Big Guns of India- Longest and the Largest! (Post No.7182)

Largest Wheeled Cannon, Jaivana Cannon, Jaigarh Fort, Rajsthan, 20 feet long of Sawai Raja of Jaipur


Date: 5 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-42

Post No. 7182

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Kalauragi Cannon in Karnataka 29 feet long. (Longest in the World)

India is famous for its very big guns made up of iron, bronze and brass. India has the longest gun in Karnataka. The largest bronze gun is in Bijapur. Jaipur has the biggest gun with two wheels. We see big guns from 14h century. Who taught them to make such big guns? It is in ancient Sanskrit book called Sukra Niti. White people don’t want to give credit to India. So they said it was written after the guns came. As usual they placed cart before the horse!

Moghul emperor Aurangzeb had seventy guns mostly made up of brass. Some of these are so heavy and large and so they had to be drawn and moved about with the help of 20 yoke of oxen.

Bijapur cannon with dragon head


The story of the great gun of Agra is a sad story. Sitaram’s water colour painting shows that the unmounted huge gun lying in mud on the banks of river Jamuna. British Governor General Lord William Bentinck ordered to destroy it and sold it as scrap metal in 1833. It was a brass gun of 14 feet long and 22 inch in bore. A man could easily enter into it in a crouching position. Its weight was 1469 maunds.

Many of the Moghul brass guns were captured by the British and destroyed. It is written that 76 brass and 86 iron guns were seized at Agra by Lord Lake. 68 guns and mortars of brass, cast in India were also captured by him in Delhi. The British plundered India and used them for themselves or sent them to Britain.


According to Ferguson the largest piece of ordnance was the MALIK – I – MAIDAN GUN made up of bronze. It means Monarch of the Plain.Its composition was

80% copper and 20 % tin. Its length 14 feet 3 inches.

Diameter at mouth – 4 feet 10 inches. The muzzle is in the shape of a dragon. The manipulation and skill, involved in casting such a gigantic piece of bronze armament proves the skill of the workers in Ahmednagar in 1548.

Neogi in his book Copper in Ancient India lists other smaller guns as well.

P k Gode in his article ‘Use of Guns and Gun powder in India  from 1400 onwards gives evidence for use of guns in that period. Mahun, a Chinese traveller , visiting Bengal in 1406 mentions that guns were used in Bengal.

In memoirs of Babar also we find that he used guns and gun powder near Kanauj in 1528


Description of iron guns and cannons are found in the Sanskrit work SUKRA NITI written by  Sukracharya. If guns are foreign inventions, he would not have written it in Sanskrit. Moreover his book was written before Muslim rule. Sukraniti describes two varieties of fire arms -Kshudra nalika , small guns and

Brihad nalikas, large guns. He gives detailed description of these guns.

In Yuktikalpataru , another Sanskrit work of the 11th century, we find a list of places where swords are manufactured. Benares, Magadha, Ceylon, Nepal, Anga, Mysore, Surat and Kalinga are mentioned by the author.

Sarangadhara Paddhati , another Sanskrit work of 14th century, also gives the manufacturing towns-

Khatikattara,Rishi, Banga, Shurporaka,Videha,Anga

Madhyama grama, Bedidesha, Sahagram,Kalinjar.


The longest cannon is in Kalaburagi Fort in Karnataka. It is 29 feet long and was made during the Bahamani rule in the 14th century.(New Indian Express reported it in 2016)


2000 year old Tamil Sangam literature also mentioned shiny swords. Poetess Avvaiyar warned one king in a satirical poem, that your palace armoury has shiny swords and your enemy’s armoury has swords that are second hand, unpolished, used swords. She hinted to the king that you are inexperienced in war with newly manufactured  arms where as the other one has great experience in warfare.

Famous Guns of India

Following are the famous guns of Moghul Emperors scattered all over India:-

Their weights range between 30 and 47 tons;

The maximum length found was 31 feet;

Longest bore reaches about 1 feet 7 inches in diameter;

They are made up of iron;

Dacca , now in Bangladesh, had a gigantic gun weighing 30 tons. The weight of the iron ball used in it was 465 pounds. It has fallen into the river and disappeared. Venetian traveller Manucci mentioned it under the name ‘Kaley khan’.

There is a gun at Murshidabad, named

‘Jahan kosha’, meaning conqueror of the world, it has a length of 17-6 feet. Circumference 5-3 feet.

‘Landa kesab’ gun in Bijapur  was 21 feet 7 inch long; the weight of the gun is estimated to be 47 tons. In the same town another gun called ‘Farflier’ was 30 feet long.

Finally mention made here of the long gun of Gulbarga . It has got a double row of iron rings , ten on each side, by means of which the gun was possibly conveyed from one place to another.

–source book (with my inputs)

History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India

P Ry, 1956

Gun in Bengaluru


My favourite film Guns of Navarone


Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 3 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 21-01

Post No. 7175

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

Muslim invaders drove out Indian scholars to Tibet

Muslim invaders destroyed Buddhist monasteries of Udandapura and Vikramasila (In Bihar region) around 1200 CE. Many of the monks were killed and others fled to various countries. The learned Sakyasri went to Orissa and afterwards to Tibet; Ratnarakshita to Nepal;Buddamitra and others sought refuge in South India, While Sangama Srijnana with several of his followers went to Burma and Cambodia. And Buddhism became extinct in Magadha (modern Bihar).

Many emigrants from Magadha rejoined their brethren in the South and founded colleges in Vijayanagara, Kalinga and Konkan. The comparatively satisfactory condition of Buddhism in the Deccan about that time is attested by the rich donations to the monastery at Dambal.
Monks of the monasteries Udandapura and Vikramasila on their dispersion carried with them their arts and learning in the same manner as the Byzantine Greeks on their expulsion from Constantinople bore with them their intellectual treasures to the Italian cities. In the kingdom of Deccan and in Tibet the Buddhist refugees found hospitable asylums, just as the Greek philosophers found in the Florentine Republic under the Medici.

Tantric mysticism and alchemy were taught at the Universities of Nalanda, Udandapura and Vikramasila in Maghada and Central India and from thence it spread to Bhot ( Tibet) and to South India.

The Tantras found a home in China. Amoghavagra, a Brahmin converted to Buddhism, resided in China between 746 and 771 CE. He spread the science of supernatural powers, Siddhis, there.

In Tibet
Tibetan scriptures Kanjur (Kang- Gyur-The Translaation of the Word)) and Tanjur (Stan-ghyur-The Translation of the Treatises) ) were the Tibetan equivalent of Buddhist Tripitaka. Both represent an immense collection of works (108+224 Volumes) primarily translated from the Sanskrit and subsidiarily from the Chinese languages between the 7th and the13th centuries . These collections are of considerable value as most of their Sanskrit originals are either lost or now unavailable. The faithful accuracy of these translations and their fidelity to the original enable us often to reproduce the Sanskrit texts and thus provide us valuable historical data.

Tanjur, though a commentary of Kanjur (108 volumes) , is twice as large as the former and consists generally of 225 large volumes. Some parts of Tanjur are believed to date back to the seventh century, though the major portion was composed later. It is divided into two main classes Rgyud, corresponding to the Sanskrit Tantra and Mdo, corresponding to Sanskrit Sutra (Science and Literature).


Some five volumes of Tanjur are devoted to medicine and some others to astronomy or astrology. We are indebted to a great Hungarian scholar Csoma de Koros for his pioneering work on the study of these two famous encyclopaedic Tibetan scriptures. In his analysis of the contents of the Mdo, Csoma has mentioned a work on preparing quick silver, (mercury) described as the most powerful agent for subduing every sickness and for improving the vigorous of the body, as well as a work on turning base metals into gold.

Pandit Vidhusekhar Bhattacharya, in his article on Sanskrit Treatises on Alchemy as translated into Tibetan has discussed about four works and given more information. He gave the Sanskrit names of four treatises as

1.Rasa siddhi sastra
2.Dhatuvada sastra
3.Sarvesvara rasayana

Some of these works are translated into English.
The original Sanskrit texts of these works belong to eighth or ninth centuries. They are completely lost and fully depend upon Tibetan aand Chinese translation.

Rasa means mercury or quicksilver and Rasayana means Alchemy.

Source book – History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India




 WRITTEN by London Swaminathan

Date: 6 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 19-38
Post No. 7065

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

கம்போடியக் கல்வெட்டுகளில் அழகிய கவிதைகள்- பகுதி 2 (Post No.7017)

Tamil at the bottom


Date: 26 SEPTEMBER 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 7-54 am

Post No. 7017

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in and simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 11,000.

150 இந்திய வானியல் விஞ்ஞானிகளும், 300 சம்ஸ்க்ருத நூல்களும்! (Post No.6766)

Written by  London Swaminathan

 Date: 12 AUGUST 2019  

British Summer Time uploaded in London –  16-

Post No. 6766

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND

to be continued………………………….

What is the True Meaning of ‘Sloka’- Did ‘Shoka’ become ‘Sloka’? (Post No.6752)

Written by London Swaminathan

 Date: 9 AUGUST 2019  
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-

Post No. 6752

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND



Written by London Swaminathan

 Date: 1 AUGUST 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 15-59

Post No. 6711

 Pictures are taken from various sources.  ((posted by AND

MS RAMNIKA JALALI’S BOOK INDIAN WOMEN IN THE SMRITIS is a good book. In 248 pages she has listed nearly 100 law books, what are called Smritis in Sanskrit. She has compared the status of women in 37 important law books and listed another 57 law books.

She has dealt with woman

As a girl

As a wife

As a mother

As a widow

As a prostitute

It is a balanced book and gives a long list of reference books.

It is treasure house for researchers.

She has given the famous sloka of Manu smrti in the very beginning:

Yatra naaryastu puujyante ramante tatra devataah

Yatretaastu na puujyante sarvaastatraaphalaah kriyaah

Manu 3-56

The deities delight in places where women are revered, but where women are not revered all rites are fruitless – Manu 3-56

Here some pages from the book

Full list of Hindu Law Books called Smritis is in the book.

Hindu woman in Toronto, Canada Hindu Temple Festival from Facebook

Bhartruhari,Tulsidas and Thiruvalluvar (Post No.6651)

WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

Date: 19 JULY 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 16-2

Post No. 6651

Pictures are taken from various sources including Facebook, google, Wikipedia. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by AND

I continue here with the comparative study of Bhartuhari’s Niti Sataka with the verses of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar, Hindi Poet Tulsidas and verses from the Bhagavad Gita:–

“There are very few saints who are full of the nectar of good deeds in their mind, speech and body. They win over the love of all the three worlds by serving them and they describe the smallest virtue of others as a mountain! They really evolve and progress with joy and joy bliss in their hearts”.

मनसि वचसि काये पुण्यपीयूषपूर्णास्
त्रिभुवनम् उपकारश्रेणिभिः प्रीणयन्तः
परगुणपरमाणून्पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यं
निजहृदि विकसन्तः सन्त सन्तः कियन्तः BHARTRUHRI’S Niti Sataka1.79

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar says,

“The wise are good in heart. Still, they find new joy and energy in good friends -Kural 458

Though the help rendered is as small as a grain it will be considered as large as a tree by those who appreciate the value of it” – Kural 104


(See Tulsidas’ poem in the end)


 “What profit is there in Meru, the mountain of gold,

or of the hill of silver, where the trees that grow remain

.the same trees without any change ? We honour the hills

of Malaya, for by contact with them common trees like

the Trophis Aspera, the bitter Nimba, and the Karaya

become themselves even as sandal trees”.

किं तेन हेमगिरिणा रजताद्रिणा वा
यत्राश्रिताश्च तरवस्तरवस्त एव
मन्यामहे मलयम् एव यद्‌आश्रयेण
कङ्कोलनिम्बकटुजा अपि चन्दनाः स्युः 1.80


“The cruel arrow may be straight and shapely and the sweet

Lute or lyre may be curved and shapeless. Therefore not by the appearance but by the deeds should the nature of men be judged”- Kural 279

“The quality of water changes with the soil. The mind changes with the association- Kural 452

Admittedly purity of mind would lead to heaven,

Even so good associations provide strong support”- Kural 459


The Praise of Constancy.

“So. The gods rested not until they had gained posses-

sion of the nectar: they were not turned aside from the

search by pearls of great price, nor by fear of terrible

poison. Even so men of constant mind do not rest until

they have completely accomplished their object”.

रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवा
भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम्
सुधां विना परयुर्विरामं

निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः 1.81

Author of Tamil Veda Tirukkural says,

“Those who plan will get what they plan for, just as they planned it, provided they have strength of mind– Kural 666

Though hardships come thick, muster up courage and do that which will bring happiness in the end- Kural 669

The remnant of an action and of an enemy will, on reflection, be found as ruinous as the remnant of a fire”– Kural 674


“ At one time a man may lie on the ground, at an-

other he may sleep on a couch ; at one time he may live

on herbs, at another on boiled rice ; at one time he may

wear rags, at another a magnificent robe. The man of

constant rnind, bent on his purpose, counts neither state

as pleasure nor pain.”

क्वचित्पृथ्वीशय्यः क्वचिदपि परङ्कशयनः
क्वचिच्छाकाहारः क्वचिदपि शाल्योदनरुचिः
क्वचित्कन्थाधारी क्वचिदपि दिव्याम्बरधरो
मनस्वी कार्यार्थी गणयति दुःखं सुखम् 1.82

This verse is similar to the verses in Bhagavad Gita:-

“He who behaves alike to foe and friend, also to good and evil repute and who is alike in cold and heat , pleasure and pain and who is free from attachment.

He who holds equal blame and praise, who is silent, content with anything, who has no fixed abode and is firm in mind , that man who is devoted  dear to Me”- B.G.12- 17/18

Tulsidas also echoed this in his poem

“Grant me , O Master, by thy grace

To follow all the good and pure

To be content with simple things

To use my fellows not as means but ends

To serve them stalwartly in thought, word and deed

Never to utter word of hatred or of shame

To castaway all selfishness and pride;

To speak no ill of others

To have a mind at peace

Set free from care and led astray from thee

Neither by happiness nor woe

Set thou my feet upon this path

And keep me steadfast in it

Thus only shall I please thee , serve thee right”

–Translated by Mahatma Gandhi (M K Gandhi), Songs from Prison, 1934, p.52


Courtesy is the ornament of a noble man, gentle-

ness of speech that of a hero; calmness the ornament of

knowledge, reverence that of sacred learning; liberality

towards worthy objects is the ornament of wealth, free-

dom from wrath that of the ascetic; clemency is the

ornament of princes, freedom from corruption that of jus-

tice. The natural disposition, which is the parent of the

virtues in each, is their highest ornament.

ऐश्वर्यस्य विभूषणं सुजनता शौर्यस्य वाक्संयमो
ज्ञानस्योपशमः श्रुतस्य विनयो वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः
अक्रोधस्तपसः क्षमा प्रभवितुर्धर्मस्य निर्वाजता
सर्वेषाम् अपि सर्वकारणम् इदं शीलं परं भूषणम् 1.83

Tiruvalluvar in his Tamil Veda Tirukkural says,

“No jewels are more befitting a man than humility and pleasing speech – Kural 95

Without a word , he who understands the mind of the leader, is an ornament to the changeless sea-bound world –Kural 701

Humble reserve is good for all, it is an ornament for the rich in particular” — Kural 125


“ The constant man may be blamed or praised by

those skilled in discerning character ; fortune may come

to him or may leave him ; he may die to-day or in ten

thousand years’ time ; but for all that he does not turn

aside from the path of righteousness”.

निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु
लक्ष्मीः समाविशतु गच्छतु वा यथेष्ठम्
अद्यैव वा मरणम् अस्तु युगान्तरे वा
न्याय्यात्पथः प्रविचलन्ति पदं धीराः 1.84

The noble- natured will not swerve from equity in adversity or prosperity — Kural 115

NB:- Number of the verses of Niti Sataka may differ from other books; Since new slokas are introduced in different editions, we may never know which are of Bhartruhari’s. Fortunately, they are not many.



Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 15 JULY 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 4-27 am

Post No. 6631

Pictures are taken from various sources including Facebook, google, Wikipedia. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by AND

Causes for Karma/ Hetavah

Sariira- body; Vaak- speech; Manah – mind; Nyaayyam – righteous deeds;

Vipariita – unjust deeds.

Sariravangmanobhiryatkaarma prarabhate narah

Nyayyam va viparitam va paancaite tasya hetaavah

Bhagavd Gita 18-15


No.5 in Archery – position of leg while shooting an arrow

Pratyaadliidha; Aaliidha; Samapaada; Vaisaakha; Mandalam.

Syat pratyalidhamalidhamitadhisthanapancakam- Amarakosam 2-8-86

Adhisabdadhatsamapadam vaisakham mandalam – Commentary of Ksirasvamin


Skaddhah – World

 Ruupa- form; Vijnaana- sensation; Vedanaa- consciousness;

Samjnaa- Name; Samskara- impression.

Soayam citta caittatmakah skandhah pancavidhah- rupavijnana vedana samskara sanjakah

–Sarvadarsana samgrahah


Sugndhaka- Fragrances

Flowers of Lavanga; Kakkola;Kaanda; Jaatiphala (nutmeg);

Karpuura (camphor).

Kusumani  lavangasya tatha kakkola kandayoh

Jatiphalani karpurametat pancasugandhakam

–sabdakalpadrumah 3-15


Siddhausadhi – Herbs

Tailakanda; Sudhaakaanda; Kroda kanda; Rudaantika ; Sarpanetra.

Tailakanda sudhakanda krodakanda rudantikah

Sarpanetrayutah pancasiddhaausadhisamnjakah

-sabda kalpa drumah 3-15


Supernatural power arises out of

Janma – birth;

Ausadhi – Herbs;

Mantra – mantra/spells;

Tapah – penance;

Samaadhi – absorption

Jamnamusadhi mantratapah samadhijah siddhayah – Yoga sutram 4-1



Five places where River Sarasvatii flows






Rudravarte kurukshetre sristhale puskarepi va

Prabhase pancame tirte panca Prachi sarasvatii


Five Segments of Drama – Sandhayah

Mukham – opening; Pratimukham – Progression; Garbha- Development; Vimarsa – Pause; Nirvahana – Conclusion

Mukham pratimukham garbho vimarsasca tathaiva hi

Tatha nirvahanam caiva sandhayo natake smrutah

–Natyasastra 21-36


Emperors of Ancient India- Samraajah

Yauvanaasvi (Maandhaataa);





Jitva jayyan yauvanasih palananca bhagirathah

Kartaviryah tapoviryad bhalastu bharato vibuh

Ruddhya maruttastan panca samrajasvanususruma

-Mahabharatam (Sabhapaarvam) 15-15-6


Satkaarya – Coexixtence of Cause and Effect

1.Asadakaranam – Non-creativity of non-existence;

2.Upaadaanagrahanam – Material cause;

3.Sarvasambhavaabhaavah – Non -existence of a particular effect in all things;

4.Saktasyasakaranam- Potentiality of capable things;

5.Kaaranabhaavaahaa – Intrinsic similarity of cause and effect

–Sankhyakarika -9

If you need the original slokas in Devanagari script, please go to Encyclopaedia of Numerals , Volume 1, The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Chennai- 600 004, Year 2011

Xxx subham xxx

Krishna lifting the Govardhana Hill

Five “P”-s that make Women Great! (Post No.6588)

Written by London Swaminathan

Date: 23 June 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London –  10-34 am

Post No. 6588

Pictures are taken from various sources including Facebook, google, Wikipedia. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by AND

Panca amrtam, Panca gavyam, Panca yajyam are posted already- see the links given below

What are Panchangam? Panchmrutam … – Tamil and Vedas…/what-are-panchangam-panchmrutam-…


29 Feb 2016 – The five ingredients of pachamrta are: Dugdham – milk. Sarkara – sugar. Ghrtam – ghee or clarified butter. Dadhi – curd. Madhu – honey.

cow’s urine | Tamil and Vedas


The five ingredients of pachamrta are: Dugdham – milk. Sarkara – sugar. Ghrtam – ghee or clarified butter. Dadhi – curd. Madhu – honey. (in some places fruits …