13 children with the possibility of parole only after 25 years.

David and Louise Turpin of Perris, about 70 miles east of Los Angeles, appeared in court Friday morning in Riverside about three months after pleading guilty to 14 felony counts. The charges didn’t apply to their youngest child, who was 2 when investigators found the victims.

Their sentencing caps a saga that publicly played out for nearly 16 months after being concealed for several decades.

XXXX

XXXX

MY OTHER (UNIMPORTANT AND OUT OF DATE ) ARTICLES–

–SUBHAM–

LET US ENTER FIRE BEFORE MUSLIMS TOUCH US- HEROIC SPEECH BY RANI BHAI(Post No.7261)

Written by london Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 25 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-12

Post No. 7261

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad ibn – Qasim defeated Dahir (real name Dadhiraja), King of Sind, who was  killed in the battle field of Rawar after a valiant fight against the Arab invaders. Dahir’s queen Rani Bhai (also knowns Ladi or Mai) was then besieged by the Arabs in the fort of Rawar. The heroic queen continued the struggle with only fifteen thousand soldiers in the fort. But the Arabs continued the siege vigorously. At last the queen lost all hopes of defending herself. According to CHACHNAMAH , she then assembled the women in the fort and addressed them in the following words:–

“God forbid that we should owe our liberty to those out caste cow eaters, our honour will be lost. Our respite is at an end, and there is nowhere any hope to escape. Let us collect wood, cotton and oil; for I think we should burn ourselves and go to meet our husbands. If any wishes to save herself, she may”. The queen and the ladies then entered into a house, where they burnt themselves to vindicate their honour. Probably she set an example for Rani Padmini, of 13th century who did the same several hundred years after Rani Bai. In Tamil Nadu, Queen of Chenji King Desing Rajan also entered her husband’s funeral pyre to avoid Muslim invaders.

xxx

Other Queens and Princesses

Following matter is taken from my Quiz on 100 Hindu Women posted already:-

Freedom fighter Avanti Bhai of Ramgarh of Madya Pradesh

Jhalkari bhai served in the army of Rani Lakshmi Bhai

THE WOMAN WHO WAS NAMED AFTER HER NATIVE PLACE MITHILAPURI – QUEEN SITA DEVI ALIAS MYTHILI

KELADI CHENNAMMA OF KELADI KINGDOM, KARNATAKA -1659 CE

GREAT QUEEN OF KAKADIYA DYNASTY – RUDRAMA DEVI– 1259 CE

DAUGHTER OF DRUPADA; MOST FAMOUS WOMAN IN MAHABHARATA- DRAUPADI

MAYA’S DAUGHTER; RESIDENT OF LANKA; ONE OF FIVE HOLY WOMEN REMEMBERED BY HINDUS EVERYDAY—QUEEN MANDODARI

VALI’S WIFE; PART OF FIVE GREAT WOMEN  – QUEEN TARA DEVI

THIS WOMAN’S ANOTHER NAME IS PRUTHA IN MAHABHARATA – QUEEN KUNTI DEVI ALIAS PRUTHA

A WOMAN WHO USED SWANS TO SEND LOVE LETTERS—QUEEN DAMAYANTI

A FOREST BEAUTY AND THE HEROINS OF KALIDASA’S MOST FAMOUS DRAMA- QUEEN SAKUNTALA

LEGENDARY QUEEN OF GREAT KING UDAYANA OF SIXTH CENTURY BCE, CONTEMPORARY OF BUDDHA – VASAVADATTA

KING HARSHAVARDHANA’S SISTER, WHO HARSHA RESCUED FROM FOREST- RAJYA SHRI

FIRST WAR CORRESPONDENT OF INDIA WHO ACCOMPANIED HER HUSBAND AND WROTE MATHURA VIJAYAM- LIVE COMMENTARY ON DESTRUCTION OF MUSLIM RULE IN MADURAI—QUEEN GANGA DEVI

26.GREAT WOMAN FROM KANDAHAR IN AFGHANISTAN WHO BLINDFOLDED HERSELF BECAUSE HER HUSBAND WAS BLIND—QUEEN  GANDHARI

MOTHER OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA, WIFE OF SUDDHODANA – QUEEN MAYA DEVI

THIS WOMAN WAS VIBBISHANA’S DAUGHTER AND GAVE POSITIVE THOUGHTS TO SITA DEVI WHENEVER SHE BECAME SUICIDAL–  PRINCESS TRIJADA

GREAT MALWA QUEEN WHO LED ARMIES WHEN HER HUSBAND KAHNDERAO HOLKAR WAS KILLED IN A BATTLE— AHALYABHAI

JHANSI KI RANI’ WHO FOUGHT AGAINST THE BRITISH; HEROINE OF 1857  FIRTST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE; WAR AGAINST THE BRITISH– RANI LAKSHMIBHAI

GREAT QUEEN OF KITTOOR IN KARNATAKA WHO FOUGHT AGAINST THE BRITISH– CHITTOOR RANI CHENNAMMA

A GREAT DEVOTEE OF SHIVA AND QUEEN OF PANDYA KING WHO REVIVED SAIVISM IN PANDYA KINGDOM – MANGAYARKARASI

FIRST QUEEN TO FIGHT AGAINST THE BRITISH; RULED IN RAMANATHAPURAM AREA OF TAMIL NADU– RANI VELU NACHIAR

GREAT PRINCESS WHO INSPIRED THE MIGHTY CHOZA KING RAJARAJA TO BUILD SHIVA TEMPLE IN THANJAVUR; PERSONALLY DONATED TO VARIOUS TEMPLES- .KUNTAVAI

FAMOUS QUEEN OF MADURAI WHO WAS KNOWN FOR HER BUILDING WORK IN MADURAI– RANI MANGAMMAL

A WOMAN WHO INSPIRES MILLIONS OF HINDUS EVEN TODAY BY SACRIFICING HERSELF IN FIRE TO SAVE HER HONOUR FROM ALAUDDINN KHILJI, MUSLIM INVADER.— CHITTOOR RANI PADMINI (PADMAVATI)

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Indian women | Tamil and Vedas

28 Dec 2014 – Posts about Indian women written by Tamil and Vedas. … Eye throbbing: Left is good for women; Right is good for men. Hair do: If the husband …

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29 Oct 2018 – CAN YOU NAME THESE FAMOUS WOMEN IN INDIAN HISTORY WHO ARE PART OF OUR HISTORY BOOKS,SCRIPTURES, DRAMAS OR …

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Most Intelligent Woman in the Ancient World | Tamil and Vedas

7 Aug 2013 – Gargi, a great philosopher, not only attended the conference, but … Indian women were so intelligent that they can easily solve knotty problems.

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Hindu women rulers | Tamil and Vedas

22 Mar 2015 – Stri Rajya- Kingdom of Women in India! … 56 Countries in Ancient India! … Most of them took part in the great war, either supporting Kauravas …

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29 Oct 2018 – QUIZ ON 100 GREAT INDIAN WOMEN PART-1! (Post No.5591). Written by London Swaminathan swami_48@yahoo.com. Date: 25 October …

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Posts about woman written by Tamil and Vedas. … AMAZONS OF INDIA!( ….. MS RAMNIKA JALALI’S BOOK INDIAN WOMEN IN THE SMRITIS is a good book.

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AMAZONS OF INDIA!(Post No.7210) | Tamil and Vedas

13 Nov 2019 – AMAZONS OF INDIA!(Post No.7210). Research article written by London Swaminathan. swami_48@yahoo.com. Date: 13 NOVEMBER 2019

subham-

AMAZONS OF INDIA!(Post No.7210)

Research article written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 13  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 20-33

Post No. 7210

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

–subham–

51 INTERESTING HINDU COUPLES; FOUR TYPES OF WOMEN IN NATYA SHASTRA (Post No.7077)

Written by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 9 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 20-52
Post No. 7077

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21 May 2019 – Written by London swaminathan swami_48@yahoo.com. Date: 21 May 2019. British Summer Time uploaded in London – 8-07 am. Post No.

MANU ON PROPERTY RIGHTS OF WOMEN (Post No.7042)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 1 OCTOBER 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 16-15

Post No. 7042

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 11,000.

I HAVE COVERED UP TO 9-55 SO FAR. LET ME CONTINUE FROM 9-56 TODAY. Last post was on 18th July 2019.

INTERESTING POINTS IN THIS SECTION—

SLOKAS 56 TO 70

Appointing another man to get a child- it is called Niyoga or in Latin levirate. We see such practice in Mahabharata when Vichitravirya died without children. But commentators point out the confusion and contradictory statements in this section.

My comments : There are interpolations in this section.

Sloka 71

When you promise a girl to a man don’t go back on your words

Sloka 74

Very interesting; if you don’t  arrange for food and basic things for your wife while you go on a long journey, she will runaway with someone.

Divorce rules

If a man doen’t come back within 8 years , she is free

If your wife hates you for more than a year kick her out.

Oldest Tamil book Tolkappiam also ban Tamil women going overseas with her husband. So there is a waiting period, beyond which she can do what she wants to do.

Sloka 80-84 Drinking and Violent Wives

Interesting .

If your wife is barren for 8 years, you may leave her;

If all her children died , leave her in tenth year.

If your wife gives birth only to daughters, you may leave her in the eleventh year;

If a woman drinks and extravagant, leave her immediately.

88-94 Marriageable Age

Love marriage is not wrong – sloka 91

Age limits – sloka 94

WIFE IS GIFT FROM GOD; SUPPORTING A WOMAN PLEASES GOD- SLOKA 95

BRIDE PRICE – DON’T SELL YOUR DAUGHTER- SLOKA 97 TO 100

Chastity for men and women – slokas 101 and 102

Property rights – from sloka 9-104

What did Daksa do with 10+13+27= 50 daughters? sloka -129

He gave 10 daughters to Dharma;

13 daughters to Kasyapa;

27 daughters to Soma/ Moon

Sloka 137 to 139

Role of son, grand son and great grand son

Sloka 140- 142 – adopted son

DIVISION OF PROPERTY WITH FOUR WIVES- SLOKA 140

Rest of the slokas gives minute details of division of property.

 GETTING A CHILD THROUGH ANOTHER PERSON

9-57. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru; but the wife of the younger is declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the elder.

58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger, and a younger (brother who approaches) the wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune, both become outcasts, even though (they were duly) authorised.

59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised, may obtain, (in the) proper (manner prescribed), the desired offspring by (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the husband).


60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed with clarified butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by no means a second.

61. Some (sages), versed in the law, considering the purpose of the appointment not to have been attained by those two (on the birth of the first), think that a second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women.

62. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been attained in accordance with the law, those two shall behave towards each other like a father and a daughter-in-law.

63. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal desire, they will both become outcasts, (as men) who defile the bed of a daughter-in-law or of a Guru.



64. By twice-born men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any other (than her husband); for they who appoint (her) to another (man), will violate the eternal law.

65. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned, nor is the re-marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning marriage.

66. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice-born castes as fit for cattle is said (to have occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled.

67. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world, caused a confusion of the castes (varna), his intellect being destroyed by lust.

68. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a woman, whose husband died, to (bear) children (to another man).

69. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her brother-in-law shall wed her according to the following rule.



70. Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity, he shall approach her once in each proper season until issue (be had).

71. Let no prudent man, after giving his daughter to one (man), give her again to another; for he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given, incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being.

72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished, diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been) given with fraud.

73. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring them, (the bridegroom) may annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver.


74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence.

75. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her), the wife shall subject herself to restraints in her daily life; but if he departed without providing (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work.

76. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him eight years, if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), if (he went) for pleasure three years.



HATEFUL WIVES

77. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with her.

78. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture.

79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly strength, or one afflicted with such diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her property.

80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be superseded (by another wife).

81. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay.



NEVER LEAVE A SICK WIFE WITHOUT HER CONSENT


82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct, may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be disgraced.

83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her husband’s) house, must either be instantly confined or cast off in the presence of the family.

84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public spectacles or assemblies, shall be fined six krishnalas.


MY COMMENTS- GOLD WEIGHING SIX KRISHNALAS??

85. If twice-born men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes), the seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order of the castes (varna).

86. Among all (twice-born men) the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a different caste by any means, shall personally attend her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites.



87. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his wife of equal caste is alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste).

88. To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father) give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule, though she have not attained (the proper age).

89. (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in (the father’s) house until death, than that he should ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities.

90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she be marriageable; but after that time let her choose for herself a bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank).



NOTHING WRONG IN LOVE MARRIAGE

91. If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband, she incurs no guilt, nor (does) he whom she weds.


92. A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any ornaments, given by her father or her mother, or her brothers; if she carries them away, it will be theft.

93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel, shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father; for the (latter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance of) her enemies.

94. A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man of twenty-four a girl eight years of age; if (the performance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner.



WIFE IS A GIFT FROM GOD

95. The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods, he must always support her (while she is) faithful.


96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men; religious rites, therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband) together with the wife.

97. If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the giver of the fee dies, she shall be given in marriage to his brother, in case she consents.

98. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his daughter; for he who takes a fee sell his daughter, covering (the transaction by another name).



99. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that, after promising (a daughter) to one man, they have her to another;

100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even in former creations, of such (a thing as) the covert sale of a daughter for a fixed price, called a nuptial fee.

101. ‘Let mutual fidelity continue until death,’ this may be considered as the summary of the highest law for husband and wife.



102. Let man and woman, united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual fidelity.

103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife, which is intimately connected with conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising offspring in times of calamity; learn (now the law concerning) the division of the inheritance.

PROPERTY RIGHTS


104. After the death of the father and of the mother, the brothers, being assembled, may divide among themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the maternal) estate; for, they have no power (over it) while the parents live.

105. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others shall live under him just as (they lived) under their father.

106. Immediately on the birth of his first-born a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from the debt to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy (to receive) the whole estate.

107. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains immortality, is begotten for (the fulfilment of) the law; all the rest they consider the offspring of desire.

108. As a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his younger brothers, and let them also in accordance with the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father).

109. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it to ruin; the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy of honour, the eldest is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous.



110. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be treated) like a mother and like a father; but if he behaves in a manner unworthy of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured like a kinsman.

111. Either let them thus live together, or apart, if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit; for (by their living) separate (their) merit increases, hence separation is meritorious.

112. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth (of the estate) and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth.



113. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) according to (the rule just) stated (each of) those who are between the eldest and the youngest, shall have the share (prescribed for the) middlemost.

114. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (article), and (even a single chattel) which is particularly good, as well as the best of ten (animals).

115. But among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations, there is no additional share, (consisting of the best animal) among ten; some trifle only shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect.

116. If additional shares are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares (out of the residue to each); but if no deduction is made, the allotment of the shares among them shall be (made) in the following manner.



117. Let the eldest son take one share in excess, the (brother) born next after him one (share) and a half, the younger ones one share each; thus the law is settled.

118. But to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out of their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those who refuse to give (it), will become outcasts.

119. Let him never divide (the value of) a single goat or sheep, or a (single beast) with uncloven hoofs; it is prescribed (that) a single goat or sheep (remaining after an equal division, belongs) to the eldest alone.

120. If a younger brother begets a son on the wife of the elder, the division must then be made equally; this the law is settled.

121. The representative (the son begotten on the wife) is not invested with the right of the principal (the eldest brother to an additional share); the principal (became) a father on the procreation (of a son by his younger brother); hence one should give a share to the (son begotten on the wife of the elder brother) according to the rule (stated above).

122. If there be a doubt, how the division shall be made, in case the younger son is born of the elder wife and the elder son of the younger wife,



123. (Then the son) born of the first wife shall take as his additional share one (most excellent) bull; the next best bulls (shall belong) to those (who are) inferior on account of their mothers.

124. But the eldest (son, being) born of the eldest wife, shall receive fifteen cows and a bull, the other sons may then take shares according to (the seniority of) their mothers; that is a settled rule.

125. Between sons born of wives equal (in caste) (and) without (any other) distinction no seniority in right of the mother exists; seniority is declared (to be) according to birth.



TWINS

126. And with respect to the Subrahmanya (texts) also it is recorded that the invocation (of Indra shall be made) by the first-born, of twins likewise, (conceived at one time) in the wombs (of their mothers) the seniority is declared (to depend) on (actual) birth.

SUBRAHMANYA VERSES ARE IN AITAREYA BRAHMANA 6-3

127. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an appointed daughter (putrika, saying to her husband), ‘The (male) child, born of her, shall perform my funeral rites.’

128. According to this rule Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly made (all his female offspring) appointed daughters in order to multiply his race.

129. He gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, honouring (them) with an affectionate heart.

130. A son is even (as) oneself, (such) a daughter is equal to a son; how can another (heir) take the estate, while such (an appointed daughter who is even) oneself, lives?

131. But whatever may be the separate property of the mother, that is the share of the unmarried daughter alone; and the son of an (appointed) daughter shall take the whole estate of (his maternal grandfather) who leaves no son.



132. The son of an (appointed) daughter, indeed, shall (also) take the estate of his (own) father, who leaves no (other) son; he shall (then) present two funeral cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather.

133. Between a son’s son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there is no difference, neither with respect to worldly matters nor to sacred duties; for their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same (man).

134. But if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born (to her father), the division (of the inheritance) must in that (case) be equal; for there is no right of primogeniture for a woman.

135. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without (leaving) a son, the husband of the appointed daughter may, without hesitation, take that estate.

136. Through that son whom (a daughter), either not appointed or appointed, may bear to (a husband) of equal (caste), his maternal grandfather (has) a son’s son; he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate.


ROLE OF SON, GRAND SON, GREAT GRAND SON


137. Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a son’s son he obtains immortality, but through his son’s grandson he gains the world of the sun.

138. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the hell called Put, he was therefore called put-tra (a deliverer from Put) by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) himself.

139. Between a son’s son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world no difference; for even the son of a daughter saves him (who has no sons) in the next world, like the son’s son.

140. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his mother, the second to her father, the funeral to his father’s father.

TO BE CONTINUED ………………………..