Index to Vedas by Katyayana and Significance of No.432,000! (Post No.4313)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date:18 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 20-46

 

 

Post No. 4313

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

Hindu civilisation has reached its pinnacles during Vedic period itself.

They wrote the first grammar book and they taught grammar in the Vedic school. And even before Panini of seventh century BCE , they had  umpteen grammarians. We were fortunate enough to get the Book of Panini (Seventh Century BCE), but others were lost.

 

We wrote the first Nikandu /Thesaurus and we added the Contents and Index to the Vedas, Even the law book written by Manu, was earlier than Hammurabi who lived in 2600 BCE. The latest version of Manu Smrti, we have today is from second century BCE. Since the name of Manu occurs several times in the RV. Manu refers to Sarasvati river, we know he lived at the time of Sarasvati’s mighty flow. Now due to the satellite picture from NASA and Carbon-14 dating of the underground water by the Bhaba Atomic Research Institute, the date of Sarasvati’s disappearance is fixed 2000 BCE or earlier. So Manu who wrote the original book must have lived well before that. He never mentioned Sati, like the RV. During Vedic period, there was no Sati/widow burning. So the original Manu Smrti belongs to Rig Vedic period. This is confirmed by his definition of Brahmavarta and Aryavarta (Manu Chapter 2). He mentioned the rivers Drsadvati and Sarasvati. Aryas included all the four Varnas/castes according to Rig Veda (10-90).

 

All the anti Shudra verses in the Manusmrti are added to it during the Sunga period. Sunga Kings were Brahmins. Anyone who reads Manu from top to bottom could easily find the interpolated portions. They go against the natural flow of Manusmrti. They are not only controversial but also contradictory.

Beautiful Vedic Index

Katyayana who lived before 600 BCE counted all the hymns, mantras, syllables in the Rik Veda and prepared the Anukramani/ Index. He did a painstaking research and counted everything in the Vedas, leaving no scope for interpolation or corruption.

 

Sarvanukramani (Rig Vedic Index) of Katyayana gives the first word of each hymn, the number of the verses, the name and the family of the poets, the names of the deities and the metres of the verses. Saunaka did another anukramani based on the Anuvakas.

Yajur Veda has three anukramanis .

And we have anukramanis for Sama and Atharva Veda as well, one each.

It is strange that someone had such a scientific approach 2600 years ago, when most of Europe was semi civilised or barbaric. If some society has reached the heights of philosophical thought around 850 BCE (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad), no wonder they have mastered numbers grammar, linguistics and language.

Significance of 432,000

The number of syllables in the Rig Veda is 432,000.

This number has a great significance in Hinduism

The total number of years in Kali Yuga is 432,000 years. Other Yugas have the multiple of this number.

Half baked and biased foreigners argued that Yuga cycles and the big numbers are added to Hindu scriptures later. Now this number 432,000 and the very big numbers in the Brahmanas prove them wrong

Katyayana’s count of Verses in the RV is 10,662 (minus the appendix- 10,402)

The words in the RV – 1,53,826

We have lost lot of our Vedic literature. Even during Vyasa’s time (3100 BCE+), Vedas had become very bulky and unmanageable. So he divided it into four (Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharvana) and gave the responsibility of teaching it to the future generations by the word of mouth. It is great wonder that tradition has been maintained until today. Brahmins deserve great admiration for doing this wonderful task.

Even with all the google, internet and computers in our hands,we find it difficult to analyse all the 20,000 plus mantras in the four Vedas, leave alone the very huge Brahmana literature.

Let us salute the great Vedic Seers and the Brahmins

.

-Subham–

 

 

Hero Stone Worship in North India (Post No.4286)

Image of Hero Stone in Karnataka

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date:9 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 18-15

 

 

Post No. 4286

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Hero Stones are erected by ancient Tamils for those killed in some community work. We have ancient hero stones found in different parts of Tamil Nadu from 5th century CE. Two-thousand-year-old Sangam Tamil literature also refers to it.

In Tamil Nadu and adjacent places Hero stones are placed in the road junctions and they are worshipped. The hero stones were erected for those who sacrificed their lies for others, particularly killing a tiger, or saving a village from an attack.

In Karnataka and Rajasthan, Pattinis, women who sacrificed their lives were worshipped. Thus India has 1000s of God like people who are elevated to the  status of divinities.

 

Tamil inscriptional Evidence

Tamil inscription names even a dog called Kovivan in a hero stone. Mahendra Pallava’s Eduthanur Hero Stone inscription praised Kovivan that died with his master in the battle. This Tamil inscription belongs to sixth century CE.

 

Erecting a stone or a pillar over the burial or the place of cremation has been practised by lot of communities around the world. Probably this pagan custom resulted in erecting decorative graves by the Christians where the pillar was replaced by a cross.

Hero Stone from Gotlur

Bridegroom’s Tragic Death mad him a Hero!

Dulhaa Deo (Bridegroom God) is worshipped in North India. Dulhaa Deo was an unfortunate bridegroom who was killed by lightning marriage ceremonies. People believed he and his horse were stoned into stones. Actually, people erected stones in memory of the horse and the rider like the Tamils.

 

General Sleeman gives a different version about this accident: In the valley of Nerbudda (River Narmada), near Bhopal, one may see on the side of the road, upon a spur of the hill, a singular pillar of sand stone rising in two spires. On the spur of a hill half a mile distant is another sand stone pillar not quite so high. The tradition is that the smaller pillar was the affianced bride of the larger one, who was a youth of great eminence in those parts. When the bride and bridegroom along with his uncle looked at each other discarding the rules (not to look at each other before the ceremony) they were converted into stones.”

This deity is one of the chief household gods of the tribal people. Flowers are offered to him on the last day of February, and a goat at marriages. In some places, even Brahmins worship him., and his symbol is a fetish battle axe, fastened to a tree.

 

In Mirzapur he is worshipped in the family cook room, where oil and turmeric are offered to him; when two or three marriages are taking place at the same time there is a combined offering of rice and goat.

Memorial Stone from Andhra Pradesh

 

In course of time, lot of different customs get mixed up, particularly among illiterate people. Hundreds of such customs exist in Tamil Nadu. Road side stones/deities are offered various things such as lemon, coconut, flowers and incense sticks. In several places like Sabarimala, Madurai Chitra festival even Muslims are linked with Hindu Gods.

Rev Osborne Martin, author of Gods of India even point out similar custom in the Bible:

“For a father afflicted with untimely morning, when he had made an image of his child soon taken away, now honoured him as a god which was then a dead man: Thus in process of time an ungodly custom grown strong was kept as law.”

 

—subham–

 

 

Puja to King George! Abisheka to Queen Victoria!! Scenes from British India (Post No.4283)

King George and Queen Mary

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 8 October 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-05

 

Post No. 4283

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

Puja to King George! Abisheka to Queen Victoria!! Scenes from British India (Post No.4283)

The Gods of India by Rev. E Osborn Martin published in 1914, gives some interesting information about the Hindu ‘slaves’ in the British India. This is what made many freedom fighters’ blood boil. Poets like Bharati and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee tried to educate the Hindu people through their writings. Ignorant Hindus justified everything in the name of Fate and Karma. Even some scholars openly supported the British. In Tamil Nadu, Justice party and Dravida Kazakam wanted the British Rule to continue in India. All the text books had one poem praising the King and the Queen.

Here is what Osborne Martin says in his book,

“There is no limit to this kind of deification in India. Volumes might be written describing instances that have occurred, or are constantly occurring, in all parts of the country. Let a man show any heroism, any extraordinary sanctity, any act of great self-sacrifice or any so-called miracle, a niche is sure to allotted him amongst the 330, 000, 000 gods of the Hindu pantheon. Still it is important to note that the granting of divinity is usually associated with four classes of people -kings, warriors, Brahmins, saints and sages—these enjoying a kind of a priory claim.

 

In Manu’s law book a king is said to be created by drawing eternal particles from the essence of the eight guardian deities of the world. Again, he says “A king even though a mere child, must not be treated with contempt, as if he were a mortal; he is a great divinity in human shape.”

 

Instances of such worship came under writer’s notice. At Ayodhya, a new marble statue has been recently erected in memory of Queen Victoria, and within a few weeks of the erection of the statue a constant stream of pilgrims was offering worship, poring sacred water and scattering flowers on the pedestal of the good Queen’s statue.

At the recent Durbar at Delhi, when King George and Queen Mary amid scenes of unparalleled magnificence had received the homage of all India and taken their departure over the arena and, prostrating themselves before the empty thrones, offered ‘Puja’ or worship- as a mark of their extreme veneration. After which they carried away to their homes handfuls of dust from the place where their Majesties had stood. The same occurred after the gorgeous pageant in Calcutta.

 

There is a striking parallel in Wisdom of Solomon (xiv.v.20, “And so the multitude, allured by the grace of the work, took him now for a god, which a little before was but honoured as a man.”

 

STORY OF GAZI MIYAN

The Transition from the worship of kings to that of military heroes and warriors is easy. An example will be given in this chapter of a Muhammadan warrior, GHAAZI MIYAAN, who with the wonderful catholicity of Hinduism, is probably more reverenced today by the Hindus than by the Muhammadans.

The extraordinary catholicity of Hinduism was never better illustrated than in the case of Ghazi Miyan, or  Sayyid Salaar Masaud to give him his real name. Muhammadan though he was, nephew of the ruthless Muslim conqueror, the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, whose career is written in blood on the pages of Indian History.

 

Ghazi Miyan was born in A D  1015 ad led one of the early invasions into Oudh and was slain in battle with the Hindus at Bahraich in AD 1034. Close to the battlefield where he met his death is a tank with the image of the Sun God on a stone slab on its banks. Masaud, whenever he passed it, was wont to say that he wished to have this spot for a dwelling place and would, if it so pleased god, through the spiritual sun, destroy the worship of the material. He was therefore buried by his followers in this chosen resting place, and tradition avers that his head rests on the image of the sun he had given his life to destroy.

 

Some believe that the worship of Masaud merely succeeded some primitive local worship such as that of the sun, and it is significant that the great ceremony in  honour of the martyr is called byah, or marriage of the saint, which may also be a continuation of the ancient marriage of earth and the Sun celebrated to promote fertility of crops. Every year a Mela/festival is held in Bahraich for which pilgrims from far off places come by walk. After the marriage was held, water brought by the pilgrims in pots are poured and this water, people believed, had miraculous properties.

 

Statue of Queen Victoria

Nikkal Sen

A still more remarkable case occurred in the Panjaab where a nobody of Fakirs became Nikkal Sen worshippers. General Nicholson, the mutiny hero, who met his death at the assault of Delhi, was a horseman of unexampled bravery.. He frequently made night journeys of wonderful speed and confronted his enemies by suddenly appearing before them.  His followers, the hardy Northern Tribesmen, from adoration rose to worship of their hero. Nicholson was much annoyed, and tried to stop the progress of deification by administering corporal punishment, but it made them persist in their “puja” with even greater determination, as the chastisement was regarded as an additional proof of this divinity. On hearing of Nicholson’s death, the head of the committed suicide.

 

Coming the Brahmins, Manu affirms that a Brahmin is a mighty god, a supreme divinity, whether he be learned, or even employed in inferior occupations (Manu 9-317, 319)

From the birth alone a Brahmin is regarded as a divinity even by the gods (Manu 11-84) Especially are religious teachers, Gurus, objects of worship among Hindus.

 

My comments

Ghazi Miyan story is a hotchpotch of several earlier ancient customs. Even in my home town Madurai in Tamil Nadu, Lord Vishnu visits a Muslim woman’s ‘house’ every year during Chitra Festival. Islam came very recently when compared with the history of Hinduism. Various things get mixed up and people slowly concoct a story.

 

Regarding the Saints and Miracles, Europe is full of such Catholic saints and  places of worship such as Lourdes in France and Lady Fatima in Portugal. They make big Money by selling lot of mementoes and sacred objects, holy water etc. Joan of Arc, who was burnt alive at the stake, was made into a saint later. There over 800 saints in the catholic religion. In countries like Ireland all the old beliefs are attributed to later Christian saints. In Communist countries Mao, Stalin, Lenin, Marx, Engles were also elevated to venerable status. Big statues, eternal flames, thousands of stamps celebrate their memory. So hero worship is there in every country. You may call them saints, political thinkers or leaders. Buddha who fought against all the rituals, has the highest number of statues all over the world!!! Is it not strange? Not many people follow his teachings but the statues decorate many tables and temples!

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

MIRACULOUS ASVINI DEVAS IN THE MYSTERIOUS RIG VEDA! (Post No.4228)

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 20 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-11

 

Post No. 4228

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

Rig Veda is a great book! Oldest anthology in the world! Oldest religious book in the world! Dated between 1200 BCE and 4500 BCE! One derives great pleasure when one reads it. Every page shows you different things. A lot of words are used only once. Foreigners struggle to find the meaning of them! 100 different “scholars” give 100 different meanings despite Sayana’s interpretation!

 

Asvini Devas are the most interesting and Mysterious angels: They are twins! “Scholars” tried to compare them with different twins in different cultures; but you will have a good laugh when not even a fraction of similarity is found there!

World’s First Community Service!

One will be wonder struck to know the community service they did for the general public. They were the surgeons and doctors of the heaven and earth. Their stories are full of miracles. They show the marine power of the Hindus of the Vedic period.

 

Tugra’s son Bhujyu was lost in a shipwreck; Immediately Asvini Devas rushed there in 100 oared ship and brought him ashore after three days: Imagine how deep they went into the sea! Some idiots argued that Vedic Hindus did not know sea. If you read Rig Veda you will dub those people as the Worst idiots of the world!

Rig Vedic Hymns 1-112, 1-116, 1-117, 1-118, 1-119, 1-120 and several other hymns have the adventures of Asvins.

xxx

 

Arrangements according to an ascending order of significance are quite effective. Thus the passage describing the mounting significance of syllables,

Agni with one syllable won speech;

the Asvins with two syllables won expiration and inspiration,

Vishnu with three… the three worlds

Soma with four… the four footed cattle

Pusan with five.. the Pankti,

Prajapati with seventeen – the seventeen fold stoma.

 

This shows that the Vedic Hindus were great mathematicians. Their use of decimal system throughout Rig Veda and syllable based prosody show that they were highly educated.

xxx

Asvins fix the broken leg of Vispala! They were great surgeons! They could do anything. They were the ones who extricated people from big troubles; they were the twins who rushed to help anyone in distress. They were involved in great social service. They were the pioneers of Red Cross! They beat Florence Nightingale in nursing field by several thousand years.

 

The Asvins rescued Rebha who hid in a well as if he were in a pitcher of gold – 1-117-12

 

This shows that the Rig Vedic society was very wealthy. The talk about gold in hundreds of hymns.

 

They restored the health of an old seer called Chyavana. They were great gerontologists!

 

These twin deities are ever young and handsome, bright and full of glory! They are the earliest bringers of light in the morning sky. They reveal to the Gods the places where the Soma plant of magical properties grows!

Who were they?

Are they friends? are they brothers? No one knew!

Why were they called Asvinau? Horse men?

Is it because they rode horses? No one knew!

Because their chariots were drawn by horses, sometimes by swans; sometimes by donkeys; at other times by falcons.

They were golden in colour, bright, swift and fast.

They travelled before Ushas, the goddess of dawn. They brought the light to the world!

The twins have two names! Dasra (light emitting) and Nasatya ( not untruth). What fantastic names they had!

xxx

 

Rig Veda have several hymns on them. Foreigners become pukka idiots when it came to Asvins. Because no European civilization has similar gods. They tried very hard to compare them with Discouri and Kastor and Polydeukes in Greek mythology, Castor and Pollux (Gemini) in the Roman mythology. The Baltik supreme Gods Dievas had twin sons known as Dievo Suneliai who ride on their divine horses. Cunning foreigners never tell us that these divinities were 3000 years junior to Vedic Asvins!!! Greeks did not even start writing literature before 800 BCE (Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey)

xxx

The Asvins are described as carrying Surya or Soma (Sun, Moon) in their chariot as well as Madhu (honey). The chariot itself is drawn by horses;the gods are also associated with birds—swans and eagles/falcons – and with asses.

 

Their abode is variously described as the celestial sphere, mid-air, plants, houses and also mountain tops (Sangam Tamil literature describes Anangus/angels dwell in these places)

xxx

They are intimately related with the number three; for, together with surya whom they carry in their chariot they make an archetypal trio.

Many actual exploits together with real historical names are mentioned; they rescued drowning men, men in a burning house, they replaced a broken leg with a wooden one, cured many people from apparently incurable diseases and helped others of dangerous predicaments. The number of actual names mentioned in connection with the Asvins compares only with those in the Indra myths. This led to the belief they were ancient kings who lived long long before Rig Vedic times.

 

Yaska’s Views!

Yaska, quotting the historical school says, Who, then, are these Asvins?

some say they are the Sun and Moon

some say that they are the sky and the Earth

yet others say that they are the day and Night;

but the historians say that they were pious kings.

Asvins have no parallels in any other culture!

 

When they use their whip, honey drops from their whips!!!

 

The heaven and  earth are manifestly the Asvins, for they (heaven and earth) have pervaded everything- Satapata Brahmana 4-1-5-16

 

xxx

Roman coin

A Story

An incident is recorded in the Aitareya Brahmana 2-25 which seemed to threaten the breach of of the peace among gods, but which was amicably settled:

“The gods did not agree in regard to the first draught of Soma. Each of them desired, Let me drink first! Let me drink first! But coming to an arrangement they said, ‘Come let us run a race, and the victor shall be the first to drink Soma. Agreed, said they all. They ran a race accordingly; and when they started and ran Vayu first reached the goal, then Indra, then Mitra and Varuna and last the Asvins. Indra thought he might beat Vayu (wind god) and he followed him closely; and said Let is two now be the victors. No rejoined Vayu, I alone shall be the winner. Let us so win together that I shall have a third of draught, said Indra. No said Vayu. I alone shall be the winner. Let us so win together that I shall have the fourth, continued Indra. Agreed said Vayu. He gave him a right to the fourth. So Indra has one share out of the four and Vayu three. So Indra and Vayu won together, as did Mitra and Varuna, and the two Asvins respectively”.

 

We may not understand the full impact of the story today. But Vedic Hindus were great sportsmen. They decided everything by horse race or chariot race or running race!

 

Elsewhere it is said the Asvins never drank Soma. They refused to drink Soma. Another mystery!

Agni ran the race in a car drawn by mules,

Ushas in one drawn by ruddy bulls,

Indra in one drawn by ruddy horses

while the Asvins carried off the prize in a car drawn by asses. In the Rig Veda 1-116-2 , the asses also are said to have won the race.

In the great race run by the gods for the Asvina Shastra prize, the Asvins were the winners with a carriage drawn by the donkeys. Thence on account of the excessive efforts to arrive at the goal, the donkeys lost their originality, became devoid of milk and the slowest of all animals used for drawing carriages – Aitareya Brahmana 4-9

 

xxx

Let these songs sharpen you, O Asvins, as a whetstone sharpens the sword-  3-39-7

This shows the Rig Vedic society was full of heroes. Even Avvaiyar of Sangam Tamil literature mocks at a king when he had shiny swords where as his enemy had blunt swords, ie, he was more experienced in warfare where as the other king was a novice in the field.

Elsewhere the Rig Vedic mother prays for heroes as children.

xxx

O Asvins, fly like two swans towards the Soma pressed here- 5-78-1

xxx

The Asvins are frequently invoked to rush to the sacrifice as a pair of deer, cows or more commonly two birds or swans 5-78-1/2

My previous post:–

Asvini Devas on Different Chariots: Rig Veda Mystery- 4 …

tamilandvedas.com/2014/10/13/asvini-devas-on…

Asvini Devas on Different Chariots: Rig Veda Mystery- 4. Research paper written by London Swaminathan Research article No.1343; Dated 13th October 2014.

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

Max Muller Exposed! True Colours of Max Muller! (Post No.4224)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 18 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 18-10

 

Post No. 4224

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

It is true that Friedrich Max Muller, the German born philologist and Orientalist, spent most of his life in studying the Vedas. It is also true that he edited and published 51 Volume Sacred Books of the East. But not many people knew that he was like a coolie worker who got the wages from East India Company and started translating the Vedas to denigrate them. As he matured, he changed his views a little. But even the professorship he held in the universities stipulated that he should uphold the Christian religion, which he did faithfully.

 

Like a snake he had split tongue. Sometimes he praised the Vedas and other times he scoffed at them. Why? Anyone who studies Max Muller’s writings can see one thing crystal clear. Whenever he praised the Vedas, he would show that the Aryans and Germans lived under one roof at one time and then the Aryans entered India. This is what he paid for by the East India Company and the universities. He and Caldwell distorted the history of India by giving a new meaning for the word Aryan. In the Vedas and Sangam Tamil literature it hasn’t got any racial connotation. But he deliberately gave a racial meaning and instead of using the word Vedic Hindus, throughout his writing he used Aryans. He and people like Caldwell created Hitler who was so obsessed with the word Arya and Hindu Swastika symbol. The atrocity Max Muller did against the Hindus and the Jews was immeasurable.

Here is a piece which shows his true colours, a paid coolie to show that India was full of migrants; this shows his wishful thinking: –

MY GREATEST DISCOVERY: MAX MULLER

“If I were asked what I consider the most important discovery which has been made during the nineteenth century, with respect to the ancient history of mankind, I should answer by the following short line

“Sanskrit DYAUSH PITAR= Greek ZEUS PATER = Latin JUPITER = Old Norse TYR”

“Think what this equation implies! It implies not only that own ancestors and the ancestors of Homer and Cicero (the Greeks and Romans) spoke the same language as the people of India – this is a discovery, which however incredible it sounded at first, has long ceased to cause any surprise – but it implies and proves that they all had once the same faith, and worshipped for a time the same supreme Deity under exactly the same name- a name which meant Heaven Father”.

 

Those simple hearted forefathers of ours, says Kinsley, “looked round upon the earth and said within themselves, ‘where is the All Father. If All Father there be? Not in this earth; for it will perish. Nor in the sun, moon or stars; for they all will perish too. Where is He who abideth for ever?

“Then they lifted up their eyes, and saw, as hey thought, beyond sun and moon, and stars and all which changes and will change, the clear blue sky, the boundless firmament of heaven.

“That never changed; that was always the same. The clouds and storm rolled far below it, and all the bustle of this noisy world; but there the sky was still, as bright and as clam as ever. The All father must be there, unchangeable in the unchanging heaven; bright and pure and be there and boundless like the heavens.; and like the heavens too, silent and far off.

 

And how, says Max Muller, did they call that All Father?

 

Five thousand years ago, it may be earlier, the Aryans speaking neither Sanskrit, Greek or Latin, called him Dyupatar- Heaven Father

 

Four thousand years ago, or it may be earlier, the Aryans who had travelled southward to the rivers of the Punjab called him Dyaush-Pita, Heaven father.

 

Three thousand years ago, or it may be earlier, the Aryans on the shores of the Hellespont, called him Zeus Pater, Heaven father

Two thousand years ago, the Aryans of Italy looked up to that bright heaven above, and called it Jupiter, Heaven father.

“And a thousand years ago the same Heaven Father and All father was invoked in the dark forests of Germany by the Teutonic Aryans, and his old name of Tiu or Zio was then heard perhaps for the last time.

 

“If we want a name for the invisible, the infinite, that surrounds us on every side, the unknown, the True Self of the world and true self ourselves – we, too, feeling once more like children, kneeling in a small dark room, can hardly find a better name than ‘Our Father which art in Heaven.”

 

There are clear traces in some of the hymns of the Rig Veda that at one time Dyaus, the sky, was the supreme deity.

At an early period, however, the earth under the name Prithvi, was associated with Dyaus. The Aitareya Brahmana mentions their marriage: The gods then brought the two (Heaven and Earth) together, and when they came together, they performed a wedding of the Gods

 

The ancient Greeks had the same idea. The earth is addressed as Mother of Gods, the wife of the Starry Heaven, Their marriage too is described

 

The Hindus thought their gods were much like themselves; so heaven and earth were called the father and mother of the Gods.

 

In the hymns there are various speculations about the origin of Dyaus and Prithvi. A Perplexed poet enquires, “Which of these was the first, and which the last? How they have been produced

? Sages, who knows?”

 

In the Vedas Dyaus is chiefly invoked in connection with the Earth. He is invoked by himself also, but he is a vanishing God, and his place is taken in most of the Vedic poems by the younger and more active God, Indra”.

 

MY COMMENTS:

Max Muller’s Lies!

Sanskrit and Sanskrit literature are older than Greek by several thousand years! Saraswati River research has proved that the Vedas existed before Harappa and Mohanjadaro. Atomic Isotopes and satellite images cannot lie.

 

Like the fanatic Tamils hide under the guise of Indus valley Civilization saying that they spoke Tamil, Europeans hide under a supposed language IE (Indo European); it was never proved. It was invented to support their false theories.

 

His Norse Tyr, Roma Jupiter, Greek Zeus were very Junior Gods compared to Dyaus Pater.

 

More over Dyaus Pater has only a passing remark in the Vedas where as Indra, Varuna and Agni command great respect and take thousands of Mantras.

Neither Max Muller nor any scholar has proved that the Dyaus Pita is in the oldest hymn of Rig Veda; once again it is Max Muller’s invention!

 

Thousands of things mentioned in the Vedas were not even found anywhere in Europe. Oldest Greek literature is from 800 BCE, whereas the Vedic literature is at least 5000 years old even according to Max Muller. He went back from his old theory of 1200 BCE (for RV) when he was attacked by other contemporary scholars. Tilak and Jacobi proved that the Rig Veda belonged to 4500 BCE or before. No one has challenged their astronomical proof until today. Marxist writers and foreign writers never even mentioned them.

 

Because Max Muller was paid a coolie he said that we all lived under one roof 5000 years ago outside India! This he tried to prove in his 51 volumes and miserably failed. The fact of the matter is Hindus went outside and spread their culture.

 

Sumerians, Babylonians and Egyptians say that they came from a far off land; but neither Sangam Tamil literature nor Vedas claim any outside origin. There is very clear indication to show that they have been living here for thousands of years. Bhimbetka caves and other places show that human beings lived here for thousands and thousands of years.

Max  Muller’s lies are exposed now. Faithful to the coolie he received, though out his writings he said that Hindus came from outside. He did not even use the word Hindus. He invented a new race called Aryans. He has done an immense damage to human history.

 

–SUBHAM–

 

 

 

 

Brahui Theory Incorrect? (Post No.4205)

Research Paper written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 12 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 12-09

 

Post No. 4205

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

(This is the fourth and the last part)

 

 

From 1844, there is some incorrect information circulated among scholars about Brahui language and Dravidian invasion/migration of India via Afghanistan. Foreigners used this “Dravidian” Brahui to show the Dravidians entered India through the north west route. But all this information is not correct. Until today no KEY Tamil words are found in Brahui.

 

A language must have body parts, numbers, personal pronouns etc to show some affinity with another language. No such things are found except two numbers.

 

Andropov tried very hard to show some relationship with Dravidian languages. He found an escape route to justify his findings by using PROTO DRAVIDIAN. He used ‘may and might’ in his article which shows all these are just guesses

(ref. Notes on Brahui, M Andropov, Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow; 6 page article appeared in Journal of Tamil Studies, Volume 1, October 1969)

 

I threw a challenge to a girl who studied lost languages to come with at leaest 10 Tamil words from Brahui speakers. No response until today. The fact of the matter is no one can even produce a few Tamil words!

 

Brahui speakers are not of Dravidian stock; they are of Indo-Aryan stock

no Dravidian word will have beginning ‘BRA’, which is Sanskrit.

Currently Brahui language is full of Indo Aryan words (Baluchi etc)

Even if we find two Tamil numbers, we can explain that Tamil businessmen were there at one time using these numbers. Tamils presence in North West and beyond is confirmed; but all those are just visits not from permanent settlements. Some fanatics tried to hide under the guise of Indus valley civilization.

 

What do others say?

The derivation of the word Brahui from personal name IBRAHIM frequently met with among Brahuis themselves, is nothing more than a popular etymology invented after the adoption of Islam. The Iranian etymology ‘borohi’ a mountaineer is dobted for many reasons- Andropov

So no one knows the origin of the word ‘Brahui’)!

 

xxx

Dictionary of languages by Andrew Dalby gives the following information:

BRAHUI

1500,000 speakers

Pakistan

“Brahui, major language of western Pakistan, is an astonishing survival – utterly different from the Iranian languages that surround it. Most Brahui speakers are bilingual in Baluchi. There is no doubt that that Brahui belongs to the family of Dravidian languages of South India, though it is separated from the nearest of them by many hundreds of miles (see map at KURUKH).

 

The relationship was pointed out by German linguist Christian Lessen in 1844.

 

ONE COMMON GUESS IS THAT EARLY DRAVIDIAN SPEAKERS MIGRATED SOUTHWARDS IN TO INDIAN PNINSULA THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO, AND THE BRAHUI (AND PERHAPS ELAMITE) REMAIN AS A CLUE TO SHOW THE ROUTE THEY FOLLOWED.

(MY COMMENTS: THE PEOPLE HAVE NO PHYSICAL SIMILARITY TO DRAVIDIANS. BRAHUIS ARE OF INDO-ARYAN STOCK!!!! FOREIGNERS WANTED TO SHOW ALL INDIANS CAME FROM OUTSIDE INDIA!!!!!!!!!!!!!)

 

But it cannot be as simple as this; Brahui shares some innovations with northern Dravidian languages such as KURUKH so must have separated from other Dravidian languages before they them themselves began to differentiate. IN REALITY THE EARLY HISTORY OF BRAHUI IS QUITE UNKNOWN.

(My comments: building sand castles as big as possible to be washed away by every wave! No single Tamil word found yet!!!)

 

It is at least certain that the speakers of Brahui and Baluchi have long lived side by side. Tradition tells of Hindu rule in medieval Kalat, the centre of Brahui and Baluchi culture, followed by a Brahui dynasty, followed by Mughal rule as elsewhere in India, followed by renewed Brahui domination. This last period contains a date 1660—the accession of Mir Ahmed as Khan of Kalat, ruling both Brahui and Baluchi tribes.

 

The pastoralist Brahuis traditionally migrate in large numbers in winter, the people called Sarraavaan to Kachi, the people called Jhalawaan to Sind, where they have hereditary winter quarters.

IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT THEIR NOMADIC ROUTES USED TO BE WESTWARDS TOWARDS AFGHANISTAN IN EARLIER CENTURIES AND THIS EXPLAINS WHY THER ARE SOME 20,000 BRAHUI SPEAKERS NOW SETTLED IN AFGHANISTAN WITH A FEW FURTHER NORTH IN TAJIKISTAN. AT ALL EVENTS, BRAHUI IS HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY BALUCHI AND SINDHI LANGUAGES IN WHICH MANY BRAHUI SPEAKERS ARE NECESSARILY BILINGUAL.

(My comments: There is no Brahui language; it is nothing but Sindhi and Baluchi for ever!!!)

 

BRAHUI NOW HAS RATHER FEW INHERITED DRAVIDIAN WORDS IN ITS LEXICON; Iranian and Baluchi words predominate. ITS SOUND PATTERN IS MOST LIKE THAT OF INDO ARYAN LANGUAGES SUCH AS SINDHI, WITHOUT THE SHORT E AND O AND THE MULTIPLE R SOUNDS TYPICAL OF DRAVIDIAN.

(My comments: There is no Brahui; it is just Indo-Aryan language; so far everything is guess; in reality everything is Baluchi and Sindhi—Indo-Aryan languages!!!!!!)

The first ten numerals in Brahui are

asit

irat

musit

chaar

panch

shash

haft

hasht

noh

dah

only 1 to 3 are Dravidian- the higher numbers are borrowed from Baluchi or Persian

 

(my comments: so all  these sand castles were built on Irat and musit!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! is ASIT, Tamil???????)

 

O hilaarki daun e ki gingishk tuutaki = he is as fond of dates as a sparrow is of mulberries

CAN YOU FIND A SINGLE TAMIL WORD OR TAMIL SOUND IN THE BRAHUI SENTENCE?

 

So cunning linguist frauds have developed this Dravidian Brahui theory.

 

In fact Tamil has more similarity with English than Brahui:

One= ondru

Two= randu

Eight= Ettu

 

Let us compare it with Turkey (1400 BCE)!

Following is not a guess work or reconstruction like Brahui; It is based on inscriptions!

The oldest horse training manual found in Turkey has Sanskrit words for numbers!
The MItannian (Syria/Turkey) rulers’ names were in Sanskrit:
Biridaswa=Brhat Asva= possessing great horses
Sattawaza = Sapta Asva= Prize Winner in Seven horse races.
Kikkuli (1400 BCE) trained people on horses in Turkey and Syria. His manual used Sanskrit words:

KIKKULI SANSKRIT MEANING
Wartanna Vartana a turn
Aika Eka One turn
Tera Tri Three turns
Panza Panca Five turns

Satta Sapta Seven turns
Na (artanna) Nava Nine turns

Those who studied Tamil grammar wouldn’t be surprised to see Satta becoming Sapta. In Tamil also we follow the same rules to change Sanskrit sounds in to Tamil sounds. Raja becomes Arasan in Tamil. Rajaraja becomes Iraasa rasan in Tamil. Damayanthy in Sanskrit is written as Tamayanti, YogaRaja becoming Yokarasa in Tamil, Shakespeare changing to Sekappiriyar or seksupiyar, Homer changing to Omar and Harrypotter changing to Karipaattar!! There is no S or H or J or Sh or Ksha in pure Tami!!

 
In the same way Kikuli changed Sanskrit words to suit his students in the Hittite empire (Syria/Turkey)!
Maryannu is a word for warrior used by Kiikuli. This comes from the Sanskrit word Marya. Egyptians borrowed this Sanskrit word and Egyptianized like Tamils and wrote M(a)-ar-ya-na in 1470 BCE in Papyrus Anastasi I. They used this for Chariot warrior.

P= V
Asva in Sanskrit is written as Aspa by the Persians.
By 1500 BCE Sanskrit words were used from the Plains of River Ganges to the Plains of the River Nile and in between Mesopotamia!!!

Zend Avesta of Zoroastrians had Old Sanskrit or Persian words
Dravaspa =Devi Asva = Goddess for horses
Vist aspa (a king of Bactri) Visva Asva? = All powerful Horse?
Pourus Aspa = father of Zarathustra = one who possess many horses
Arbataspa =Master of war like horses
Huaspa =Su Asva= having good horses
Bactria’s capital was known as Zariaspa= land of golden horses! This is because they used gold coloured bronze coat.

Even when we have such proper evidence we did not build sand castles!

 

-subham–

 

 

 

Interesting Geographical Details in the Mahabharata-4 (Post No.4203)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 11 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-48

 

Post No. 4203

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

(This is the fourth and the last part)

 

 

My comments: The geographical details in the MBH gives lot of scope for research; it is amazing that Vyasa or his disciples have accumulated so much information in an epic. Modern approach will give a better picture. We can divide them into different categories such as 100% sure, 755 certain etc.

Janapadas of the East

1.ANDHAKA: Mathura area

2.ANGA: area between Videha and Magadha;modern Bihar

3.ANTARGIYA: Badri-Kedara region

4.ATREYA: Garwala region

5.BHADRA:Bhadranagara of Rajasthan

6.BHARGA: State of Vatsas; between Vaisali and Sravasti

7.BHARGAVA: West of Assam

8.GAYA: modern Bihar

9.KALAKUUTA:Kulinda region

10.KASI:Region between rivers Ganga and Gomati

11.KIRATA:Ladakh area

12.KUNTI: Gwalior area

13.KURU:Meerut area

14.KOSALA: Sarayu river area.

15.MATSYA:Bharatapura, Jaipura area

16.MALLA:Deoria district of UP

17.MAGADHA: Patna area; Bihar

18.MALADA: Malda of West Bengal

19.MAADHYAMIKA: Nagari area of Chittoor

20.MANAVARJAKA:Vardhamana in West Bengal

21.NAIMISA: Sitapura of UP

22.PATACCARA: Pataidi near Gugaon

23.PRAYAGA: Allahabad, Triveni Sangam

24.PANCALA:Punjab

25.PRAGJYOTISA: Gauhati in Assam area

26.PUNDRA: Rangpur, Rajasahi, Bogra in Bangladesh

27.STRI RAJYA: Western tip of the Buddhist Majjimadesa

28.SUHMA:Tamralipti and Medhinipura of Bangladesh

29.SASAKA: Murshidabad of West Bengla

30.Surasena: area around Mathura

31.TAMRALIPTA:Midnapur District of West Bengal

32.VANGA:Dacca and Mymensingh of Bangladesh

33.VATSA: Allahabad area

34.VAHIGIRYA:Mussori, Nainital areas

35.VIDEHA: Mithila area of Bihar

 

xxx

 

JANAPADAS OF THE WEST

1.APRAANTA:also Kuttapraanta Kalyana, Supara districts

2.ARBUDA: Abu mountain area

3.AANARTA:  Southern part of Ahmedabad, Baroda

4.AABHIRA: Ophir of the Bible; Averia of the Greeks;Sindhu delta

5.AARATTA: pancanada state

6.KAAKSA: Inner Narmada area; Bharukacca port

7.KUKKURA: western Vindhyas

8.KONKANA: Ratnagiri district

9.KOLVAGIRYA: Colaba area of Mumbai

10.KSUDRAKA:Montgomery area

 

11.GOPARAASTRA: area around Nasik

12.JANGALA: Bikaneer area

13.TUNDIKERA: Chindwada area of MP

14.TUMBUMA: Guna District of MP

15.DVAIPEYA: Island Diu

16.NAVARAASTRA: Maharashtra state

17.BRGHU: around ancient AAnarta

18.MARU BHUMI: Desert area of Jodhpur

19.MAAHEYA: river Mahi basin

20.SUUDRA: identified with State Abhira

21.LAATA: modern Gujarat

22.VITIHOTRA:  south of Avanti

23.SURASSTRA: Kathiawad region

24.SAMUPTA NIKUTA: island area of Kathiawada

25.SAARASWATA: river Saraswati basin, west of Ahmedabad

26.SINDHU: river Indus area

27.SAUVIRA modern Rodj in Pakistan

 

–Subham–

Interesting Geographical details in Mahabharata (Post No.4193)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 8 September 2017

Time uploaded in London- 17-04

Post No. 4193

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

I was reading a book titled Geographical Horizon of the Mahabharata by Pande Syam Narayan published in 1980. Following are some interesting data:

The epic contains much of the geographical material relating to India and outside. There are 230 Janapadas (states) mentioned in the MBH. Out of these 230, 62 are towards the North, 35 towards the East, 27 towards the West and 36 towards the South.

(the author’s description of the seas and countries and their identification may not be correct; but it can be used a starting point)

He adds

Janapadas of Sakadwipa

Udaivarsa (Malaya, Jalada)

Sukumaravarsa of Jalandhi mountain; it is the Komroi of the Greeks

Kaumaravarsa Or Narada mountain

Manicara or Anandaka Varsa; it has been identified as Mustag mentioned in the Zend Avesta

Mainaka varsa of the Ambikeya mountain

It seems the author of the Bhisma Parva and the Greeks had the similar knowledge

Janapada of Pushkala Dwipa

The MBH gives only one janapada by the name Saba having a quadrangular habitation divided into 33 divisions of mandala. Vamana, Airavata, Supratika and Anjana are said to be the guards of the four directions.

Janapadas of Kusadwipa

There is a great bush of Kusa or poa grass and there are the following seven varsas:

Umigada, Venumandala, Surathaakaara, Kambala, Dhrimana, Prabhaakara and Kapila

Janapadas of Krauncadwipa

There are seven varsas in the dwipa:

Kusala, Manonuga, Usna, Pravaraka, Andhakaraka Muniand Dundubhiswana

Janapadas of Jambudwipa

They are scattered in four directions. There is neither any sequence nor any classification; their identification becomes very difficult

Adhiraja

Aparaparjata

Asvaataka

Agneya

Aj-neya

Adhirastra

Averekah

Ahvaayaka

Aupakah

Aurasikah——10

Balitha

Carmakara

Civuka

Cicchila

Darsaka

Dasamiyaa

Dirgavenu

Drptaaksha

Govasana

Krakhadaah———— 20

Karabhanjakaah

Karavataah

Kuraka

Krmi

Karakaraah

Kayavya

Kaalaamukh

Kundamaana

Kusavindu

Kaisika—————- 30

Lalaataksa

Lalitya

Lohajanga

Manga (mrga)

Mandaka

Mandiika

Madaka

Majeeecha

Mavillakah

Mundaajh————– 40

Murucipatan

Modanaah

Maukaah

Nalakalaka

Naula

Natakeya

Pacakarpata

Panitaka

Pasu

Prakuttsakah——————- 50

Prakira

Pravrseya

Prahuta

Rajanya

Suukara

Sanjayanti

Sansthaanah

Sudesnu

Suparsva

Saivala—————— 60

Saubha

Tumbuna

Trayaksa

Trayainga

Taaratoyah

Uparyakah

Upaavrta

Ulluukha

Varmakah

Vanarasya———————– 70

In the second part I will give the Janapadas in the north, south and west where known places figure.

—–to be continued

100 Wonders of Karnataka – Part 2 (Post No.4161)

Halebidu Sculptures

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 25 August 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 16-07

 

Post No. 4161

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

Bijapur district

 

17.BIJAPUR

Treasure house of Islamic architecture; a city of domes and minarets. Chalukyan rulers of kalyana founded this city called Vijayapura, corrupted as Bijapur. Adil shah dynasty ruled from here. There are 50 mosques, 20 Tombs and several palaces.

18.Gol Gumbaz: Its an astounding engineering feat built between 1626 and 1656 by Mohammed Adil Shah. The dome measures 44 meters in diameter. It has a circular whispering gallery, known for its amazing acoustics qualities. A faintest whisper will echo nine times!

 

Halebidu

Chamrajnagar District

19.BANDIPUR

It is a famous Tiger reserve. It adjoins Mudumalai Wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu and Wayanad Sancturay in Kerala. Famous for pythons,tigers, elephants, leopard, panther and crocodiles. several types of birds are also seen here.

20.BILLIGIRI RANGANA HILLS

famous for trekking and adventure sports. It has hill top temples. Billigiri Rangana Temple dedicated to Vishnu is famous. 2000 year old giant tree Dodda sampige Mara is a natural wonder.

Chikamagaluru District

21.CHIKAMAGALURU

Ishwara Temple here has a 4 ft high statue of Jademuni and a Yupa Stambha supposed to be installed by Janamejaya during the Serpent sacrifice.

22.BABA BUDAN RANGE

Baba Budan Giri peak named after a Muslim saint is one of the highest peaks. Dattatreya Peetha here is another example of communal harmony. A laterite cave here is held sacred as it is believed to that Dattatreya Swami and Hazarat Dada mir Khalander stayed here.

 

23.KEMMANAGUNDI

two water falls – Kalahasti and Hebbe are popular picnic spots. This hill station is known as KR hills and a peak of 4732 ft.

24.KUDREMUKH

It means Horse Head. It has iron rich deposits. With 6250 ft peaks it has scenic splendour.

25.SRINGERI

Famous Hindu pilgrim centre on the banks of River Tungabadra. Adi Shankara founded a Mutt here. The 12th century Sharadamba temple is a holy place. The 12 zodiac pillars in the mantapa are noteworthy, these are placed perfectly so that the sun rays fall on each of them, in the order of the solar months.

Chitradurga District

 

26.CHITRADURGA

Since this historical town has a landscape with different sized, different shaped rocks ir is known as Stone Fort (kalline Kotte). Chitradura is actually Chitra Kal Durga – umbrella shaped lofty hill. Ancient temples, Forts of Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and Palegars are here. Hidimbeswara temple and many other temples are situated here.

Dakshin Kannada

27.Mangaluru

Important sea port, exporting coffee and cashewnuts, place of ship building industry. Ullal, Panambul and Sutrakal are other beaches with scenic spots.

 

28.KATIL

Durga Parameswari temple is famous.

 

29.DHARMASTALA

Manjunaha Temple has Vaishnavite priests and a Jain trustee 14-metre-tall Gomateswara is another attraction

30.GHATISUBRAMANYA
Ancient shrine of Lord Subramanya

31.MUDABIDRI

This is known as Varanasi of Jains with 18 bastis. Of them the Chandranatha basti has 1000 pillars built in 1429. Jain temples have exquisite sculptures.

Davanagare District

 

32.DAVANAGARE

Famous for textile mills; a commercial, educational and industrial town.

33.HARIHAR

On the bank of Tungabadra river. Since the demon Gulhasura got a boon not to be killed by either Shiva or Vishnu, both f them went in the form of Harihara and killed the demon.

Harihara image (half Shiva, Half Vishnu) is here in the Harihara temple

 

Gadag District

34.GADAG

Gadag has a famous temple of Viranarayana built by the Hoysala King vishnuvardhan.

35.LAKKUNDI

Relics of old temples are in this town Image of God Surya (Sun) is here.

Kalburgi (Gulbarga) District

36.KALBURGI

First capital of Bahmani sultans. Hindu King Raja Gulchand’s fort has been converted into a Muslim fort. Magnificent mosque Jami Masjid was built by a North African Moorish architect. It resembles Spanish Mosque of Cordoba. This town has a library in the Dargah with rare Urdu, Persian and Arabic books.

Hassan District

37.HASAN

Hasanamba temple’s presiding deity is represented only by an ant hill. It is open only for a week every year.

38.BELUR

Hoysala sculptures are in famous Chennakesa va temple. They are 800 year old. 65 elephants on the frieze are carved beautifully and each one is different! Volouptuous beauties known as Mandakinis are also found in the brackets.

39.HALABIDU

Ancient capital of the Hoysalas was founded in the 11th Century. It was ravaged by the Muslim invaders. Hoysaleswara temple was fortunate enough to survive the attack. Thousands of sculptures are on the walls of the temple. It is a great architectural wonder.

 

40.SHRAVANA BELAGOLA

Important Jain Pilgrim centre with a 57 ft high monolith of Gomateswara (bahubali). It is on top of the Vindhyagiri This 1000 year old monolith is one of the largest monoliths in the world. Every 12 yeas millions of devotees to see the Mahamastakabisheka

to be continued………………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 Wonders of Karnataka- Part 1(Post No.4160)

Temple in Badami

Compiled by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 25 August 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 6-12 am

 

Post No. 4160

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google, Wikipedia and newspapers; thanks.

 

Karnataka state in South India has several natural, architectural, historical and religious wonders. It was once called Mysore state. It has got huge monoliths, gateways, Nandhis (bulls) and Palaces. Everything is massive in Karnataka. The Hindu kings aimed high and achieved the best in architecture.

I will list them district wise.

Bengaluru (Bangalore is the capital of the state.

1.BASAVANGUDI OR BULL TEMPLE

It was built by Kempe Gowda around 1500 CE. The temple has a huge Nandhi (bull). It is a monolith sculpture measuring 4-57 metres in height and 6-10 metres in length.

There are other wonders like Lalbagh Botanical Gardens Tippu Sultan’s palace, Planetarium and several museums.

Dodda Ganapathi temple has a huge monolithic statue.

Badami Caves

2.CHANNAPATNA

Its wooden toys, wooden beads, bangles, boxes and light furniture are very popular.

 

3.KUDALA SANGHAMA

This is the confluence of Krishna and Malaprabha rivers. It is famous for the Sanghameswara temple. It is built in Chalukyan style.

Bagalkot district

 

4.AIVALLI (AIHOLE)

It was capital of Chalukyas for 400 years between 4th and 7th centuries. 140 temples with exquisitely carved sculptures are in the Vishnu and Shiva temples. It is a holy place for the Hindus, Jains and Buddhists

 

5.BADAMI

It was the capital of Early Chalukyas from 540 to 760 CE. The cave temples and museum are very popular tourist attractions. Buddhist rock cut caves, Hindu and Jain sculptures attract the tourists.

6.MUDHOL

It has got famous places of worship belonging to different religions. It is on the bank of Ghataprabha river. Shiva temple, Kamaleswara temple, Mahavir Basadi, Brahmagaddi Veerashiva mutt and Syed Beer dargah are located here.

It is very rare to get so many different religious spots in one place.

Hampi Stone Ratha

7.PATTADAKAL

It is on the banks of River Malaprabha and famous for 10 temples. It is declared as a UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE centre. The Virpakshesvara Temple has a beautiful huge gateway adorned with inscriptions. It has a huge Nandhi (bull) which is 2-6 metres tall.

 

Belagaavi (Belgaum) District

  1. BELAGAAVI

It is very near Maharashtra border. It was the capital of Ratta Kings during 13th century. Several temples are in the town Kittur Rani Chennamma is associated with the place. She was one of the first freedom fighters.

 

9.GOKAK FALLS

Gokak falls is over the Ghataprabha river. It is 170 feet high. Because of its horse shoe shape it looks like a Mini Niagara falls. It is a natural wonder. Relics of ancient temples are in this place.

 

10.SAUNDATTI

It was the original capital of the Ratta Kings. There is also a fort built in 1734 Two famous temples are here.

 

Bellari District

 

11.HAMPI

It was once the capital of the mighty Vijayanagara Empire which destroyed the Muslim invaders. It is on the banks of the River Tungabadra. Harihara and Bukka founded the city in 1336 CE. It has got the relics of old temples destroyed by the Muslim invaders. Vittala Temple has the famous Kalyana Mandapa and Stone Chariot. The musical pillars in the temple are architectural wonders.

Virupaksha Temple 50 metre high gateway and pillared halls. It is famous for Vijayanagara period paintings. Lotus Maha was built for women. Ugra Narasimha temple has a huge Narasimha statue under the seven headed snake. It is 6-7 metre high. A huge Linga is also located in running water. Mahaswami Dibba buit by Krishna Deva Raya is here. Queen’s bath here is 15 metre square with a lotus headed fountain. Even in dilapidated condition Hampi stands as a symbol of Vijayanagara samrajya. In its glorious days it excelled all the capital cities in the world.

 

Bidar District

BIDAR

  1. Bidar was the capital of Bahamani Sultans and Barid shah. Ahmed Shah rebuilt the old Hindu fort and changed it into a Muslim (style wise) Fort. It has got lot of tombs and buildings and famous for its Muslim architecture.

 

13.BIDAR FORT

It was built around 1426 CE. There are five big Gateways, Royal residence Rangin Mahal. This Mahal has ornately carved wooden pillars with  Persian couplets engraved on it. Royal Kitchens, Royal baths, Ladies Apartments and 16 pillared prayer hall are popular attractions.

  1. 71 FEET HIGH WATCH TOWER

The 71 feet high watch tower ‘Chaubara’ stands in the middle of the town. A bird’s eye view of the town is available from the top of the tower.

 

15 & 16 NANAK JHEERA AND NARASIMHA JHEERA

Nanak Jheera is associated with Guru Nanak. When the town was undergoing a severe famine, his visit made the water to gush out as a spring (jheera). The sacred site is marked with a huge Gurudwara.

Narasimha Jheera (spring) is the only subterranean stream in Karnata.The subterranean cave has a water spring and Narasimha statue. Papanash, a Shiva temple is also located here.

Both the springs are natural wonders.

—to be continued