Compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 9 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20-49  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5201


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There is a good article written by S P Caturvedi of Nagpur in the Woolmer Commemoration Volume published in 1940. I am attaching the pages for verbatim report.

Following are the interesting points in the article:

1.Sanskrit was a Spoken language; even Sudras spoke Sanskrit.

2.Age of Panini is closer to Mahabharata; he lived before ninth century BCE.

3.Panini lists 2000 roots; but only 900 were used in Classical Sanskrit.

4.There is a big time gap between Panini and Patanjali.

  1. Panini did not use the word Samskrtam for the language.

6.Panini’s vocabulary was ancient.

  1. The vocabulary of Ashtadyayee was vast and rich; almost all conceivable topics in the world are covered.
  2. There is no force in the argument that Sanskrit was refined or adorned by Panini. Grammarians don’t create languages. They only write grammar for the existing language.

The article is very crisp and interesting: –










RESEARCH ARTICLE by London swaminathan


Date: 5 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   2-09 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5183


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Sangam Tamil Literature is at least 2000 years old; Rig Veda came several thousand years before that. Vyasa divided them into four Vedas 5100 years before our time according to tradition.


Rig Veda has used Yupa in two meanings

Sacrificial post-5-2-7

A pillar or a post-1-51-14

2000-year-old Tamil Literature used the same Sanskrit word in several places in two meanings; sacrificial pot or just a post.

Let me explain the places where it is used in the meaning of a sacrificial post; in addition to the Sanskrit word Yupa, it has beautiful translated it as Velvi Thun in a few other verses. Velvi = Yaga and Thun= post or pillar.


Tamil kings are well versed in Yagas and Yajnas. Under the guidance of able Brahmins, they did Rajasuyam and Asvamedham.


Sangam Literature consists of 18 books. Of them Purananuru is the encyclopedia of Tamil community.

Following are the very important references of YUPA:-

Purananuru  verse 224- line 1

Purananuru  15-21

Velvi Thun (Yaga Post)- Purananuru verse 400

Perumpanatruppadai- Lines 315-318

Akananuru – Velvi Nedunthun -220

Purananuru- 400

In addition to the above verses, we come across a reference to Rajasuyam in Purananuru verse 367. The Rajasuyam was performed by the Choza king Perunarkilli and attended by Ukkra Peruvazuth and Chera king Mari Venko. Avvaiyar, the mst famou Tamil poetess was over the moon to see all the three kings in unity. Tamils were notorious fighters who fought with one another for 1500 years continuously. That was the reason for Avvaiyar’s great jubilation.

From the above Yupa or Velvi Thun references we come to know that the kings who did Yaga and ereced Yupa post were:

1.Greatest of the Choza kings Karikalan

2.Greatest of the Pandya Kings Mudu Kudumi Peruvazuthi

3.Choza Nalamkilli

4.Sellur Kosar Community

5.Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan

6.perhaps Rajasuyam performer PerunaR Killi


Some interesting details about them are:

Kadiyalur uruttiran Kannan (Rudraksha of Kadiyalur) sings about King Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan—

“A king fisher coloured like a  sapphire seeking for prey took the jewel of  in its bill, and instead of going to the leaf of the Palmyra tree filled with birds, sat on the YUPA at which learned finished their sacrifice; it looked like a swan lamp on the mast of the boat of the Yavanas and twinkled like Venus which heralds dawn” (Perum Panatruppatai)


In the Puram verse 15, poet Nettimaiyar is wondering about the powerful Pandya Mudukudumi , whether his enemies are more in number or the Yupa post more in number. The emperor as performed so many yagas.

Kalidasa also confirms it in his Raguvamsa Kaya. When the Panady king was introduced to Indumati, her maid says this king always appear in wet cloth worn during Asvamedha Yajna (actual verse mentioned only Avabruda Snana done during Asvameda). Recent discoveries include the kings name in Tamil on a coin with Ava/horse image.


Before going into the details available in Hindu scriptures about the appearance and significance of Yupa, let me list the famous 19 Yupa posts discovered so far:-

1.Isapur, Mathura in Uttarpraesh, dated 102 CE

2.Kosam, Prayag, U.P. – 125 CE

  1. and 4.Naandsaa, Udaipur, Rajas. – 225 CE

5.Barnaala, Jaipur, Rajs.- 227 CE

6-9.- Badvaa- Kotah, Rajas.- 238 CE

10.Nagar, Jaipur, Rajas.- 264 CE

11.Barnaala, Jaipur- 278 CE

  1. Bijayagarh, Bharatpur, Rajas.- 71 CE

13-19- Kotei, Borneo, Indonesia- Seven Sanskrit Inscriptions on Yupa Stone Pillars- King Mulavarman 400 CE.

( This is not a comprehensive list)

Yupa inscriptions in Sanskrit


In Borneo scattered undated materias are found near Kapuas, Rata and the Mahkam rivers or in isolated pockets, the earliest epigraphic data from the island refer to Kotei at Muarakaman, on the Mahakam river in Borneo dated 400 CE.

The Kutei inscriptions are seven in number, of which four were found in 1879 and the rest in 1940. The inscriptions belong to Mulavarman, son of Asvavarman and grandson of Kundungga.

The inscriptions engraved on stone Yupas or sacrificial posts, refer to the performance of certain rituals and offerings of various kinds.

Mulavarman Sanskrit Inscription in Bangkok Museum.

In the second part let us look at the appearance of Yupa.


–to be continued…………………….





Date: 19 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-08  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5129


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Manu Smrti- Third Chapter continued….

My Comments

1.Hospitality is a unique feature of Hindu culture. It is found in Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures with equal emphasize only among the ancient languages. Sita of Ramayana and Kannaki of Tamil epic Silappadikaram worried about their inability to feed and honour the guests. The concept of feeding complete strangers to get religious merits is unknown in other ancient cultures. This shows that Hindus are the sons of the soil and they developed the culture in their own land. This explodes the theory of Vedic Hindus coming from outside.

Another aspect coming to light in the slokas is that the culture and the values were same from Kanyakumari Kashmir. It is equally empahsized in both Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures.

2.Manu Smrti is the oldest law book, older than Hammurabi’s (I have pointed out the reasons for my conclusion already). Here is one more point: The Vedic deities are mentioned in the slokas quoted here. If it is composed in second century BCE we would not have come across Vedic Kuhu and Anumati

  1. The five sacrifices given to five groups include trees, dogs, crows and people of Four Castes. That shows Manu is compassionate towards all living beings. Feeding dogs and crows as part of religious sacrifice is unknown in other cultures. This shows the uniqueness of Hindu culture. Feeding the crows and watering the plants as sacred thing is found in ancient Tamil books; it is one more proof to show that the culture in one from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.
  2. Sacrificing to goblins along with Vedic deities is also strange. But when we consider trees, crows and dogs are included in the list, it is not strange.


5.Manu asked the Hindus to give four things: Mat, Water, Room and KIND WORDS. It shows his high thoughts.

6.His definition of a GUEST is good; those who stay one night only are considered guests; he asks everyone to feed all the four castes; This does not correlate with the 40 or odd slokas/couplets which the Dravidians and Marxists use for their Anti Manu propaganda. They are later interpolations.

  1. Another strange thing is ‘newly married’ get priority in eating; he wants them to enjoy life fully!

8.Manu says the householder can eat only after feeding kinsmen, servants and the guests! This is unknown in any part of the world except the Hindus from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

  1. Ancient Tamil literature also confirm all the oblations to manes who live in SOUTHERN Direction. So Tamils were ardent Hindus as others in the North. It is in Tirukkural and Purananuru. This explodes the theory of half -baked theories of Vedic Hindus coming from outside India. No other ancient culture has such belief about SOUTH or daily oblations to manes with WATER. Use of water in every ceremony shows that it is a tropical culture.
  2. He who prepares food for himself is a sinner is in Manu and Bhagavad Gita.
  3. Last but not the least, Manu asks to honour people who comes once a year! Good Advice!!


Third Chapter continues……………………..

Sacrifice to Vedic Deities

3-83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at the Sraddha which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that occasion any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.

3-84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:

3-85. First to Agni, and next to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods Visve Devah, and then to Dhanvantari,

3-86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well).

  1. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).


To the Trees

3-88. Saying, ‘Adoration to the Maruts,’ he shall scatter some food near the door, and some in water, saying, ‘Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw some on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, ‘Adoration to the trees.’

  1. Near the head of the bed he shall make an offering to Sri fortune, and near the foot of his bed to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.


Goblins- Ghosts

3-90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and in the day-time one for the goblins roaming about by day, and in the evening one for the goblins that walk at night.

  1. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains from these offerings in a southerly direction for the manes.


To the Crows

3-92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Candalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.

  1. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).
  2. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student.


Equal to Cow Donation/ Go Daana

3-95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher.

  1. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even a small portion of food as alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit.
  2. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.
  3. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.
  4. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.
  5. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.

Give Four Things!

  1. Grass, room for resting, water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.


One Night Stay is a Guest

  1. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).
  2. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where there is a wife, and where sacred fires are kept.
  3. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food.
  4. A guest who is sent by the setting sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at supper- time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.

Hospitality to Guests

  1. Let him not eat any dainty food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.
  2. Let him offer to his guests seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour while they stay, to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.
  3. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, the householder must give him food according to his ability, but not repeat the Bali offering.

Non Brahmin Guests

  1. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).
  2. But a Kshatriya who comes to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher.
  3. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.


Feed all the Four Castes

  1. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.
  2. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished with seasoning according to his ability, at the same time with his wife.

Newly Married Get Priority

  1. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.
  2. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.
  3. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.
  4. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.
  5. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. (It is in Bhagavad Gita)


Once a Year!

  1. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year has elapsed since their last visit.
  2. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule.

to be continued………………….

Ganesh and Navagraha in Japan!! (Post No.5125)



Date: 18 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-26  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5125


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Those who are interested in the ancient history of India and Japan must buy Lokesh Chandra’s book

‘Cultural Interflow Between Indian and Japan’ (published by International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi, 2014) It is in A 4 size with lots of pictures an diagrams. It contains lot of information which is not known to the outside world. Mr Lokesh Chandra and his father Dr Raghuvira are renowned scholars and authority on Indo- Japanese relations of ancient periods.


I am going to give you some interesting information only in bullet points; for full information one must read the book.

Mahbaharata in the Kabuki Theatre

The well known kabuki drama Naru-kami is derived from the legend of Rsyasrnga known in Japanese as Ikkaku Sennin, that is Ekasrnga. The whole legend has been translated from Chinese into French by Edouard Chavanes. Hsuan tsang mentions a hermitage in Gandhara where Ekasrnga lived near the foot hills of Swat mountains

Homa and Homa Kundas in Japan

Goma (homa in Sanskrit) is lit in metallic vessel on a wooden altar. A ninth century scroll in the Toji monastery has different homa altars for the worship of planets (Nava Graha) and 28 constellations (naksatra- isti). This Goma- ro – dan -yo scroll has coloured illustrations of the planets, constellations and their altars. Goma is the esoteric fire, the calm and the fury of the ritual rhythms in the cosmic counterpoint of invocations with Sanskrit mantras.

Gigantic Rock with Sanskrit hieronym

Along a road stands an oval rock about ten feet high on flat roundish base of another rock, with the Sanskrit monogram RO. Sanskrit letters implying deeper levels. A modern Japanese girl in mini, her hair dyed blonde and perhaps with a styrene injection for a round feminine form, stops by, graciously puts a tangerine on a piece of paper, as an offering to the planets. RO is the symbolic syllable of the Biijaakshara for Nava Graha Puja (Nava Graha= Nine Planets). Such are the frozen levels of culture ever echoing at different strata of existence and consciousness.

Bugaku and Gigaku

Bugaku and Gigaku dances are performed on the occasion of the Great Consecration ceremony at the Todaiji temple. Indian cultural influence is very easily recognised in bugaku’s structure. For instance one of the popular stories of Bugaku is the Bali Dance, which reproduces Ramayana’s famous story of the fight between Vali and Sugriva in the Kishkinda forest.

Gigaku, introduced twelve centuries ago, reproduces Indian legendary stories. Gigaku was also performed at the Great Buddha Consecration ceremony and moved spectators to laughter. Gikaku, masked comical dance, was believed to have been very popularly performed at the Todaji and other temples in Nara in those times.


Biwa= Veena

The largest lake in Japan, Lake Biwa,  is named after its close resemblance to the shape of a biwa. Thus, the Indian Viina, became the origin of Japan’s largest lake.

Buddhism in Japan

In 552 CE, the monarch of Paekche (Kudara/Korea) presented a gilt bronze image of Saakyamuni, Sutras, banners and umbrellas to the Japanese emperor Kimmei. The emperor replied that, “never from former days until now have we had the opportunity of listening to so wonderful a doctrine”.

Korea sent monks, a nun, a Buddhist image maker and an architect to the Japanese emperor in 577.

In 584, a stone image of Maitreya was brought from Paekche.


Indian monk Dharmabodhi (Hoodoo) came via China and settled in Hokkezan.

The Brahmin Archbishop

Floating in a sea of verdant woods in the golden ornament of the imposing roof of the Daibutsu-den “Hall of the Great Buddha” of the Todaiji temple. It enshrines the Viraat Rupa of Rocana, in the form of a gigantic statue, in the national temple eighth century Japan. Emperor Shomu had vowed to raise this statue to a height of 48 feet to symbolise the power of the profane and profound. Twelve years and immense materials were spent in casting the Daibutsu.


on 9th April 752 it was consecrated in a sumptuous ceremony, which was presided over by Bodhisena, the first historic Indian to have visited Japan. He was a Brahmin of Bharadvaja Gotra. Inspired by Manju Sri, he went to China to Wutai shan mountains sacred to Manju sri. At Imperial invitation, he arrived in Japan in 736 CE where he was warmly welcomed. The people knew him as the Baramon(Brahmin) Archbishop. He attained Samadhi on 25 February 760.


In Todaiji temple consecrated by the Brahmin Archbishop, we can view an expressive range of Nara sculptures of Brahma, Indra, Four Lokapaalass, Surya, Candra, Sarasvati and Sri Mahaadevi. Among them is a Krishna like figure playing the flute.


In front of the Great Hall of Buddha stands the eighth century octagonal bronze lantern adorned with musicians.


Largest Buddha statue in the largest wooden building is found here.


Bodhisena had rescued a  monk shipwrecked in the ocean on his way to China. This monk came to Japan along with him where he received a cordial welcome from monk Gyogi and was taken to the capital Nara in 736. His name was Buttestu (Buddhasthira??) He introduced music from his native land of Champa. He introduced Hindu- Buddhist music dances and dramas in Sanskrit.


Indian Cotton

Praajnaa (born 744 CE) was a monk from Kapisa who had studied at Nalanda University. In 781 he went to China and translated several Sutras. His writings in palm leaves were brought to Japan


In 799 an Indian was washed ashore somewhere in the Makawa province. A young man of twenty years, with nothing to cover his body except a straw coat and short drawers, he was stranded in a country where none understood him. Years later when he became conversant with Japanese, he said that he had come from India. He had seeds of cotton with him. He lived at the Kawadera temple at Nara. Two ancient chronicles Nihon -koki, and Ruiju-kokushi mention that he introduced the cultivation of cotton which became the most important clothing material. The Japanese words WATA or HATA for cotton are derived from Sanskrit ‘Pata’.

Ka, ka, ki, ki, ko, ku


India and Japan drink from common springs of culture. I go to children’s school and hear the Goju-on

a i u e o

ka ki ke, ke ko

It reminds me of my childhood when I recited, in like manner, the syllabary

Ka, Kaa, Ki, Kii, Ku, Kuu, Ke Kai …..

The Japanese language is written in the kana syllabary along with Kanji or Chinese characters. The kanji unites India and Japan at the deepest levels.

A Japanese child recites the IROHA poem, which has all the fifty sounds of the alphabet and every syllable occurs only once It is called Citrakaavya in  Sanskrit.

When many decades have passed, the child now matured, realises that he had sung impermanence in the IROHA, as he saw the cherry blossoms fade and fly away. It is a free translation of the Sanskrit poem.


One of the greatest poems in Japanese language, it was inspired by the Sanskrit work, Mahapari nirvana Sutra. To this day every Japanese child begins his education with this IROHA poem. Japan has preserved this stanza in original Sanskrit. It has been lost in India.

Ganesh Temples in Edo

The German doctor Phillip Franz von Siebold lived in Edo, Japan during he years 1823-28. He wrote Pantheon von Nippon (1832). He notes that Ganapati was popular among the masses in the Edo period, and there were several temples. The area is known as  Shoten Choo, Ganapati Township, to this day. I visited the Ganapati Temple Shotengu in the frequented area of Asakusa.  In 1970 I saw a huge gathering of young boys and girls who had come to pray for success in their courtship as he is Nandikesvara (Kangiten). Senior people too thronged for all kinds success.

There were 131 shrines to Sarasvati. The German text deserved to be translated into English to get vivid picture of vibrant Buddhism in Edo. In 1836 a shrine to Varuna was consecrated to prevent typhoons. The Japanese worshipped Indra for long life, Brahma to succeed in Imperial service, Varuna for rain, Garuda to cure poisoning and Mahaa  kaala (Good Time) for good business and for victory in war. Japan has the oldest functioning temple of Ganapati in the world.



My comments

The book by Lokesh Chandra has about 400 pages. It is an encyclopaedia on Indo-Japanese Cultural Links. If I give all the information in the book, it will be a gross violation of copyright rules. Everyone must buy the book and read it.


After reading the book, I feel Japan is a fertile field for spreading Hinduism. There we see a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.





Enku made 100,000 Chip Buddhas (see my article posted yesterday)







Date: 15 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  18-13  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5114


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Sri Lokesh Chandra in his book CULTURAL INTEFLOW BETWEEN INDIA AND JAPAN gives some interesting information about Sanskrit words in Japanese language.

It is very interesting to see how they are spelt and pronounced in Japan.

Sanskrit is BONGO in Japanese.

Bon means Brahman

Go means language

Prince Shotoku consecrated the First Constitution of Japan with the Sanskrit hymn Usniisavijayaa- dhaaranii written in the Gupta script in palm leaf.

Monk Gyoogi welcomed the Indian Bodhisena in 736 in mixed language of Sanskrit and Japanese.

Bodhisena and Buddhasthira taught Sanskrit to Japanese monks at the Daianji Temple. Abbot Ono showed me the room where Sanskrit was taught 1300 years ago.

Kobo Daishi (806) laid emphasis on a knowledge of Sanskrit to understand the texts correctly.

Sanskrit mantras sanctify the Homa (Goma in Japanese) ceremonies in Shingon temples every day.

Japanese scholars studied Sanskrit in England and Germany as part of modernisation after Meiji restoration (1868)


Prof. JunjiroTakakusu wrote a series of seven articles What Japan owes to India in the Young East in 1925. Seven articles covered 1,2 Ascetics; 3 Hindu Pantheon; 4 Music and Dance; 5 Cotton and Chess; 6 Names and Words; and 7 More names and words.


Takakusu lists the following Sanskrit words in daily use in Japanese:–









Date: 12 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-11  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5103


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




Professor Bency Kumar Sarkar of Calcutta (Kolkata) has written an article about the political ideas of Cendeswara who has dealt with political thought under sixteen topics. When I read that I did my own quick research with the political thoughts of Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar. It is not a comprehensive one but touches all the 16 topics. Ilango of Tamil epic Silappadikaram also make several statements reflecting Tamil political thought.

Candesvara was the author of Raajaniiti Rantnaakaara. He lived in the fourteenth century and served as a minister under king Harisimha deva of Mithila (North Bihar). He was a student of law and so wrote this book. But he never claimed any originality, but collected materials from several ancient authors and produced them as a digest. So his work Rajaniiti Ratnaakara is a digest. In addition to collection Candesvara made comments as well.


Unfortunately, we have no law book in Tamil to compare with Sanskrit law books which are umpteen in number. But Sangam Tamil literature has several verses which deal with the law. Post Sangam works such as Tirukkural and 17 other minor works and Tamil epic Silappadikaram deal with law, but not separately. Tirukkural, a didactic work, may come nearer to a law book and Silappadikaram by Ilango is also useful to compare some points.

It is very interesting to see Tirukkural- a single book of the Tamils, covers almost all the topics except Coronation.

The author of the original article B K Sarkar has given the 16 topics and showed how many times Candesvara quotes the books or authors. I will use it as the base for my research and show how many times Tamil poets touched those topics (only a rough figure):-


Kulluka Bhatta Rajaniiti Kamadhenu (twice); Guru (Brihaspati or Candesvara’s Guru), Yajnavalkya- thrice; Narada Niti aand Mahabharata- twice, Mahabharata – twice, Manu (4 times); Yasa, Naradiya Smrti, Harita

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapters 70, 39, 55, 56 (Total 40 couplets)




Manu (4), Yajnavalkya, Vysa, Amarakosa, Mahabharata, Harita, Nardas smriti.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 64 (Ten couplets)



Vyasa, Manu (2), Yanjavalkya (1)




KaatyaayanaBrihaspati, Pallavakara Lakshmidhra, Harita, Vyasa, Manu, Narada.

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 12, 108




Manu, Harita, Brhaspati

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 99, 100


Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapters 74,75




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar – Chapter 45



Manu, Yajnavalkya, Pallava

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 76+ couplet 247




Manu (7 times), Kamandaka, Mahabharata

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78



Manu, Mahabharata, Rajaniti

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 77, 78



Manu, Sukraniti, Yajnavalkya, Mahabharata, Pallava, Kamandaka

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar -Chapter 69




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Maya Maitra

Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar- Chapter 39, 49, 50, 55, 56




Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Pallava

Chapters 57, 55,44



Manu, Kandaki, Harita, Narada, Vyasa, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brihaspati, Katyayana



Manu, Amarakosa, Ramayana, sukraniti, Padmapurana, Lakshmidhara, Narada, Pallavakara

Pathitrupaththu (one of the 18 Major works of Sangam Period)



Candesvara cites 42 authors or books under this topic.

He quoted Manu 38 times

Yajnavalkya 19

Mahabharata 14

Narada 13

Kamandaka 2

Pallavakaara 8

Lakshmidhara 7

Katyayana 6 Times

Candesvaea did not consider Arthasastra as a dharma sastra. It is not a Law book but a book on politics and economics.

Tirukkural , Naladiyar and 16 other didactic works are called 18 Minor Works. They contain lot of law points.





English Man’s Tomb with Upanishad Mantra! (Post No.5088)

Written by london swaminathan


Date: 8 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  11-59 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5088


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



I was reading the Woolner Commemoration Volume published in Lahore (now in Pakistan) in 1940. I found some interesting details about him:


Dr Alfred Cooper Woolner was born on May 13,  1878 at a place called Etruria Hall in Staffordshire in England. In 1897, he won an open Classical Exhibition at Trinity College, Oxford and was also awarded Ford Studentship. At Oxford he studies Sanskrit and Persian along with the classics and in 1901 ,was awarded the Boden Scholarship for Sanskrit. He studied Sanskrit, Pali and Chinese. He was appointed Principal of Oriental college in Lahore.


He was equally interested in almost all branches of Sanskrit studies. Linguistics had a special charm for him. He worked for 33 years in Punjab University. In spite of heavy administrative works, he was able to produce a good amount of valuable work. Besides his contribution to various research journals of research, he published the following:

  1. Introduction to Prakrit (Year 1917)
  2. Asoka Text and Glossary (1925)
  3. Thirteen Trivandrum Plays attributed to Bhasa (Translated into English with Dr L Sarup, 1930, 1931)
  4. Jasmine Garland or Kundamala, translated into English in 1935 (but published after his death)
  5. Indian Students’ Handbook of Philology (incomplete)

He always enjoyed a good health. He never suffered from a long illness except one occasion when an attack of malta fever (Brucellosis) made him to take rest for several weeks. He fell ill of malaria on December 17, 1935, which after a week developed into pneumonia and he died in Mayo Hospital on January 7, 1936.


He was buried the next day, in the new cemetery on the Ferozepur Road (in Lahore). His body takes eternal rest in tomb 125, under a black marble slab, on which are engraved, besides the usual inscription, the following Vedic lines in Devanagari script, perhaps for the first on the tomb of an European

“Out of non being lead me into being;

out of darkness into light

out of death into life eternal.”


(First line is translated in other books Lead me as ‘From unreal to rea’l—Brihat Aranyaka Upanishad)

(These lines are taken from elsewhere; NOT from his tomb)

A bust of his has been enshrined in the Woolner Hall of the University Union, and a statue erected on the roadside in front of the hall. Mrs Woolner (Mary Emily Bland) was his constant companion.

Sir George Anderson Said,

“Dr Woolner was tall, well built, and, of somewhat massive proportions; his presence was dignified and stately; and his beard, which he wore even in his Oxford days, seemed both natural and imposing. He could not pass unnoticed in any company, but he gave often the impression of extremes austerity. Then, all of a sudden, his face would be lit up with by the merry twinkle in his and the real man that was within him would appear.”


Dr G U Pope and Tamil

Dr Rev.G U Pope translated Tiruvasakam, Naladiyar and several Sangam verses from Tamil into English when he was in Tamil Nadu. People very often read about his intention to engrave that ‘I am a Tamil Student’ on his tombstone. But THERE IS NO SUCH THING ENGRAVED ON HIS TOMB STONE IN OXFORD. I don’t know how the false notion was spread by the Tamils.

— Subham—



Written by London Swaminathan 



Date: 6 JUNE 2018



Time uploaded in London – 16-31


Post No. 5081


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.







Let us continue our study of Manu Smrti; We have already finished first two chapters out of the 12 chapters. Now look at the salient features of first 44 slokas/couplets in the Third chapter.


My Comments

The interesting points are….

1.Brahmins studied the Vedas for 36 years or 18 or 9 years; If it is three Vedas it took 36 years. Now we know the surnames such as Trivedi, Chaturvedi, Dwivedi mean study of three Vedas, or four Vedas or two Vedas. Those who are born in those families still keep those surnames. In Tamil Nakkirar, author of Tiru Murugatrup Padai said to have mastered the Vedas in 48 years. Indra advised one sage that he cant even finish the Vedas in three lifetime.’ what we learnt is of the size of a stone and what we have not learnt is the size of earth’ is a saying that came of the story. Each one studied only one ‘shaka’ i.e. branch from each Veda. Vedas has over thousand shakas/branches in the ancient days.


2.Coming to marriages, Manu wants one to choose a girl with good name, good body marks (samudrika Lakshnam). It is strange Manu bans girls with Nakshatra/Stars and Rivers’ names. Now a days it is common to see Ganga, Narmada, Sindhu, Kavei Swati, Krithika, Asvini, Bharani etc.

3.Gait of Hamsa or Elephant for a girl is typical Indian. It is found through out Tamil and Sanskrit literature. All these show our culture is indigenous not imported from outside the country.


4.Eight Types of marriages is also found in oldest Tamil book Tolkaappiam and other books. We see plenty of examples in Mahabharata, Ramayana and other scriptures for these types of marraiges.

5.Love marriage is known as Gandharva marriage.

  1. Manu discusses second marriage and so it was in practice in the ancient times. The inter-caste marriages also were in vogue from the days of epics.


7.Another interesting point is neither Swayamvaram marriage of Kshatriays nor eight different types of marriages were practised in any other culture ouside India. This is another proof that the Hindu culture originated and developed in this country. No one came from outside.


8.The study of Vedas or study of any other subject under Gurukula for 48 years also unique to Hindus. This is also another proof that the sons of the soil developed the culture here. No one came from outside. The use of water for marriages, boons, curses, rituals also show that this is a tropical culture.

9.Talking about 100 years life (decimal number) is also typical Vedic and not found in any other culture. One more proof to show that this culture evolved here in Bharat.Decimal system is found in every chapter of the Vedas.


  1. There is a reference to other Smrtis. If it is not an interpolation, we come to know Manu Smrti is not the only smrti that was followed in his times. If it is true one cannot blame the society only on the basis of Manu Smrti. When people were given choices, no one can find fault with Manu for certain slokas or rules.

11.Some of the rites (see 44) were not followed anywhere in India as far as we know. So Manu Smrti must be very ancient and later enlarged with more couplets. Particularly the slokas about the fourth caste- Shudra might have been later interpolations.

  1. The Hindu society was very health conscious. Manu warns about some diseases and advised people not to marry form those families.




3-1. The vow of studying the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time (18 YEARS), or for a quarter (9 YEARS), or until the (student) has perfectly learnt them.

  1. A student who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the rules of studentship, shall enter the order of householders.
  2. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with the present of a cow and the honey-mixture/MADHUPARKA.


3-4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana the rite on returning home, a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious bodily marks.

  1. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, is recommended to twice-born men for wedlock and conjugal union.
  2. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,



3-7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.

  1. Let him not marry a maiden with reddish hair, nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair on the bod) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red eyes,



3-9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.


3-10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.

  1. But a prudent man should not marry a maiden who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter and in the latter lest he should commit sin.



3-12. For the first marriage of twice-born men wives of equal caste are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed to marry again the following females, chosen according to the direct order of the castes, are most approved.

  1. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone can be)the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste the wives of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste the wives of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste the wives of a Brahmana.
  2. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any ancient story as the first wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the greatest distress.
  3. Twice-born men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.



3-16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).

  1. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will ( after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.
  2. The manes and the gods will not eat the offerings of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a LOW CASTE wife’s assistance, and such a ma) will not go to heaven.
  3. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.



3-20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.

  1. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).
  2. Which is lawful for each caste/ varna and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.
  3. One may know that the first six according to the order followed above are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.
  4. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa rite in the case of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.
  5. But in these Institutes of the sacred law three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.
  6. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.
  7. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.


3-28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.

  1. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.
  2. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, ‘May both of you perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.
  3. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.


3-32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.

  1. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.
  2. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.



3-35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by a libation of water; but in the case of other castes it may be performed by the expression of mutual consent.

  1. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.

TEN GENERATIONS (decimal system)

3-37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.

  1. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).
  2. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).

100 YEARS LIFE! (Decimal System)

3-40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.

  1. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.
  2. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).
  3. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna).


3-44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the bridegroom’s garment.


to be continued…………



Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 27 May 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20–39


Post No. 5052


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.







Thailand has several inscriptions with interesting information. They provide documented history. Like India the donations to Brahmins and temples stand as historical documents. A very interesting inscription is the Hospital Inscription.

The Stone inscription is in Sanskrit language. Its from the Ku Noi Hospital, Khonkaen Museum. It belongs to Jayavarman VII of 13th century CE. The inscription was discovered in the excavations at Kunoi.


It states that the site was a hospital at the time of Jayavarman VII. The bottom part of the stele is broken and missing. There are three different sizes of stone inscriptions- large, medium and small. Ku noi is in the middle group. All the stone inscriptions gave details regarding the hospital, such as the number of doctors, nurses and types of offerings etc.


The earliest inscriptions of Khmer history in Northern Thailand dated to the end of the 6th century CE. One found in the province of Surin, north of Ta Muen, was erected by a king called Mahendravarman. The inscription written in Sanskrit, commemorates the installation of Shiva’s bull Nadin. Mahendravarman ordered the inscription carved after he has conquered ‘all the country’.


The interesting coincidence is that at the same time the great Pallava King Mahendravarman was ruling from Kancheepuram in South India.


There is another stele in Bangkok museum, a Sanskrit inscription  giving the details of land given by the King Udyadityavarman II. Land was donated to priestly family of Brahmins. It is in Prasat Sdok Kok Thom.  This is one of the most important inscriptions for the study of the Khmer history. Now housed in the National Museum in Bangkok, it dates to about 1052 CE and chronicles the history of Shivakaivalya dynasty of priests who served the King Jayavarman II, founder of the Khmer Empire in 802. It relates how Jayavarman arrived from Java, became king of Indrapura and later moved his capital to Hariharalaya, close to Angkor on northern shore of the Tonle Sap.


In addition it also provides information on subsequent Khmer history, the Khmer system of kingship, the various beliefs adhered to and details about the Brahmin family and their involvement with later Khmer kings.


11 Inscriptions in Phnom Rung

The inscriptions of Prasat Phnom Rung offer a unique insight into the nature of Khmer rule in Northern Thailand between the 10th and 13th century CE. They record the family history of Narendra Adiytya and his son Hiranya. They were independent rulers and not the vassals of king at Angkor. Altogether 11 inscriptions were found at Phnom Rung. The name Phnom Rung itself occurs once on a stele inscribed with a Sanskrit eulogy and several times in Khmer inscriptions.


The earliest inscriptions found at Prasat Phnom Rung is in Sanskrit. It is only four lines, but has been dated to 7th century CE. This inscription might have been shifted from another site, because other structures at the site are of later periods.


Of the other Sanskrit inscriptions, the most important bears the inventory no K.384. It is also the biggest measuring about 27X 53 centimetres. Another inscription is also in Sanskrit. Hiranya is talking about installing a golden image of his father. The inscription commemorates the new additions to Saivite monastery in Phnom Rung. Hymn to Shiva is in the beginning which praises Shiva as Maha Yogi.


Among other inscriptions, however are fascinating details of the religious practices of the monastery on Phnom Rung Hill. One inscription with an inventory no. BR 14 is carved on a round stone slab almost a metre high, a shape associated with sema stones of boundary markers. The 12th century Inscription refers to a pool called Sri Surya as well as setting up the images of gods Shiva, Vishnu, Linga etc.


Sanskrit inscriptions in Thailand serve as a great source of history.

Source book Palace of the Gods, Smiththi Siribhadra and Elizabeth Moore; photography Michael Freeman Year 1992.


31 More Quotations from Poet Kalhana (Post No.4948)

31 More Quotations from Poet Kalhana (Post No.4948)



COMPILED by London Swaminathan 


Date: 25 April 2018


Time uploaded in London –  18-05


Post No. 4948


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.





Kalhana was a minister in Kashmir King Harsha’s (1089-1101) Kingdom. He wrote his epic poem in Sanskrit, Rajatarangini (River of Kings). It gives the history of Kashmir. Lst month I publied 30 quotations from him. Now there are 31 more quotes from Rajatarangini of Kalahana.


FESTVAL DAYS:  May 10-Hanuman Jayanti (Telugu region) ; 28 Vaikasi Visakam in Tamil  temples; Agni nakshatram begins 4 ; 28 ends






Auspicious Days in MAY -2, 4, 6, 7, 13, 20, 25, 27


In the past three years, hundreds of quotations are given in both Tamil and English monthly calendars in my blog. Please use them


May 1 Tuesday
What cannot be accomplished by anyone who disregard s his own limbs and mind?
Such a person is capable of bold enterprise. Rajatarangini 7-1328

May 2 Wednesday
Acquaintance with the use of weapons is common but a strategist is not.

May 3 Thursday
Everyone knows how to use a dart but rarely is one aware of its aim. 7-804

May 4 Friday
She had full breasts curved like a jar and also the excellent hips. She was the embodiment of joy in love as well as in a home.4-18

May 5 Saturday
There is not one action of the cloud which is not beneficial to others, some plants open their blossoms, when lightning flashes through it pains the eyes, others blossom at the roar of thunder which hurts the ears. Nevertheless, the dull witted find in it no other virtue except that of giving of rain 8-1556


May 6 Sunday
When a bold man, after completing his duty, is about to rest, fate imposes on him burdens of New responsibilities- 8-1791

May 7 Monday

Only among ordinary people a thing of surpassing merit becomes celebrity. Who can lure the attention of the mighty to such superb objects? 4-254
May 8 Tuesday
If a tree which protect s a river bank collapse s in a flood, the creeper which lives on it, will surely follow suit.8-3250

May 9 Wednesday
What is intended for protection may, through a stroke of fate, cause destruction.-7-804


May 10 Thursday
Providence by burning the thin grass produces the thick verdure. After a day of acute warmth, it rains.8-1790



May 11 Friday
In spite of constant reconciliations, enmity, even though allayed, repeatedly enters the heart just as a wet garment, in spite of its being repaired, is often torn .7-384

May 12 Saturday
The heroic think an object attainable by courage, the timid by caution; otherwise between them there could be little difference. 6-363

May 13 Sunday
Danger causes sudden alarm but not when one in the midst of it . Water is chill when it is poured on one’s head but not when one is sunk in it.-8-1097

May 14 Monday

A man will not be slain even by a stroke of  lightning before his time but one who has reached his allotted span might die even from a flower 8-531


May 15 Tuesday

Fortune which merchants obtain by misappropriation of deposits, which courtesans get by deceiving their lovers, or princes through treason, is after all impermanent. 4-181

Fortune moving about unsteadily, like the lightning playing in the sky, always follow s the cloud of destiny . With whom does it abide permanently? 8-1896

When extraordinary good fortune of overwhelming glory comes to a man, retreating misfortune increases the power of its sorrows.7-795

Fate grants fortune to that person whom those who think themselves wise, persist in considering as unfit 8-491

Fortune like a prostitute daubed with a magic powder conquers even the strong minded, making them unlawful- 8-189

May 16 Wednesday
Every great person finally meets with humiliating defeat just if he was a common man. Who then could proudly think I am great 8-335
May 17 Thursday

By dependent on others, even an animal’s spirit is hurt 7-72

May 18 Friday
Destiny can be opposite if and when jackals victoriously control a lion 8-1470
The mighty are cheated by the infirm and those who hold all might in their control, are deluded by the power less 7-959
Who else like him had his head cremated in one place and the rest of his body in another? 8-1473
May 19 Saturday

Devotion to one’s sovereign does not change in honest men till they die 7-1322

May 20 Sunday

The diamond is not cut by any other precious stone but on the contrary it cuts them. 4-51


May 21 Monday
Let those who know diploma cy recommend to a different occasion either subservience or when expedient the discharge of duty. 8-691

In contentious transactions virtuous conduct is revealed by speech alone

May 22 Tuesday

The great for a few favour s give much of their own. 3-276

None is great except the greedy, in doing good to others 7-502

The reputation of the great does not by any means conform to their birth place.4-41
May 23 Wednesday

The earth has been preordained for enjoyment of the valiant. 7-1288

May 24 Thursday

The ocean is not warmed by the submarine fire nor does it cold by the snow s of the Himalayas when they enter it. Men of unruffled mind display equanimity either in dejection or exultation 8-2666
May 25 Friday

In giving births, parents confer their only favour on their offspring but the sovereign does on all occasions 8-694

May 26 Saturday
In the course of daring ventures. It is not surprising if, through providence, a hundred thousand are vanquished by a single man or a single person by a hundred thousand .7-1499

May 27 Sunday
If the banks of rivers will only smell of a lion, to elephants they will seem as though they are on fire 8-3013

May 28 Monday

Fools who depend on cheap recognition and move about every where thoughtlessly like beasts deserve to be scorned. 8-215

May 29 Tuesday

The lightning of prosperity, the crane of celebrity, the thunder of boldness, and the rainbow of prowess, follow the cloud of prudence. 7-1455



May 30 Wednesday

What fragrance can a multitude of flower garlands bring to one, whose life has passed away? That is what natural beauty and glory of things mean to a fool. 4-501

May 31 Thursday

Good luck
Good luck will not be impoverished 7-1044