‘I am Alpha and Omega’ – Krishna and Christ (Post No.7649)

Lord Krishna appears in Havan/Yagna Fire

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan

Post No.7649

Date uploaded in London – 4 March 2020   

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Jesus Christ said in the Bible,

‘I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last’

Revelation 22-13

Appar alias Tirunavukkarasar (Sixth Century CE)  also said,

‘Aanaththu mun ezuththaai ninraar polum’ (in Tamil)

That is a, the first letter in Tamil alphabet

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Tirukkural also said,

In his very first couplet,

The alphabet begins with A;

So does the Universe with God (Akara mudala Ezuthu ellam….. in Tamil)

All these people echoed what Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita,

“Of letters I am A” (Krishna in Bhagavad Gita – Aksharaanaam Akaarosmi……in Sanskrit) – B G 10-33

When Krishna explained to Arjuna that God is in all the living beings and non-living things in the world, he mentioned the best in every category. There he mentioned He is A among letters (BG 10-33). This is a very interesting linguistic matter.

God is the origin and sustenance of all universe.

Dr S M Diaz in his commentary on the Tirukkural couplet says,

“In this particular couplet (very first Kural) , there is more in the comparison of god to the first letter of the alphabet, than is obvious in the ordinary context. Linguists would realise that the sound of the letter ‘A’ is that which energises all other letters and is the indispensable origin and source of utterance for all letters of the alphabet of most languages. In this way the letter ‘A’ and its sound not only form the starting point for all the letters of the language, but also give life and integrity to all other sounds and letters. In the same way God is the fountain head and source of all life and activity in this universe. Perhaps that is the reason most invocations to god begin with Om. It is interesting to note also that Thirumanthiram (written by Tiru Mular)  refers to God as

Akara muthalaa yanaithumai nirkum , 1753 1751 (in Tamil)

That is why Spinoza called God the first cause in his philosophic discourse on Ethics.

So does Thomas Aquinas, and from a more rational angle, De Cartes.”

—Tirukkural, Volume 1 Dr SM Diaz

Swami Chinmayananda says in his comment on the Bhagavad Gita sloka/couplet,

“Of the alphabet, I am the letter A” (10-33)

It is very well known that, without the help of the vowels, words cannot be pronounced. Of all languages, Sanskrit is particularly sweet because of the preponderance of the A sound in it. In fact, every letter in its combination is to be pronounced in Sanskrit with the sound of A added to it to lengthen it to its full sweetness. This, as it were, lubricates the words, and consequently the language has no backfiring of disturbances of rattling nuisance or disgusting hoarseness. Because of the smooth run of the A sound in every letter, there is a melody even between words and a lingering echo between sentences.

In fact, after a long chanting of a Sanskrit text in a hall, there is, for the sensitive, a perceptible atmosphere of soothing music in the air that can lull all the agitations of the human mind.

The sound A is not only the essence in each letter of a word— not only does it transcend, or overflow the sentences and flood the very atmosphere — but it has itself the first place among the alphabets in all the languages. Realising these implications, the Upanishads declare that A sound is the essence in all speech. (Karma phalasya vidhata)


1.Rig Veda begins with the mantra ‘ agni meele prohitam ‘.i.e with Agni and ends with a verse on Agni. Thus we see ‘ A’ for Agni there. It is said that all Vedic mantras begin with ‘Aum’. Even if we take Aum as the first word in the Vedas, it is the combination of A+U+M according to Hindu commentators. Again we see ‘A’ as the first letter.

2.And there is a rule in Sanskrit and Tamil that a book or any literary work should begin with auspicious words where we can see ‘A’ words.  Several Sanskrit books begin with ‘Atha’. There is a sloka which explains it:-

Here is a simple sloka which gives the rule:-

Omkaarascha atha sabdascha dvaavethau brahmanah puraa

Kandam bitwaa viniyaartau tasmaan maangalikaavubau

-Paatanjala darsanam

 The sounds ‘Om’ and ‘Atha’ came first from the mouth of Brahma. So both these are considered auspicious words.

3.Tamil can be compared only with Sanskrit because both came from the same source i.e Lord Shiva according to Tamil literature.

And Agastya, the Rishi from northern Himalayas, only did a Grammar for Tamil. All these facts are in Tamil literature. If both are completely different from one another, Agastya would not  have agreed for the huge assignment.

Very interestingly, the Agastya’s name also begins with ‘A’.

4.When a five year old boy goes to Sanskrit school, he is taught in the very first class,

‘Akaarantha pullingah Rama Sabdah’

That is the students have to memorise everything when the teacher says it. I myself learnt Sanskrit that way. We begin with Akaara………

5.Then we are asked to memorise the world’s first dictionary cum thesaurus Amara Kosa written by Amara Simha. Though it begins with Yasya……… the name of the book and the name of the author begins with ‘A’.

5.Panini’s Mahesvara Sutra, which came from the kettle drum of Lord Siva begins with ‘A’.

6.My long research over 50 years have shown that Sanskrit and its sister language Tamil have unique structure. Unlike other language dictionaries the Sanskrit and Tamil dictionaries are arranged in the same alphabetical order. Short vowel and Long Vowel will follow one  another (A, aa, E, ee, U, uu………………..). Then the consonants also follow the same order in the dictionary (Ka, Ca, Ta, Tha, Pa, Ra; Ya Ra La, Va etc).

But here I will only talk about letter A.

The wonder of wonders in Tamil and Sanskrit is

‘A’ words will be more than ‘AA’ (long vowel)

‘I’ words will be more than ‘ii’ words

‘U’ words will be more than ‘UU’ words

In short long vowel words will be less than short vowel words.

Strangely diphthongs Ai and Au won’t be there.

In my previous research paper written years ago, I have given the comparative chart. Since this article is about vowel A, I will just show only the vowels from two most famous books of Hindus in Sanskrit and Tamil:-

Bhagavad Gita has 700 slokas

Slokas beginning with letter A in Bhagavad Gita – 97

Slokas beginning with letter Aa in Bhagavad Gita – 17

Slokas beginning with letter ‘ i’ in Bhagavad Gita – 21

Slokas beginning with letter ‘ii’ in Bhagavad Gita – 1

Slokas beginning with letter U in Bhagavad Gita – 9

Slokas beginning with letter Uu in Bhagavad Gita – 2

You can see short vowel sound letter slokas are more than long vowel sound slokas

This amazing structure can be seen in Tamil Veda Tirukkural as well :-

TIRUKKURAL in TAMIL by Tiru Valluvar

Tirukkural has 1330 Kural couplets

Kural couplets beginning with letter A – 157

Kural couplets beginning with letter Aa – 23

Kural couplets beginning with letter i – 114

Kural couplets beginning with letter ii – 8

Kural couplets beginning with letter U– 81

Kural couplets beginning with letter Uu – 21

The pattern is same in both the languages. Even the proportion of all vowel related verses or words is same.

No one can impose a condition on poets that you must compose these many poems with A and these many verses with Aa. And yet we see this amazing feature through out ancient Sanskrit and Tamil literature. These morphological and anatomical (sandhi rules)  features of both these languages explode Aryan-Dravidian language family theories. I have given more information about Sandhi rules in another article.

So, when Krishna said that He is A among letters and when Valluvar said A is the  first letter in alphabet they meant more than what you read superficially.

7.Let us Decipher Indus Script

I have been proposing for long that if at all one cracks the code of Indus- Sarasvati River basin civilization language seals, then you will

See ‘A’ words (or sounds) more than ‘Aa’, I words (or sounds) more than ‘Ii’ and that will prove it is typical Indian language which would be the basis of Sanskrit and Tamil. In short, there will be no Aryan Family of languages or Dravidian Family of languages. There we will see a common root!



Written by London Swaminathan

Post No.7641

Date uploaded in London – 2 March 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

We have covered ten out of 12 chapters of Manava Dharma Shastra so far. Today let us investigate chapter 11. Manu, as usual, gives very interesting rules regarding Brahmins in this chapter.

I am covering up to 100 slokas in chapter 11 of Manu Smriti (Popular Hindu Law Book).


The rule about River Sarasvati shows original Manu Smriti is Pre Indus Valley Civilization work . It was updated up to Sunga period (2nd century BCE) who were fanatically pro Brahmin.

The rule against cutting trees shows that ancient Hindus were concerned with environmental issues.

The rules against killing animals show that the ancient Hindus were friends of animals

The strict punishments for brahmins for drinking and other offences show brahmins must be purer than aall others.

First let me give interesting/important bits in bullet points-

1.sloka 11-1,2- nine types of brahmins must be supported

2.sloka 11-33- Brahmin’s weapon is Atharva Veda.

3.sloka 11-36- who can officiate as priest

4.sloka 11-49- gold theft

5.sloka 11-55- killing a priest

6.sloka 11-60 killing a cow

7.sloka 11-65- cutting trees

8.sloka 11-69- killing donkey, camel etc.

9.sloka 11-73- skull flag/ pirate’s flag

10.sloka 11-78- Sarasvati river

11.sloka 91- 99 severe punishments for Drinking

12.Sloka 11-15- violence against misers

Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda, supports violence against misers – see Kural 1077, 1078


14. slokas 11-49-54 – what diseases one gets for Gold theft, Drinking, Sex offence (Doctors wont agree!!)

15.sloka 55- Worst Five Sins




11-1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring, him who wishes to perform a sacrifice, a traveller, him who has given away all his property, him who begs for the sake of his teacher, his father, or his mother, a student of the Veda, and a sick man,

2. These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, begging in order to fulfil the sacred law; to such poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning.

3. To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and presents (of money) must be given; it is declared that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure.

4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacrifices on Brahmanas learned in the Vedas.

5. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses, he obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the money.

6. One should give, according to one’s ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone; (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss.


11-7. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years or more than that, is worthy to drink the Soma-juice.

8. But a twice-born man, who, though possessing less than that amount of property, nevertheless drinks the Soma-juice, does not derive any benefit from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the Soma-juice.

9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counterfeit virtue will first make him taste the sweets (of fame, but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in hell).

11-10. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment of those whom he is bound to maintain, that produces evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is dead.

11. If a sacrifice, (offered) by (any twice-born) sacrificer, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a righteous king rules,

12. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice, may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any Vaisya, who possesses a large number of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifices nor drinks the Soma-juice;

13. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices.

14. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows, kindles not the sacred fire, or one possessing a thousand cows, drinks not the Soma-juice, a (sacrificer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those two, even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas);


11-15. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives, and who refuses to give it; thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase.

16. Likewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a provision for the morrow,

17. Either from the threshing-floor, or from a field, or out of the house, or wherever he finds it; but if (the owner) asks him, he must confess to him that (deed and its cause).

18. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana; but he who is starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sacred duties.


11-19. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into a boat, and carries both (over the sea of misfortune).

20. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifices, the wise call the property of the gods; but the wealth of those who perform no sacrifices is called the property of the Asuras.

21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, appropriates another’s possessions), a righteous king shall not inflict punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya’s want of care.

22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man, and having fully considered his learning and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own property, a maintenance whereon he may live according to the law;

23. And after allotting to him a maintenance, the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains from such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his spiritual merit.

24. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice; for a sacrificer, having begged (it from such a man), after death is born (again) as a Candala.


11-25. A Brahmana who, having begged any property for a sacrifice, does not use the whole (for that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow.

26. That sinful man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of the gods, or the property of Brahmanas, feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures.

27. In case the prescribed animal and Soma-sacrifices cannot be performed, let him always offer at the change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission).

28. But a twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his duties according to the law for times of distress, obtains no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion (of the sages).

29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas, and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste), who were afraid of perishing in times of distress, a substitute was made for the (principal) rule.

30. That evil-minded man, who, being able (to fulfil) the original law, lives according to the secondary rule, reaps no reward for that after death.

31. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king; by his own power alone be can punish those men who injure him.

32. His own power is greater than the power of the king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by his own power alone.


11-33. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras; speech, indeed, is the weapon of the Brahmana, with that he may slay his enemies.

34. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth, the chief of the twice-born by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations.

35. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher, (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings); to him let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh words.


36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman, nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in great suffering, nor one uninitiated, shall offer an Agnihotra.

37. For such (persons) offering a burnt-oblation sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) belongs; hence the person who sacrifices (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), and know the whole Veda.

38. A Brahmana who, though wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya, a horse sacred to Prajapati, becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires.

39. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts, but let him on no account offer sacrifices at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed).

40. The organs (of sense and action), honour, (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, offspring, and cattle are destroyed by a sacrifice at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given; hence a man of small means should not offer a (Srauta) sacrifice.


11-41. A Brahmana who, being an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred fires, shall perform a lunar penance during one month; for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son.

42. Those who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) offer an Agnihotra, are priests officiating for Sudras, (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda.

43. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world).

44. A man who omits a prescribed act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual enjoyments, must perform a penance.

45. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed; some declare, on the evidence of the revealed texts, (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence).


11-46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men) in their folly commit intentionally, by various (special) penances.

47. A twice-born man, having become liable to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) committed in a former life, must not, before the penance has been performed, have intercourse with virtuous men.

48. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life, and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence).


11-49. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, black teeth; the slayer of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru’s bed, a diseased skin;

50. An informer, a foul-smelling nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain, deficiency in limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redundant limbs;

51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer of clothes, white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness.

52. The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extinguishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs).

53. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are born idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed men, who are (all) despised by the virtuous.

11–54. Penances, therefore, must always be performed for the sake of purification, because those whose sins have not been expiated, are born (again) with disgraceful marks.


11-55. Killing a Brahmana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), adultery with a Guru’s wife, and associating with such (offenders), they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka).

56. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king (regarding a crime), and falsely accusing one’s teacher, (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana.

57. Forgetting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence, slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or (swallowing substances) unfit for food, are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura.

58. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse, and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).

59. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.


11-60. Slaying kine, sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice, adultery, selling oneself, casting off one’s teacher, mother, father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda, and neglecting the (sacred domestic) fire,

61. Allowing one’s younger brother to marry first, marrying before one’s elder brother, giving a daughter to, or sacrificing for, (either brother),

62. Defiling a damsel, usury, breaking a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one’s wife, or child,

63. Living as a Vratya, casting off a relative, teaching (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid teacher, and selling goods which one ought not to sell,

64. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, executing great mechanical works, injuring (living) plants, subsisting on (the earnings of) one’s wife, sorcery (by means of sacrifices), and working (magic by means of) roots, (and so forth),


65. Cutting down green trees for firewood, doing acts for one’s own advantage only, eating prohibited food,

66. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, studying bad books, and practising (the arts of) dancing and singing,

67. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism, (are all) minor offences, causing loss of caste (Upapataka).

68. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow), smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or at spirituous liquor, cheating, and an unnatural offence with a man, are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gatibhramsa)


11-69. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a fish, a snake, or a buffalo, must be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed caste (Samkarikarana).

70. Accepting presents from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speaking a falsehood, make (the offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra).

71. Killing insects, small or large, or birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors, stealing fruit, firewood, or flowers, (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha).

72. Learn (now) completely those penances, by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be expiated.


73. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve years, subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag.

74. Or let him, of his own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose); or he may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire;

75. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Visvagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut;


11-76. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk one hundred yoganas (Yojana= ten miles) , reciting one of the Vedas, eating little, and controlling his organs;

77. Or he may present to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property, as much wealth as suffices for the maintenance (of the recipient), or a house together with the furniture;

78. Or, subsisting on sacrificial food, he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) Sarasvati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda.

79. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas.

80. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana.

81. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana’s (property), or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt).

82. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana.

83. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice, is (also) freed (from guilt).


11-84. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure.

85. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.

86. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification.

87. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control.

88. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice, or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,

89. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:

90. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained.


11-91. A twice-born man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt;

92. Or he may drink cow’s urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies;

93. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag.

94. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura.

95. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice-born.

96. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such (substances).

97. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed.

98. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.

11-99. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).




Post No.7551

Date uploaded in London – 8 February 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

The number of female seers in Rig Veda comes to about thirty. This number includes five lady seers of Khilasukta also . Khila is like appendix or supplement.






It is pleasing to note that no religious disabilities were associated with women in India down to the end of the Upanishadic age (pre buddha period 600 BCE)

In the Vedic age there is ample evidence to show that the women not only studied the Vedas but also figured among the authors of Rig Vedic hymns. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


In the Vedic age there were certain sacrifices  like the Siitaa sacrifice and Rudra sacrifice that could be performed by women alone.

(Siitaa sacrifice at harvest and Rudra sacrifice to ensure fecundity among cattle)

Some women Vedic scholars like Lopaamudraa, Vishwavaaraa and Ghoshaa composed hymns that were later admitted into the sacred canon. Usually Vedic sacrifices were to be offered jointly by the husband and the wife.

The wife took an active part in the daily and periodical sacrifices along with her husband. She had her own hut in the sacrificial compound; the duty of chanting the sSaman hymns  usually fell upon her. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


The wife used to make the first brick for the sacrificial altar and participate in the consecration of the fire and the offering of oblations.

If the husband is away on a journey, the wife alone performed the different sacrifices which the couple had to do jointly.


As women enjoyed the same religious privileges as men and received the same education, their status in the family was nearly the same as that of men. Their status in society also was naturally satisfactory. Many of them were famous scholars and authors. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Women in Industries

 It is rather surprising to find that women were taking active part in the industrial life. They were manufacturing arrows and bows, making baskets, weaving cloth and participating in outdoor agricultural work. It is important to note that words like female arrow makers (ishukartryah) do not occur in later literature.

Among the fine arts music and dance have been cultivated by women fairly extensively; their love for and excellence in these arts were well known. Since women were following many outdoor professions there was naturally no ‘purdah’ (face covering veil) in the society. tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


The husband and wife were the joint owners of the household and its property. They are called Dampati (Couple).RV 8-31-5/6

Yaa dampatii samanasaa sunuta aa ca

Dhaavalah devaaso niyayaasir

The expression ‘the wife is the home’ shows how woman was the central point of domestic life-RV 3-53-4


Grhinini /housewife is used in tamil as well as ‘illaal’ tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com


What living women have proved to be such formative force as, for example, Sati, Sita and Savitri?

What could be better illustrative examples of the true dignity of Indian womanhood than Draupadi, Shakuntalaa, and Gaandhaari?

We hear of great women like Maitreyi, , Gaargi, Arundhati and Liilaavati

Source – Great Women of India and New Horizons of Indological Research tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

TAGS – Vedic Women, Vedic Poetesses, Rig Veda




Post No.7495

Date uploaded in London – 25 January 2020

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog.

Literary talents are not confined to the members of the Brahmana and Kshatriya class. A Shudra woman became much reputed as the writer of a socio political  composition in Kannada. Her name was Honnamma and  she probably belonged to Yelanduur in Karnataka. She was working in the palace of Mysore king Chikka Devaraja. She was evidently the favourite maidservant of the chief queen Devaajammani.  She was educated at the instance of the queen by a well known scholar proficient in the Vedas and the Vedanta , who was also the author of a drama  called ‘Mitravinda Govinda.’

This teacher Alasingaaraachaarya , was evidently so pleased with the ability of his pupil that he called her the Goddess of  Charming  Literature  – sarasa saahitya da vara devataa-  this praise of a pupil by a teacher  impressed the king so much he told his queen to get a  literary piece written by Honnamma. Following this she wrote  ‘Hadibadeya Dharma’ ,which deals with the duties of a chaste woman.  This book has become so popular that verses from it are sung even today.  It is also of value from the point of view of history, since it gives the genealogy of the Mysore kings up to the seventeenth century.



Among the later poetesses of Karnataka , Cheluvambaa was a popular poetess. She was the queen of Mysore kKng Dodda Krishna Raja.  She is reputed as the author of a long poem called V’aramandi Kalyaana’. She has also written lullaby songs  on the greatness of the deity Venkatachala of Tirupati and on the Goddess aAamelumanga. She has in addition written a prose commentary on the ‘Tulaa kKaveri Mahaatmyaa’. She states that she wrote the delightful Varamandii Kalyaana  at the command of her husband.  Her style is very mellifluous.  She flourished about 1725 CE.



GIRIYAMMAA from Helavakatte was a Brahmana poetess. She is remembered for her devotional poetry , and some of her well known poems deal with such popular themes as the marriage of Sita , the stories of Chandrahasa and Uddalaka. Besides these, she composed  a number of songs  which are quite popular even today.   She was a devotee of lord Renganatha

A point of interest  regarding these songs is that  even the ragas  are specified by her.  We can recognise her songs by the words ‘Helavanakatte Rangayya’ that occurs at the end of the pieces. All her works are in Kannada.  Tradition says that she lived in the village of Komaaranahalli near Harihaa in Karnataka about 250 years ago.



Written by London Swaminathan

Uploaded in London on  – 6 JANUARY 2020

Post No.7425

contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

Agathi leaves
Hindu Board Game- Snakes and Ladders


Research article by London swaminathan


Date: 22 December 2019

Time in London – 17-59

Post No. 7372

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Here is an alternate reading of the Vishnu Sahasranama, the oldest of the Sahasranamas. One thousand names of any god is a ‘’Sahasranama. Though every Hindu god and goddess has a Sahasranama Vishnu’s one is the most famous of all Sahasranamas. It is the oldest and part of Mahabharata. Great grandsire Bhisma said it in front of Lord Krishna. Saints like Adi Shankara, Parasara Bhatta and Madhwa have commented on it. Hundreds of articles are written by prominent religious leaders on the religious merits of it.

Though I also recite it everyday like any devout Hindu, being an amateur historian, I can’t stop thinking of its influence on world history. Roman and Mitannian King names are in it. I have interpreted the words or its sounds on the bais of history.  Let me tell you what I found in it:-

Five Generations

In the introductory First Part, we see five generations in one sloka- vyasam vasistha naptharam………………… Vyasa, his son Suka, Vyasa’s father Parasara, grand father Sakthi, great grand father Vasistha.

As all Hindus know Vyasa lived just before the beginning of Kaliyuga in 3102 BCE, we are talking about 3200 BCE here.

Sloka 16……yatha sarvani bhutani……….. talks about Big Bang and Big Crunch of cosmology.

Dhyana sloka sees the God as the universe with Sun and Moon as eyes, earth as His feet and Sky as His head. This is a repeat of Purushasuktam of Rig Veda and Viswarupa Darsan of Bhagavad Gita.

Concept of Time

Hindu concept of Time is very different from the Westrn concept of Time. In the main part of Sahasranama, the very first sloka describes god as master of time past, present and future. He is beyond the sway of  Time.

All Gods in Sahasranama

Though it is called Vishnu Sahasranama, all gods’ names are in it – Siva, Sambhu, Aditya, Prajapati, Indra, Sumuka ( Ganesa), Ganesvarah, Vasu, Varuna, Rudra, Indra

Sikkandi ,Nahusha – epic and puranic names

Skanda ,Purandhara , Parameswara,Guha

Lord Kartikeya, Indra, Lord Shiva, Sastha,  figure in the hymn.

Rama , Pranava, Krishna

Names of Rama, Omkara also in the hymn.

Mitannian king

Pratardhana was one of the kings who ruled Turkey- Syria region around 1400 BCE. It is one of the 1000 names of Vishnu.


World’s first law giver Manu is in the hymn.


This is a Vedic deity with lot of funny interpretations such as sexy monkey etc. Since it is in the Sahasranama it is as old as Vedic literature.


It is the name of the Gautama Buddha ofsixth century BCE


Another Vedic deity. Names of Vedic deities are found only in this hymn. That proves that Vishnu Sahasranama is the oldest.

Margo (Way)

I am the Way.

Indus valley God

Vishnu is called Maha Srnga- we see God with horn/ srnga in the Indus Valley Seals; though mistakenly identified with Shiva/Pasupati. Later we see Srngi (horned god) Na Eka Srngi (not just one horned) in this hymn.

Kapila (Tamil Poet’s Name)

Kapila is the name of a great rishi. It is in this hymn. Sangam Tamil literature has a Brahmin poet with this name Kapila. He is the most celebrated poet and highest contributor to the 2000 year old Sangam corpus.

Mr Doctor

Hindus are the only people who call god as a doctor and Medicine (Beshajam, Bishak in Rudra of Yajur Veda) here in this hymn God is called Bishak/ doctor).

Gupta dynasty

Gupta is one of the names here in the hymn; probably Gupta dynasty named themselves with this word.


Tamil poets describe God as a Brahmin. This is an echo of Sahasranama


Manetho is one of the Egyptian priests who wrote Egyptian history in the third century BCE. Here we have Manatho

Surya Namaskar

Names of Surya found in the Surya Namaskar Mantra are Vishnu’s names found in the hymn.


Rome’s greatest orator, lawer, statesman is Cicero. We see Sisirah in the hymn.

Sri Vijaya Dynasty

Sri Vijaya Dynasty of South East Asia took its name

From the Sahasranam. This is in the last part of Sahasranama


Sri occurs in many words. It simply means, wealth, auspicious , Goddess Lakshmi.

English title SIR and Tamil title Thiru came from Sri.


Many Indian kings including the greatest legendary king Vikramaditya has this name.

Garudadwaja -Flag of Eagle-

Today we see Garuda/ emblem in several countries including USA. Garuda Pillar was erected in Besnagar by Helidorus in 113 BCE. He was the ambassador of Indo-Greek king of Taxila. He called himself Parama Bhagavata/ great devotee f Vishnu.

Thus we see many dynasties and kings in the Sahsranama.

Trees and birds and Stars

Several trees, birds, fish and star names are also found in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

So, an alternate reading of the oldest Sahasranama sheds more light on the history of the world from Turkey/ Syria to Sri Vijayas of South East Asia.




Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 17 December 2019

Time in London – 13-44

Post No. 7354

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000


So far we have covered nine chapters with salient features highlighted; I have also added my comments wherever it was appropriate. To day let us look at the 74 slokas in the tenth chapter of Manu Smrti.

First I will give important slokas/ couplets in bullet points.

Sloka 63 – This is the most important sloka in the firsts 70 + slokas. Good qualities are common for all the Four Varnas/castes

Sloka 1 -People who belong to Three castes must learn Vedas. It will be interesting to find out till what time the three castes studied Vedas.

Sloka 8 on wards – Inter caste marriages and specific terms for them in permutation and combinations. We know that inter caste marriages were done during even Mahabharata days. But never heard these many different kinds. This chapter must be a later addition.

Sloka 20 – definition of Vratyas

Sloka 22 – Dravidas

Sloka 32  – Dasyus

Sloka 44 – Yavanas & Dravidas

These terms are used with different connotations. It is not Vedic Dasyu; Like Dravidas we have several people named after Countries/Desa So instead of Geographical connotation we have inter caste people.

Sloka 25 onwards – Sons of Inter Caste couples are dealt with.

We can infer two things from these :-

1.Inter Caste marriages took place

2.Yavanas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Vratyas, Sakar – are all Hindus.

Sloka 47 on wards – their professions

Sloka 56 – death sentence

Sloka 58 – Non Aryan qualities (Here Aryan stands for Cultured, Civilized).

Sloka 64/ 65 – A Sudra becomes a Brahmana in seventh generation

Sloka 69 to 73  Interesting Debate —

Which is important Seed (Husband) or Land (Wife)?


Now let us look at the original translation of Slokas?

1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study the Veda; but among them the Brahmana alone shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.

2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence prescribed by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to the law

3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).

4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth caste.

5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers)

6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.

7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.


8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.

9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.

10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).

11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.

12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).

14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana.

16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men;

17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).

18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.

19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.


20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.

21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.


22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.

23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.

24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.


25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.

26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava,

27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother’s caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones.

28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).

29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).

30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).

31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).


32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).

33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.

34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Caivarta.

35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.

36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.

37. From a Candala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.

38. But from a Candala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.

39. A Nishada woman bears to a Candala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).

40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.

41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.

42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.

43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;


44. (Viz.) the Paudrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.

45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.

46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born.


47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;

48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;

49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.

50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.

51. But the dwellings of Candalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth(shall be dogs and donkeys.

52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.

53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.

54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.


56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.

58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.

59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.

60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.

61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.

62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)

63. Abstention from injuring creatures, veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating the goods of others, purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation.


65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.

66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the pre eminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,

67. The decision is as follows: ‘He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.’

68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes.


69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.

70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:

71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.

72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.

73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ‘Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’

To be continued…………………………….




Date: 8 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 16-24

Post No. 7317

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000


Dhanadeva is a poet quoted by Sharngadhara Paddhati (1363). His verse mentions eloquent achievements of Shiilaa, Vijjaa, Maarulaa, Morikaa and others as poetesses of distinction.

We have already seen the works of Shila and Vijja.

Vijja alias Vidyavati lived before Rajasekhara’s time. One of her poems is in the Abhidhaa vrtti Maatrikaa of 855 CE . This work is written by Mukula who lived during the period of King Avantivarman of Kashmir (855-883 CE).

Vijja’s most often quoted verse is

Nilotpala dala shyamam Vijjakam mamajanata
Vrithaiva Dandinapyuktam Sarma shukla

“Without knowing me ,Vijjaka , dark like the petal of a blue lotus, vainly has the poet Dandin said that the goddess of learning is all white.”

Some people change the word ‘maam’ in the verse to ‘taam’ and attribute it to a different person.

Of Marula and Morika little is known; but some of their stanzas are quoted in Jalhana’s SUkti Muktavali, 1258 CE

The Kavindra vachana Samuchchaya quotes some stanzas of poetess Bhaavadevi. Another book also gives her stanzas.

Another ancient poetess is Phalguhastini. Some of her stanzas appear in later anthologies. Since Vamana’s Kavylankara Sutra vrtti is quoting her one Stanza ,she must have lived before 800 CE. Vamana was the Minister King Jayapida of Kashmir 779-813 CE.

Chandala vidya!
Sadukti karnamrita quotes a verse under the joint authorship of Chandala vidyaa, Kalidasa and Vikramaditya. So she must be from Gupta Period.

Another poetess is Jaghanachapalaa. Her stanza is found in Kavindra Vachana Samuchchaya.

We see two stanzas jointly composed by Bilhana and Rajakanya.
Raja Kanya means Princess. Her real name was Shashikala or Chandrakala.
Verses of a poetess named Sarasvati hav ebeen quoted in several anthologies beginning with Sadukti Karnamrita. But she lived before eleventh century.

Rajasekhara Charita mentions the following poetesses:-
Madhu Ranga

Of these the last three are from Malwa (Madhya Pradesh).
We don’t know much about others.
We have lost their original works and only quoted stanzas are available now.
No where in the world and in no other language we find such a galaxy of poetesses.
Sanskrit stands far higher than other ancient languages when it comes to Poets and Poetesses.

We are going to see more poetesses.



WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan


Date: 6 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 12-29

Post No. 7306

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

One thousand years ago there lived a great scholar by name Avantisundari whom even her husband quoted in his books many times. Like Sarasavani who was moderating the debate between her husband Mandana Mishra and Adi Shankara and Gargi Vachaknaavi of Vedic lore who challenged Yajnavalkya in the All India Philosophical Congress even before Greeks started writing books, we had  great women scholars in India.

Rajasekara was the court poet of Mahendrapaala, a king in Gurjara Pratihara vamsa. Avantisundari ws the wife of Rajasekhara. He lived around 880 CE and his wife Avanti Sundari was Chauhan from Maharashtra. Perhaps he is the only ancient poet who has given credit to his wife. He says in his Kaavya Mimmasaa, “Women also can be poets like men. Genius is inherent in persons irrespective of sex differences. It is heard and seen that princesses, daughters of ministers, courtesans and concubines are possessed of extensive knowledge of the ‘shaastraas’ (scriptures) and poetic genius.”

Rajashekara knew about the great Vedic poetesses, Sangam Tamil poetesses and Sataasi (Gatha Sapta Sati= GSS) Prakrit poetesses. Hinduism has the highest number of poetesses. Ancient India is the country with the highest number of poetesses and scholars. Even before Homer began his Iliad and Odyssey, Ms. Gargi was challenging a great seer for an open debate in a conference held in Bihar 3000 years ago.

Though we have the names of hundreds of scholars most of their works are lost. Some poems are in the Rig Veda, Sangam Tamil literature and GSS. Specimens are quoted in other books as well. Very rarely we have got a full book like Mathura Vijayam of Ganga Devi.

Gatha Sapta Sati (GSS), Prakrit anthology was compiled by Satavahana king Halan approximately 2000 years ago. We find the following poetesses in the anthology:-









But we don’t know from which of their works Halan compiled their poems or where they were living. Satavahana Dynasty covered areas of Andhra and Maharashtra. Their capital was Pratisthaana (Modern Paithaan on the banks of Godavari, near Aurangabad in Maharashtra).

Served three kings

Avanti Sundari’s husband Rajasekhara was the court poet for three kings- Gurjara Prathihara king Mahendrapaala I (885- 908 CE) and his son Mahipaala I (914-945 CE) and the Kaalachuri king Yuvaraaja.

Avanti sundari is credited with Paaiyalachchii, a Prakrit dictionary. Author Sundaraa is identified with Avanti Sundari. She compiled it for her brother Dhanapaala.

Rajasekhara has quoted Avanti sundari’s views thrice in his work on poetics Kaavya Miimaamsaa (Kavya Mimamsa). He also wrote a famous Prakrit Drama Karpuura Manjarii to entertain her.

Hemachandra (1088- 1172), a later poet also quoted three of her stanzas in his book Deshi Naama maalaa to illustrate the meaning of certain Prakrit expressions. These facts show beyond doubt that Avantisundari was recognized as a rhetorician and poetess of outstanding merit. Unfortunately, none of her works has so far been discovered.


Some verses attributed to Rajasekara in Jalhana’s Suukti Muktaavalii( (1258 CE) speak of the following poetesses:-

Shiilaa Bhattaarikaa

Vikata nitaambhaa

Vijayaanka of Karnataka

Prabhu  devii of Laata desa(Gujarat) and


Of these the Karnataaka poetess Vijayaanka is described as Sarasvati incarnate and as a peer of Vaidharbi style of Kaalidaasa. She is sometimes identified with Vijja, Vijjakaa, Bhijjakaa (Vidhyaa= Vidhyaavatii). Her poems are found in most of the Sanskrit anthologies. She is further identified with Vijaya Bhattaarikaa -Queen of Chalukya Prince Chandraaditya, who flourished around the middle of seventh century.

Shiilaa bhattaarikaa is placed by Rajasehara side by side with Baana as having the merit of writing in a type of the Paanchaali (Paanchaala= Punjab) style of composition. Bhataarikaa is attached to queen’s names.  She may be the queen of Bhoja who ruled from Kanauj around 836 CE. Many of her verses are found in anthologies.

Story of Vikatanimbaa

Several of Vikatanimbhaa’s poems are also found in Sanskrit anthologies. Aanandhavardhana’s ‘Dhwanyaaloka’ has a stanza done by her. According to a tradition Vikatanimbaa became a widow and married for the second time. Her husband was a fool who couldn’t even pronounce words properly.

Nothing is known about Prabhudevii; but  a stanza of Subhadraa is quoted in Vallabhadeva’s ‘Subhaasitaavalii’.

Rajasekhara’s Karpura Manjari mentions Tribhuvana Sarasvati as the elder sister of Mahiitala Sarasvati. She may be the poetess of that name, two of whose stanzas are quoted in the Sadukti Karna amrita complied by Sidhra daasa in 1206 CE.

A stanza of a poetess named Siitaa, which is found in anthologies, is quoted by Rajasekhara in his ‘Kavya Mimamsa’. The poetesses Sita and Tribhuvana Sarasvati therefore flourished before the middle of the tenth century.


School syllabus for girls should include all the ancient poetesses and the girls must be given assignments to collect and compare them with the poetesses of other languages.

At least they must know their names and what they wrote one thousand or 2000 years ago.

Long Live Hindu Poetesses!


Source book- GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA – editors Swami Madhvananda and Ramesh Chandra Majumdhar, Advaita Ashram, Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas, Year 1953.



Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 4 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 19-24

Post No. 7300

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.


Description of woman’s beauty- one more verse- similar to Tamil verses- eye = bow

Glances drawn to her ear,

Shot from the bow of her brow,

And winged by long black lashes.




Don’t send your thoughts into the forest of women. There is a thief by name Kaman (cupid) hiding.

“Let not your wandering mind

Roam in the forest of woman’s form

There in the mountains of her bosom

Lurks the robber Kama/cupid”




“There is a cure for snake bites, but not for women’s eyes/glances

I prefer being bitten by a terrible serpent

Long, wanton, tortuous, gleaming like a black lotus

To being smitten by her eye

Healers are everywhere to cure one of a serpent’s bite

But there is no spell or remedy for

I was struck by the glance of a beautiful woman”



Gems are women; women are gems

“With the monstrous beauty of her face

Her sapphire black tresses

Her hands the ruby of red lotuses

She glowed with the magic of gems”


Science in Bhartuhari

Hindus correctly named planet Jupiter as Guru. It means heavy. That is the largest planet. Not only that, the sling shot effect of Jupiter is used by scientists to boost the rockets further without using fuel.  Spiritual guru also sends his disciples further up with his sling shot power. The disciples don’t need any fuel/ power. Of all the visible planets, Saturn is the slowest planet

B also compared the heavy bosom to Jupiter and her slow gait to Saturn.

“With her bosom bearing Jupiter’s weight

Her face radiant like moon

Her languid legs saturnine gait

She glowed with planets magic”

Guruna sthana bharena ……………………..


Ambrosia from woman’s body


The cyclic recurrence of sunset and dawn serves to measure life’s decay.

It is in Ramayana as well


“If the pleasures leave him at random

Man suffers unparalleled anguish;

But if he renounces them at will

He reaps the eternal fruits of calm.”


Moth attracted by lamp, fish attracted by bait in the fishing rod are used by B. These similes are found in all Indian literatures. Also water drop on lotus leaf.

Tiruvalluvar says,

“Do not take to gambling even if you can win. What can the fish gain by swallowing the baited hook?”- Tirukkural 931


“Earth is my bed, sky is the roof, mountain stream water is my drink/food, wood  bark is my clothing”.


“Hope is a river

Hope is a river whose water is desire

Conjectures are birds, destroying the tree of delusion

Makes it difficult to fold. Let ascetics who cross

To the opposite shore, exult in their purified minds”


“Earth is my bed, hands are pillows,

Sky is the roof, breeze is the fan,

Moon is the lamp, indifference is my wife

Renunciation is pleasure, Yogi smeared with Vibhuti/holy ash is the king”.


B criticizes barter trade with god. In Tamil Purananuru verse we have similar thoughts. Chieftain Ay is praised for not being a barter trade salesman. He does charity not aiming a place in heaven, but to cure the poverty of the poets.


Don’t postpone

“While his body’s vigour is whole

While his sensuous powers are unimpaired

And life not yet exhausted;

Only then would a wiseman

Strive to perfect his soul

Why attempt to dig a well

When the house is already burning?”

In Tamil there is a saying what is the use of crying Sankara, Sankara when you are dying?

It means there is no use if you cry for help at your last breath.



How a man’s life is spent or wasted is sung by Adi Sanakara in Bhaja Govindam and Appar in Thevaram. They say one third of one’s life is spent like a playful youth, one third with the family and one third as old age pensioner with hospital appointments. B also echoes the same,

“The span of man’s life is measured hundred years;

A portion each claim callous youth and hoary age;

His prime is spent in servitude, suffering

The anguish of estrangement and disease

Where do men find happiness

In life  less certain and more transient than the waves?”

—finito – subham —