Who is a Dasyu? Kalidasa and Rig Veda explain! (Post No.3982)

Research article Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 8 June 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 11-00 am

 

Post No. 3982

 

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Dasyu means a thief; but foreign ‘thieves’ who translated the Hindu Vedas wrote that Dasyu mean an aborigine- a deliberate distortion. In every community, there are thieves and we can find them even in all the scriptures. We have poems about robbers and thieves in Sangam Tamil literature. Some words gain wrong meaning in course of time. We have several caste names (Pariahs and Kallars) in Tamil literature which have earned wrong connotation in course of time. But nobody bothered about them.

English newspapers around the world use the Tamil word ‘PARIAH’ everyday with wrong connotation, which originally meant a drummer or an announcer. Countries and leaders are described as International Pariah in English newspapers and TV stations every day. The new meaning the English dictionaries give is AN UNTOUCHABLE!

 

Tamils were the only race in the world who fought among themselves for at least 1500 years according to Tamil literature and Tamil inscriptions. But nobody divided them on racial lines. The Chera, Choza, Pandya kings fought with each other for 1500 years continuously, killed one another, detained their women and made ropes out of their hair to pull their Victorious Chariots. The Tamil poets praised the kings as great heroes. The poets also say that they burnt the palaces of other Tamil kings and razed it to ground and ploughed it with donkeys just to insult the defeated Tamil king. The Sangam Tamil poets sang about rivers of blood as well. Even though the Tamil kings claimed different origins the foreigners never attributed any race into it.

 

But foreigners who wanted to divide the Hindus, deliberately divided the Hindu community into two : Aryan and Dravidian which are not found in Tamil or Sanskrit literature. Though we have the word Aryan in Sangam Tamil literature  and Arya in the Rig Veda, the meaning is ‘cultured’, ‘civilized’ or ‘saints in the Himalayas’. There is no racial division or connotation. But from the days of Max Mullers and Caldwells, they coloured the word with racial paint.

Dasyu in Kalidasa

In the Sakuntala drama, Sarngarava in his anger accused the king Dusyanta as a thief. It is because the king married Sakuntala secretly and abandoned her. When she was sent back to the king, the simile Kalidasa used was that sending the stolen property to a thief himself! The word Kalidasa used is DASYU for thief (Act 5-21)

 

Dasyu in Rigveda

In the Vedic Index, Keith and Macdonell say,

“Dasyu, a word of somewhat of doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rig Veda, clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated.

Dasyus are described as

God Hating (a-devayu) 8-70-11

Not sacrificing (a-yajvan) 4-16-9

Devoid of rites ( a karman); RV 10-22-8

Lawless (a vrata)

Addicted to strange vows (anya vrata) 8-70-11

Reviling the Gods (deva piyuu) AV 12-1-37

It is impossible in all cases to be certain that people are meant.

No clans of dasyus are mentioned;

Indra is Dasyu-hatya (killer of dasyus); but never mentioned as Dasa hatya. This means Indra was against criminals, thieves, robbers etc but not against people.

It is like later inscriptions describing Hindu kings as ‘parantapa’ scorcher of the enemies (Bhagavd Gita)

 

In one passage of the Rig Veda they were described as A-nas(RV 5-29-10); some wrongly translated this as nose less and attributed to Dravidians; Dravidians have big noses! As far as we know only the Japanese have small noses; some foreigners translated it as faceless, broken nose.

When the Rig Veda described them in one place as ‘Mrdhra vac’, they translated it as ‘stammering, unintelligible speech!’

Actually Sangam Tamil literature describe the Yavanas (Romans, Greeks and Arabs) as people of harsh speech; Tamil literature describe the shepherds as Kallaa Idaiyar ( rude, uneducated, uncultured etc). No one attributed any race or aborigine element into it.

 

Every scripture or every literature has such words to describe the enemies from their own clan or from the opposite sides.

 

In Iran there is a province with the name Dasyu!. What they meant was it was an enemy country. We can call Pakistan and China as Dasyus today. England which fought 1000 year war with France would have called them Dasyu!.

When Cumuri, Sambara and Susna fought Indra they were described as Dasyu, meaning ‘a brutal enemy’.

 

In the Aitareya Brahmana it meant uncivilized people.

In short Dasyu meant hostile, uneducated, uncultured thieves and robbers. These types of people are found in every scripture and  every ancient book. But only in Hindu scriptures they were coloured by foreigners as aborigines or Dravidians. A deliberate distortion with an ulterior motive. Marxists and Dravidian politicians spread the distorted version to laymen for their own political gains.

It is Hindus’ primary duty to translate the Vedas  properly and rewrite Indian History.

–subham–

Drought in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3953)

Research Article Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 29 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-36

 

Post No. 3953

 

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contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Our forefathers and writers gave a true account of the weather conditions prevailing in those days. These true accounts prove that they wrote genuine things and not concocted anything. We have reports of Tsunamis, earth quakes, accidents, shipwrecks, massive engineering works such as diverting River Ganga (by Bhageeratha) and River Kaveri (by Agastya), laying roads through the Vindhya Hills (Agastya ), population explosion in North India and migrating to South east Asia (Agastya drank sea) etc. Only thing is people could not understand their symbolic language. They though these are all mythological ‘stories’.

 

If we read through our literature, we can see many droughts which caused massive migrations. We even come to know the drying of Saraswati river ended the Indus Valley civilization and they migrated to different parts of India. These are very important events to know the history of the land.

Massive drought resulted in the migration of people from the Saraswati River Valley during Vedic days. Brahmins in India are generally divided into 10 groups: Pancha Goawda and Pancha Dravida. Gowda Brahmins lived in North India and Dravida Brahmins lived in South India. It is all in our literature. Many droughts caused the migration of Brahmins from one part of the country to the other.

 

Hindus believed that the 12 year orbit of Jupiter around the sun caused a drought every twelve years. Position of Venus was also considered to measure the amount of rain.

Tevaram sung by three Saivite saints mentioned the drought in different parts of Tamil Nadu. Lord Siva helped the saints by providing huge quantity of paddy and gold coins, which are considered great miracles by the Tamils. Those  1400 year old Tevaram verses are sung by all the Saivaite Tamils even today.

 

The word for drought in Sanskrit is Varkadam. In Tamil we have Varatchi and it is related to Varkata.

 

Tamil Tiruvilaiyaadal Purana talks about the drought in and around Madurai.

 

Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature

Kalidasa and other poets used drought followed by rains as similes in their poems.

रावणावग्रहक्लान्तमिति वागमृतेन सः।
अभिवृष्य मरुत्सस्यम् कृष्णमेघस्तिरोदधे॥ १०-४८

rāvaṇāvagrahaklāntamiti vāgamṛtena saḥ।
abhivṛṣya marutsasyam kṛṣṇameghastirodadhe || 10-48

rAvaNAvagrahaklAntamiti vAgamR^itena saH|
abhivR^iShya marutsasyam kR^iShNameghastirodadhe || 10-48

 

On showering ambrosian water called his speech on the desiccating crop called gods owing to the drought called Ravana, he that black cloud called Vishnu disappeared.

Rain=speech, dry crops=gods, drought caused by=Ravana, Black Cloud=Vishnu

 

Tamil poet Alankudi Vanganar used the same simile in Natrinai verse 230. A man came back to his wife after visiting a courtesan. She told that the very sight of him is like rain flooding the land affected by drought.

 

Raghuvamsa 10-48= Natrinai 230

 

Sangam Tamil poets (Pura nanauru 35, 383 and 397) say that even if the planet Venus is seen in the wrong direction there wont be any drought because of the just rule of the kings. This shows their belief n the position of Venus in the sky.

 

12 long Drought and Indus Valley Civilization

 

There is an interesting reference to the drying of River Saraswati, the mighty river which ran through Punjab, Uttapradesh and other states.

 

Sarasvata, son of Dadhichi and Sarasvata survived a twelve year long drought. But all other rishis had gone away  in search of food. They had forgotten the Vedas completely. Then Sarasvata rishi taught them the Vedas (Mahabharata 9-51). This gives credit to the story of Vedic Hindus migration from the Indus valley to other parts of India after a 12 year long drought. Story of Saraswata Brahmins’ origin also corroborates this.

 

During the reign of Ukra Kumara Pandya, a legendary king, there was a 12 year long drought. Then he went and prayed to Agastya. He showed them the way.

 

The reference to 12 year long drought and once in 12 year drought are plenty in our literature.

Two droughts during Tevaram days

 

Tevaram is a collection f hymns sung by three saints Sambadar, Appar and Sundarar.

 

Sambandar and Appar were contemporaries who lived during seventh century CE. Because of drought and famine they went to Siva temple and prayed for the sake of the people. They were given one coin each till they tided over the famine. They used the coins to buy food articles.

 

Sundarar, who lived later than Appar and Sambadar , was getting regular  supply of paddy  from a generous Shiva devotee.  Suddenly he stopped it due to a severe drought. When Sundara came to know about it, he was very much worried. Lord Shiva appeared in the dream of that philanthropist and promised him a good supply of paddy. The very next day he went to nearby Tiruvarur and informed Sundara about the miracle. When Sundara saw the huge hills of paddy I a village he was wondering ow to carry them. Shiva told him that the paddy would be in Tiruarur. His words came true and every house in Tiruarur had a heap of paddy in front of his/her house. Sundara was very happy to see the delivery at the doorstep.

–SUBHAM–

 

Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 27 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 13-57

 

Post No. 3946

 

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contact: swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Kalidasa and Valluvar on Bad Friends and Laughter (Post No.3946)

 

Tiruvalluvar is the author of Tirukkural, the Tamil Veda. It has got 1330 couplets organised in 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject dealing with virtues, wealth and love (between man and woman). It expresses the highest and purest truths. It is very rare to see a secular work like this in any other language in the world. It has become very popular because of its brevity and universal appeal. Anyone will enjoy reading it.

 

Kalidasa is the most celebrated poet of India. His seven literary works are considered the best in classical Sanskrit literature. He is more famous for his over 1300 apt similes, imageries and analogies. All the similes in other Indian literatures are his imitations or adaptations. His influence over Indian literature is enormous. There is lot of scope for comparative studies.

 

Here are some amazing similarities in the above two books on two subjects: Laughter and Friendship.

 

Tamil poet Thiru Valluvar is so obsessed with friendship, that he deals with it in 70 to 80 couplets under different headings.

 

Kalidasa says that the relationship with bad friends should be cut off like a poisoned finger affected by a snake bite. Tiruvalluvar says the bad friends are like harlots and thieves.

 

“Cunning friends whose motive is gaining money, are like harlots who sell their body for gold and thieves who plunder” (Kural 813)

“It is better to leave than have the friendship of mean, low minded people that are useless and unhelpful” (Kural 815)

Kalidasa says,

“A friend who is part and parcel of life should be discarded if wicked as a finger which is part of body is cut down if it is bitten by a snake. But a good man, though unfriendly should be accepted, as a medicine though distasteful is acceptable to the sick” (Raghuvamsa 1-28)

द्वेष्योऽपि सम्मतः शिष्टस्तस्यार्तस्य यथौषधम्।
त्याज्यो दुष्टः प्रियोऽप्यासीदङ्गुलीवोरगक्षता॥ १-२८

dveṣyo’pi sammataḥ śiṣṭastasyārtasya yathauṣadham |
tyājyo duṣṭaḥ priyo’pyāsīdaṅgulīvoragakṣatā || 1-28

dveSyo.api sammataH shiSTastasyaartasya yathauSadham |
tyaajyo duSTaH priyo.apyaasiida~NguliivoragakShataa || 1-28

 

Even if someone is despicable he becomes agreeable to King DilIpa, in case if he were to be a principled person, as with a pungent medicine somehow agreeable to a patient; and even if someone is dearer to him he becomes discardable to him in case if he were to be an unprincipled person, as with a finger fanged by a snake, severable for anyone. [1-28]

A friend indeed is a friend in need!

In the Rtu Samhara Kalidasa says,

“The bodies of elephants, lions and oxen were scorched by the fire due to the excessive heat in summer season. They quickly emerged from the grass where they were burnt by fire and they all rested on the banks of a river together, forgetting their natural enmity. They behaved like friends. The image suggests that a real friend is helpful, particularly during distress. Rtu Samhara 1-27

 

Valluvan defines a good friend more beautifully:

“Genuine friendship hastens to redress distress even like the hand which picks up quickly that garment that slips (Kural 788)

“Friendship with worthy men is like the taste in the good books; the more we study the more we know” (Kural 783)

Laughter

There are two words for laughter in Tamil : one with good and another with bad connotations. Strictly speaking both are interchangeable. Only the context determines its meaning. Valluvar deals with laughter in over 16 couplets whereas Kalidasa used it in lesser places. But Kalidasas’ three plays have the Vidushaka (comedian, Jester) which gives good scope for creating mirth. All the ancient Sanskrit dramas have this Vidushaka/ jester character.

 

Let us look at one or two couplets from Tirukkural:

“Laugh when trials and troubles confront you, for there is no other way to overcome grief” (Kural 621)

It is very difficult to laugh when troubles come to us; one must be a saint like Tiruvalluvar to act that way. But most of us laugh at others’ troubles; particularly the troubles encountered by our enemies.

Valluvar echoed what Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita in the following couplets:

He does not suffer sorrow in sorrow, who does not look for pleasure in pleasure (Kural 629)

He is never afflicted by sorrow who knows the grief is natural and seeks no pleasure” (628)

Kalidasa says,

The lovely gardens resplendent with white jasmine flowers are imagined to be as bright as the sportive laugh f ladies, which is also considered white in colour—(Rtu Samhara 6-23)

 

In Hindu literature White is used for laughter, red is used for anger, Yellow is used for auspiciousness and Black for sorrow or wickedness. They have colour coded the emotions and feelings.

In the Raghu Vamsa (5-70) Kalidasa says,

“The dew drops fallen on the tender leaves with their interiors red resemble the sportive smile fallen on Aja’s lip brightened by the splendour of teeth”

Dew drops = smile; tender leaves = lips

ताम्रोदरेषु पतितं तरुपल्लवेषु

निर्धौतहारगुलिकाविशदं हिमाम्भः

आभाति लब्धपरभागतयाधरोष्ठे

लीलास्मितं सदशनार्चिरिव त्वदीयम्॥ ५-७०

tāmrodareṣu patitaṁ tarupallaveṣu

nirdhautahāragulikāviśadaṁ himāmbhaḥ

ābhāti labdhaparabhāgatayādharoṣṭhe

līlāsmitaṁ sadaśanārciriva tvadīyam || 5-70

taamrodareShu patita.n tarupallaveShu
nirdhautahaaragulikaavishada.n himaambhaH
aabhaati labdhaparabhaagatayaadharoShThe
liilaasmita.n sadashanaarciriva tvadiiyam || 5-70

“Like the thoroughly cleansed pearls in a necklace the dewdrops are now stringing on the surfaces of tender coppery leaflets only to expropriate their ochreish magnificence onto their whitely white bodies, in which process they look like your pleasing smiles occasionally gleaming with the sparkle of your teeth radiating onto your lower lip… [5-70]

 

Kalidasa uses tears of joy to express happiness:

The stream of the Himalayan snow melting under the rays of the sun is compared to the tears of joy shed by a woman when her  lover returns to her after a long absence (Raghu vamsa 16-44)

 

अगस्त्यचिह्नादयनात्समीपम् दिगुत्तरा भास्वति संनिवृत्ते।
आनन्दशीतामिव बाष्पवृष्टिम् हिमस्रुतिम् हैमवतीम् ससर्ज ॥ १६-४४

agastyacihnādayanātsamīpam
diguttarā bhāsvati saṁnivṛtte |
ānandaśītāmiva bāṣpavṛṣṭim
himasrutim haimavatīm sasarja  || 16-44

agastyacihnAdayanAtsamIpam diguttarA bhAsvati sa.nnivR^itte |
AnandashItAmiva bAShpavR^iShTim himasrutim haimavatIm sasarja  || 16-44

 

On the return of the Sun from her co-wife South (indicated by the star Canopus) after his southern solstice to the proximity of North, she that northerly quarter another wife of that Sun shed tears of joy duly dampened with her happiness to which the flow of melted snow from the Himalayas is hypothetical. [16-44]

(Agastya’s direction is South where the star Canopus is known as Agastya Nakshatra)

 

In the fourth act of famous drama Sakuntala Kanva, the foster father of Sakuntala, sheds tears of joy when she departs to join her husband King Dushyanta.

These are just some examples to show how great poets think alike and use forceful similes to bring out the emotions.

Sources: Raghuvamsa from sanskritdocuments.com

Tirukkural by A Aranganatha Mudaliyar, Trplicane, Madras, 1949

The Imagery of Kalidasa, Dr Vinod Aggarwal, Delhi, 1985

 

–Subham–

 

Mysterious Number 17 in the Vedas! (Post No.3916)

Research article Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 17 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 19-46

 

Post No. 3916

 

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Vedas are full of mysteries. So-called foreign translators and scholars have bluffed their way through the Vedas for over 250 years. Every book written by a foreigner on the Vedas is a big joke book.  If you look at another foreigner’s book for the meaning or an interpretation for the same word or mantra you will have a big laugh. I have been enjoying such jokes every day.

 

Number symbolism is in the Vedas from the very beginning. This shows that the Vedic seers are very great intellectuals. They were the inventors of decimal system. No foreigner or an Indian scholar can give a reasonable explanation for such numbers. Though Appar alias Tirunavukkarasar used number symbolism to some extent in the seventh century and later Tirumular and Sivvakkiyar, to name a few, we are not able to get the full meaning of the verses. No wonder Vedas are beyond our reach.

 

That is why great saints like Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) advised us not to look at the meaning and follow it blindly. A great intellectual like Adi Shankara would appear one day and guide us. Kanchi Paramacharya rightly used an analogy: a blind person holding a lamp was laughed at by the people and he told them that though he was blind he did not want them to stumble upon him when it was dark. We are blind with the Vedic interpretations but if we take the lamp (Vedas) with us it would help others.

Here is the mystery of Number Seventeen in the Soma Yagas and other Yajnas (Fire ceremonies):

 

Agni with one syllable won speech

The Asvins with two syllables won expiration and inspiration

Visnu with three syllables Three worlds

Soma with four syllables the four- footed cattle

Pusan with five syllables the Pankti

Prajapati with SEVENTEEN syllables, the  SEVENTEEN fold Stoma

–Taittiriya Samhita, Yajur Veda

 

There are four priests in sacrificial rites: (Hotr, Udgaatr, Adhvaryu, Brahman). They have four assistants. It increased to SEVENTEEN later, with each one allocated different work. Why 17? It is a mystery!

At a Soma sacrifice, in the midday pressing of Soma plants (for juice), a Kshatriya shoots SEVENTEEN arrows to measure out a racing space; then three of the sacrificer’s horses are yoked to his chariot while four horses are yoked to each of his four other chariots. A ritual race takes place to the beating of SEVENTEEN drums and the sacrifice comes out victorious.

 

The sacrificers drew water from Sarasvati, Sindhu rivers, streams, tanks and stored rain water; altogether SEVENTEEN kinds of water were used in the fire sacrifices. Why 17? It is a mystery.

So many rituals like this are unexplainable. When William Jones pointed out the similarities between European languages and Sanskrit these people said Aryans migrated into India from outside.

Thousands of customs and rituals in the Vedas and Hindu epics are found nowhere outside India. If at all some traces are found, there the Hindu influence is very visible. This shows Hindus went outside several thousand years ago from India to different places on earth and slowly they lost their customs or changed or adapted them to suit the local needs. Number SEVENTEEN is one of them.

Rare coincidence! This article is written on SEVENTEENTH of May 2017

17-05-17

-Subham-

 

Gold and Touch Stone in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (Post No.3887)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 7 May 2017

 

Time uploaded in London: 21-21

 

Post No. 3887

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Gold is a precious bright yellow metal. Streaks of gold appears charming on the black touch stone, and it remains firm and distinct on the clean touch stone. So Tamil and Sanskrit poets have used this image in their poems.

 

In Kalidasa’s Meghaduta, the flashes of lightning in dark-blue cloud are imagined to be as charming as  the streak of gold on the black touchstone which has peculiar brightness (Meghaduta 40)

 

In the Vikrama Urvasiyam (5-19), Kalidasa used the touch stone simile which is used by several Sangam age Tamil Poets as well.

The Goddess of Wealth, though fickle by nature became steady due to the magnanimous and virtuous qualities of King Atithi as a streak of gold on the clean touch stone remains firm and distinct (Raghuvamsa 17-46)

 

प्रसादाभिमुखे तस्मिंश्चपलापि स्वभावतः।
निकषे हेमरेखेव श्रीरासीदनपायिनी॥ १७-४६

prasādābhimukhe tasmiṁścapalāpi svabhāvataḥ |
nikaṣe hemarekheva śrīrāsīdanapāyinī|| 17-46

 

The lady called kingdom-fortune though naturally fickle was constant with him who was inclined to be gracious; and hence she was like an ineffaceable streak of gold upon a touchstone. [17-46]

 

In Sangam Tamil Literature

Famous Sangam Tamil Poet Paranar compares a rock strewn with yellow flowers to a touch stone with gold streaks (Akananauru 178)

Ilamkeeranaar in Natrinai verse 3 says the illiterate children used to play with gooseberries in a touchstone shaped circle (Narrinai 3)

Berisattanar, in Natrinai verse 25, says that the beetle that sucked nectar from the flowers looked like a touch stone with gold streaks, because the beetle was smeared with the golden coloured pollen grains.

In Kuruntokai 192, Kachipedu Nannaakaiyaar, says that the black winged cuckoo looks like a touchstone with golden streaks after it visited the mango flowers loaded with pollen grains.

 

Perumpanatruppadai author uruththirankannanar also used the touchstone simile (Line 221)

Tamil Veda Tirukkural (505) says,

“A man’s deeds are the touchstone of his greatness and littleness.”

 

Kalidasa’s 200 similes were used by the Sangam age Tamil poets 2000 years ago. I have been showing that Kalidasa lived well before Sangam age somewhere between first and second century BCE. Kalidasa could not have copied from scores of Tamil poets. Then the world would not have praised him for the apt similes Moreover Kalidasa had better knowledge about the Ganges, Himalayas, Northern rivers and Hills and mythological characters than the Tamil poets.

 

Raghuvamsa sloka is taken from the sanskritdocumets.org

–subham–

 

Shakespeare and Kalidasa-Hindu Thoughts in Shakespearean Plays (Post No.3866)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 30 APRIL 2017

Time uploaded in London:-11-29  am

Post No. 3866

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

We know that great men think alike; but some similarities in the plays of Kalidasa and Shakespeare make us believe that Shakespeare has read Kalidasa or heard about his plays. Innocent forest girl Shakuntala is incarnated as Miranda in The Tempest. Kalidasa’s Vidusakas (Jesters/comedians) are seen in several of Shakespeare’s plays. There are similarities in Othello, Hamlet and The Winter’s Tale as well.

 

Plays of Shakespeare were largely founded on Hellenic, Roman and and other foreign models, where as Kalidasa’s plays were based on Ramayana and Mahabharata.

 

Shakespeare puts in the mouth of one of his characters: –

“The self-same sun that shines upon his court

Hides not his visage from our cottage, but

Looks on’s alike”.

 

In describing the moral greatness of the Himalaya, Kalidasa gives expression to the idea as follows:

 

“He protects from the sun in his caves the darkness which through fear of light adheres to them for shelter; the care of the great is impartially bestowed on inferior and important personages alike”.

“Divaakaraad rakshati yo guhaasu

Leenam divaabheetam vaandhakaaram;

Kshudrepi noonam saranam prapanne

Mamatvam uchchais sirasaam sateeva”

Polonius Advice

Shakespeare students are familiar with the advice of Polonius to his son Laertes.

 

“Give thy thoughts no tongue, Nor any unproportion’d thought his act. Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel; But do not dull thy palm with entertainment Of each new-hatch’s, unfledged comrade. Beware…: (Hamlet Act I)

 

According to Kalidasa, the following is the advice that Shakuntala received from her foster father Kanva when she was leaving him to go to her royal husband’s home:

“Show due reverence to him and to your superiors; should others share your husband’s love, be an affectionate handmaid to them; should your husband displease you, let not your resentment lead you to disobedience. Be just and impartial to domestics, and seek not your own gratifications. By such behaviours young women become exemplary mistresses, but perverse wives are the bane of a family.”

There may be a difference of opinion, according to present ideas, as to this description of the duty of a wife; but there can scarcely be any difference of opinion as to the sentiments expressed by Kalidasa in the following verses:-

 

“The wicked are controlled, not by favour, but by punishment”.

 

“Of righteous acts good wives are certainly the fundamental cause”.

“Devoted wives never oppose the wishes of their husbands”.

“When there is seniority in virtue, youth is not taken into account”.

Hamlet and Manu Smrti

The king in Hamlet speaks of his inviolability thus:-

“There is such divinity doth hedge a king

That treason can but peep to what it would”

 

Manu explains royal divinity thus

“With eight elements of the gods is a king made; hence, by his lustre he subdues all creatures.”

Kalidasa describes a king of the Raghuvamsa, who went about without attendants thus:

“The race of Manu needed no bodyguard, but relied for safety on its own prestige and prowess.”

 

On Royal attributes, such as King Henry V defined and Cranmer prophesied of the infant Elizabeth, Kalidasa speaks in referring to a king of the Solar Race thus:

 

“Broad-chested, strong shouldered like a bull, long armed like a pine-tree, his physical frae was suited to the task of his royal birth; he was the embodiment of the virtues of the warrior caste”.

All the world is a stage

“I hold the world but as the world, Horatio

A stage where everyman must play a part”.

 

and again in As You like It

“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,”

–As You Like It

I have given similar thoughts found in Tamil and Sanskrit in my post:–

Drama, Puppet Show, Folk Theatre in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3608); Date: 5 FEBRUARY 2017

 

The Winter’s Tale

The scene where the king (Shakuntalam), after dismounting from the is about to enter the grove of Marica’s hermitage and has his first glimpse of his son is a replica of the scene in Act One, where also the king after dismounting from the chariot at the fringes of the grove of Kanva’s hermitage, enters and see the boy’s mother for the first time. The finding of the lost son and heir precedes and leads to the recognition of the mother. An interesting parallel is provided in the last scene of Shakespeare’s ‘The Winter’s Tale’.

 

Othello and Sakuntalam

There is an interesting parallel in Othello. In the drama, proof of heroine’s chastity and love is demanded. Desdemona’s chastity hangs on a handkerchief; Sakuntala’s on a ring. Both heroines are blissfully unaware of the importance of the token. To them love is its own proof and a witness to their chastity.

 

In Ramayana, Sita was asked to prove her chastity by undergoing the ordeal of fire to allay the suspicions of the public: In Shakespeare’s Othello and King Lear where proof of fidelity and of filial love is demanded, we have a parallel.

 

A lot of Shakespeare’s quotable quotes have parallel in Sanskrit verses (I will give them separately).

 

Source Books:

Orient and Occident, Manmath C Mallick,1913

Kalidasa, The Loom of Time, Chandra Rajan, 1989

 

–Subham–

 

Water Images in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3793)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 6 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 18-09

 

Post No. 3793

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Great men think alike. Kalidasa, the most famous poet of India and a Sangam Tamil poet Sempulapeyarnirar use the water image in a beautiful way.

 

Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa says,

 

Water from the sky which is originally of one taste gains diversity of flavours in different regions. Similarly, Hari, being immutable assumes different conditions in different qualities (RV 10-17). The image gives the idea of monism.

 

Sempulap peyal nirar, Tamil poet who lived nearly 2000 years ago, says in Kuruntokai (verse 40):

 

“What are my mother and your mother to each other?

What is the relationship between my father and your father?

How did we come to know each other?

Like the (rain) water which falls on a field with red soil,

(mingle with it and becomes red)

the loving hearts have blended with each other.

 

Kalidasa used it illustrate monism; Tamil poet used it to illustrate the union of hearts.

 

(I have been emphasizing through several articles that Kalidasa lived before the Sangam age, probably around 1st century BCE. I am using 250 plus similes of Sangam poets to illustrate my point and those similes are already in Kalidasa’s seven works).

In the Kumara sambhava (2-25), he says that “the speed of the Wind Gods Maruts can be guessed from their faltering motion as is the stoppage of their current from the refulgence of waters.

 

As the sprouting of a seed requires water before it can make its appearance, similarly, the work of gods can be accomplished by the Cupid in diverting the mind of Siva from meditation towards Parvati (K.S.3-18)

 

Siva, on account of suspension of the vital airs is imagined to be a reservoir of water unruffled with ripples, a cloud not blustering up to burst into a shower, or like a lamp steady in a place free from wind (K.S.3-48)

 

Cupid who died leaving Rati whose very life depends upon him, is imagined as the torrent of water abandoning a lotus after breaking down a dam (K.S. 4-6)

 

The mind already firmly resolute and bent on its desired object cannot be diverted and is so imagined to be like downward flowing water which cannot be drawn back (K S 5-5). So Menaka’s advice to Parvati whose mind already leaned to Siva went amiss.

 

 

Seeing the moon-like face of Parvati, Siva had the water of his mind rendered clear (K S 7-74).

Water is always cool; seers are always kind!

 

In the Raghuvamsa (RV 5-54) Matanga cursed Pri yamvada to turn into an elephant. He fell at his feet and the sage relented afterwards. The hotness of water is due to its contact with the fire or the solar heat; what is coolness is but the natural property of water. This indicates that abut is the sage was kind-hearted.

 

स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चान्मया महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत्|
उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगाच्छैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य॥ ५-५४

sa cānunītaḥ praṇatena paścānmayā maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat
uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṁprayogācchaityaṁ hi yatsā prakṛtirjalasya || 5-54

“But, when I prostrated before his feet and importuned that great sage matanga relented to modify the curse as above… for the heat of water is owing to its contact with either fire or solar heat… what is coolness is but the natural property of water… isn’t it… [5-54]

 

 

The Sanskrit poets describe navel as a mark of beauty and it therefore, compared to the watery eddy (RV 6-52)

नृपम् तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः सा व्यत्यगादन्यवधूर्भवित्री|
महीधरम् मार्गवशादुपेतम् स्रोतोवहा सागरगामिनीव॥ ६-५२

nṛpam tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ sā vyatyagādanyavadhūrbhavitrī |

mahīdharam mārgavaśādupetam srotovahā sāgaragāminīva || 6-52

She who has a navel as beautiful as an eddy, and who is scheduled to become another man’s wife, that princess indumati moved past that prince susheNa of shUrasena kingdom, just as an ocean bound river moves past a mountain met by chance on its way. [6-52]

 

 

 

The family of Raghu with the child King comparable to the water with a lotus in the condition of a bud in it (RV 18-37). This indicates the tender and lovely heart of King Sudarsana.

 

नवेन्दुना तन्नभसोपमेयम्
शाबैकसिंहेन च काननेन।
रघोः कुलम् कुट्मलपुष्करेण
तोयेन चाप्रौढनरेन्द्रमासीत्॥ १८-३७

navendunā tannabhasopameyam
śābaikasiṁhena ca kānanena |
raghoḥ kulam kuṭmalapuṣkareṇa
toyena cāprauḍhanarendramāsīt || 18-37

 

That dynasty of Raghu with this young king sudarshana obtained similitude to the sky with new moon, a forest with a single lion-cub, and a lake with solitary bud of lotus. [18-37]

 

Thus Raghu’s line, whose chief was now a child,/Showed like the night while still the Moon is young,/Or like a forest where one Lion-cub/Alone doth range, or as a silent lake/Before its lilies bloom.

 

 

In the Malavikagnimitram (M.M.1-6), the skill of teacher which when communicated to a worthy student, attains greater excellence, is likened to the water of a cloud, which when dropped into a sea-shell, acquires the nature of a pearl.

 

Just as a stupid person becomes wise by association with the wise, similarly, the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree (M M 2—7)

 

(Rain drops falling on the day of Swati star becoming pearl in the oysters and the Kataka seed purifying water are used by Tamil poets as well; I have written about it already).

 

Source books :–Kuruntokai

Raghuvamsa.sansrit documents.com

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Mrs Vinod Aggarwal

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My Old articles on the same subject:

1.Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775); posted on 31 March 2017

2. Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature; posted on 10 November 2014
3. Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st century BC. Posted on 22 January 2012
4. Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489); 27 December 2016
5. Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature

Posted on Post No. 1048 ; dated 17th May 2014.

  1. Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (13 February 2012)

 

–Subham–

 

 

Husband is God!!! Who will believe Valmiki, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Poets? (Post No.3717)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 12 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 19-37

 

Post No. 3717

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

There is a saying in all old Sanskrit and Tamil books that ‘Husband is God’; I don’t know how many modern Hindu women would agree with this ‘old fashioned’ thought. When I was a school by there was, a film titled ‘Kanavane Kankanda Deivam’ i.e. Husband is the visible God! Now people may laugh at this idea, leave alone believing it!

 

The second idea repeated very often in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature and Sanskrit literature is that the ‘same husband must come as her husband in future births’!! How many women would dare to say this to her husband in private or in public? How many women can tolerate such a thing if it happens!! Is in it horrible?

 

My mother had never said my father’s name in public! This is the third old fashioned idea that Hindu women had in the past. Now, my wife says my name loud and clear ten times in public when there was an opportunity to say it. But I myself had the difficulty of finding a gentleman’s’ name in a village, when I was working as the secretary of Madurai District RSS (Jilla Karyavah). The woman refused to say her husband’s name when I asked her and she gave me lot of tips and clues! It was like a puzzle I had to solve!

 

For instance if her husband’s name is Rama chandran, she would say her husband’s name is Sita’s husband name. If I say just Rama , then she will say ‘yes’ and add the moon with that name! Then I have to derive Rama Chandra from that! (Chandran is the Sanskrit word for moon)!

 

I don’t know how many Hindu women still believe in these ‘’old fashioned’’ views.

 

If you dare to put these views to any woman and ask her opinion, she may say ‘NO’ or a conditional YES (if my husband is like Rama, ‘YES’, if he is like Krishna ‘NO’)!

 

Let me give examples from Tamil and Sanskrit books:-

“Supressing his sobs, Rama replied to his mother, who was weeping, and said:- As long as sge lives, a woman’s god and her master is her husband; further the king is thine absolute lord as well as mine.”

 

This is a conversation between Rama and Kausalya about Kaikeyi and Dasaratha.

 

“By obedience to her husband, a woman attains the highest heaven, even if she has failed to render due homage to the Gods.”

 

–Ayodhya kanda, chapter 24, Vlmiki Ramayana

Tamil Poet supports Valmiki

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda, Tirukkural says

“A wife who may not worship God but wakes up with worshipful devotion to her husband has the power to make rainfall at her bidding”- Kural 55

 

In fact Tiruvalluvar’s wife Vasuki is attributed with so many miracles because of her devotion to her husband.

 

Valmiki has repeated this in many places; one more instance from the same Ayodhya kanda:

“O, son of an illustrious monarch! a father, a mother, a brother, a son or a daughter-in-law enjoy the fruit of their merits and receive what is their due, a wife alone follows the destiny of her husband. For a woman it is not her father or her son nor her mother friends nor her own self, but the husband who in this world and the next is ever her sole means of salvation.”

Sita said this to her husband Rama.

In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa Kavya, Sita says that she would do penance to get Rama as her husband in her next birth!

साहम् तपः सूर्यनिविष्टदृष्टिः
ऊर्ध्वम् प्रसूतेश्चरितुम् यतिष्ये।
भूयो यथा मे जननान्तरेऽपि
त्वमेव भर्ता न च विप्रयोगः ॥ १४-६६

sāham tapaḥ sūryaniviṣṭadṛṣṭiḥ
ūrdhvam prasūteścaritum yatiṣye |
bhūyo yathā me jananāntare’pi
tvameva bhartā na ca viprayogaḥ  || 14-66

 

Thus situated, I shall, after the birth of the child, endeavour to practise penance with my eyes fixed on the sun in such a manner that I may gain you as my unseparated husband. [14-66]

But, once Thy son is born,/Unswerving I shall fix my weary eyes/On yon bright Sun, and by severest modes/Of penance strive that in some future life/Thou only be my Lord, my Lord for aye!

(It is called Panchagni penance, i.e. Five Fire Penance. Uma did this type of penance to get Siva s her husband in Kalidasa’s Kumara sambhava. On four sides there will be fire and one would stand in the sun which is the fifth fire. And in this heat the penance would be done).

 

Tamil Epic Silappadikaram has the following passage:

 

In a divine chariot at the side of Kovalan, Kannnaki went up to heaven.. Because it is a fact that Gods will worship her who worships not God but worships her husband, Kannaki, that jewel among women of the earth, became a goddess and the guest of the ladies of heaven (Katturai Kaathai, Silappadikaram)

Manimekalai, another Tamil epic, has a similar passage.

Sangam Poets

 

Tamil work Kuruntokai (49) of Sangam Period has a similar poem:

A man left the courtesan and returned to his lady love. Immediately the lady was over the moon and said, “ O , My Lord, even in the next birth you must be my lord and I must be your lover.—Poet Ammuvanar.

A wife cried because…………………………..

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkura says,

“The moment I said we will not part IN THIS LIFE

Her eyes were filled with tears” – Kural 1315

 

the idea is that when her husband stated that they will not part in the PRESENT LIFE, she immediately held, that he was envisaging the possibility of their parting in the next life, which she did not kindly take to. Hence the tears.

 

Kalidasa says Aja and Indumati became husband and wife again in this birth. (Raghuvamsa 7-15)

 

रतिस्मरौ नूनमिमावभूताम् राज्ञाम् सहस्रेषु तथा हि बाला।
गतेयमात्मप्रतिरूपमेव मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम्॥ ७-१५

ratismarau nūnamimāvabhūtām
rājñām sahasreṣu tathā hi bālā |
gateyamātmapratirūpameva
mano hi janmāntarasaṁgatijñam || 7-15

“These two are undoubtedly Rati Devi and Manmatha in human form… that is why this maiden has chosen Prince Aja as her own match from among thousands of kings… after all, it is heart that cognises connubial tie-ups existing in all lifecycles… [ raghu vamsa 7-15]

 

Natrinai  (Verse 397 by Poet Ammuvanar) is another book in the Sangam literature. A woman laments: I am not worried about death; whoever is born must die. But if I am born as a non-human being in my next birth I may not get this man as my husband. That is what worries me much”.

There are lot of such examples in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is a common thought reflected in Manu Smrti and other Sanskrit works. It is amazing to see the same though from land’s southernmost end to the Northern Himalayas. The absence of such a view in other cultures explode the Aryan Dravidian divisions. India is one and there is no different culture. There is only one culture which is unique in the world.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Word Research shows Sanskrit is the Oldest Language! (Post No.3709)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 10 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 21-15

 

Post No. 3709

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

I gave some excerpts from “Vedic and Indo-European Studies” written by Nicholas Kazanas, (Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, year 2015) yesterday.

 

Here are some more issues raised by him. I found his research into 400 words in Indo European languages very interesting. Here is what he says in his summary:

 

The second study is about, “Coherence and Preservation in Sanskrit” (published in Kumar 2009, 108 184, but revised since). Herein are examined more than 400 IE lexical items (nouns, verbs etc) occurring in the IE branches and denoting fairly common and as far as possible invariable things, qualities and activities like arm and foot, anger and love, father and mother, bowl and barley/grain, to breathe and to fly and so on. This study shows that Sanskrit lacks 53, some of which may well have not been PIE, Germanic lacks 145, Greek 149, Baltic 185 in 207, Celtic 210 and Slavic 215. Thus Sanskrit preserves a much larger stock whereas Greek, with its early and voluminous literature does not surpass Germanic, and Latin, with an almost equally early and rich literature, lags behind Germanic and Baltic. Another and perhaps more important aspect is that while many words appear in Germanic, Greek, Latin etc, only as isolated lexemes without a family of cognates (e.g. daughter’), in Sanskrit many such words have root- nouns, adjectives and verbal forms. Sanskrit has organic coherence. Both facts indicate that Sanskrit is by far the most archaic branch and most faithful to PIE.

PIE= Proto Indo-European

I E = Indo European

xxx

 

Rig Vedic Poetry is better than Greek Poetry

The third study, “Rigvedic All-comprehensiveness reinforces the conclusion that Sanskrit is the most archaic of the IE branches and closest to PIE. In the second chapter are examined the lexical items. Here, in the third, are examined grammatical and poetical aspects and in every case the Vedic language and poetry are seen to contain everything found in one or two of the other branches. For instance, the Periphrastic Perfect is found in Hittite but not in ancient Greek or Latin (in both it appears as a later innovation), is also present in Vedic. The Greek poetry has strict metre but little or no alliteration where as Germanic poetry has as one of its basic elements alliteration but not strict metre: both of these are present in the poetry of Rig Veda.

 

xxx

Vedic and Avestan

The fourth study, ‘Vedic and Avesta’ is very technical and shows that contrary to mainstream belief, Vedic is far older than Avestan. It shows also that it is the Iranians who moved out of the wider Saptasindhu to Bactria/Gandhara, then to South East Iran and North westward.

xxx

 

  1. As the title Vedic and Indo-European Studies indicates, the volume consists of dealing with common in both areas so that one may illuminate the other. Following facts rather than conjectures and reasoning rather than repetition, I arrive at unorthodox conclusions that diverge from mainstream (usually mechanical) thinking.

 

The most significant conclusion is that the Rig Veda furnishes facts that militate against many prevalent notions in many disciplines and studies in academia like the beginning of language or religion. Another conclusion concerns the origins of the Indo Aryan or Vedic people and the obnoxious Aryan Invasion/Immigration Theory. The AIT (-Aryan Invasion Immigration Theory) is a major impediment in mainstream IE (Indo European) scholarship but it is not the only one. In fact this is an external structure established by other, internal or psychological tendencies like inattention, love of ease, mechanicalness, arrogance, obstinacy, ambition, greed etc, all sprouting from an unchecked ego; all these can be encapsulated in the triad arrogance, greed, ignorance (more in the sense of ignoring than not knowing). And it is these that often motivate us rather than love and promotion of truth, the primary purpose of all scholarship (And if your mind, dear reader, rejects all this as claptrap unrelated to scholarship, then it is in the thralls of the triad.)

 

xxxx

Research on Vedic God Rhbu

 

Let us now go to Greece holding in mind the adjective name rbhu ‘intelligent fashioner. Scholars generally agree that this word is cognate with English Germanic ‘elf’ ( Elf, Alp etc), Old Slavic rabh ‘servant’ and the name of the Greek poet-musician-hero Orpheus.

 

In the Rig Veda ( 1.20, 110; 3.60, 7.48 etc) the Rbhus are three brothers, sons Sudhanvan, who perform several miraculous deeds through the power of mind’. For instance, RV 4- 2 says “ratham ye cakruh suvrtam sucetaso a-vibvarantam manasas pari dhyaya.

The wise-ones who fashioned the fine-rolling, impeccable car by visionary power ‘dhi’- out of mind/ manas. But the three are often indicated as one. Thus in the RV the indicated by the singular Rbhu as one. Thus in the Rig Veda the name appears both in the singular and in the plural.  The three brothers, though mortal, thanks to their great mental power gain, the favour of the gods and stay in the mansion of the Sun god where they serve as priests and become immortal gods themselves.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Hindus Migrate to Europe 8000 Years Ago! (Post No.3708)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 9 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-08

 

Post No. 3708

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Nicholas Kazanas, a scholar from Athens has given amazing details about Hindus in his latest book “VEDIC AND INDO EUROPEAN STUDIES”. It is written for scholars with lot of linguistic studies and a layman can’t follow it easily. But he himself summarised beautifully well in the introduction. I will give only interesting points from the intro and the contents of the book.

 

Migration

AIT (Aryan Invasion/Immigration Theory) is wrong. On the contrary Hindus went into Europe 8000 years ago. He quoted the following:

Genetics also has in the 2000 decade established beyond any doubt the fact that genes flowed into Europe from N W India (Gujarat, Rajsathan, Sindh); these are the R1a 1a and the M458 and they travelled north westward before 8000 years ago (see underhill 2010)

Emeneau’s Ignorance

M B Emeneau wrote in 1954 : “At some time in the second millennium BC a band or bands of an Indo European language, later to be called Sanskrit, entered India over the North West passes. This is our linguistic doctrine which has been held now for more than a century and a half. There seems to be no reason to distrust the arguments for it, in spite of the traditional Hindu ignorance of any such invasion”.

Nicholas, in his book says: “However it is Emeneau himself who suffers from ignorance, not the Hindu tradition. For only 12 years later, in 1966, an article by the eminent archealogist George Dale in the Scientific American showed beyond any doubt that there has been no invasion, no bloodshed, no conquest, no violence. Note, too, that Emeneau talks of a doctrine and arguments and not of data, evidence and facts. Now where as historians like A L Basham accepted it readily (1975), it took Western and many Indian Sanskritists to accept this fact and change the theory into one of peaceful immigration.

 

Date of Rig Veda 3500 BCE!

All modern texts on Sanskrit and ancient Indian literature refer to the chronological scheme set out by Max Muller in his History of Sanskrit Literature (1859). What they don’t say is how he arrived at this’

 

This scheme was based on a ghost story in Katha sarit sagara (composed in 1100 CE) which mentions a certain Katyayana. This person was identified by Muller with the sutra writer Kaatyaayana, placed in the third century BCE. Thus working from that date as his basis, he set up the following chronological scheme:

Chandas (RV) – 1200-1000 BCE

Mantras (Atharva, Yajus) – 1000-800 BCE

Brahmanas, Upanishads – 800-600 BCE

Sutras etc. – down to 200 BCE

 

This chronology came into criticism at that time ( by Goldstrucker, Whitney, Winternitz and others) and even Muller admitted that nobody could determine the dates of the Rig Vedic hymns which could be from 1500, 2000 or even 5000 BCE. But his earlier scheme stuck and is being taught today in all Western Universities and most Indian ones.

However, all archaeologists today, experts in the area of Saptasindhu (Allchin, Kenoyer, Poschel, Shaffer and many others), emphasize the unbroken continuity of the native culture from c.7000 to 600 BCE, when the Persians began to invade the region.

The Indo- Aryans are indigenous to Seven River region (Sapta Sindhu) what is today North West Pakistan and North West India, since there is no evidence for any intrusion into that area before 600 BCE. The Rig Veda was complete but for minor passages by 3100 BCE when the Harappan culture begins to arise

 

Consequently, I take it that Rig Veda was composed in the 4th millennium BCE at least, the Brahmanas and the Upanishads early in the 3rd and some of the Sutra texts 2500 BCE.

 

Egypt, Babylonia learnt Maths from India!

 

Of great significance are two articles by American historian of science A.Seidenberg wherein he argues that Egyptian, Babylonian and Greek mathematics derive from the Indic Sulbasutras of Apastamba and Baudhayana or a work like that, dated c 2000 BC as lower limit, thus furnishing totally independent evidence; in these he took account of the work of Neugebauer, Cantor et all. Seidenberg wrote of this original work: its mathematics was very much like what we see in the Sulabasutras. In the first place, it was associated with the ritual. Second, there was no dichotomy between number and magnitude. In geometry, it knew the Theorem of Pythagoras and how to convert a rectangle into a square. It knew the isosceles trapezoid and how to compute its area.

(Source: Vedic and Indo-European Studies by Nicholas Kazanas, Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, year 2015)

 

—to be continued………………………