Post No. 10,665

Date uploaded in London – –    16 FEBRUARY   2022         

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SAMSARA SAGAR (Kural 10)  is the word used in Tamil Veda Tirukkural and Sanskrit Bhagavad Gita (4-36)

In the Bhagavad Gita it is the sea of sins which one can cross by the boat of wisdom (4-36)

Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar says,

“None but those who have meditated constantly on the feet of god can cross the ocean of births by swimming” –Tirukkura 10

Tamil words Neenthuvar ‘will cross by swimming’ Neenthaar ‘will be unable to swim to cross are used by Valluvar. This Sea of Births and Deaths is used in umpteen verses by Alvars, Nayanmars, Paripatal poet of Sangam literature. Most of us imagined it as a sea. This is only a symbolic way of saying. Since South India is surrounded by the sea on three sides it will be easy to make it understandable by using water and boat. But if it is a land locked country or a vast country where sea is several hundred miles away, poets may not use sea to cross but a bridge to cross. This is what happened in Ancient Iran (Persia or Paraseekam) and India.



The Cinvat Bridge (Bridge of the Gathers) also spelt Chinvad Bridge is the bridge to paradise. All good people will be allowed to cross over this bridge (Gatha Ushtavaiti in Zend Avesta) to reach paradise. It is in Parsi book .

Earth and heaven are separated by a space, empty except for the wind. In order to go from the earth to heaven one must pass through this intermediate space. Only the soul is capable of such an act, so that except for special cases like that of Arda Viraf,  it must take place after death. The old Hindu views are very similar.

The path by which one can cross over this empty space is the bridge (in the Rig Veda and Atharvana Veda the space is mentioned as sea in Sanskrit, probably both looked blue in colour). The wind may help or harm anyone according to their good and bad actions. If someone is neither very bad nor very good will remain in the windy area and suffer. Good souls go to heaven and bad souls go to hell.

Primitive people used other symbolism- one can cross the chasm or a stream with a rope. Old Teutons imagined a rain bow by which they can climb and cross. Earlier scholars explained that the Cinvad Bridge is the Rainbow.



In the Rig Veda, the bridge occurs only once (9-41) as a figure of speech but not as a path into the other life. But we find this idea in the Yajur Veda -Kathaka Samhita 28-4,

“By means of the mid-day (soma) pressing the gods entered into the world of heaven. Their steps and ladder were the Daksinas. If one offers Daksinas (fees), one crosses a bridge and enters into the world of heaven. One has as many breaths in that world as one gives breath (Prana dhana rite?) here. On that account much must be given here. therefore they praise what is generously given here as better bridge for him who crosses over (read Tirtvaa and Tirate instead of Kirtvaa nd Kirate)

Compare Maitrayani Samhita (4-8-3)

The mid-day pressing is the world of heaven if  Daksinas were given by mid day pressing.   You must give much in order to ascend into the world of heaven; indeed you must make abridge for yourself with your gifts in order to attain the world of heaven.

(It may mean Dhana on earth, i.e. doing charity, will make it easier to go to heaven; Dhaana= Dontions)

And compare also Taittiriya Samhita 6-5-3-3,

Verily the sacrifice makes himself a ladder and bridge to attain the world of heaven.

Another reference is also worth noting. Satapatha Braahmana 14-7-2-27 (Brhad Aranyaka Upanishad 4-4-24),

This one (the Atman) is the bridge, which holds the worlds apart, so that they cannot be confused.



 A similar passage is in the Chandogya Upanishad 8-4-1 where in addition  to a statement  as above, it goes on to say,

Neither day nor night can cross the bridge, nor death nor suffering , neither good nor evil deeds. All evils turn back from there; for this Brahman world as banished all evil. Therefore if a blind man goes over the bridge, he receives his sight, if a wounded man , he is healed, if a sick person , he is cured. Therefore if the night crosses the bridge , it is turned to day; for this Brahman world is ever luminous.

In Kathopanishad -2 we read

We care solicitously for Naciketas fire, the bridge of the sacrificers to the eternal highest Brahman, the saving shore for those, who wish to cross.

In Svetasvatara Upanishad 6-9

God himself is called the highest bridge to immortality (also Mundakopanishad 2-2-5)

The Cinvat Bridge  in later literature is translated as Bridge of Separator. It is assumed God is the separator, who as a judge of the pious and the wicked discriminates between hem and sets them apart.



Another interesting similarity is about the spirits of ancestors come to greet you when you die.

When the soul arrives in the world beyond, the other souls come to meet and greet. Zarathustra himself says so, only with reference to perdition (Y.49-11). The same thing is told later with reference to paradise( Had.N.Yast) and we are reminded of the benign words with which Ahura Mazda protects the new arrival.

Strangely similar is the report in Kausitaki Upanishad 1-3 of what Brahman says upon the arrival of a deceased person in that other world:

“Run to meet him for through my glory he has attained to the ageless stream, truly he shall not grow old”.

According to Zarathushtra, the souls go to meet the liar arriving in hell with bad food (Y 49-11; comp. Y 53-6 and 31-20) . This again is supplemented by the Hadokht Nask with the report that in the paradise heavenly food and drink are brought to the virtuous.

We can compare this with Kausitaki Upanishad,1-4

Five hundred Apsaras go to meet him, , one hundred with fruits in their hands, one hundred with wreaths, one hundred with raiment, one hundred with fragrant powder in their hands.

According to Rig Veda 10-154-1

Ghee , among other things is eaten in heaven which corresponds to the ‘raoghna -zaramaya’, the spring butter.

In the same way we can compare with the sweet scent which blows from the Southern quarters to the soul of the pious on the third morning after death (Had N.2-18)- ie. shortly before his arrival in the world beyond– the agreeable and beneficent winds which according to Atharva Veda 18-2-21 the fathers and Yama waft toward the deceased.

(South is the direction of the departed souls in Sanskrit and Tamil books).



In the Zoroastrian scriptures we see Daena appearing as a damsel (V.19-10) who looks like Apsaras in the Cinvat Bridge with two dogs. We have the two dogs (with four eyes) in the Vedas.

There are other interesting comparisons:-

In both Hindu  and Parsi religions , body parts are compared in similar way :

Eye- Sun;

Blood and Semen – Water

Dog’s Sense of Smell – go to Water Source

Another parallelism ,

Rain water = semen

Kausitaki Upanishad says,

The moon lets the soul which cannot answer its questions satisfactorily, turn to rain and fall upon the earth from which animals are coincides with the Iranian. According to Chandogya Upanishad 5-10-6 rice and barley , herbs and trees, sesame and beans originate in this way.

In the Zoroastrian Bundahis 9-2,

Amerodad , the arch angel , as the vegetation was his own, pounded the plants small, and mixed them up with water which Tistar seized and Tistar made that water rain down upon the whole earth. Plants grew up from them. Birds mix them with water and Tistar seize them and rain them down. This cycle goes on

Source book –

DR MODI MEMORIAL VOLUME, BOMBAY, 1930, with my inputs

Tags- Bridge to heaven, Cinvat , Cinvad, bridge, Parsi, Hindu, Upanishad, Zend Avesta



Post No.7669

Date uploaded in London – 8 March 2020

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Three interesting things happened with a beautiful courtesan in India two thousand six hundred years ago.

1.Buddha’s meeting with her and accepting her food surprised every one and Buddha’s own clan Sakhyas were disappointed

2.Emperor Bimbisara entered enemy’s territory to spend one night with her and escaped incognito.

3.That courtesan who was named Mango Garden lady imposed five interesting conditions to entertain anyone for one night.

Here is the most interesting story of Ambapali. In Sanskrit her name is Amra Pali ,i.e. Lady from Mango Garden .

There is a very interesting story about the name.

A Shakyan clan noble called Mahanama found a baby girl in a mango garden in the big city of Vaishali. Now that city is in the Bihar state of India. Mahanama was childless and so his wife reared her amid pomp and luxury as her own daughter. When she grew up she became exquisitely beautiful.

There were strict caste restrictions in Sakhya clan. Mahanama can’t give her to anyone outside his clan. So when she was ready to marry, the Assembly of Lichcavis was convened. Everybody waited to see the girl. When she entered the hall all were wonderstruck with her beauty. Each one vied to marry her. It looked like there would be a big fight to get her. At last they decided to own her jointly. It is called ‘Ghana bhogya’. Her father refused to it. But the clever girl came with a proposal. She put five conditions to spend a night with anyone.

What are the conditions?

1.She should be provided a big house in the centre of the city;

2.Only one person can enter her house eachday.

3.Her fee for one night is 500 karshapanas ( very expensive lady; this word is used even today in Tamil as ‘Kasu’ ‘Panam’) .

4.If anyone wants to inspect her house for any reason the government should give her seven day notice and the Administration would be allowed into her house only on the seventh day.

5.There should be no watch over persons coming in and going out of her house.

(Thank God, there was no CCTV cameras or Google watch 2600 years ago).

The assembly accepted all her conditions.

She selected the best house in the best locality of the city. She had the walls of her house painted by an artist with the portraits of kings, ministers, nobles, rich bankers and traders. While scanning the portraits she fell in love with the portrait of emperor Bimbisara and very anxious to meet him

Since her name and fame spread far and wide Bimbisara also wanted to spend some time with her. But there was a big problem. He was the mighty emperor of Magadha Empire. Even Alexander was not ready to enter India 300 years after Bimbisara. But the Licchavi clan of Vaishali was not in good relationship with him. So his ministers warned him not to go to Ambapali’s house. But he boldly went to her house with the help of Gopa, Commander in Chief of the Army. He spent some time with her. However, the Licchavi spies got the information that the enemy in their territory. But they never suspected Ambapali. When they made house to house search Ambapali reminded them the administration should give her seven- day notice. This is one of the five conditions. In the meantime, sensing the trouble Bimbisara escaped in disguise.

When Bimbisara stayed with her for six nights he gave her a ring with his official seal and told her she could approach him anytime. After nine months Ambapali gave birth to a son. When he grew up his classmates were teasing him as an Illegitimate son of a courtesan. Then Ambapali sent him to Bimbisara. In later life that boy became a Buddhist monk and came to be known as Vimala Kondanna.

Ambapali was very successful in her trade and amassed huge wealth.Buddha in his last days came to Kotigama near Vaishali. Ambapali went to pay her respects. She listened to his discourse and became a lay devotee. She invited Buddha with his disciples for lunch in her house. At the same time the Licchavi leaders also came to invite him. But Buddha accepted only Ambapali’s invitation. This disappointed the Licchavis. At the end of dinner, she gave her entire mango garden with its big buildings to Bikshu Sanga, the Buddhist Association.

Some time after this she listened to her own son Vimala’s discourse. She decided to become a bikshuni, monk. She looked at her own body which was beautiful at one time and now became shrunken. She realised the impermanence of worldly existence and attained arhathood. She gave expression to her mind in verses.

She was one of the most famous women of ancient India. Vasanta sena, Vasava data and Ambaplali became famous and was the plot of several Sanskrit dramas and Kanyas.

While Maitreyi and Gargi Vachknavi were known for their spiritual attainments, the above three were known for their sacrifice , devotion and affection towards their lovers.

Ancient Indian love stories were more beautiful than Romeo and Juliet and Antony and Cleopatra.



WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

Post No.7658

Date uploaded in London – 6 March 2020   

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MAHA PRAJAPATI GAUTAMI ( correct spelling of the woman’s name given above in Pali language) was the daughter of Suppabhudda of Sakyan village of Devadaha. She was the younger sister of Mahamaya, (Mahaa Mayaa), mother of Siddhartha Gautama. Both the sisters were married to King Suddhodana. Queen Mahamaya died seven days after giving birth to Siddhartha. Her sister became the Queen and took care of Siddhartha and nursed him as her own child. She gave birth to a son called Nanda and a daughter called Sundari nanda. She entrusted the care of her own children to nurses and she herself raised Siddhartha.

After the attainment of wisdom, Siddhartha Gautama Buddha paid a visit to Kapilavastu and delivered a few discourses. King Suddhodana became a lay convert and others in the family joined the order. After the death of Suddhodana, Gotami became dejected and determined to renounce worldly life. At that time a war broke out between Sakhyans and Koliayans over drawing water from river Rohini. Both the clans lost lot of people in the fight. Several widows approached Gotami and wanted to become Buddhist nuns. Buddha was residing at Vaishali at that time. But Buddha turned Gotami’s request to become a nun on a previous occasion.

So Mahapajapati Gotami and 500 women had their hair cut, put on yellow robes and then went to Vaishali city to meet the Buddha. He was very unwilling to form an order of nuns. But his chief disciple Ananda begged to him to give permission. He insisted that equal opportunity should be given to women to attain salvation. Buddha at last permitted women to become nuns and imposed eight conditions. Even a Queen must obey a young (man) Bikshu, who just joined the order. Considering the weakness of women, he made men superiors. A bikshu can admonish a nun/ bikshuni, but not vice versa. Other conditions were also like these.

MAHAPAJAPATI Gotami did meditation and attained perfection soon. She lived up to the age of one hundred and twenty and was declared by the Master as ‘the oldest and most experienced of ordained nuns’. Buddha did not show any special considerations to her.

It is said that on one occasion he refused to accept the excellent robe made by her with extraordinary materials. She was very much disappointed and even Ananda’s intercession on her behalf was of no avail. He ordered her to give it to Sangham. But Buddha paid her several visits when she was on death bed and gave her suitable discourses . He altered only one rule. Previously no monk should go near the bed of a sick bikshuni. Now that rule was changed.

The Theri gatha, story of Nuns, attributes a few gathas to her. She offered her respects to Buddha saying that he saved many a being from the world of suffering. She practised eight fold path and it was her last birth.

Theri gatha

The only Pali text which throws any light on the spiritual attainments of women is the Theri Gaathaa, a small text containing only 522 stanzas said to have been uttered by several nuns giving expression to their joy at the attainment of highest spiritual goal, ‘nirvana’. The commentary on this text Paramaththa Dipani furnishes us with biographical accounts of Theris, but many of them seem to have been drawn from imagination.

Source book – Great Women of India, Advaita Ashrama,Almora 1953


‘I am Alpha and Omega’ – Krishna and Christ (Post No.7649)

Lord Krishna appears in Havan/Yagna Fire

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan

Post No.7649

Date uploaded in London – 4 March 2020   

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Jesus Christ said in the Bible,

‘I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last’

Revelation 22-13

Appar alias Tirunavukkarasar (Sixth Century CE)  also said,

‘Aanaththu mun ezuththaai ninraar polum’ (in Tamil)

That is a, the first letter in Tamil alphabet

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Tirukkural also said,

In his very first couplet,

The alphabet begins with A;

So does the Universe with God (Akara mudala Ezuthu ellam….. in Tamil)

All these people echoed what Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita,

“Of letters I am A” (Krishna in Bhagavad Gita – Aksharaanaam Akaarosmi……in Sanskrit) – B G 10-33

When Krishna explained to Arjuna that God is in all the living beings and non-living things in the world, he mentioned the best in every category. There he mentioned He is A among letters (BG 10-33). This is a very interesting linguistic matter.

God is the origin and sustenance of all universe.

Dr S M Diaz in his commentary on the Tirukkural couplet says,

“In this particular couplet (very first Kural) , there is more in the comparison of god to the first letter of the alphabet, than is obvious in the ordinary context. Linguists would realise that the sound of the letter ‘A’ is that which energises all other letters and is the indispensable origin and source of utterance for all letters of the alphabet of most languages. In this way the letter ‘A’ and its sound not only form the starting point for all the letters of the language, but also give life and integrity to all other sounds and letters. In the same way God is the fountain head and source of all life and activity in this universe. Perhaps that is the reason most invocations to god begin with Om. It is interesting to note also that Thirumanthiram (written by Tiru Mular)  refers to God as

Akara muthalaa yanaithumai nirkum , 1753 1751 (in Tamil)

That is why Spinoza called God the first cause in his philosophic discourse on Ethics.

So does Thomas Aquinas, and from a more rational angle, De Cartes.”

—Tirukkural, Volume 1 Dr SM Diaz

Swami Chinmayananda says in his comment on the Bhagavad Gita sloka/couplet,

“Of the alphabet, I am the letter A” (10-33)

It is very well known that, without the help of the vowels, words cannot be pronounced. Of all languages, Sanskrit is particularly sweet because of the preponderance of the A sound in it. In fact, every letter in its combination is to be pronounced in Sanskrit with the sound of A added to it to lengthen it to its full sweetness. This, as it were, lubricates the words, and consequently the language has no backfiring of disturbances of rattling nuisance or disgusting hoarseness. Because of the smooth run of the A sound in every letter, there is a melody even between words and a lingering echo between sentences.

In fact, after a long chanting of a Sanskrit text in a hall, there is, for the sensitive, a perceptible atmosphere of soothing music in the air that can lull all the agitations of the human mind.

The sound A is not only the essence in each letter of a word— not only does it transcend, or overflow the sentences and flood the very atmosphere — but it has itself the first place among the alphabets in all the languages. Realising these implications, the Upanishads declare that A sound is the essence in all speech. (Karma phalasya vidhata)


1.Rig Veda begins with the mantra ‘ agni meele prohitam ‘.i.e with Agni and ends with a verse on Agni. Thus we see ‘ A’ for Agni there. It is said that all Vedic mantras begin with ‘Aum’. Even if we take Aum as the first word in the Vedas, it is the combination of A+U+M according to Hindu commentators. Again we see ‘A’ as the first letter.

2.And there is a rule in Sanskrit and Tamil that a book or any literary work should begin with auspicious words where we can see ‘A’ words.  Several Sanskrit books begin with ‘Atha’. There is a sloka which explains it:-

Here is a simple sloka which gives the rule:-

Omkaarascha atha sabdascha dvaavethau brahmanah puraa

Kandam bitwaa viniyaartau tasmaan maangalikaavubau

-Paatanjala darsanam

 The sounds ‘Om’ and ‘Atha’ came first from the mouth of Brahma. So both these are considered auspicious words.

3.Tamil can be compared only with Sanskrit because both came from the same source i.e Lord Shiva according to Tamil literature.

And Agastya, the Rishi from northern Himalayas, only did a Grammar for Tamil. All these facts are in Tamil literature. If both are completely different from one another, Agastya would not  have agreed for the huge assignment.

Very interestingly, the Agastya’s name also begins with ‘A’.

4.When a five year old boy goes to Sanskrit school, he is taught in the very first class,

‘Akaarantha pullingah Rama Sabdah’

That is the students have to memorise everything when the teacher says it. I myself learnt Sanskrit that way. We begin with Akaara………

5.Then we are asked to memorise the world’s first dictionary cum thesaurus Amara Kosa written by Amara Simha. Though it begins with Yasya……… the name of the book and the name of the author begins with ‘A’.

5.Panini’s Mahesvara Sutra, which came from the kettle drum of Lord Siva begins with ‘A’.

6.My long research over 50 years have shown that Sanskrit and its sister language Tamil have unique structure. Unlike other language dictionaries the Sanskrit and Tamil dictionaries are arranged in the same alphabetical order. Short vowel and Long Vowel will follow one  another (A, aa, E, ee, U, uu………………..). Then the consonants also follow the same order in the dictionary (Ka, Ca, Ta, Tha, Pa, Ra; Ya Ra La, Va etc).

But here I will only talk about letter A.

The wonder of wonders in Tamil and Sanskrit is

‘A’ words will be more than ‘AA’ (long vowel)

‘I’ words will be more than ‘ii’ words

‘U’ words will be more than ‘UU’ words

In short long vowel words will be less than short vowel words.

Strangely diphthongs Ai and Au won’t be there.

In my previous research paper written years ago, I have given the comparative chart. Since this article is about vowel A, I will just show only the vowels from two most famous books of Hindus in Sanskrit and Tamil:-

Bhagavad Gita has 700 slokas

Slokas beginning with letter A in Bhagavad Gita – 97

Slokas beginning with letter Aa in Bhagavad Gita – 17

Slokas beginning with letter ‘ i’ in Bhagavad Gita – 21

Slokas beginning with letter ‘ii’ in Bhagavad Gita – 1

Slokas beginning with letter U in Bhagavad Gita – 9

Slokas beginning with letter Uu in Bhagavad Gita – 2

You can see short vowel sound letter slokas are more than long vowel sound slokas

This amazing structure can be seen in Tamil Veda Tirukkural as well :-

TIRUKKURAL in TAMIL by Tiru Valluvar

Tirukkural has 1330 Kural couplets

Kural couplets beginning with letter A – 157

Kural couplets beginning with letter Aa – 23

Kural couplets beginning with letter i – 114

Kural couplets beginning with letter ii – 8

Kural couplets beginning with letter U– 81

Kural couplets beginning with letter Uu – 21

The pattern is same in both the languages. Even the proportion of all vowel related verses or words is same.

No one can impose a condition on poets that you must compose these many poems with A and these many verses with Aa. And yet we see this amazing feature through out ancient Sanskrit and Tamil literature. These morphological and anatomical (sandhi rules)  features of both these languages explode Aryan-Dravidian language family theories. I have given more information about Sandhi rules in another article.

So, when Krishna said that He is A among letters and when Valluvar said A is the  first letter in alphabet they meant more than what you read superficially.

7.Let us Decipher Indus Script

I have been proposing for long that if at all one cracks the code of Indus- Sarasvati River basin civilization language seals, then you will

See ‘A’ words (or sounds) more than ‘Aa’, I words (or sounds) more than ‘Ii’ and that will prove it is typical Indian language which would be the basis of Sanskrit and Tamil. In short, there will be no Aryan Family of languages or Dravidian Family of languages. There we will see a common root!



Written by London Swaminathan

Post No.7641

Date uploaded in London – 2 March 2020

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We have covered ten out of 12 chapters of Manava Dharma Shastra so far. Today let us investigate chapter 11. Manu, as usual, gives very interesting rules regarding Brahmins in this chapter.

I am covering up to 100 slokas in chapter 11 of Manu Smriti (Popular Hindu Law Book).


The rule about River Sarasvati shows original Manu Smriti is Pre Indus Valley Civilization work . It was updated up to Sunga period (2nd century BCE) who were fanatically pro Brahmin.

The rule against cutting trees shows that ancient Hindus were concerned with environmental issues.

The rules against killing animals show that the ancient Hindus were friends of animals

The strict punishments for brahmins for drinking and other offences show brahmins must be purer than aall others.

First let me give interesting/important bits in bullet points-

1.sloka 11-1,2- nine types of brahmins must be supported

2.sloka 11-33- Brahmin’s weapon is Atharva Veda.

3.sloka 11-36- who can officiate as priest

4.sloka 11-49- gold theft

5.sloka 11-55- killing a priest

6.sloka 11-60 killing a cow

7.sloka 11-65- cutting trees

8.sloka 11-69- killing donkey, camel etc.

9.sloka 11-73- skull flag/ pirate’s flag

10.sloka 11-78- Sarasvati river

11.sloka 91- 99 severe punishments for Drinking

12.Sloka 11-15- violence against misers

Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda, supports violence against misers – see Kural 1077, 1078


14. slokas 11-49-54 – what diseases one gets for Gold theft, Drinking, Sex offence (Doctors wont agree!!)

15.sloka 55- Worst Five Sins




11-1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring, him who wishes to perform a sacrifice, a traveller, him who has given away all his property, him who begs for the sake of his teacher, his father, or his mother, a student of the Veda, and a sick man,

2. These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, begging in order to fulfil the sacred law; to such poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning.

3. To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and presents (of money) must be given; it is declared that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure.

4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacrifices on Brahmanas learned in the Vedas.

5. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses, he obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the money.

6. One should give, according to one’s ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone; (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss.


11-7. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years or more than that, is worthy to drink the Soma-juice.

8. But a twice-born man, who, though possessing less than that amount of property, nevertheless drinks the Soma-juice, does not derive any benefit from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the Soma-juice.

9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counterfeit virtue will first make him taste the sweets (of fame, but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in hell).

11-10. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment of those whom he is bound to maintain, that produces evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is dead.

11. If a sacrifice, (offered) by (any twice-born) sacrificer, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a righteous king rules,

12. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice, may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any Vaisya, who possesses a large number of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifices nor drinks the Soma-juice;

13. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices.

14. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows, kindles not the sacred fire, or one possessing a thousand cows, drinks not the Soma-juice, a (sacrificer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those two, even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas);


11-15. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives, and who refuses to give it; thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase.

16. Likewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a provision for the morrow,

17. Either from the threshing-floor, or from a field, or out of the house, or wherever he finds it; but if (the owner) asks him, he must confess to him that (deed and its cause).

18. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana; but he who is starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sacred duties.


11-19. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into a boat, and carries both (over the sea of misfortune).

20. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifices, the wise call the property of the gods; but the wealth of those who perform no sacrifices is called the property of the Asuras.

21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, appropriates another’s possessions), a righteous king shall not inflict punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya’s want of care.

22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man, and having fully considered his learning and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own property, a maintenance whereon he may live according to the law;

23. And after allotting to him a maintenance, the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains from such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his spiritual merit.

24. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice; for a sacrificer, having begged (it from such a man), after death is born (again) as a Candala.


11-25. A Brahmana who, having begged any property for a sacrifice, does not use the whole (for that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow.

26. That sinful man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of the gods, or the property of Brahmanas, feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures.

27. In case the prescribed animal and Soma-sacrifices cannot be performed, let him always offer at the change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission).

28. But a twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his duties according to the law for times of distress, obtains no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion (of the sages).

29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas, and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste), who were afraid of perishing in times of distress, a substitute was made for the (principal) rule.

30. That evil-minded man, who, being able (to fulfil) the original law, lives according to the secondary rule, reaps no reward for that after death.

31. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king; by his own power alone be can punish those men who injure him.

32. His own power is greater than the power of the king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by his own power alone.


11-33. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras; speech, indeed, is the weapon of the Brahmana, with that he may slay his enemies.

34. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth, the chief of the twice-born by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations.

35. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher, (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings); to him let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh words.


36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman, nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in great suffering, nor one uninitiated, shall offer an Agnihotra.

37. For such (persons) offering a burnt-oblation sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) belongs; hence the person who sacrifices (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), and know the whole Veda.

38. A Brahmana who, though wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya, a horse sacred to Prajapati, becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires.

39. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts, but let him on no account offer sacrifices at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed).

40. The organs (of sense and action), honour, (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, offspring, and cattle are destroyed by a sacrifice at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given; hence a man of small means should not offer a (Srauta) sacrifice.


11-41. A Brahmana who, being an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred fires, shall perform a lunar penance during one month; for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son.

42. Those who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) offer an Agnihotra, are priests officiating for Sudras, (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda.

43. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world).

44. A man who omits a prescribed act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual enjoyments, must perform a penance.

45. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed; some declare, on the evidence of the revealed texts, (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence).


11-46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men) in their folly commit intentionally, by various (special) penances.

47. A twice-born man, having become liable to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) committed in a former life, must not, before the penance has been performed, have intercourse with virtuous men.

48. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life, and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence).


11-49. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, black teeth; the slayer of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru’s bed, a diseased skin;

50. An informer, a foul-smelling nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain, deficiency in limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redundant limbs;

51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer of clothes, white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness.

52. The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extinguishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs).

53. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are born idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed men, who are (all) despised by the virtuous.

11–54. Penances, therefore, must always be performed for the sake of purification, because those whose sins have not been expiated, are born (again) with disgraceful marks.


11-55. Killing a Brahmana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), adultery with a Guru’s wife, and associating with such (offenders), they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka).

56. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king (regarding a crime), and falsely accusing one’s teacher, (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana.

57. Forgetting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence, slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or (swallowing substances) unfit for food, are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura.

58. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse, and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).

59. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.


11-60. Slaying kine, sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice, adultery, selling oneself, casting off one’s teacher, mother, father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda, and neglecting the (sacred domestic) fire,

61. Allowing one’s younger brother to marry first, marrying before one’s elder brother, giving a daughter to, or sacrificing for, (either brother),

62. Defiling a damsel, usury, breaking a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one’s wife, or child,

63. Living as a Vratya, casting off a relative, teaching (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid teacher, and selling goods which one ought not to sell,

64. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, executing great mechanical works, injuring (living) plants, subsisting on (the earnings of) one’s wife, sorcery (by means of sacrifices), and working (magic by means of) roots, (and so forth),


65. Cutting down green trees for firewood, doing acts for one’s own advantage only, eating prohibited food,

66. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, studying bad books, and practising (the arts of) dancing and singing,

67. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism, (are all) minor offences, causing loss of caste (Upapataka).

68. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow), smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or at spirituous liquor, cheating, and an unnatural offence with a man, are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gatibhramsa)


11-69. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a fish, a snake, or a buffalo, must be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed caste (Samkarikarana).

70. Accepting presents from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speaking a falsehood, make (the offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra).

71. Killing insects, small or large, or birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors, stealing fruit, firewood, or flowers, (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha).

72. Learn (now) completely those penances, by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be expiated.


73. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve years, subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag.

74. Or let him, of his own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose); or he may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire;

75. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Visvagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut;


11-76. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk one hundred yoganas (Yojana= ten miles) , reciting one of the Vedas, eating little, and controlling his organs;

77. Or he may present to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property, as much wealth as suffices for the maintenance (of the recipient), or a house together with the furniture;

78. Or, subsisting on sacrificial food, he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) Sarasvati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda.

79. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas.

80. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana.

81. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana’s (property), or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt).

82. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana.

83. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice, is (also) freed (from guilt).


11-84. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure.

85. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.

86. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification.

87. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control.

88. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice, or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,

89. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:

90. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained.


11-91. A twice-born man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt;

92. Or he may drink cow’s urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies;

93. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag.

94. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura.

95. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice-born.

96. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such (substances).

97. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed.

98. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.

11-99. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).




Post No.7621

Date uploaded in London – 26 February 2020

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Vegan concept did not exist in ancient India. Hindu saints gave reception to everyone including saints and kings  with honey and milk. Sanskrit literature and Bible used the phrase ‘country was so prosperous that honey and milk flowed like river’. Buddha also allowed all dairy projects in the Buddhist monasteries. Buddha banned recruiting lame, dumb, blind, dwarf people as monks. Any one with six fingers and joined fingers were also banned. If anyone recruits these people it is considered ‘Dukkata’, i.e. a fault. If a senior attended such a recruiting ceremony it was considered ‘Double Fault’.

Buddha was against women becoming monks. His chief disciple Ananda begged him several times and at last Buddha yielded to his request. But predicted that his religion would die halfway through its expected full life. We saw Buddhism wiped out from its land of birth like he predicted. Great philosopher and former President of India Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan gave a detailed report in his translation of Dhammapada about this.

Buddha allowed eight types of fruit juices. He also allowed meat if it is already killed, but not for the monk. Since Buddha allowed Tom, Dick and Harry and Juli, Samantha and Mary  to become monks, there were lot of conflicts about What to eat, What to wear, What to say and how to behave. As long as he lived, he sorted out all the problems in day to day meetings. After his death each group claimed that they were right and framed their own rules. Three times the Buddhist councils met after his death and decided the ‘Constitution’ for the religion. Each time lot of amendments were passed. Emperor Asoka finalised everything 2300 years ago. And then came the Vinaya Pitaka. In one of the council meetings, entrants to the council hall were interviewed by a group of scholars. All the yellow clad fakes were thrown out of the place if they could not answer the basic questions.

Here are some interesting bits from a Pali language  Dictionary:-


‘Gharadinna kaabaadho’ means sickness arising out of taking something unpalatable to one’s system given by some house wife to seduce him/monk. Its antidote as prescribed by the Buddha was to drink Siitaaloli, i.e. a drink made out of the mud adhering to the plough.

Sita means plough. Rama’s wife also came from plough. When Emperor Janaka ploughed the land with a golden plough (it is a Vedic ceremony) , a baby girl was discovered and she was named SITA.

The Hindu wonder is about 50 names are found in Vedic literature with the names of plants or animals. They were nature lovers and environmentally conscious!

Sakuntala meant bird woman.

Bharatwaja meant Crow, Kausika meant Owl , Vedic Sarama meant Dog and Kasyapa meant Tortoise. We have over 50 names like this.


Milk and milk products, such as curd/yogurt , sour-milk, butter, ghee are allowed for monks by the Buddha.


All kinds of eatables – five kinds of Bhojanas – odana/rice, sattu/nutrient flour, kummasa/junket, macha/fish, mamsa/meat

All kinds of yaamakaalika , i.e. eight kinds of fruit juices of madhu, muddika, saaluka, coca, moca, amba, jambhu and pharusaka.

All kinds of sattaahakaalika , i.e. ghee, butter, oil, honey and phaanita/molasses and All kinds of medicines (are allowed).


Any food or food material, which is not formally allowed by the Sanga stored inside the vihara should not be used by the monks. Food cooked inside the vihara can’t be eaten by monks. (They must beg and get food from the public).


Aaraamas are pleasure parks. There were 7707 pleasure gardens in the city of Vaisali in Bihar. Bhikkunis/ women monks were not allowed to go there.

Indian State of ‘Bihar’ is derived from Vihara (of Buddhists)


Food prepared out of five kinds of cereals kept ready at a public place/aavasatha by a meritorious person. A monk can eat it only once. (Like Hindu Annadana)


Word ‘Phala’ for fruit is found in 2700 year old Panini’s Ashtadhyayi and 2300 year old Buddhist Pali works and the meaning is fruit or seed. Tamils used this word with special letter ‘Za’. Though it is not a retroflex ‘La’ in Sanskrit and Pali it occurs in later but not Vedic literature. Pali works mentioned 8 types of phala rasa- fruit juices.

It is strange that Vedic literature did not use this ‘phala’. Rig Veda mentioned ‘pippala’ with the general meaning ‘berries’. Pippala became apple in English .


Buddha allowed all kinds of fruits for the monks to use as food. Some fruits are named – jack fruit/panasa, bread fruit/ labuja, palmyra fruit/ taala, coconut/ naalikera, mango/amba, rose apple/jambhu, ambaataka, tamarind/tintinika, maatulunga/kind of citrus, wood apple/kapiththa, gourd/alaabu, kumbhanda, timbaruutaka, tipusa/cucumber, vaitingana /aubergine, coca/ kind of banana, honey tree fruit/madhuka


Medicinal fruits allowed- vilanga, pippali, marica/pepper, haritika, vibhitaka , aamalaka, gottaphala


All kinds of fruit juices including sugarcane juice are allowed.

Many other restrictions about dress are found in the DICTIONARY OF EARLY BUDDHIST MONASTIC TERMS compiled from Pali literature by Prof C S Upasik of Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Bihar. 1975.




Post No.7614

Date uploaded in London – 24 February 2020

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While examples are rare in literature where women damps and crushes such an interest in her beloved, we have an outstanding example of woman striving for such a contingency, triumphing over temptations of the flesh, instructing him in self- knowledge and winning him over to her ways. This is Chuudaalaa of the Yoga Vasishta.

Daughter of Saurashtra Prince, beautiful and pious, she was while in her teens wedded to Shikidwaja, a valiant prince of Ujjaini. It was a happy match, and life passed on smoothly with them, since both were accomplished in arts and sciences and were of kindred tastes. But with the advent of age and with her personal charms diminishing, she realised the necessity of true knowledge and the hollowness of material pleasure. With her mind trained by instructions Chudala asks herself the questions,

Can it be that I shall know my own self, the substratum of reality in me, what I am in thinking and feeling and willing?

Upon her dawns the knowledge that the world of sense is imaginary. With this she feels the touch of unparalleled comeliness overspreading her appearance. The king is surprised and interrogates,

Have you tasted the nectar and turned imaging?

Me seems you have acquired a priceless treasure.

She replies, I have come to know of things in their proper perspective — their emergence from and their merging in finality. I pray for nothing and I am self -contained. That is why I have turned so lovely.

The king laughs at the Idea and takes her to be mad, and entreats her not to sever her connection with the world of senses. But that was not to be, Chudala takes to solitude and yogic regimen, acquires supernatural powers, but does not leave the palace. In course of a time, knowledge dawns upon the king too. He turns religiously minded and leaves the kingdom and goes to the forest abruptly despite Chuldala’s repeated entreaties.

Chudala invisible through yogic efficacy seeks him out after he had been absent for eighteen years. By this time, with his previous desire for enjoyment exhausted, he becomes a true ascetic. Chudala implores the king to be thorough going in his renunciation, to eschew everything including the inborn impressions of his previous birth. This done, the king becomes really enlightened; and this is the marvel that Chudala achieves.

The sublimation of the intellect as in Arundhati, of feeling as in

Radha , and of spirit as in Chudala are three important landmarks in the process

of womanly enlightenment as depicted in classical Sanskrit. Women as martyrs rarely appear in Buddhist doctrinaire accounts, but women as nuns wedded to service of humanity are more frequent. The one noble example of affection through service is Patralekha in the Kaadambari. She is the best e example of championship unfeigned and undaunted by the dawn and of return of love.

Woman may be a poet or a philosopher or a scholar, and even a brahmachariny

like Maitreyi or Chudala. But her claim to recognition lies through her service of her lord and through her being the mother of a great son, wise or valiant like Rama, Shankara, Chaitanya or the heroic Bharata, as the case may be. This is the attitude of even romantic love stories. Vadavadatta is great because of her being the mother of Naravahana datta.

Source – Great Women of India, AdvaIta Ashrama, Mayavati, Almora,1953

Also read
Wife’s three Tests to her Husband! Story from Yoga Vasishta … › 2014/05/31 › wifes-three-tests-to-her-husband-st…

31 May 2014 – His queen was Chudala from Saurashtra country in ancient India (now part of Gujarat state). She was very beautiful and extremely intelligent.

Oh, My God! Ramayana is Very, Very Heavy! (Post No.7609)


Post No.7609

Date uploaded in London – 23 February 2020

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Venkaesa! Venkatesa !

There was a man in a village with moderate wealth. One night a thief had climbed and hidden himself in his loft. The owner of the house had got a hint of it but behaved as if he didn’t know it. He made a ruse.

Looking at his wife, he said,

My darling! You are pregnant; when the child is born whose name shall we give to it?

It may be as you like , said she.

Then we will give him the name Venkatesan and call him thus! My boy! Venkatesan!

So he called out the name loudly.

As this was his neighbour’s watchman’s name , he came quickly with his weapons and said,

Why did you call?

He made a sign that there was a thief in the loft.

The watch man seized him and bound him. In the meantime, the wealthy man called the police.


Weight of Ramayana

In a bazaar street a person was discoursing upon Ramayana. Near by there lived a man who spent most of his time playing cards and gambling. He was very lazy to do any exercise. He was huge but stupid. At that time his wife, who is a devotee of Lord Rama,  thinking that wisdom would come to her stupid husband if he listens to the Ramayana discourse.

She asked him to go and attend the Ramayana talks. Accordingly he came and listened to the talk in the open ground of the temple. The breeze and the melodious songs in the musical lecture made him into fall into sleep. He started snoring. There was a good for nothing fellow who was among the listeners. He  saw him sleeping and snoring. His huge body attracted him to use it as a cushion seat. He slowly climbed on the man and sat comfortably. The lazy man carried him till the end of the discourse and after wards went home.

His wife saw him in the morning and asked him how the talk was. ‘Did you like it ? How was Ramayana?

“Oh dear. It was not at all light, it was very heavy; as heavy as a man, said he.

She asked him to explain.  He said, I slept halfway through the talk. Then when I woke up , I had severe body pain as if someone sat on my back all through the night. Immediately his intelligent wife realised what happened at the discourse. When she heard the full story, she was grieved at his stupidity.

Xxx subham  xxxx

What is Ati Rudra Sacrifice? (Post No.7601)

WRITTEN BY London swaminathan

Post No.7601

Date uploaded in London – 21 February 2020

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Today is Shiva Ratri Day; holy day and fasting day for Hindus. They go to Shiva temples and do Milk Abisheka (bathing the Shiva Linga with milk). Shiva temples around the world are open all through the night. Priests recite Rudra Mantra/hymn during the bathing ritual. Devotees do Puja with trifoliate Vilva/Bilva leaves. Skipping meals completely for 24 hours or having only one meal in 24 hours is observed by the devotees.

The story behind Shiva Ratri explodes all the Aryan- Dravidian bluff spread by the westerners. They projected Shiva as Aryan. But the festival is based on a hunter hiding in the forest on top of a Vilva tree doing Bilva Archana without knowing all through the night. He attains salvation. All devotees follow the hunter.

Another great hunter called Kannappan of North Tamil Nadu attained salvation in 24 hours by doing Puja and donating both his eyes (which were restored later) . He lived 1500 years  ago in Tamil Nadu. ( I have given full details about Hindus who made eye transplants in my article written years ago).Suh stories show that there is no Aryan or Dravidian. And the early Shiva Devotees of Tamil Nadu did not belong to Brahmin caste at all (Eg. Ms Mangayarkarasi, Ms Karaikal Ammaiyar, Madam Avvaiyar, Mr Appar etc)

Rudra in Zagreb, Croatia by Baba devotees of Europe.

What is Ati Rudram

Rudra Ekadasi: When Rudram is recited 121 times (11 priests recite it 11 times) it is Rudra Ekadasi.
When Rudram is recited 1331 times (11X11X11) it is Maha Rudram
When Rudram is recited 14641 times (11X 11X11X11) it is Ati Rudram
Sri Sathya Sai Baba performed Ati Rudram in Chennai and Puttaparthi. It was the biggest Homam done in modern times. Later Shirdi Sai devotees organised one in Tiruvannamalai.

What is Rudram?

It is a hymn on Lord Shiva found in Yajur Veda. It is recited along with Camakam. Since Rudram is also known as Namakam, both are called Namakam -Chamakam.

In the Rudra section, Lord Shiva is praised as a great person doing various jobs. It means he controls every thing in the universe. We fid the Five Lettered Mantra – panchaksharam – OM NAMASIVAYA in Rudram. So Saivites consider it most important Mantra. Orthodox Hindus recite it every day. In temples, when the Abishekam is done to the idol, Rudram is repeated.

Ekadasa Rudram is conducted annually in London by Sri Subrahmanyam and his wife Gayathri.

Any Rudra Fire sacrifice should follow the starting rituals such as Sankalpa (saying the intention ), Puja, Nyasa, Anga, Panchamruta snana and Dhyana.

What are the benefits?

Siva’s metal cover/Kavasa from Vietnam

The scriptures say that one who does Ati Rudra is considered God. In our own time Sri Sathya Saibaba did it in Chennai and Puttaparthi. No other individual has done so.

Ati Rudra takes 11 days for the completion.

The benefit of repeating Rudram once frees one from Balarishta (one individual reciting it one time)

3 times …. From imminent difficulties

5 times from evil effects of planets

7  times from great fear

9 times gives the benefit of performing a Vajapeya Yajna and gives peace of mind;

11 times recitation will bring great wealth and favours from ruler or government

33 times recited, one can attain all the wishes; he will have no enemies.

77 times  – enjoyment of great happiness

99 times – attainment of son, grandson, wealth and four Hindu goals- Dharma, Artha, Kama , Moksha

1 Maha Rudra – favour of kings

3 Maha Rudras – Fulfilment of Impossible Tasks.

5 Maha Rudras – acquirement of vast lands

7 Maha Rudras – attainment of seven worlds

9 Maha Rudras – freedom from the cycle of birth and death.

— Notes taken by me on 30-7-2011 from Ati Rudra Souvenir.

Om Nama Sivaya



Indra or Surya, Wheel God in Indus Valley
Wheel God Jupiter in Europe


Post No.7593

Date uploaded in London – 19 February 2020

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Amazing new information has come out of Rig Veda linking Sun- Indra- Taranis- Jupiter-Zeus- Celtic Wheel God

One more proof that shows Sarasvati/Indus valley civilization is closer to Celtic and Vedic civilization than any other civilization.

Magazines from Scientific American to unknown local news papers have already published the similarities between the most famous Pasupati/Shiva seal image of Sarasvati-Indus Valley civilization and the Horned God on Celtic objects. (See my links for pictures)

I wrote two articles connecting the Indus Figure on elephant with a wheel on top to Taranis-Thor in Celtic and other cultures.,

Now there is an unknown story in the Rig Veda about Indra stealing the wheel from Suurya, the Sun God which can be linked to Roman, Greek and Celtic Gods.

These two pictures of Celtic Pasupati and Celtic Wheel God are pushing Indus civilization towards the Vedic Hindu Civilization.


Rig Veda gives a story about INDRA STEALING THE WHEEL OF SUN GOD ‘SUURYA’.

No one has explained it satisfactorily except giving its verbatim translation and some hypothesis.,

1.Rishi Vamadeva Gautama praises Indra in RV 4-30-4

“When for the sake of those oppressed , and Kutsa as he battled , you stole away the Sun’s car wheel”

(It is about the war between the angels and demons- Deva Asura Yuddha)

In another hymn Rig Veda  1-175-4, Rishi Agastya says

“Empowered by your own might , O Sage, you stole Suurya’s Chariot Wheel”

(Suurya – Sun God in Vedas).

In 10-43-5 , Rishi Krishna Angirasa praises Indra

“As in the game a gambler piles his winnings, so Maghavan sweeping all together, gained the Sun

This mighty deed of yours, none other could achieve, none Maghavan, before you none in recent time”

(Maghavan means very generous; another name of Indra)


Surya from Bath, Britain

Western Explanations

Above three hymns refer to an anecdote which is not explained by anyone properly. Western commentators make a passing reference saying it may be a solar eclipse or a weather phenomenon. Hindu Puranas did not say anything about it.,

Griffith says on RV 4-30-4

‘Stolest away the Sun’s car-wheel’

An eclipse of the Sun, perhaps, is intended; or the meaning may be merely that the Sun’s course was stayed, as in stanza 3.

Griffith says on RV 1-175-4

‘Thou stolest Surya’s chariot wheel’-

Indra is said to have taken the wheel of the chariot of the Sun and to have cast it like a quoit against the demon of drought.


The seer mentioned in the preceding hymn; Indra defended him against Susna, or protected mankind from drought; see 1-151-6

On 10-43-5, Griffith comments

‘Gained the sun’-

Conquers him by taking away the moisture, that is water that he has absorbed-,


Strabo (Greek Geographer  63 BCE – 27 CE)

It looks like Griffith was also not sure about this ‘Surya Wheel Theft’ episode. It may be a Solar Eclipse or a weather phenomenon.

Strabo says that Indians are worshipping Jupiter Pluvinus, no doubt meaning Indra, and he has also been compared to  Jupiter Tonana. So the scholarly world knows that Jupiter of Rome is Indra of Rig Veda. He is portrayed as God of Sky, God of Thunder. He is again compared with Zeus of Greece.

Indra, Jupiter and Zeus are considered supreme Gods in their own countries.

Alfred Hillebrandt (German Indologist 1853-1927) says

Indra must have been a Sun God who melts the frost on approach of spring; seers praise him as the slayer of Vritra (demon of drought). In the Brahmanas , the mountains that are split open by Indra are explained as clouds . The description fits much better the letting loose of the streams after being imprisoned by frost.,

A lot of seals with Swastika emblem are discovered in Indus- Sarasvati basin. We find Swastika images Europe as well. Western scholars interpreted Swastikaa is Sun. Until this day Hindus worship Swastika as an auspicious symbol, We find it on wedding invitations, Walls in the shops, temples and Jain statues.

from Denmark

Celtic Connection

Miranda Green says in her book ‘THE SUN GODS OF ANCIENT EUROPE’ (Year 1991)

“When the Romans colonised the Celtic territories of Gaul, Britain and the Rhineland , there grew a hybrid , Romano- Celtic culture which had a profound effect upon religious expression in western Europe.

“Observation of the entire spectrum of Celtic Sun images and symbols raises several points of interest. He may appear on public monuments which signify corporate worship. On such occasions, the deity may be accompanied by his Greco – Roman panoply of sceptre, eagle and thunderbolt . In some places Jupiter appear with horns. Bronze statue of Wheel God with the inscription of Jupiter is found  (Landouzy -la- ville, Aisne). Bronze statue of wheel god with thunderbolt and lightning flashes is found in Le Chatelet, Haute Marne.

“The role of the solar symbol itself is interesting; the wheel may simply accompany the celestial god, as one of his attributes or it may possess a more active role as a protective shield, on the images of the warrior sun god .

“In some places swastika or wheel is shown. Wheel and swastika may be mutually replaceable .,

“ In the Celtic world the Greek Zeus or Roman Jupiter became identified with or linked to celestial powers which were already venerated in pre- Roman Celtic lands”.

The above selections are enough from the 168 page book of Miranda Green to show that Zeus- Jupiter, Celtic Wheel God are one and the same or closely linked.

Europeans were already worshipping Sun and one replaced the other or merged in course of time.

Wheel god is also identified as Celtic Taranis

Indra’s Vajra Ayudha from Mongolia


Scholars around the world have already discovered and debated over these connections. My discovery is that INDRA IS THE WHEEL GOD and INDRA IS ONE WHO STOLE THE WHEEL OF SUN CHARIOT as we find in the Rig Veda.

Earlier I interpreted the Indus figure of ‘one who stands on elephant with a wheel on his head’ as Indra on his elephant Vahana Iravata with Cakra (wheel) to show that he is a Chakravarthi (Emperor). Indra’s other name is Cakra (wheel). Throughout Buddhist literature he is called Cakka (corruption of Chakra).,

Now my interpretation is HE IS INDRA WHO STOLE THE WHEEL OF CHARIOT OF THE SUN as we see in three Rig Vedic hymns.

I can conclude Indra = Sun God = Zeus= Jupiter = Celtic Wheel God.

Another interesting titbit is Jupiter (European Indra) is shown with Eagle. Vedic scriptures also identify Indra with Eagle (Suparna, Syena). The famous Sibi story found in Mahabharata, Buddhist Jataka tales and Sangam Tamil ‘Pura Nanuru’ verses also show Indra came in the form of an Eagle and Agni came in the form of a Pigeon.

Books used —

The Rig Veda- Griffith’s Translation

A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology , John Dowson

The Sun Gods of Ancient Europe by Miranda Green (1991)

Vedic Hymns by Edward J Thomas, 1923

Sun Goddess- Myth Legend and History , Sheena Mc Grath, (1997)

Pasupati from Gundestrup, Denmark

My Old articles on Indus- Sarasvati River Civilization-

Indra – Taranis – Thor in Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and … › 2014/09/05 › indra-taranis-thor-in-indus-valley-…


5 Sep 2014 – Indra in Indus Valley on Iravata with Chakra above Celtic Indra Taranis with wheel Research Paper written by London Swaminathan Post …

Indra | Tamil and Vedas › tag › indra


14 Jan 2020 – It has other meanings such as Chakra/Indra, Varuna, Sun, sea, wheel of a Chariot, Chakravarti/emperor, chariot etc. Indus-Sarasvati Civilization …

Why did Sumeria and Egypt worship Indra? | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/09/14 › why-did-sumeria-and-egypt-wors…


14 Sep 2014 – The Rig-Veda identifies Indra with the bull which is the predominant seal in Indus valley civilisation. So we can conclude that Indra worship …

Did Indra attack Ur in Sumeria? | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/10/09 › did-indra-attack-ur-in-sumeria


9 Oct 2014 – Indus Valley interpreter in an Akkadian cylinder seal dated 2500 BCE. Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article …

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22 Aug 2012 – Sugarcane Mystery: Indus valley and Ikshvaku Dynasty 3. Vishnu seal In Indus Valley 4. Indus Valley –New Approach required 5.Indra in Indus …

‘NEMI’ FROM RIG VEDA TO SANGAM TAMIL LITERATURE … › 2020/01/14 › nemi-from-rig-veda-to-sangam-ta…


14 Jan 2020 – Indus-Sarasvati Civilization has many symbols in the shape of a wheel. So it is … Posts about Indus Valley Civilization written by Tamil and Vedas. … Read … Indra – Taranis – Thor in Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and …

ghosts in Indus valley | Tamil and Vedas › tag › ghosts-in-indus-valley


19 Aug 2012 – Vishnu seal In Indus Valley. 4. Indus Valley –New Approach required. 5.Indra in Indus valley seals+ Symbols for Vedic Gods. Since scholars …

Rig Vedic Hariyupia and Indus Valley Harappa: Rig Veda … › 2014/10/30 › rig-vedic-hariyupia-and-indus-val…


30 Oct 2014 – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are two major cities of the Indus valley … Indus Valley Case: Lord Indra Acquitted Post No 764 dated 28th Dec.

“Indus” Valley Civilization to “Ganges” – Tamil and Vedas › 2014/03/28 › change-indus-valley-civilization-t…


28 Mar 2014 – I have been doing research on the “Indus” Valley Civilization as an amateur … In Hindu literature, Indra, the main Vedic deity is allocated the …

Gajalakshmi from Gundestrup, Denmark


Indus Valley – Brahmin Connection! | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/05/10 › indus-valley-brahmin-connection


10 May 2014 – The world was misled by some scholars in the case of Indus Valley … Ram’s sons invaded Indus cities: Please see my earlier article Indus …

Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and Vedas › category › indus-valley-civilization


Posts about Indus Valley Civilization written by Tamil and Vedas. … Read more: …

Serpent Queen:Indus Valley to Sabarimalai | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/06/17 › serpent-queenindus-valley-to-sa…


17 Jun 2012 – We have a faience figure in Indus Valley with two snakes. Minoan Goddess … (Please read my other articles on Indus Valley 1. Bull Fighting: …

Human Sacrifice in Indus Valley and Egypt | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/10/31 › human-sacrifice-in-indus-valley…


31 Oct 2012 – Indus valley has two or three human sacrifice scenes. On a … Tamil articles: சிந்து சமவெளியில் பேய் முத்திரை. 10.

Indus Valley to Egypt: Lapis lazuli Export! | Tamil and Vedas › 2014/09/06 › indus-valley-to-egypt-lapis-lazul…


6 Sep 2014 – Earlier articles on INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION. Indus Valley-Brahmin Connection (Post No 1034, Date 10-5-14) Bull Fighting: Indus Valley to …

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Number 7: Rig Vedic link to Indus Valley Culture ! | Tamil and … › 2014/11/21 › number-7-rig-vedic-link-to-ind…


21 Nov 2014 – Sapta Mata (Seven Mothers ) seal from Indus Valley Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article No.1427; Dated 21st …

Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana | Tamil and Vedas › 2012/12/18 › indus-valley-cities-in-ramayana


18 Dec 2012 – Ramayana Wonders Part 5 Indus Valley Cities in Ramayana The “destruction of Indus Valley cities” was debated by scholars at one time.

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Vishnu Seal in Indus Valley Civilization | Tamil and Vedas › 2011/10/19 › vishnu-seal-in-indus-valley-civil…


19 Oct 2011 – Please read my article about a newapproach to solve the Indus … Ficus Indica in Latin) is drawn on many seals and objects in the Indus valley.

Manu on Indus Valley | Tamil and Vedas › tag › manu-on-indus-valley


28 Apr 2014 – Posts about Manu on Indus Valley written by Tamil and Vedas. … (First part of the article “30 Important Quotations from Manu” posted on 27th …

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It has other meanings such as Chakra/Indra, Varuna, Sun, sea, wheel of a Chariot, Chakravarti/emperor, chariot etc. Indus-Sarasvati Civilization has many …

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