Post No. 10,627

Date uploaded in London – –    4 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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It can now be proved even by geographical evidence, that Zoroastrians had been settled in India before they immigrated into Persia ………..

That the Zoroastrians and their ancestors started from India during the Vedic period  can be proved as distinctly as that the inhabitants of Massilia started from Greece.

Max Muler said it again in his lectures on the Science of Language …

The Zoroastrians were a colony from northern India . they had been together for a time with the people whose sacred songs have been preserved in the Veda. A schism took place, and the  Zoroastrians migrated westward to Arachosia and Persia .

Kanchi Parmacharya swamikal (1894-1994) also said that Zoroaster is  ‘Saurashtra’ (in Gujarat) and their scripture Zend Avesta is ‘Chandas’ Avesta (Please see my earlier articles on India- Iran connections)

Professors Bhagavat and Apte have in their ‘Key to interpret the Veda’, pointed out that there are references to the Persians and Parthians in the Rigveda  .

RV 1-105-8

sam maa tapanthi abhitah sapatnaariva parsavah

The Parshus ( Persians) harass me all round like cowives


RV 8-6-46

satamaham tirindire sahasram parsava dade radhaamsi yaadvaanaam

I wrested from the Yadva ( tribe)  one hundred cattle (in the province of ) Tirindira and one thousand cattle (in the province of ) Parshu .


RV 7-83-1

yuvaam naraa pasyamaanaasa  aapya praachaa gavyantah  pruthupasavo yayuh

Daasaa cha vrutraa hatamaaryaani  cha sudhaasamindraavarunaavasaavatahm

Oh you men, looking to you and your wealth the Pruthus and Parshus, fain for spoil, march forward. Oh Indra- Varuna, you smote and slew the Dasa and Aryan enemies, and helped Sudas with favour.

Prof.Ludwig also renders  ‘pruthuparsvah’  by Parthians and Persians.


According to PANINI 5-3-117, the words ‘paarsavah’ in the singular ‘parsavau’ in the dual and ‘parsavah’ in the plural, are taken as the name of a warrior tribe, the last of the three suggesting  the singular ‘parsu’

In the cuneiform inscriptions at Behitsan we have the countries Paarsah and Partava  which may be compared to Parsu and Pruthu in the Rigveda.


As has been shown by Dr Muir in his Sanskrit texts, the word Dasyu is used for men and not demons in the Aitareya Brahmana (7-18) and Manu Smrti (10-43), Mahabharata Shanti Parva (65-2429; 168-6293 and even some passages in the Rigveda (4-41-2, 6-14-3, 10-22-8).

He further says , “I have gone over the names of the Dasyus and Asuras mentioned in the Rigveda, with the view of discovering any of them  could be regarded as of Non-Aryan origin; but I have not observed any that appear of that character.

In the Manu Smrti, we were told (11-43/45) that the Kamboas, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas,  Pahlavas etc were  Dasyus. The Pahlavas were either Persians or Parthians, as several scholars have asserted. If then the Dasyus dwelt in India in the Vedic and Post Vedic times they probably included Pahlavas.



—- subham —

Tags – Persians, Zoroastrian, Origin,  Iran, in Rig Veda, Parsu, Pahlava, Parthian, Parsis

Very Good Story about Parsis! (Post No.9471)

Union Minister Smrti Irani with her Parsi Husband Zubin  and her Parsi children.


Post No. 9471

Date uploaded in London – –8  APRIL  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

I have dealt with this anecdote in my earlier articles. But hearing from Swami Ranganathananda makes it more interesting. Moreover, he gives it from a book written by a Parsi. Here is a story

from my paper cutting dated August 15, 1988, Bhavan’s Journal.

Swamiji writes

It will be educative to study the spirit and method of their reception in India.

That story is impressively presented in a book entitled

‘The Parsis’ written by a Parsi scholar Mrs Piloo Nanavutty and published by the National Book Trust, New Delhi, India. I was much impressed when I read that book. It contains a touching narration of the story of the Parsi refugees coming to the western coast of our Gujarat state and what happened to them.

Pp 38-40

“Under the Arabs, Iranians were forcibly converted to Islam. Those who clung to their ancient faith were persecuted and fled to the mountains of Kohistan in Khorasan. According to tradition they stayed here for 100 years. Then they went to the Persian gulf port of Hormuz where they are said to have remained for 15 years.

From there they set sail in seven junks, according to the Reverend Henry Lord writing in 1930 and arrived at Diu or Div, an island off the southern extremity of Kathiawar. They stayed there for 19 years and they again set sail this time for Sanjan, a small fishing village on the west coast of Gujarat where they landed around 785 (CE)  , and where the local Hindu Raja Jadi Rana or Jadhav Rana gave them shelter.

According to Behman Kaikobad, when the Parsis approached Jadi Rana, he imposed five conditions on them. These were

1.The explanation of Zoroastrian religion to the Raja by the Parsi high priest who accompanied the refugees and had safeguarded the sacred fire all the way from Iran to India;

2.The adoption of Gujarati as their mother tongue

3.The adoption of  sari by Parsi women;

4.The surrender of all weapons

5.And finally, the Parsi wedding processions to be held in the dark.

This last might have been a request from the refugees themselves, a protective measure to avoid the attention of other communities to an alien community in their midst.

A far more vivid account of the meeting between the Persian refugees and Jadhav Rana, than that in the Kissa, is given in the Gujarati Garbas, group songs and dances, composed by the Parsis and sung by Parsi women on such happy occasions as Navjots and weddings.

I give the story in prose which was once sung in verse:

Jadhav Rana issued a proclamation inviting all citizens to assemble in open maidan (meadow). On a throne covered with rich drapes, the Raja took his seat. He was dressed in royal robes, wore a magnificent turban and embroidered velvet slippers. Ranged round him were his mounted body guards, dressed in white, holding glittering spears.

At a signal from Jadhav Rana, the Persian refugees were brought into the centre of the assembly. Their frail, old priest, holding a small Afarghan with the sacred fire, was the spokesman for the group through an interpreter.

What is it you want from us, O strangers from a far land? Asked Jadhav Rana.

Freedom of worship, Sire, replied the old priest.

Granted. What else do you wish?

Freedom to bring up our young in our own traditions and customs.

Granted. What else do you wish?

A small piece of land that we could cultivate, so that we may not be a burden to the people among whom we live.

Granted. In return what will you do for the country of your adoption?

The old priest asked for a brass bowl to be filled with milk and brought to the assembly. This was done. He then stirred a spoon full of sugar in the bowl and holding it up in his trembling hands, asked,

Does any man see the sugar in this bowl of milk?

All shook their heads

Sire, said the priest, we shall try to be like this insignificant amount of sugar in the milk of your human kindness.

There were murmurs of approval from the crowd.

Then at a signal from the priest, all the refugees — men, women and the children — prostrated themselves in full length on the ground. Each picked up a hand full of earth and, with tears streaming their faces, they pressed it to their eyes and forehead .

Then after washing their hands and faces, the refugees turned their faces to the sun and recite d the Kusti prayers and performed Kusti ritual”.

How true it has been throughout the history of these twelve hundred years- this silent, sweetening, by the Parsis , of the milk of Indian society and culture.

When two cultured people meet together, this is what will happen.

Have you any parallel to this in any part of the world?

—Swami Ranganathananda


Tags- Parsis, refugees, Gujarat, Jadhav Rana

Vedic Hindu women, Greek women and Parsi women (Post No.7559)

Compiled by London Swaminathan

Post No.7559

Date uploaded in London – 10 February 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Ramesh Chandra Majumdhar, Former Vice Chancellor of Dacca University compares the status of women in different countries in his article in the ‘Great Women of India’ volume , published in 1953 by the Advaita Ashrama . It is very interesting that Vedic Hindu women enjoyed more freedom whereas other women were under strict control. But we must remember Rig Vedic society existed before 1500 BCE, where as  Homer’s Greek , Avesta of Parsis belong to 8th century  BCE. But he shows how the status of women in Vedic society also deteriorated after the Upanishadic age.

Here is what he says,

“The high ideal of a married life— involving life long faith, devotion and love between the husband and wife — is nobly expressed in the marriage hymn 10-85 of the Rig Veda.  Casual references thorough out the Samhita, indicate that the society was really inspired by such an ideal, and we already see before us a picture of insoluble partnership, in life and death, which has ever characterised the relation between husband and wife in Hindu society, and has almost become proverbial.

Nevertheless, without distracting from this high ideal in the least, it must be confessed that, the weakness of human nature must have occasionally led to moral lapses even in those days, as also in later days. Indeed, there are ample references to such a state of things not only in the Rig Veda Samhita but also in later Vedic literature. It would be a miracle if it were not so. There are certain hymns which seem to look upon the existence of a paramour as nothing abnormal than a common occurrence or an ordinary event. But the hymns of the Rig Veda make it clear that moral lapses on the part of women were not treated so severely as in later days and more or less the same standard was applied in this respect to both men and women.

As all this might be quite shocking to our moral sensibilities and ideas of female virtues, it is necessary to point out the prevalence of a similar state of things in the Hellenistic world of Homeric days. The compulsory infidelity of a wife as a prisoner of war was openly recognised, and in no way reprehended. The noblest and fairest women, whether married or not, of a captured town normally became the concubines of the victors, but such a fate was in no sense a dishonour to the Greek lady of which she need afterwards be ashamed. This callous attitude might have been reflected its influence upon cases of voluntary sin, and so they came to be regarded with much indulgence. So also the open concubines allowed to married men often allowed a plea for retaliation and a justification in the case of crime.

The same reasons might also have operated in ancient India. In any case, ideas in ancient India, as in ancient Greece, were very different from those of modern times, when we rate personal purity of a woman so highly that the loss of it by misfortune is hardly less excused by society than its abandonment through passion.

A widow marrying husband‘s brother is also in the Vedas. The remarriage of a widow to husband’s brother was a very common practice among the Jews and other ancient nations .

The Vedic word ‘Dampati’ used to denote jointly the husband and wife, etymologically means the joint owners of the house. The same idea is also contained in the Avesta (Of Parsis), but whereas the Avesta enjoins upon the wife strict obedience to her husband, the marriage ritual in the Rig Veda , and also in its fully developed form in the Grihya sutras, does not enjoin obedience upon the wife. This position of dignity was upheld by her participation in religious practices and sacrifices, which was regarded as the highest right and privilege in the society of those days.

The Samhita of the Rig Veda has fortunately preserved one particular hymn 10-85 which proves that not only the institution of  marriage but also the ideals which characterised it in India in later days were deeply rooted in the minds of men. Its interest, however, transcends the narrow bounds of India, as it is perhaps the oldest written document in the world which gives an ideal picture of the marriage system with all that it involves in a civilized society.