INTERESTING STORY ABOUT COCONUT! (Post No.6500)

Written by London swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 6 June 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London –  16-44

Post No. 6500

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

HOW MANY INDIANS WERE LEFT TO DIE LIKE ANIMALS IN BRITISH RULE? (Post No.6403)

Written  by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 17 May 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London –  20-48

Post No. 6403

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

52 lakhs died in just three states of India.

Half baked historians and selfish politicians spread a myth that the British rule did lot of good to India and people lived happily. Even innocent students had that illusion because they were taught history written by the British. It glorified the British rule in India and praised the British as builders of Modern India. But millions of Indians died in India due to starvation and famine. British did not help the general public  but allowed the Christian missionaries to do the job with a motive.

Even the London Times newspaper published the statistics on those deaths. They were happy that the famine helped them to bring the Hindus into Christian fold. They praised the British contribution to the missionaries. Even today the Christian Aid Agencies follow the same tactics. After every natural disaster they publish full page advertisements seeking donations. Only when they are trapped in some cases like the recent sex abuses by the missionaries and Christian aid agencies, people came to know that they received a fat salary, stayed in 4 or 5 star hotels and travelled in business class. In short, at the news of every earth quake, flood, storm, famine and Tsunami they feel very happy.

Here is what London Times reported 150 years ago.

XXXEND XXXXX

KALLANAI DAM – MARVEL OF TAMIL ENGINEERING! (Posst No.6323)


Karikal Choza image

WRITTEN  by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 29 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 9-31 am

Post No. 6323

Pictures shown here are taken by london swaminathan.

This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

Agastya Rishi

Why Do British Judges Follow a Tamil King? | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/why-do-british-judges-follow-a-tamil-…

13 Nov 2011 – British judges and several others who preside over the courts of justice … King Karikalan removed his white hair wig (Narai Mudi in Tamil) and …

Did Agastya drink ocean? | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/03/25/did-agastya-drink-ocean/

1.      

25 Mar 2014 – Another story told about Agastya is that he travelled to south at the behest of Lord Siva. It is true that either Siva or a Saivaite saint requested …

Karikal Choza and Eagle shaped Fire Altar | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2012/01/14/karikal-choza-and-eagle-shaped-fire-altar/

1.      

14 Jan 2012 – Karikal Choza and Eagle shaped Fire Altar. –S Swaminathan. Fire altar, Kerala, April 2004. Ancient Tamil kings followed Vedic customs in their …

Paranar | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/tag/paranar/

1.      

2.      

Paranar narrated a sad story where in Karikal Chola’s daughter Adi Manthi lost her husband Attanathi in the river Kaveri. She cried and cried and ran along the …

Population Explosion: Oldest Reference is in Hindu … – Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/…/population-explosion-oldest-reference…

1.      

2 Feb 2013 – The oldest reference to a population explosionissue is in Hindu scriptures! … The pre independent trend in India was to see the ‘ghost of …

Miracles in Mahavamsa! | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com/2014/09/10/miracles-in-mahavamsa/

1.      

10 Sep 2014 – b)Famous Tamil king Karikalan was made a king by an elephant. … d)Tamil Choza king ordered beheading of a child, but a bold poet stopped it

சோழர்கள் தமிழர்களா? | Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/சோழர்கள்-தமிழர்கள…

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15 Jul 2013 – … இயற்றியதையும் பருவக் காற்றைப்பயன்படுத்தி கப்பல் விட்டதையும் ஏற்கனவே … பருவக்காற்றைக் கண்டுபிடித்தது தமிழனா? 14.

–subham–

Gingee Fort and Temples (Post No.6301)

Compiled by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 23 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-18

Post No. 6301

Pictures shown here are taken by London swaminathan

This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))



Warning
Though I was not able to see the forts or the temples I am writing about it to warn the future visitors. No book told us that the temples and the forts are under the control of the archaeological department and so they will be closed at 4 pm. Since we visited the place during summer we thought it would be wise to go in the afternoon. But at quarter to four the staff started closing the main gates. With his permission I ran inside and took some pictures. So please find out the opening and closing times of the places, particularly under government control. As a result of this limited opening hours that is 10- 4 we missed all the temples and the forts.

Date of our visit – 24-3-2019


Where is it?

28 kilometres from Tindivanam in Viluppuram district.

29 kilomtres from Tiruvannamalai.


What is there?
Gingee has three inaccessible hills- KRISHNAGIRI, CHANDRAGIRI AND RAJA GIRI.

The three hills with forts are covered with massive fortification walls. The Rajagiri citadel is the highest with 800 feet in height. It is the most inaccessible with 20 meters deep chasm. Now it is connected by a bridge.

Period- Ninth Century to 13th century


Barracks and Stables
A series of low vaulted and arched cells on the western side of the Kalyana Mahal are referred to as the barracks and stables.
The archaeological conservation training camp is located here.


Anaikulam
Located on the south of the barracks, the Anaikkulam is a fine tank built of stone with cloistered mandapa surrounding it.


Granary and Gymnasium
This is the largest granary built in stone with a spacious entrance passage. The walls are nearly three meters thick. The stucco decorations outside area are typical of the Vijayanagaram period.
A stone structure with a barrel vaulted roof found on the north eastern side of the granary is said to be the Gymnasium.


Venkatramanana Temple

This sprawling temple with its striking pillars with carved sculptures narrates the aesthetic skills of the Nayaks. Many Tamil inscriptions are found in the walls of the Mandapas.


Venugopalaswami Temple 


Located to the west of the inner gate of the lower citadel, this temple contains a remarkable statue of Lord Krishna playing on the flute with his consorts on his tow. A finely polished, broad and smooth slab found in front of the temple is another striking feature.

Kamalakkanni Amman Temple 


This temple contains a sacrificial altar and well preserved mural paintings belonging to the Nayak period.


Citadel on Rajagiri hill


On top of Rajagiri Hill, an audience Hall built in typical Indo Islamic style, is a domed roof supported by a series of graceful little pointed arches.
The magazine building is also a noteworthy structure.


The Ranganath temple is built in a typical Vijayanagar style. A big iron cannon, four meters long and two metres in circumference can be seen there.


Two kilometers from Chenji (Gingee) is Thiru Nathar Kundru (hill). The hillock on the western side of the road has two Jain caves and a huge boulder containing sculptures of all the 24 Theerthankaras (Jain Saints) in the ninth century style. An open rock nearby was the place where monk Chandranandi observed 57 days of fasting and died around sixth century CE.

Information from tourist book

author london swaminathan


Xxxx subham xxx

professor S Suriyanarayanan
subham

ஹிந்து வீரம்! (Post No.6290)

Written by S Nagarajan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 21 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-07

Post No. 6290

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

ச.நாகராஜன்

மேஜர் மஹம்மத் அக்பர் கான் 1939இல் பிரான்ஸில் பிரிட்டிஷ் எக்ஸ்பிடிஷனரி ஃபோர்ஸில் பணியாற்றியவர். அவர் அலகாபாத்தில் 1942இல் ஜனவரி 11ஆம் தேதி நிகழ்த்திய உரை ஒன்றில் இப்படிக் கூறினார்:

“பிரான்ஸ் தேசத்து மக்கள் இன்னும் இந்திய துருப்புகள் பிரான்ஸ் தேசத்தில்  வீரத்துடன் போரிட்டதை நினைவு கொண்டிருக்கிறார்கள்.  சென்ற பெரும் மஹா யுத்தத்தில்  மாட்சிமை தங்கிய மாமன்னர் இந்திய ராணுவ வீரர்களுக்கு விக்டோரியா கிராஸ் அளிக்க முடிவு செய்தார்.

வரலாறு இந்தியர்கள் தங்கள்  ரத்தத்தைப் பெருமிதத்துடன் தங்களை அணுகியோருக்கும் தங்களிடம் அன்பு பாராட்டியவர்களுக்காகவும் அளித்தவர்கள்.

வீரம் செறிந்த இந்திய ராணுவ வீரர்கள் மிகவும் மோசமான நிலையில் சண்டை புரிந்தவர்கள். இருந்த போதிலும் எப்போதும் அவர்கள் மலர்ச்சியுடன் இருந்தனர். அவர்களின் மன தைரியம் எப்போதுமே உச்சத்தில் இருந்தது.

**

லெப்டினண்ட் ஜெனரல் சர் லூயிஸ் ஹீத் இந்திய ராணுவ வீரர்களைப் பாராட்டி இப்படிக் கூறினார்:

இந்திய ராணுவ வீரர்கள் எதிரியைக் காண நேரிட்ட போதிலெல்லாம் அபார தைரியத்துடன் அவர்களுடன் சண்டையிட்டனர்.

நன்றி : ஆங்கில வார இதழ் ட்ரூத், தொகுதி 9 இதழ் 39 – 30-1-1942

இதன் ஆங்கில மூலம் கீழே தரப்படுகிறது:

  1. Major Md. Akbar Khan who was in the British Expiditionary force in France in 1939 in a lecture delivered in Allahabad on 11 January (1942) said:
  2.  

 “The French people still remember the valour of the Indian troops because it was in France during the last Great War that His Majesty the King decided to give Victoria Cross to Indian soldiers….

History was full of examples of Indians who proudly shed their blood for those who had been kind to them and who sought protection in their midst…

The brace Indian soldiers have fought under the worst conditions, yet they were always cheerful. Their morale was always high.”

2) Lieutenant General Sir Luis Heath commending the Indian troops said:

“ The Indians were fighting superbly whenever they got the chance to see and came to grips with the enemy.”

****

Source : Truth volume 9 Issue 39 dated 30-1-1942

How did Gopalakrishna Bharatiyar compose Nandanar Charitram? (Post No.6278)

Written by London swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 18 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 20-31

Post No. 6278

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MANU ON WITNESS, PERJURY, DEBT COLLECTION AND SURETY (Post No.6261)

Written  by London swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 13 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 16-02

Post No. 6261

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

So far, I have covered up to 106 slokas in the eighth chapter of Manu Smrti. Now let me continue from sloka 8-107

MY COMMENTS

1This section shows the economic conditions that prevailed at least 2000 years ago in India.

2.Manu talking about depositing gold, silver and copper objects (and not iron) also indicate ancient period- may be copper age

3. Fire ordeal, water ordeal and deciding by oath are in Hammurabi’s Code of Law. This shows the value of truth. People feared God and never dared to tell lies openly.

4.Manu gives the weight measurements of ancient days. 1000 Panaas is the highest punishment.

5.Manu’s sloka on different types on interests, sea voyages etc. show the adventurous foreign trade during those days. We have historical and ARCHAEOLOGICAL evidence of sea trade for at least 2300 years.

6.See 8-108- disaster will fall on one who gives false evidence

Interesting Stories

8-110- Sapta Rishis (seven seers) swore against Indra who had stolen lotus filaments (Mahabharata story)

Indra swore to escape punishments when he seduced Ahalya, wife of Gautama Rishi

Rig Vedic King was Sudas, son of Pijavana. He killed Sakti, son of Vasistha. But Viswamitra, official priest of Sudas, accused Vasishtaa of the murder. He accused Vasishta  a man eater. Then Vasishta swore an oath by touching the heads of his wives and sons. Even today Hindus talk of swearing by touching the head of his wife or son. Vasistha says, ‘ I may die if I am a man eating giant’- Rig Veda 7-104-15

The fact of the matter was Sudas killed 100 sons of Vasistha according to Brhaddevata (6-36)

7.See 8-116

FIRE WALKING ceremony is in the Pancavimsa Brahmana. Even today fire walking is practised in all the villages of South India. The story of Vatsa is given in full detail in the commentaries of Manu. Kanva had two sons- Madhatithi and Vatsa. Medhtithi reproached  Vatsa saying ‘You are not a priest because you are the son of a servant woman’.

Vatsa replied,

Let us walk through fire. Let it decide who is a true priest. At the end, not even a single hair of Vatsa was burnt. It is in other Brahmana books as well.

8.See 8-120 Thousand Panas is the maximum fine.

9.See 8-129 Four types of Punishment

10.See from 8-132 Hindu Weight Measurements. This shows Coin money existed even during Manu’s time

11. See 8-151 money lending and interest rates are discussed.

12.See 8-173 Be impartial like Yama.

8th chapter continued………….

FAILURE TO APPEAR IN COURT

8-107. A man who, without being ill, does not give evidence in (cases of) loans and the like within three fortnights (after the summons), shall become responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole (as a fine to the king).

108. The witness to whom, within seven days after he has given evidence, happens (a misfortune through) sickness, a fire, or the death of a relative, shall be made to pay the debt and a fine.

109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are available, and the (judge) is unable to really ascertain the truth, he may cause it to be discovered even by an oath.

DECIDE BY OATH

110. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of (deciding doubtful) matters; and Vasishtha even swore an oath before king (Sudas), the son of Pijavana.

111. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death.

112. No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) to women, the objects of one’s desire, at marriages, for the sake of fodder for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana.

SATYA PRAMAANAM

113. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya by his chariot or the animal he rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by his kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own head the guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka).

114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under water, or severally to touch the heads of his wives and children.

115. He whom the blazing fire burns not, whom the water forces not to come (quickly) up, who meets with no speedy misfortune, must be held innocent on (the strength of) his oath.

VATSA DID IT

116. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother, the fire, the spy of the world, burned not even a hair (of his) by reason of his veracity.

117. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) reverse the judgment, and whatever has been done must be (considered as) undone.

118. Evidence (given) from covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, lust, wrath, ignorance, and childishness is declared (to be) invalid.

119. I will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who gives false evidence from any one of these motives.

FINES FOR PERJURY

120. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one thousand (panas), (he who does it) through distraction, in the lowest amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two middling amercements shall be paid as a fine, (if he does it) through friendship, four times the amount of the lowest (amercement).

121. (He who does it) through lust, (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement, but (he who does it) through wrath, three times the next (or second amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance, two full hundreds, but (he who does it) through childishness, one hundred (panas).

122. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury, in order to prevent a failure of justice, and in order to restrain injustice.

123. But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) castes (varna) who have given false evidence, but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish.

BRAHMINS EXEMPTED

124. Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has named ten places on which punishment may be (made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) castes (varna); but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country).

125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the two hands, and fifthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the two ears, likewise the (whole) body.

126. Let the (king), having fully ascertained the motive, the time and place (of the offence), and having considered the ability (of the criminal to suffer) and the (nature of the) crime, cause punishment to fall on those who deserve it.

127. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame (after death), and causes even in the next world the loss of heaven; let him, therefore, beware of (inflicting) it.

KINGS GO TO HELL FOR WRONG JUSTICE

128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it, and punishes not those who deserve it, brings great infamy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell.

129. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition, afterwards by (harsh) reproof, thirdly by a fine, after that by corporal chastisement.

130. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal punishment, then let him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly).

131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions among men, I will fully declare.

WHAT IS 1000 PANA? HINDU TABLES

132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice, they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust).

133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse), three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to a white mustard-seed.

134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns one krishnala (raktika, or gunga-berry); five krishnalas are one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna.

135. Four suvarnas are one pala, and ten palas one dharana; two krishnalas (of silver), weighed together, must be considered one mashaka of silver.

136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana, or pana.

137. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana; four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka.

138. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement, five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one thousand as the highest.

MONEY LENDING AND INTEREST

139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a fine), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is the teaching of Manu.

140. A money-lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred.

141. Or, remembering the duty of good men, he may take two in the hundred (by the month), for he who takes two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for gain.

142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and five (and not more), he may take as monthly interest according to the order of the castes (varna).

143. But if a beneficial pledge (i.e. one from which profit accrues, has been given), he shall receive no interest on the loan; nor can he, after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time, give or sell it.

144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force, (the creditor), so using it, shall give up his (whole) interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by use) he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price; else he commits a theft of the pledge.

145. Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are both recoverable, though they have remained long (with the bailee).

146. Things used with friendly assent, a cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and (a beast) made over for breaking in, are never lost (to the owner).

147. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others during ten years, while, though present, he says nothing, that (chattel) he shall not recover.

148. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it is lost to him by law; the adverse possessor shall retain that property.

149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment.

150. The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall remit half of his interest, as a compensation for (such) use.

151. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double (of the principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair, (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original amount).

152. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate, being against (the law), cannot be recovered; they call that a usurious way (of lending); (the lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred.

TYPES OF INTERESTS

153. Let him not take interest beyond the year, nor such as is unapproved, nor compound interest, periodical interest, stipulated interest, and corporal interest.

154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time), wishes to make a new contract, may renew the agreement, after paying the interest which is due.

155. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may insert it in the renewed (agreement); he must pay as much interest as may be due.

156. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money and has agreed to a certain place or time, shall not reap that reward, if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated).

SEA VOYAGES

157. Whatever rate men fix, who are expert in sea-voyages and able to calculate (the profit) according to the place, the time, and the objects (carried), that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be made).

158. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a (debtor), and produces him not, shall pay the debt out of his own property.

159. But money due by a surety, or idly promised, or lost at play, or due for spirituous liquor, or what remains unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty, the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay.

160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for appearance (only); if a surety for payment should die, the (judge) may compel even his heirs to discharge the debt.

161. On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than for payment, whose affairs are fully known, the creditor may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)?

162. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to pay), then (the heir of him) who received it, shall pay (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule.

INVALID CONTRACTS

163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or insane, or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth), or wholly dependent, by an infant or very aged man, or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid.

164. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the settled usage (of the virtuous), can have no legal force, though it be established (by proofs).

165. A fraudulent mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and (any transaction) where he detects fraud, the (judge) shall declare null and void.

166. If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family, it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate even if they are divided.

167. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the family, the master (of the house), whether (living) in his own country or abroad, shall not rescind it.

NO FORCE

168. What is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has been caused to be written by force, and all other transactions done by force, Manu has declared void.

169. Three suffer for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety, and judges; but four enrich themselves (through others), a Brahmana, a money-lender, a merchant, and a king.

170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that ought not to be taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, decline taking that which he ought to take, be it ever so small.

171. In consequence of his taking what ought not to be taken, or of his refusing what ought to be received, a king will be accused of weakness and perish in this (world) and after death.

KINGS MUST FOLLOW YAMA

172. By taking his due, by preventing the confusion of the castes (varna), and by protecting the weak, the power of the king grows, and he prospers in this (world) and after death.

173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling himself.

174. But that evil-minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies soon subjugate.

175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards the ocean.

176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money (due).

177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he be of the same caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor) of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns something).

178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, who dispute with each other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and (other) evidence.

DEPOSITS, MORTGAGES

179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya).

180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery.

181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the depositor’s absence.

182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back).

183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others accuse him.

184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law.

185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter’s lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not lost.

186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor’s relatives.

187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary’s) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means.

188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something.

189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).

190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda.

191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed).

192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value).

193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another’s property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices.

194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine.

195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re-delivery.

196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary.

197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner and without the assent of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a witness (in any case).

198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of theft.

199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered as null and void, according to the rule in judicial proceedings.

8-200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession; such is the settled rule.

TO BE CONTINUED…………………

–SUBHAM–

UTTARAMERUR WONDERS (Post No.6242)

Written by London swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 8 April 2019


British Summer Time uploaded in London – 18-00

Post No. 6242  

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

Where is Uttaramerur?

It is near Chengalpatu in Tamil Nadu. It is a two and a half hour drive from Chennai in Tamil Nadu.

What is the wonder there?

A 1000 year old Choza period inscription describes procedure of democratic election.

The first reference to a democratic assembly is found in the oldest book in the world -The Rig Veda. It talks about Sabha and Samiti. Sabha is used even today in Tamil and Hindi for assembly and legislature. Samiti is used in English as Committee (Samiti=C/Somittee)

What else is there?

The town has over ten temples and they are all ancient temples with over 100 inscriptions.

Anything else interesting?

Yes. An inscription talks about cure for snake poison and another describes the qualification for the appointment of a professor. References to Vedagamas are there. Inscriptions cover four Palaava Kings from Nandhivarman of 750CE. Choza and other inscriptions are there.

Where is the election inscription?

It is in Vaikundaperumal (Vishnu)  Koil, well preserved by the department of archaeology.

Other important temples:

Sundaravaradaraja Perumal (Vishnu) temple

Kailasanathar (Shiva) temple

Kedareeswara Temple (Shiva)

Saptamata Temple

Balasubrahmanyam Temple

The temples have beautiful paintings of Apsaras and sculptures etc. The village has been there for over 2000 years. But Nandivarman donated it to Vedic Brahmins in the eighth century.

Mahabharata is enacted in the village every year.

After I visited the temple in March 2019, I came back to Chennai and met Dr R Nagaswamy, eminent archaeologist and historian. He gave me his book about Uttaramerur in Tamil and English. It gives full details about the temples and the inscriptions.

Along with my pictures I have added a few pages from his book. One must read the book before visiting the town to get the full benefit of the visit.



Following pictures re taken by me last week:-
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Sundaravaradaraja Perumal Temple
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Vaikuda Perumal temple with important Inscription
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Shiva Temple
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I Met Dr R Nagaswamy on 2nd April, 2019 at his residence in Chennai.
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My brother Professor S Suriyanarayanan accompanied me.

14 IMPORTANT VISHNU TEMPLES IN KANCHIPURAM! (Post No.6226)

Written by london swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 4 April 2019


British Sumer Time uploaded in London – 21-29

Post No. 6226

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

There are 108 Divya Desams, i.e. holy temples of Lord Vishnu in India. Out of the 108, 14 temples are in Kanchipuram. This is the highest number in a singe place.  There is another fact which place Kanchi ahead of other holy places. There are over 108 temples in Kanchipuram alone. It was the capital city of the mighty Pallava Dynasty who ruled for 600 years. They were the pioneers of cave temples in Tamil Nadu. The temple is under the control of archaeology department.

The Palava Temples can be easily identified by their lion pillars. In Kanchipuram there are two famous Pallava Temples and one of them is Vaikunta Perumal temple. Since I have already visited other famous temples such as Kailasanatha, Kamakshi Amman, Ekmpareswar, Chitra Gupta, kumara kottam , Sankaracharya Mutt, I made it a point to visit only temples not seen before during my March 2019 visit,

I will give some interesting information in bullet points:-

Location:-

Not far from Kanchipuram Railway station and Bus stand.

Names of God and Goddess:-

God-Sri Vaikunta Perumal

Goddess – Vaikunha valli Thayar

Vimanam Type- Mukunda Vmanam

Shrine is in three tiers with Lord Vishnu in three poses.

Architecture and Sculptures

There are beautiful sculptures of Pallava Period. It is also known as Parameswara Vinngaram

Inscriptions and sculptures here tell us the story of Palava Dynasty. It gives full information of King Nandivarman of Pallava dynasty.

Mythological story:-

King Virosana of Vidarbha Desa had no issues for a long time. He prayed to Lord Kailasanatha of Kanchi and he had two sons. Lord Vishnu’s gate keepers/ Dwara Palakas were born as Pallavan and Villvan as sons to the king. They did Aswamedha yajna and Lord Vishnu appeared before them and the same pose can be seen even today.

Golden Rain

An amazing amount of gold is donated to gods in this shrine:-

The temple has inscriptions of eighth century .

Abhimanasiddhi alias Pallavan donated a bowl and image made up of 1000 gold coins.

During Dantivarman period (812 CE) a bowl weighing 10,000 kazanju was donated to the god.

Avani Chandra donated 3000 kazanju gold to the temple.

Thiruvarangan Manikkam donated lands to feed the  Vaishnavas attending a festival.

This temple was Sung by Tirumangai Azvar – Verses 1128-1137

–subham–

SANSKRIT WORDS IN JAPANESE AND BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN CHINA! (Post No.6205)

Compiled by London swaminathan 


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 17 March 2019


GMT Time uploaded in London – 15-38


Post No. 6205

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by swamiindology.blogspot.com AND tamilandvedas.com))

SAROJ KUMAR CHAUDHURY in his book ‘Sanskrit in China and Japan’ has given amazing statistics of number of Buddhist temples that existed 1000 years ago in China. There is a staggering number of monks and nuns. The number of translations of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit works also is given in the tabular columns.

He has listed the Sanskrit words in Japanese separately. In over 300 pages he has given rare and unavailable materials. Sanskrit enthusiasts must buy this book and do further research.

He has made it very clear that the word Sanskrit is not used by them. They denoted everything Indian like the Brahmi script and the language with the word Siddham. It is derived from the regional name of Brahmi script.

Very interesting information along with the dates and names of scholars and their works are also found in the book. He has also given examples for how Brahma, Svaha etc are changed in Chinese.

Here are some informative pages from the book published in 2011:–

–subham–