AMAZONS OF INDIA!(Post No.7210)

Research article written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 13  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 20-33

Post No. 7210

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

–subham–

INDIAN MUSIC AND WESTERN MUSIC (Post No.7203)

Compiled by  London swaminathaan

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Date: 11  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 10-37 am

Post No. 7203

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

I have been throwing away all the paper cuttings and articles I have collected from 1974. I am clearing two cup boards full of paper cuttings, articles, my hand written notes in 20 note books. One article written by M S N Menon from ORGANISER weekly published in 2004 is very interesting. It compares the arts of India with the arts of the Western world in bullet points. I cannot resist publishing it here before throwing the small paper cutting into the bin. Please read the article if you are a fan of music.

Source -ORGANISER weekly, dated 19 December 2004

Author – MSN Menon

subham

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA (Post No.7189)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 7  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-36

Post No. 7189

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA were great Ayurvedic physicians who lived in India at least 2300 years ago. Hindus are very great editors and redactors and ‘up to date’ people. They kept on updating all their scriptures except the Vedas. No one dared to touch the Vedas. As a matter of fact they were not written until Muslims started destroying all Hindu institutions. Since Hindus updated everything in their hands, Marxists and White skinned half- baked scholars gave the latest date for al the books. For instance, if I add a   news item from London Times today, then they will dub the work as 7th November 2019. But Hindu scholars believe in the Kali Yuga calculation, Saka year calculation etc. I have given umpteen points to place Manu Smrti before Hammurabi.

Coming back to today’s topic Charaka and Susruta, scholars believe Charka Samhita is older than Susruta Samhita. These treatises passed through repeated recensions by later and more advanced workers.

According to the Chinese version of Tripitaka, a physician named Charaka was attached to the court of King Kanishka who reigned in the second century CE. But scholars point out that the appellation of Charaka occurs in Vedic literature as a patronymic name.

Differences

Charaka’s book is not as systematic as Susruta’s. He indulges in random and irrelevant discourses.

In the Charaka Samhita we find the author is fond of metaphysical disquisitions in preference to experiments and observations. The Susruta Samhita in this respect is far more scientific than the Charaka.

This shows that Charaka is more ancient, older than Susruta.

Again we find only Vedic gods and mantras in the Charaka treatise/ Samhita. He follows closely the authority of the Vedas. Between the Atharva Veda and that of the Charaka  there must have been several medical treatises , each reflecting the spirit and progress of the age.

Charaka himself records that he simply based his work on that of Agnivesha. At the time of Charaka  there existed at least six standard works by

Agnivesha,

Bhela,

Jatukarna,

Parasara,

Harita,

Ksharapani

Thus Charaka Samhita is not the first medical work. It represents rather a fairly developed state of the subject.

Replicas of Susruta’s Surgical Instruments (in London)

Medical conferences

There are chapters in the Charaka Samhita which suggests that it is a record of deliberations of a congress of medical experts. We already knew that Janaka organised big philosophical conferences where women scholars like Gargi attended. Emperor Asoka also organised very big Buddhist conferences. Hindus were the first to organise big conferences in the world.

Conference hints are in ‘Discourse on the Tastes’ in Charaka Samhita.

Charaka was a compiler like Vyasa of Mahabharata; we see lot of overlapping and repetitions and contradictions. Vyasa knew the danger of losing scriptures and Vedas . So he didn’t bother about repetitious but did compile the world’s largest literature. If one takes into account the puranas, Mahabharata and Vedas he compiled, one would understand the greatest work done by Vyasa.

In Charaka also we find overlap in their content. It appears to have gathered, sifted and brought into a definite form the information handed down from the preceding ages.

University Professor Agnivesha

Agnivesha, disciple of Atreya, was a university professor who lived 2600 years ago. During Buddha’s time he was teaching medicine at the University of Taxila (Thakshaseelam). It is written in the Buddhist Jataka story.

So we may safely conclude that Charaka belongs to the early Buddhist era or pre Buddhist period.  The information he provides regarding metals and metallic preparations, are of less advanced than those in the Arthasastra of Kautilya which was composed around 300 BCE.

Age of Susruta

Susruta’s terminology and technique in general do not differ much from those of the Charaka. Its style is dry, laconic and matter of the fact in contrast to the discursive and diffusive character of the Charaka Samhita.

Susruta aims at systematic classification; avoids unnecessary details. This indicates somewhat a later date of its composition. Modern recension is thoroughly redacted, recast and remodelled. Numerous passages agree verbatim with those found in the Charaka Samhita.

The Susruta is par excellence a treatise on surgery as the Charaka is on medicine proper.

In modern terms,

Charaka has M.D. qualification and Susruta has M.S qualification.

Susruta was disciple of Dhanvantri according to Buddhist Jataka and he was a teacher in the University of Kasi during Buddha’s time. He was a younger contemporary of Atreya so there cannot be a great interval between Charaka and Susruta.

They are repositories of accumulated knowledge of earlier periods dating back to the Vedic age.

–SUBHAM–

RARE CHEMISTRY/ ALCHEMY/ MEDICINE BOOKS OF ANCIENT INDIA (Post No.7178)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

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Date: 4 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-37

Post No. 7178

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

INDUS-SARASVATI VALLEY


In almost every country the progress of chemistry can be traced to medicine and alchemy. Alchemy details the method of changing base metals into silver or gold. It describes the elixir of life and philosopher’s stone. In India religious worship and certain religious rites are also included in the study of Chemistry or Rasayana. Throughout the Rig Veda we see people praying for 100-year life span. To keep themselves fit, they drank the Soma rasa which gave them long and healthy life. Indian life in all its aspects, social, political and intellectual has always been  under the mighty sway of religion. Soma rasa, juice of Soma plant is described as an Amrita (ambrosia, elixir of life).

Magic (Electric) Light

The ‘Vasavadatta’ and the’ Dasakumara charita’ in the sixth century allude to the preparation of a mass of fixed or coagulated mercury, (Paradindadrab), ; of a chemical powder capable of producing deep sleep or stupor by its inhalation ( Yoga churna); of a chemically prepared wick for producing light without fire (Yogabartika) and of a powder which acts like an anaesthetic and paralyses sensor and motor nerves, (Stambana churnam.) These are in the above mentioned two books.

MERCURY IN THERMOMETER

(Mercury is Paatha rasam in Tamil)


KUBJIKATANTRA is a manuscript in the collection of Maharajah of Nepal. This was written in Gupta character and copied in the sixth century. In one place of this Tantra work, Lord Shiva himself speaks about the efficacy of mercury when it is ‘killed’/ treated six times. Transmutation of copper into gold with the help of mercury is also explained.

Tantrics believe that preservation of body is necessary to achieve liberation through certain rites and mercury will  make the body undecaying and immortal.

Nagarjuna, the great Buddhist philosopher and alchemist is credited with a work called RASA RATNAKARA. He is also the reputed author of KAKSHAPUTA TANTRA and AROGYAMANJARI. He was the redactor of Susruta Samhita. He lived in the second century CE. There are two dialogues, one between Salivahana (Sathavahana) and Nagarjuna, and the other between Ratnagosha and Mandavya.

Letter of Nagarjuna

One Friendly epistle of Nagarjuna to King Udyana is available in Chinese and Tibetan languages. The Sanskrit original is lost. Sathavahanas ruled Andhra region in the first two centuries of modern era. It looks like there were more than one Nagarjuna. Arabian scholar Alberuni wrote about one Nagarjuna of Daihak near Somnath, nearly a century earlier than his own time. He was a great expert in alchemy according to Alberuni. Rasa ratnakara might have been written by the second Nagarjuna. In the Durbar Library of Nepal there are two more works attributed to Nagarjuna. They are Yogasara and Yogasatak.

RASARNAVA is a Hindu Saiva Tantra work which describes mercury as of divine origin. This book has valuable information on chemistry. Mica has been described as the seed of Goddess Gouri. It says mercury can not only improve the quality of metals but also can make human body undecaying and imperishable.


RASAHRIDAYA is another book which talks about ‘Rasa Siddhas’. They got another body without quitting their own bodies .

Asmaga was a Buddhist monk of Gandhara who lived around 400 CE. He composed Yogachara Bhumisastra. He introduced Patanjali yoga principles into Buddhism.

During the reign of the Pala Dynasty, there were many masters of magic and ‘Mantra Vajracharyas’, who performed the most prodigious feats with the Siddhis they attained. Siddhis are of eight types with which one becomes Superman with supernatural powers .


Following Buddhist works are minor chemistry books:-


RASAHRIDAYA was written by Govindabhagavat around 11 th century at the request of king of Bhutan, Kirataland .


RASENDRACHUDAMANI of Somadeva compiled lot of information from early works. He has praised Nagarjuna and others.


RASAPRAKASA SUDHAKARA by Yasodhara is another important work of 12th century.


Metallurgy of Zinc is explained in RASA RATNA SAMUCHCHAYA.


RASAKALPA is part of Rudrayamala Tantra which describes metals and minerals and the methods to kill/ treat them.


About the gigantic voluminous encyclopaedic Tibetan Tanjur and Kanjur, a separate article is posted already.

Please see the attached list of Chemistry Books (In Sanskrit):–

ONE PAGE FROM EACH CHEMISTRY BOOK

—–SUBHAM——

ஆஸ்கார் பரிசுக்கு ஏன் அப்பெயர் வந்தது? (Post No.7177)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

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Date: 4 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 8-25 am

Post No. 7177

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

1992ம் ஆண்டு ஏப்ரல் 26ம் தேதி நான் எழுதிய கட்டுரை-ஆஸ்கர் பரிசுகளின் தரம் குறைந்துவிட்டதா?

OSCAR PRIZE- WRITTEN BY S SWAMINATHAN FROM LONDON, ON 26TH APRIL 1992 IN DINAMANI.

–SUBHAM–

HINDU WONDERS – IRON PILLARS OF INDIA (Post No.7170)

Iron Pillar of Delhi
Iron Beams at Puri Temple


Written  by LONDON SWAMINATHAN


swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 2 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-37

Post No. 7170

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Iron Beams at Konarak Sun Temple

Nine Muses in Greece and Nine Ceremonies in China (Post No.7150)

Compiled by  London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 28 OCTOBER 2019

Time  in London – 15-40

Post No. 7150

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

In ancient China  the number nine wasimportant in tne I Ching and in the Book of Rituals ( (Li Chi), which speaks o  nine ceremonies and they are-

Puberty rite for men

Wedding

Audience

Ambassadorship

Burial,

Sacrifice

Hospitality

Drinking and

Military rituals

In the Han dynasty a nine based cosmology was for favoured.

The ninth day of the ninth month  was a men’s festival of ‘yang raised to a higher power.

There were nine earthly provinces, nine mountains, nine fields of heaven and so on.

The center of Beujing had 8 roads leading in to it , and these added to the one central point, made for a similar nonary structure.

In the West, there were nine orders of angels, nine cosmic spheres  in medieval cosmology, nine muses.

Greeks have also chosen Goddesses for the arts and poetry like Hindus.

The Muses are the nine goddesses of the arts, history and astronomy in Greece. The muses were not highlighted in mythologies, but writers and poets invoke them like Hindus before writing a book or performing dance and music. They are the source of inspiration for them like Goddess of Knowledge Saraswati or Goddess of wisdom, Ganesh.

Muses were among the retinue of the god Apollo, the patron of music and the arts. They were said to reside on Mount Helicon near Thebes or on Mount Parnassus near Delphi (Like Kailash or Mount Meru of Hindu Mythology).

Their names and branches of arts they preside over are as follows:

Name                        Meaning                              Arts

Calliope                         Beautiful voice                    Epic Poetry

Clio                                Fame                                      History

Erato                             Lovely                                    Lyric Poetry

Euterpe                         Joy                                          The Flute

Melpomene                   Singing                                  Tragic Drama

Polyhymnia                   Many Songs                         Mime

Terpsichore                   Joyful dance                             Dance

Thalia                            Good Cheer/Plenty            Comic Drama

Urania                             Celestial                               Astronomy

xxx

Idioms and phrases

We say that a cat has nine lives and a person who is ‘dressed to the nines’ in wearing his or her most elaborate finery.

Nine Muses | Tamil and Vedas



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4 Aug 2012 – Posts about Nine Muses written by Tamil and Vedas.

FOOTPRINTS OF LORD SHIVA & VISHNU IN CAMBODIA (Post No.7129)

From Sri Lanka
From Sri Rangam

COMPILED BY London Swaminathan

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Date: 23 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 7-34 AM
Post No. 7129

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Foot prints of Gods and Saints are worshipped through out India. We see them from Himalayas to Sivanoli Padam/ Adam’s Peak in Sri Lanka even today. (I have given the links to my earlier articles on Foot prints at the end).

Dr R C Majumdar, historian and author of voluminous books on South East Asia, have given some interesting information about the foot prints of Lord Shiva and Vishnu in South East Asia.

Dr Majumdar says,

“The two oldest inscriptions of Funan are Vaishnavite in character. The first begins with an invocation to Vishnu and records the pious donations of Kula Prabhavati, the Chief Queen of Jaya Varman. She installed a golden image of god in Kurumbanagara, inhabited by Brahmanas and also built an ‘aaraama’ (a park with hermitage) with a tank and a dwelling house.

The next inscription records the consecration of a foot print of Vishnu called Chakra Tirtha Svamin by Guna Varman, probably a son of Jaya Varman and Kula Prabhavati.

The third inscription belonging to the reign of Rudravrman is too fragmentary to yield a complete sense. It begins with an invocation to Buddha and contains the eulogy of a Brahmana and his family.

Worship of Vishnu’s foot print is well known in India. But we also find mention of the foot print of Shiva being held equally sacred in Kambuja (Cambodia). We learn from a record that a pious Brahmana consecrated the representation of a foot of Shiva  and a cistern for the ablution of god , on the top of a hillock. In the Saka year 526 (604 CE), the representation of the divine foot was surrounded by a brick wall. A fine image of Shiva with Parvati, seated on the left thigh of the god, was installed in Saka year 535 (613 CE).

Shoe worship | Tamil and Vedas



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15 Aug 2012 – Why Do Hindus Worship Shoes? By London swaminathan. “A pair of sandals worn by the Maharishi is expected to fetch £80,000 when they are …

Nayan Tara Temple in Syria with Mysterious Foot Prints! (Post …



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8 Apr 2017 – Written by London swaminathan Date: 8 APRIL 2017 Time uploaded in London:- 13-47 Post No. 3799 Pictures are taken from various sources; …

Footprints on sands | Tamil and Vedas



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12 Jul 2017 – Written by London Swaminathan Date: 12 July 2017. Time uploaded in London- 18-24. Post No. 4074. Pictures shown here are taken from …

Durga | Tamil and Vedas



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20 Jul 2018 – The kings foot prints were engraved on a boulder and it indicated he ruled or conquered that area. In the text of the inscription he compared his …

காலமெனும் மணலிற் காலடி ‘Footprints …



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7 Oct 2018 – Tamil and Vedas … காலமெனும் மணலிற் காலடி ‘Footprints on the … some of his most famous poems, including the Village Black Smith. … Manu and Longfellow: Great Men think Alike (Post No.4074)In …

–Subham–


Vallalar Ramalinga Swamikal’s Footwear.

—subham–

CHINA PLUNDERED VIETNAM – TOOK ONE LAKH POUNDS OF GOLD! (Post No.7126)

Vietnamese Crowns from 100 year old book

COMPILED BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

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Date: 22 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-55 am
Post No. 7126

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Malayan Peninsula was called Swarnabhumi in Indian literature. It is proved by the  temple donations made by the Hindu kings of Vietnam (Champa) and Cambodia (Kamboja).

The booty taken by the Chinese from time to time after the sack of Champa (Vietnam ruled by Hindus was known as Champa) throws interesting light on the wealth and social condition of the country. In 446 CE, they took 1,00,000 pounds of pure gold. In 605 CE they took the golden tablets of eighteen kings,  1350 Buddhist manuscripts and also some musicians.

King Jayavarman VII of Cambodia founded 121 Dharmasalas and 102 hospitals and erected 798 temples according to the inscriptions.

Naked people wore clothes!

An interesting account of the people of Funan is given in a Chinese text composed in the beginning of sixth century CE. It shows the great changes that had come over them as a result of Hindu rule. The most important of these was the wearing of clothes. Men and women went about naked when Kaundinya first landed in the country about the first century. Even the Naga princess (Soma) he married had no clothes on. But we read in the Chinese account mentioned above that the men of noble families use sarong made of brocade. The poor people covered their bodies with a piece of cloth.

(even R C Majumdar, who quoted above passages says that the Chinese are wrong. The people wore minimum clothes and they were not naked)

(My comments- Even Mahatma Gandhi, after seeing Tamil farmers, wearing a piece of cloth, started wearing minimum clothes. And Winston Churchill called him ‘half naked fakir’).

Back to Champa…….

The people were used to luxury. Their articles of trade were gold, silver and silk. They used golden rings and bracelets and silver vessels. They organised cock fight and pig fight for their amusement. They constructed boats 80 to 90 feet long and 6 to 7 feet wide, the front and back of which were shaped like head and tail of a fish. The king lived in a storeyed pavilion. The women also used to ride on elephants.

Chinese accounts

The luxury and wealth of other colonies is also referred to in the Chinese texts. The following account of Po-li is preserved in the History of the Liang Dynasty.

“The king’s name is Kaundinya. He uses the texture of flowered silk wrapped around his body ; on his head he wears a golden bonnet of more than a span high, and adorned with various precious stones (gems). He carries a sword inlaid with gold and sits on a golden throne, with his feet on a silver footstool. His female attendants are adorned with golden flowers and all kind of jewels, some of them holding chowries of white feathers or fans of peacock feathers. When the king goes out, his carriage which is made up of different kinds of fragrant wood, is drawn by an elephant. On the top of it is a flat canopy of feathers, and has embroidered curtains on both sides. People blowing conches and beating drums precede and follow him.

Source book- Ancient Indian Colonisation in South East Asia by DR R C Majumdar, 1953/1954 Lectures

One pound is 453 grams.

subham–

PANDYA & CHOZA INSCRIPTIONS ON SOUTH EAST ASIA (Post No.7125)

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Date: 22 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 14-08 am
Post No. 7125

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Hindu Rule in South East Asian countries must be made a compulsory subject in India. Students must study it from the high school days, the history, stage by stage because it is a 1500 year long history covering nearly eight countries and their relationship with India and China. The glory of Tamils will also be revealed through this study.

Choza and Pandya kings had powerful naval forces and they were able to defeat kings in Indonesia by sending forces from the mainland. Tamil king Sri Maran began the long history in Vietnam (Champa). He was taken there by saints like Agastya and Kaundinya. The names of these two Brahmin saints are all over South East Asian countries.

After the earliest inscription of Sri Maran (Pandya) in second century CE we come across Pandya and Choza inscriptions only from tenth century. Probably cordial relationship existed between the Kings in mainland and kings in South East Asia (S.E.A.) till that time.

Two inscriptions of Rajendra Choza (in India), dated  1017 and 1022 respectively, refer to his conquest in Kataha or Kadaram (Keddah in Malayan peninsula). Several inscriptions of later period  beginning from 1024-5 CE give a detailed account of his oversea conquests, giving a long list of countries conquered by him.

Rajendra Choza sent a big naval expedition and defeated Sangama Vijayottunga Varman, the King of Kadaram. Then follow the 13 countries or places won by him,  beginning with Sri Vijaya and ending with Kadram (covering the areas of present day Cambodia, Thailand ,Malaysia and Indonesia).

Source – Thiruvalangadu Plates dated 1017-18

The great oversea victory is a unique event in the annals of Indian history. It proves the existence of a powerful naval forces in ancient India.

Two inscriptions of Vira Rajendra  inform us that sometime before 1069-79 CE , he conquered Kadaram on behalf of a king who sought his help. This shows some power struggle there even after Rajendra Choza’s victory.

Half a century after this,  Choza  Kulottunga (1070-1118) also talk of destroying Kadaram.

Chinese chronicles refer to this place as the kingdom of San-fo-tsi. The king who ruled this kingdom was Sili- Tieh- wa (Sri Deva).

Sri Deva may be Rajendra Choza, according to Dr R C Majumdar, the authority on S E A history.

Pandyan Naval Forces

The Ceylonese chronicles have preserved an interesting account of two invasions of Ceylon by a king of Javaka , called Chandrabhanu , about 1236 and 1256. In an inscription dated 1264 CE, Jatavarman Vira Pandya of South India claims to have killed the Savaka (Java) king, and in another inscription , dated the next year, the king of Kadaram was said to have been defeated by him. It must be Chandrabhanu who was killed.

Arab writers used Zabag for Javaka (te present day Java ,part of Indonesia).

An inscription of Chnadrabhanu has been found at Chaiya near Ligor and it has been dated 1230 CE. The king has been identified with the Javaka king of that name. He is said to have been born in the family of lotus and called Lord of Tambralinga. This seems to indicate the head quarters of Javaka (zabag) were in Malayan peninsula

(My comment:- Tambra= Lotus= Thamarai in Tamil)

The lists of Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions of Malayan Peninsula are in Wikipedia:-

Sanskrit inscriptions: –

Ligor, Kedah, Kutai Tugu inscriptions

Tamil inscriptions:-

Neusu, Kedah, Barus inscriptions.

Source Book R C Majumdar’s Ancient Indian Colonisation in S E A.

–subham–