Number Three in Sanskrit and Tamil Literature (Post No.6315)

WRITTEN  by London swaminathan

Date: 27 April 2019

British Summer Time uploaded in London – 9-35 am

Post No. 6315

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Comments by London swaminathan

Date: 2 March 2019

GMT Time uploaded in London – 18-46

Post No. 6143

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by AND

My comments

We have already seen first seven chapters of Manu Smrti known as Manava Dharma Shastra. Now let us look at 106 verses of the Eighth chapter. Some may wonder or get agitated when they read discrimination against Shudras in some issues. We dont know whether they were followed  verbatim at any time. Even Hammurabi’s strict Code of Law, they say, was not followed verbatim. But we know for sure that until 25 years ago, blacks in South Africa were treated as animals without basic rights. We know for sure that blacks were treated as animals in America till Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King and others fought for their rights. We know for sure that Romans and Greeks denied others even the basic rights. We know for sure that England gave special privileges to Lords. So, when one reads these verses, one must see the world that existed at least 2500 years ago and compare it with them. The reason being that we don’t see the practise of these strict rules against a particular community in 2500 year old Jataka tales or other literature. Only one incident in Valmiki Ramayana against a shudra is an interpolation, according to scholars.


1.BRAHMINS ARE SHUDRAS : see verse8-102

2)-18 TITLES OF LAW- See verses 8: 3 to 7

3.WHAT IS JUSTICE-  see quotations in verses 8: 14-17

4.LIE DETECTOR- modern lie detector follows what Manu says in verse 8-25, 26

5.TREASURE TROVE- these are interesting- see 8: 35-39

6.EQUAL RIGHTS TO 4 CASTES- see verse 8-40


8.FALSE WITNESS- Varuna will punish; see verse 8- 82

9.GOOD SEES EVERYTHING- see verse 8- 85

10.UNGRATEFUL MEN AND WOMEN SLAYERS- see 8-89; it is in Tamil verse Purananuru 34; also in Valmiki Ramayana and Panchatantra

11.EQUAL TO KILLING 1000 PEOPLE- see verse 8-98;false witness about men

12.YOU MAY TELL A LIE TO SAVE A SHUDRA-  see verse 8-104; to save a life of a good person you may tell a lie; Tamil poet Tiru valluvar also justifies lies- see Kural 291 and 292




8-1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must enter his court of justice, preserving a dignified demeanour, together with Brahmanas and with experienced councillors.

2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm, without ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors,


8-3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to principles drawn from local usages. and from the Institutes of the sacred law.

4. Of those (titles) the first is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), (2) deposit and pledge, (3) sale without ownership, (4) concerns among partners, and (5) resumption of gifts,

5. (6) Non-payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements, (8) rescission of sale and purchase, (9) disputes between the owner (of cattle) and his servants,

6. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation, (13) theft, (14) robbery and violence, (15) adultery,

7. (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheritance), (18) gambling and betting; these are in this world the eighteen topics which give rise to lawsuits.

8. Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men who mostly contend on the titles just mentioned.

9. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits, then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try them.

10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three assessors, and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down or standing.


8-11. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit down, they call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman.

12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches and the judges do not extract the dart, there (they also) are wounded (by that dart of injustice).

13. Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a man who either says nothing or speaks falsely, becomes sinful.


8-14. Where justice is destroyed by injustice, or truth by falsehood, while the judges look on, there they shall also be destroyed.

15. ‘Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves: therefore justice must not be violated, lest violated justice destroy us.’

16. For divine justice is said to be a bull (vrisha); that man who violates it (kurute ‘lam) the gods consider to be a man despicable like a Sudra (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice.

8-17. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same time when the body (perishes).

18. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who committed (the crime), one quarter on the (false) witness, one quarter on all the judges, one quarter on the king.

19. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned, the king is free from guilt, and the judges are saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of the crime alone).


20. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his caste (jati), or one who merely calls himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain), may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him, but never a Sudra.

8-21. The kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Sudra settles the law, will sink (low), like a cow in a morass.

8-22. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by atheists and destitute of twice-born (inhabitants), soon entirely perishes, afflicted by famine and disease.

23. Having occupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and having worshipped the guardian deities of the world, let him, with a collected mind, begin the trial of causes.

24. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the castes (varna).


8-25. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men, by their voice, their colour, their motions, their aspect, their eyes, and their gestures.

8-26. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect, the motions, the gait, the gestures, the speech, and the changes in the eye and of the face.

27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, until he has returned (from his teacher’s house) or until he has passed his minority.

28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows faithful to their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases.

PUNISHING THIEVES, protecting females

8-29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate the property of such females during their lifetime.

30. Property, the owner of which has disappeared, the king shall cause to be kept as a deposit during three years; within the period of three years the owner may claim it, after (that term) the king may take it.

31. He who says, ‘This belongs to me,’ must be examined according to the rule; if he accurately describes the shape, and the number (of the articles found) and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive) that property.

32. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) lost, its colour, shape, and size, he is worthy of a fine equal (in value) to the (object claimed).

33. Now the king, remembering the duty of good men, may take one-sixth part of property lost and afterwards found, or one-tenth, or at least one-twelfth.

34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king’s servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special) officials; those whom the king may convict of stealing it, he shall cause to be slain by an elephant.


8-35. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove, ‘This belongs to me,’ the king may take one-sixth or one-twelfth part.

36. But he who falsely says (so), shall be fined in one-eighth of his property, or, a calculation of (the value of) the treasure having been made, in some smaller portion (of that).

37. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure, deposited in former (times), he may take even the whole (of it); for he is master of everything.

38. When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place the (other) half in his treasury.

39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground, by reason of (his giving) protection, (and) because he is the lord of the soil.


8-40. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all castes (varna); a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of a thief.

41. (A king) who knows the sacred law, must inquire into the laws of castes (jati), of districts, of guilds, and of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each.

42. For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their particular duty, become dear to people, though they may live at a distance.

43. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a lawsuit to be begun, or hush up one that has been brought (before them) by (some) other (man).

Deer simile

8-44. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, even so the king shall discover on which side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts).

45. When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute), (and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to the time, and to the aspect.

46. What may have been practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born men as are devoted to the law, that he shall establish as law, if it be not opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and castes (gati).

47. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a debtor, let him make the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be due).

48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his property, even by those means may he force the debtor and make him pay.

49. By moral suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the customary proceeding, a creditor may recover property lent; and fifthly, by force.

50. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor, must not be blamed by the king for retaking what is his own.

51. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he shall order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small fine according to his circumstances.

52. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to pay it, the complainant must call (a witness) who was present (when the loan was made), or adduce other evidence.

53. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction, who retracts his statements, or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused or contradictory;

54. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his case), or who being questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not abide by it;

55. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such conversation; or who declines to answer a question, properly put, or leaves (the court);

56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not answer, or does not prove what he has alleged; or who does not know what is the first (point), and what the second, fails in his suit.

57. Him also who says ‘I have witnesses,’ and, being ordered to produce them, produces them not, the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to be non-suited.

58. If a plaintiff does not speak, he may be punished corporally or fined according to the law; if (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights, he has lost his cause.

59. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plaintiff) falsely declares, shall those two (men) offending against justice be fined by the king.

60. (A defendant) who, being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) being questioned, denies (the debt), shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the Brahmana (appointed by) the king.

61. I will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by creditors, and in what manner those (witnesses) must give true (evidence).


8-62. Householders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabitants of the country, be they) Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sudras, are competent, when called by a suitor, to give evidence, not any persons whatever (their condition may be) except in cases of urgency.

63. Trustworthy men of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses in lawsuits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character).

64. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, nor familiar (friends), companions, and enemies (of the parties), nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons) suffering under (severe) illness, nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin).

65. The king cannot be made a witness, nor mechanics and actors, nor a: Srotriya, nor a student of the Veda, nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all) connexion (with the world),

66. Nor one wholly dependent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who follows forbidden occupations, nor an aged (man), nor an infant, nor one (man alone), nor a man of the lowest castes, nor one deficient in organs of sense,

67. Nor one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a madman, nor one tormented by hunger or thirst, nor one oppressed by fatigue, nor one tormented by desire, nor a wrathful man, nor a thief.


8-68. Women should give evidence for women, and for twice-born men twice-born men (of the) same (kind), virtuous Sudras for Sudras, and men of the lowest castes for the lowest.

69. But any person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an act committed) in the interior apartments (of a house), or in a forest, or of (a crime causing) loss of life, may give evidence between the parties.

70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) by a woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a slave, or by a hired servant.

71. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and diseased men, who (are apt to) speak untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds.

72. In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defamation and assault, he must not examine the (competence of) witnesses (too strictly).

73. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the) majority; if (the conflicting parties are) equal in number, (that of) those distinguished by good qualities; on a difference between (equally) distinguished (witnesses, that of) the best among the twice-born.

74. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases), neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth.

75. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or heard, falls after death headlong into hell and loses heaven.

76. When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding it, he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it.


8-77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin.

78. What witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received on trials; (depositions) differing from that, which they make improperly, are worthless for (the purposes of) justice.

79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the plaintiff and of the defendant, let the judge examine them, kindly exhorting them in the following manner:

80. ‘What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between the two men before us, declare all that in accordance with the truth; for ye are witnesses in this (cause).

81. ‘A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) the most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsurpassable fame; such testimony is revered by Brahman (himself).


8-82. ‘He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna’s fetters, helpless during one hundred existences; let (men therefore) give true evidence.

83. ‘By truthfulness a witness is purified, through truthfulness his merit grows, truth must, therefore, be spoken by witnesses of all castes (varna).

84. ‘The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, the supreme witness of men.


8-85. ‘The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts, “Nobody sees us;” but the gods distinctly see them and the male within their own breasts.

86. ‘The sky, the earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon, the sun, the fire, Yama and the wind, the night, the two twilights, and justice know the conduct of all corporeal beings.’

87. The (judge), being purified, shall ask in the forenoon the twice-born (witnesses) who (also have been) purified, (and stand) facing the north or the east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods and of Brahmanas.

88. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) ‘Speak,’ a Kshatriya (beginning with) ‘Speak the truth,’ a Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning) his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt of) every crime that causes loss of caste;


8-89. (Saying), ‘Whatever places of torment (hell) are assigned by the sages  to the slayer of a Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to him who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy (portion), if thou speakest falsely.

90. ‘(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good man, hast done since thy birth, shall become the share of the dogs, if in thy speech thou departest from the truth.

91. ‘If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with respect to thyself, “I am alone,” (know that) that sage who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, ever resides in thy heart.

92. ‘If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama, the son of Vivasvat, who dwells in thy heart, thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the (land of the) Kurus.

93. ‘Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger and thirst, and deprived of sight, shall the man who gives false evidence, go with a potsherd to beg food at the door of his enemy.

94. ‘Headlong, in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who being interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question falsely.

Fish eating simile

8-95. ‘That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of which he was not an eye-witness, resembles a blind man who swallows fish with the bones.

96. ‘The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him, of whom his conscious Soul has no distrust, when he gives evidence.

97. ‘Learn now, O friend, from an enumeration in due order, how many relatives he destroys who gives false evidence in several particular cases.


8-98. ‘He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle, he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine, he kills a hundred by false evidence concerning horses, and a thousand by false evidence concerning men.

99. ‘By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the born and the unborn; by false evidence concerning land, he kills everything; beware, therefore, of false evidence concerning land.

100. ‘They declare (false evidence) concerning water, concerning the carnal enjoyment of women, and concerning all gems, produced in water, or consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land.

101. ‘Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury, declare thou openly everything as (thou hast) heard or seen (it).’


8-102. Brahmanas who tend cattle, who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or singers), menial servants or usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Sudras.

103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing (the facts to be) different, gives such (false evidence) from a pious motive, does not lose heaven; such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods.


8-104. Whenever the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of a Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the truth, a falsehood may be spoken; for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth.

105. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sacred to the goddess of speech, (thus) performing the best penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood.

106. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule, clarified butter in the fire, reciting the Kushmanda texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, ‘Untie, O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,’ or the three verses addressed to the Waters.

–to be continued


Enmity without Rhyme or Reason; Why? Wonders Bhartruhari! (Post No.6138)

Written  by london swaminathan

Date: 1 March 2019

GMT Time uploaded in London – 14-57

Post No. 6138

Pictures shown here are taken  from different sources.

This is a non- commercial blog((posted by AND

Let us continue with Niti Sataka of Bhartruhari and compare it with Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar and others

Bhartruhari  52, 53, 54,55

52. Is it possible to take pleasure in the society of a

low man, dissolute, whose evil is all evident, whose wicked

acts are the result of former births, who hates virtue, and

who lives by chance ?

Tamil poet Tiru Valluvar, author of Tamil Veda Tirukkural says,

It is harmful even to dream of association with men,

Whose words and actions are disgracefully different – Kural 819

उद्भासिताखिलखलस्य विशृङ्खलस्य
प्राग्जातविस्तृतनिजाधमकर्मवृत्तेः ।
दैवादवाप्तविभवस्य गुणद्विषो‌உस्य
नीचस्य गोचरगतैः सुखम् आप्यते ॥ 1.52 ॥


53. The friendships formed between good and evil men

differ. The friendship of the good, at first faint like the

morning light, continually increases ; the friendship of the

evil at the very beginning is great, like the light of mid-

day, and dies away like the light of evening. (some verses  compare it with the long and  short shadows at different times  oft the day)

Even the Greek philosopher Pythagoras held the friendship and modesty in high esteem. Of his five important principles, friendship is given an importance place.

Tiru valluvar uses the simile of  waxing and waning moon.,

The friendship of the worthy develops day by day like the waxing crescent moon,

But foolish alliances deteriorate as the waning thereof – Kural 782

आरम्भगुर्वी क्षयिणी क्रमेण
लघ्वी पुरा वृद्धिमती च पश्चात् ।
दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभिन्ना
छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् ॥ 1.53 ॥


Why are there enemies for virtuous people?

54. Deer, fish, and virtuous men, who only require grass,

water, and peace in the world, are wantonly pursued by

huntsmen, fishermen, and envious people.

Using animal fables to teach morals has been in vogue in India from the days of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Later, Jataka tales, Panchatantra and Hitapodesa expanded on the theme. Bhartruhari approach this from a different angle.

मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसन्तोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।
लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ 1.54 ॥


Companionship of the Good!

55. Desire for the companionship of the good, love for

the virtues of others, reverence for spiritual teachers, dili-

gence in acquiring wisdom, love for their own wives, fear

of the world’s blame, reverence for Siva, self-restraint,

freedom from the acquaintance with evil men wherever

men dwell endowed with virtues like these, they are

always reverenced.

वाञ्छा सज्जनसङ्गमे परगुणे प्रीतिर्गुरौ नम्रता
विद्यायां व्यसनं स्वयोषिति रतिर्लोकापवादाद्भयम् ।
भक्तिः शूलिनि शक्तिरात्मदमने संसर्गमुक्तिः खले
येष्वेते निवसन्ति निर्मलगुणास्तेभ्यो नरेभ्यो नमः ॥ 1.55 ॥

Bhartruhari says lot of things in one verse! Many of Adi Shankara’s verses can be compared with his sayings.  Greatness of satsangam (assosiation with  good people). But I will give some verses from Tirukkural:-

Cultivate amity and seek help from men who remove present ills and guard you from future ills – 442

To please great men and makes them one’s own is the rarest of the rare blessings -443

There is no help better than good company and no trouble worse than evil company -460

Reverence for the spiritual teachers is reflected in the mot famous verse Gurur Brahma, Gurur Vishnu………………. Which is repeated in all the Vedic schools and schools where tradition is respected. every day

Reverence for Lord Shiva is in over 18,000 verses classified as Panniru Tirumurai in Tamil and all the verses of Adi Shankara.

Fear of the world’s blame is reflected in Tirukkural and Sangam Tamil literature.

A Tamil verse in Purananuru  says if it will bring fame they will give even their life; but if it brings evil name, they wont accept it even if you them the entire world.  

Tiru Valluvar in his Tirukkural says

Though he sees his mother starving, let him not do those actions which are condemned by the wise- 656

To be continued……………….

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx subham xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் நையாண்டி சுபாஷிதங்கள் (Post No.6118)

Written by S.Nagarajan

Date: 25 FEBRUARY 2019

GMT Time uploaded in London – 11-03 am

Post No. 6118

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog. ((posted by AND

Sanskrit Words in Egypt (Amarna Letters) (Post No.5980)

Written by London swaminathan

Date:24 JANUARY 2019

GMT Time uploaded in London – 9-19 am
Post No. 5980

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Amarna letters | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Amarna letters written by Tamil and Vedas.

Dasaratha letters | Tamil and Vedas


That was the time Mittanni King Dasaratha wrote ten letters (it is available in all the encyclopaedias as Amarna letters) after marrying his daughter to Egyptian …


To Talk or Not to Talk: Bhartruhari Puzzled (Post No.5923)

Written by London swaminathan

Date:12  JANUARY 2019

GMT Time uploaded in London –14-44
Post No. 5923
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.


Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 30 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London –9-35 am
Post No. 5856

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Manu’s administrative skill is revealed in chapter seven; the world praised him for his ideas on administration, taxing, spies and ambassadors.

His first four slokas given below are applicable to anyone who wants to succeed in life.

Britain and other western countries follow one sixth taxing– 17.5% until today. This is in all Tamil and Sanskrit books of ancient India. Manu says beautifully about taxing- Tax the people in three ways:-

Like a leech

Like a calf

Like a bee

For highly paid staff, suck like a leech (60% tax)

For middle income groups take tax like calf (20% tax)

For the low income group take (nectar) like a bee! (it helps the plants in pollination and the flowers never lose anything! Actually they are not taxed at all).

Tiru Valluvar, author of Tamil Veda has borrowed all the ideas in this section and repeated them in Tirukkural.

The commentators on this section quote widely from another Sanskrit treatise Nitisara of Kamandaki.

Here are the interesting matter in bullet points

We continue here with the Seventh chapter slokas 99 to 160.

1.Sloka 7-99-102 BEAUTIFUL ADVICE

The advice given to kings is applicable to anyone who wants to succeed in life politically or financially.


All the ideas put forth by Manu here are in Tamil Tiruukral under Royalty (chapters 39-63), State Cabinet (chapters 64 to 73) politics (chapters 74 to 78) and Alliance (Tirukkural chapters 79-95).

Great scholars like V R Ramachandra Dikshitar, Dr Nagaswamy and others have written books on it. Some of the couplets in Tirukkural are verbatim translations of Manu!

About awarding death sentence and using Force, Valluvar follows Manu (Kolaiyir Kodiaaarai Venthoruththal…..).

(About the age of Valluvar and Manu, I have already written; Valluvar came several centuries after Manu)

3.Manu’s slokas 7-110 to 7-120 are about organisation in Administration

4.Animal similes

Tortoise and Heron similes are used by Krishna in Bhagavad Gita, Valluvar in Tirukkural and Bhartruhari, Tirumular etc.

See Manu’s use of Tortoise, Heron, Lion, Wolf, Leech, Calf and Bee in slokas 105, 106,129.

Commentators give lot of information on these similes! Very interesting!

5.Protect Vedic Scholars

Manu says it in sloka 7-135. Tamil Veda author Tiruvalluvar also warns rulers, if the king doesn’t rule properly, “Cows won’t give milk, Brahmins will forget Vedas” (aapayan kundrum, aru thozilor nuul marappar)

6. Hindu scriptures always insist one sixth of one’s income as tax. This is followed by many countries even today

7.Who is a Dasyu?

Manu explains Dasyus as Thieves and Robbers. Kalidasa also followed it in Shakuntala. In addition to sloka 7-143, Manu explains who is a Dasyu in chapter 10 as well. We will see it later. Foreigners deliberately called Dravidians and aborigines as Dasyus. They did it to divide the Hindu society. Every society in the world has goodies and baddies- Devas and Asuras, Angels and Demons. But foreigners deliberately interpreted Dravidians and aborigines as Dasyus. Dasyus are baddies in a society.

8.Warning about women!

Manu’s sloka 7-150 warns about keeping parrots and women in secret political consultations. This is found in all ancient Tamil and Sanskrit books, probably in other cultures as well.

9.Slokas 7-153 ++ talk about Spies and Ambassadors which we see in Ramayana and Mahabharata as well. This shows India was the most advanced civilization in the ancient world.  To achieve such a maturity, India must have existed several thousand years before the Babylonian, Egyptian and Greek civilizations.

10.Sloka 7-125 shows that women were working in those days. Pay structure is also discussed.


Now we continue with the Seventh Chapter of Manu Smrti:-

Manu Smrti Chapter 7 contd.

Instructions to a King


7-99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained;

what he has gained let him carefully preserve;

let him augment what he preserves, and

what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.

100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.

101. What he has not yet gained, let him seek to gain by his army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by various modes of increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow on worthy men.

7-102. Let him be ever ready to strike,

his prowess constantly displayed, and

his secrets constantly concealed, and

let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.

103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.

104. Let him ever act without guile, and on no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ.


7-105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the tortoise hides its limbs, even so let him secure the members of his government against treachery, let him protect his own weak points.


7-106. Let him plan his undertakings patiently meditating like a heron; like a lion, let him put forth his strength; like a wolf, let him snatch (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat.

107. When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find, by the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest.

108. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients, then let him, overcoming them by force alone, gradually bring them to subjection.


109. Among the four expedients, conciliation and the rest, the learned always recommend conciliation and the employment of force for the prosperity of kingdoms.


7-110. As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his kingdom and destroy his opponents.

111. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom.

112. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms.

113. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his kingdom well, easily prospers.

114. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty officer), the midst of two, three, five or hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom.

ORGANISE 10, 20, 100, 1000

7-115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thousand.

116. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty.

117. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand.

118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain.

119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town.

120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss;


7-121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among the stars.

122. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.

123. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).

124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil-minded, may take money from suitors, and banish them.


7-125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in proportion to their position and to their work.

126. One pana must be given daily as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months and one drona of grain every month.

127. Having well considered the rates of purchase and of sale, the length of the road, the expense for food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty.

128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.


7-129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.

130. A fiftieth part of the increments on cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.

131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarified butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used for flavouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit;

132. Of leaves, pot-herbs, grass, objects made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all articles made of stone.


7-133. Though dying with want, a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas/ VEDIC PRIESTS , and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom, must perish from hunger.

134. The kingdom of that king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger, will even, ere long, be afflicted by famine.

135. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct, the king shall provide for him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and shall protect him in every way, as a father protects the lawful son of his body.

136. Whatever meritorious acts such a Brahmana performs under the full protection of the king, thereby the king’s length of life, wealth, and kingdom increase.

137. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic, pay annually some trifle, which is called a tax.

138. Mechanics and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour, he may cause to work for himself one day in each month.


7-139. Let him not cut up his own root by levying no taxes, nor the root of other men by excessive greed; for by cutting up his own root or theirs, he makes himself or them wretched.

140. Let the king, having carefully considered each affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.

141. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men, let him place on that seat of justice his chief minister, who must be acquainted with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a noble family.

142. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully protect his subjects.


7-143. That monarch whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly call for help, and he and his servants are quietly looking on, is a dead and not a living king.

144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just mentioned, is bound to discharge that duty.

145. Having risen in the last watch of the night, having performed the rite of personal purification, having, with a collected mind, offered oblations in the fire, and having worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of audience which must possess the marks considered auspicious for a dwelling.


7-146. Tarrying there, he shall gratify all subjects who come to see him by a kind reception and afterwards dismiss them; having dismissed his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers.

147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, and retiring there in a lonely place, or in a solitary forest, let him consult with them unobserved.

148. That king whose secret plans other people, though assembled (for the purpose), do not discover, will enjoy the whole earth, though he be poor in treasure.

149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those deficient in limbs.


7-150. Such despicable persons, likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them.

151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with himself alone or with his ministers, on virtue, pleasure, and wealth,

152. On reconciling the attainment of these aims which are opposed to each other, on bestowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons from harm,


7-153. On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings (already begun), on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the doings of his spies.

154. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes of spies, on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle of neighbours he must carefully reflect.

155. On the conduct of the middlemost prince, on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour of the neutral king, and on that of the foe let him sedulously meditate.


7-156. These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of neighbours); besides, eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve.

157. The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five other constituent elements of the circle; for, these are mentioned in connexion with each of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists, briefly speaking, of seventy-two constituent parts.

158. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two.

159. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (employed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and policy (alone).

160. Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, dividing the army, and seeking protection.



Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 29 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London –18-08
Post No. 5854

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.


45. Cruelty, causeless quarrels, the desire for another’s

wife or money, envy of the good, or of one’s own relatives.

These are the natural characteristics of wicked men– niti sataka

Greatest of the ancient Tamil poets, Tiru valluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural, also say the same:-


He who is envious needs no enemy to ruin him. Envy itself is enough to bring him ruin- Kural/couplet 165

The mean find fault with others even if they eat and dress themselves normally – 1079

Another’s wife

A man who seduces another’s wife because she is easily accessible will suffer the consequence of everlasting sin – Kural/couplet 145

The man who commits adultery can never escape ENMITY, SIN,FEAR AND INFAMY- 148


If a man is so devoid of equality as to covet another’s wealth, not only will  his family be ruined, but many other ills will also betake him – 171


Killing leads to all other sinful acts- 321


46. An evil man should be avoided though he be

adorned with learning. Is a snake less feared because it

is ornamented with jewels ? – niti sataka 46

A Tamil poets puts it in a better way,

If you see a horned animal stay away at least by five yards; if an animal like horse that can kick you hard, keep the distance to at least ten yards; if it is a made elephant you have to leave at least 1000 yards; but if it s a bad man, don’t even make yourself visible. That means run as far as possible so that he cant see you! This is in Niti Veba by an anonymous author.

Another verse by poet Munaippadiyar in Tamil Ara Neri Charam, says,

Look, if you give water to cows it gives you back milk; if the same water is given to snake you get only poison. This is the difference between good and bad people; The bad,  even if they read scriptures; they mis quote it; interpret it in the wrong way.

So Bhatruhari is right in comparing bad people to snakes!

अकरुणत्वम् अकारणविग्रहः
परधने परयोषिति च स्पृहा ।
प्रकृतिसिद्धम् इदं हि दुरात्मनाम् ॥ 1.45 ॥

दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो
विद्यया‌உलकृतो‌உपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितः सर्पः
किम् असौ न भयङ्करः ॥ 1.46 ॥

tags- Niti sataka 45, 46,Bhartruhari, snake water, cow , Cobra jewel


Fate decides your Wealth, say Shakespeare, Bhartruhari and Valluvar (Post No.5810)

Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 21 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 18-07
Post No. 5810

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Fate decides your Wealth, say Shakespeare, Bhartruhari and Valluvar (Post No.5810)

Bhartruhari and Tamil poet Valluvar agree on several points in this sloka of Niti Sataka.

1.A person’s wealth is decided by his fate

2.Fate is written by Brahma, Hindu God of Creation on one’s head or forehead.

3.Saint Vidyaranya’s story shows that Harihara and Bhukka got it even whenthey were in arid land. But Saint Vidyaranya couldn’tget in the present birth (Read the story given below)

4.Valluvar explains it more clearly. One needs effort to get wealth. Inspiration and perspiration give wealth. But that comes only when your Good Karma (Punya done in one’s previous birth) acts. If you have bad Karma (papa), then laziness will engulf you.

44. Whatever fate has written on the forehead of each,

that shall he obtain, whether it be poverty or riches.

His abode may be the desert, but he shall gain no more if

he live even on Mount Meru. Let your mind be constant.

Do not be miserable through envy of the rich. The

pitcher takes up the same quantity of water whether it be

from the well or the ocean.

यद्धात्रा निजभालपट्टलिखितं स्तोकं महद्वा धनं
तत्प्राप्नोति मरुस्थले‌உपि नितरां मेरौ ततो नाधिकम् ।
तद्धीरो भव वित्तवत्सु कृपणां वृत्तिं वृथा सा कृथाः
कूपे पश्य पयोनिधावपि घटो गृह्णाति तुल्यं जलम् ॥ Niti Sataka 1.44 ॥

Look at the following couplets: –

Tirukkural 371, 377, 380

Except as ordained by the Lord, who measures out each man’s meet

Even the millionaire cannot enjoy his hoards -377

Even a millionaire cannot enjoy his wealth except as ordained by Fate. This is exactly what Shakespeare meant when he said in Hamlet,

There is a Divinity that shapes our ends

Rough-hew them how we will– Hamlet

Another couplet

The constructive industry that produces wealth, and the destructive indolence

That brings about adversity in life ,are both the outcome of fate-371

The last couplet of the chapter on fate is as follows,

What is more potent than Fate? It forestalls every expedient one may resort to for averting it- 380

Another translation of the same couplet

Destiny is supreme, because its intended consummation will surely come about

Even if planned efforts are made to overcome it-380

STORY:- Vidyaranya found Golden Treasure!

Kanchi Shankaracharya (1894-1994 Paramacharya) in his Madras Discourses (1957-1959) gives the story of Vidyaranya’s discovery of gold and using it for establishing Vijayanagara Empire. Born as Madhava in a village in Karnataka he prayed to Goddess Mahalakshmi, Goddess of Wealth, for enormous amount of wealth. Lakshmi appeared before him and told him that he can’t enjoy wealth in this birth but it was possible for him to get it in the next birth. An idea flashed in his mind immediately. He told Goddess Lakshmi that he would take Sanyas ( Renunciation) which is considered a ‘second birth’ for a Hindu. Lakshmi agreed and gave him tons of gold. As soon as he saw rocks of gold and hills of gold he wept loudly. He knew that sanyas (renunciation ) means no attachment to anything worldly. “Oh My God, What Have I done? How can I touch gold when I have become a Sanyasi (an ascetic)”, he cried. Goddess Lakshmi disappeared while he was wondering what to do next.

At that time of history in 14th century AD, Muslim forces invaded South India and destroyed most of the temples along its routes. Madhava, who was later known as Vidyaranya, called two goatherds Harihara and Bhukka and asked them to build a city at the chosen place at the appointed auspicious time. Both of them did it and utilised the entire gold to establish a mighty and wealthy Hindu empire—later known as Vijaya Nagara Samrajya.

There is another story about Sri Vidyaranya, who later became Jagadguru of Sringeri Mutt, about making gold shower in the lands of Vijayanagara Empire. When there was a draught, Harihara and Bhukka approached Vidyaranya swami for help. He prayed to goddess Lakshmi again and there was a shower of gold in the capital city.

Water pot simile

Another interesting information in this sloka is Bhartruhari’s simile of water pot in in the ocean; This is followed by Tamil poetess Avvaiyar as well. Avvaiyar lived a few centuries after Bhartruhari. Another Avvaiyar lived before him in Sangam Age.

“Though you dip the measure/pitcher deep in the deep sea water, it will not contain four measures. O Maid ! Though riches and husband are choice, the happiness of the couple hangs on fate or destiny”—Muthurai by Poetess Avvaiyar

Tag- water pitcher, Wealth,Fate, Valluvar, Bhartruhari



Written by London Swaminathan
Date: 17 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 17-09
Post No. 5794

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.


SLOKAS 40,41,42, 43


40. A man who is famishing longs for a handful of

grain ; but when he has revived, he looks on the whole

earth as a mere handful of grass. So objects seem great

or small according to the condition of the men who

possess them : it is the change in men’s fortune which

makes things seem greater or smaller.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa said the following story:–

“Money is an upadhi ( a deceptive influence) of a very strong nature. As soon as a man becomes rich, he is thoroughly changed. A Brahmin who was very meek and humble used to come to Dakshineswar every now and then. After some time he stopped his visits, and we knew nothing of what happened to him. One day we went to Konnagore in a boat. As we were getting down from the boat, we saw him sitting on the banks of the Ganges, where in the fashion of a big folk, he was enjoying the breeze of the river.

 On seeing me, he accosted me in a patronising tone with the words, ‘Hello, Thakur! How do you do now?’

 At once I have noticed the change in his tone and said to Hriday who was with me, ‘I tell you Hriday, this man must have come by some riches. See what a great change has come over him!’ And Hriday burst into laughter.

Panachatantra fables also has a similar story. The rats that were lying idle started jumping and dancing after they found and ate  some grains. They had lot of left over in storage.

In Tamil there is a proverb, If a person of lower status gets some money suddenly, he will hold an umbrella over his head at the dead of night!

Such is the influence of wealth or money!


41. If, king ! if you would enjoy this earth, which is

as fruitful as a cow, nourish it as carefully as you would

a calf. The earth brings forth fruits without end like

the creeper of plenty if it is perpetually and carefully



7-128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.

7-129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.

7-130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.

Kalidasa on Taxation

प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत्।
सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः॥ १-१८

prajānāmeva bhūtyarthaṁ sa tābhyo balimagrahīt |
sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṁ raviḥ || 1-18

prajaanaameva bhuutyartha.m sa taabhyo balimagrahiit |
sahasraguNamutsraSTumaadatte hi rasa.m raviH  || Raghu vamsa 1-18

prajAnAm eva bhUti artham sa tAbhyo balim agrahIt | sahasra guNam ut SR^iSTum Adatte hi rasam raviH || 1-18

1-18. saH= he, dilIpa; prajAnAm= for people; bhUti artham eva= for wellbeing, for welfare state or works, for the sake of, only; tAbhyaH= from them; balim= SaSTa amsha rUpam karam= tax in one sixth part of produce; agrahIt= taken; hi= indeed, reasonably; raviH= sun; sahasra   guNam= thousands, multiples of; ut SR^iSTum= utsarjana kriyA visheSa= to pour forth [rains, raindrops]; rasam= essence [of waterdrops]; Adatte = takes.

That king dilIpa takes only one sixth part of peoples income as tax, that too for the sake of a welfare state, indeed, like the sun taking earthly water-drops only to indemnify her with multiples of raindrops thereof. [Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsam 1-18]

Valluvan on Taxing

A sceptered king , demanding illegitimate gifts or extorting taxes beyond approved limit

Is like an armed robber relieving wayfarers  of their belongings- kural 552


42. The behaviour of kings is as uncertain as the way

of a courtesan. Now it is false, now true now with

harsh, now with agreeable words now cruel, now mer-

ciful at one time liberal, at another covetous either

always squandering money or heaping it together.

Poet of Sangam age Markandeyan (Purananuru verse 365) also compares the  with kingdom to a courtesan. Earth is always considered a woman and since the kings come and go earth is lamenting like a courtesan.


43. Authority, fame, the guarding of Brahmans, liberality, feasting, protection of friends : what profit is there to those who serve kings if they have not gained these

six blessings ?

परिक्षीणः कश्चित्स्पृहयति यवानां प्रसृतये
स पश्चात्सम्पूर्णः कलयति धरित्रीं तृणसमाम् ।
अतश्चानैकान्त्याद्गुरुलघुतया‌உर्थेषु धनिनाम्
अवस्था वस्तूनि प्रथयति च सङ्कोचयति च ॥ 1.40 ॥

राजन्दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुम् एतां
तेनाद्य वत्सम् इव लोकम् अमुं पुषाण
तस्मिंश्च सम्यगनिशं परिपोष्यमाणे
नानाफलैः फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः ॥ 1.41 ॥

सत्यानृता च परुषा प्रियवादिनी च
हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या ।
नित्यव्यया प्रचुरनित्यधनागमा च
वाराङ्गनेव नृपनीतिरनेकरूपा ॥ 1.42 ॥

आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां
दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणं च
येषाम् एते षड्गुणा न प्रवृत्ताः
को‌உर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण ॥ 1.43 ॥