Shakespeare and Kalidasa-Hindu Thoughts in Shakespearean Plays (Post No.3866)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 30 APRIL 2017

Time uploaded in London:-11-29  am

Post No. 3866

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

We know that great men think alike; but some similarities in the plays of Kalidasa and Shakespeare make us believe that Shakespeare has read Kalidasa or heard about his plays. Innocent forest girl Shakuntala is incarnated as Miranda in The Tempest. Kalidasa’s Vidusakas (Jesters/comedians) are seen in several of Shakespeare’s plays. There are similarities in Othello, Hamlet and The Winter’s Tale as well.

 

Plays of Shakespeare were largely founded on Hellenic, Roman and and other foreign models, where as Kalidasa’s plays were based on Ramayana and Mahabharata.

 

Shakespeare puts in the mouth of one of his characters: –

“The self-same sun that shines upon his court

Hides not his visage from our cottage, but

Looks on’s alike”.

 

In describing the moral greatness of the Himalaya, Kalidasa gives expression to the idea as follows:

 

“He protects from the sun in his caves the darkness which through fear of light adheres to them for shelter; the care of the great is impartially bestowed on inferior and important personages alike”.

“Divaakaraad rakshati yo guhaasu

Leenam divaabheetam vaandhakaaram;

Kshudrepi noonam saranam prapanne

Mamatvam uchchais sirasaam sateeva”

Polonius Advice

Shakespeare students are familiar with the advice of Polonius to his son Laertes.

 

“Give thy thoughts no tongue, Nor any unproportion’d thought his act. Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel; But do not dull thy palm with entertainment Of each new-hatch’s, unfledged comrade. Beware…: (Hamlet Act I)

 

According to Kalidasa, the following is the advice that Shakuntala received from her foster father Kanva when she was leaving him to go to her royal husband’s home:

“Show due reverence to him and to your superiors; should others share your husband’s love, be an affectionate handmaid to them; should your husband displease you, let not your resentment lead you to disobedience. Be just and impartial to domestics, and seek not your own gratifications. By such behaviours young women become exemplary mistresses, but perverse wives are the bane of a family.”

There may be a difference of opinion, according to present ideas, as to this description of the duty of a wife; but there can scarcely be any difference of opinion as to the sentiments expressed by Kalidasa in the following verses:-

 

“The wicked are controlled, not by favour, but by punishment”.

 

“Of righteous acts good wives are certainly the fundamental cause”.

“Devoted wives never oppose the wishes of their husbands”.

“When there is seniority in virtue, youth is not taken into account”.

Hamlet and Manu Smrti

The king in Hamlet speaks of his inviolability thus:-

“There is such divinity doth hedge a king

That treason can but peep to what it would”

 

Manu explains royal divinity thus

“With eight elements of the gods is a king made; hence, by his lustre he subdues all creatures.”

Kalidasa describes a king of the Raghuvamsa, who went about without attendants thus:

“The race of Manu needed no bodyguard, but relied for safety on its own prestige and prowess.”

 

On Royal attributes, such as King Henry V defined and Cranmer prophesied of the infant Elizabeth, Kalidasa speaks in referring to a king of the Solar Race thus:

 

“Broad-chested, strong shouldered like a bull, long armed like a pine-tree, his physical frae was suited to the task of his royal birth; he was the embodiment of the virtues of the warrior caste”.

All the world is a stage

“I hold the world but as the world, Horatio

A stage where everyman must play a part”.

 

and again in As You like It

“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,”

–As You Like It

I have given similar thoughts found in Tamil and Sanskrit in my post:–

Drama, Puppet Show, Folk Theatre in Tamil and Sanskrit Literature (Post No.3608); Date: 5 FEBRUARY 2017

 

The Winter’s Tale

The scene where the king (Shakuntalam), after dismounting from the is about to enter the grove of Marica’s hermitage and has his first glimpse of his son is a replica of the scene in Act One, where also the king after dismounting from the chariot at the fringes of the grove of Kanva’s hermitage, enters and see the boy’s mother for the first time. The finding of the lost son and heir precedes and leads to the recognition of the mother. An interesting parallel is provided in the last scene of Shakespeare’s ‘The Winter’s Tale’.

 

Othello and Sakuntalam

There is an interesting parallel in Othello. In the drama, proof of heroine’s chastity and love is demanded. Desdemona’s chastity hangs on a handkerchief; Sakuntala’s on a ring. Both heroines are blissfully unaware of the importance of the token. To them love is its own proof and a witness to their chastity.

 

In Ramayana, Sita was asked to prove her chastity by undergoing the ordeal of fire to allay the suspicions of the public: In Shakespeare’s Othello and King Lear where proof of fidelity and of filial love is demanded, we have a parallel.

 

A lot of Shakespeare’s quotable quotes have parallel in Sanskrit verses (I will give them separately).

 

Source Books:

Orient and Occident, Manmath C Mallick,1913

Kalidasa, The Loom of Time, Chandra Rajan, 1989

 

–Subham–

 

Water Images in Kalidasa and Tamil Sangam Literature (Post No.3793)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 6 APRIL 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 18-09

 

Post No. 3793

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Great men think alike. Kalidasa, the most famous poet of India and a Sangam Tamil poet Sempulapeyarnirar use the water image in a beautiful way.

 

Kalidasa in Raghuvamsa says,

 

Water from the sky which is originally of one taste gains diversity of flavours in different regions. Similarly, Hari, being immutable assumes different conditions in different qualities (RV 10-17). The image gives the idea of monism.

 

Sempulap peyal nirar, Tamil poet who lived nearly 2000 years ago, says in Kuruntokai (verse 40):

 

“What are my mother and your mother to each other?

What is the relationship between my father and your father?

How did we come to know each other?

Like the (rain) water which falls on a field with red soil,

(mingle with it and becomes red)

the loving hearts have blended with each other.

 

Kalidasa used it illustrate monism; Tamil poet used it to illustrate the union of hearts.

 

(I have been emphasizing through several articles that Kalidasa lived before the Sangam age, probably around 1st century BCE. I am using 250 plus similes of Sangam poets to illustrate my point and those similes are already in Kalidasa’s seven works).

In the Kumara sambhava (2-25), he says that “the speed of the Wind Gods Maruts can be guessed from their faltering motion as is the stoppage of their current from the refulgence of waters.

 

As the sprouting of a seed requires water before it can make its appearance, similarly, the work of gods can be accomplished by the Cupid in diverting the mind of Siva from meditation towards Parvati (K.S.3-18)

 

Siva, on account of suspension of the vital airs is imagined to be a reservoir of water unruffled with ripples, a cloud not blustering up to burst into a shower, or like a lamp steady in a place free from wind (K.S.3-48)

 

Cupid who died leaving Rati whose very life depends upon him, is imagined as the torrent of water abandoning a lotus after breaking down a dam (K.S. 4-6)

 

The mind already firmly resolute and bent on its desired object cannot be diverted and is so imagined to be like downward flowing water which cannot be drawn back (K S 5-5). So Menaka’s advice to Parvati whose mind already leaned to Siva went amiss.

 

 

Seeing the moon-like face of Parvati, Siva had the water of his mind rendered clear (K S 7-74).

Water is always cool; seers are always kind!

 

In the Raghuvamsa (RV 5-54) Matanga cursed Pri yamvada to turn into an elephant. He fell at his feet and the sage relented afterwards. The hotness of water is due to its contact with the fire or the solar heat; what is coolness is but the natural property of water. This indicates that abut is the sage was kind-hearted.

 

स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चान्मया महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत्|
उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगाच्छैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य॥ ५-५४

sa cānunītaḥ praṇatena paścānmayā maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat
uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṁprayogācchaityaṁ hi yatsā prakṛtirjalasya || 5-54

“But, when I prostrated before his feet and importuned that great sage matanga relented to modify the curse as above… for the heat of water is owing to its contact with either fire or solar heat… what is coolness is but the natural property of water… isn’t it… [5-54]

 

 

The Sanskrit poets describe navel as a mark of beauty and it therefore, compared to the watery eddy (RV 6-52)

नृपम् तमावर्तमनोज्ञनाभिः सा व्यत्यगादन्यवधूर्भवित्री|
महीधरम् मार्गवशादुपेतम् स्रोतोवहा सागरगामिनीव॥ ६-५२

nṛpam tamāvartamanojñanābhiḥ sā vyatyagādanyavadhūrbhavitrī |

mahīdharam mārgavaśādupetam srotovahā sāgaragāminīva || 6-52

She who has a navel as beautiful as an eddy, and who is scheduled to become another man’s wife, that princess indumati moved past that prince susheNa of shUrasena kingdom, just as an ocean bound river moves past a mountain met by chance on its way. [6-52]

 

 

 

The family of Raghu with the child King comparable to the water with a lotus in the condition of a bud in it (RV 18-37). This indicates the tender and lovely heart of King Sudarsana.

 

नवेन्दुना तन्नभसोपमेयम्
शाबैकसिंहेन च काननेन।
रघोः कुलम् कुट्मलपुष्करेण
तोयेन चाप्रौढनरेन्द्रमासीत्॥ १८-३७

navendunā tannabhasopameyam
śābaikasiṁhena ca kānanena |
raghoḥ kulam kuṭmalapuṣkareṇa
toyena cāprauḍhanarendramāsīt || 18-37

 

That dynasty of Raghu with this young king sudarshana obtained similitude to the sky with new moon, a forest with a single lion-cub, and a lake with solitary bud of lotus. [18-37]

 

Thus Raghu’s line, whose chief was now a child,/Showed like the night while still the Moon is young,/Or like a forest where one Lion-cub/Alone doth range, or as a silent lake/Before its lilies bloom.

 

 

In the Malavikagnimitram (M.M.1-6), the skill of teacher which when communicated to a worthy student, attains greater excellence, is likened to the water of a cloud, which when dropped into a sea-shell, acquires the nature of a pearl.

 

Just as a stupid person becomes wise by association with the wise, similarly, the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree (M M 2—7)

 

(Rain drops falling on the day of Swati star becoming pearl in the oysters and the Kataka seed purifying water are used by Tamil poets as well; I have written about it already).

 

Source books :–Kuruntokai

Raghuvamsa.sansrit documents.com

The Imagery of Kalidasa by Dr Mrs Vinod Aggarwal

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My Old articles on the same subject:

1.Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775); posted on 31 March 2017

2. Women and Rivers in Kalidasa and Tamil literature; posted on 10 November 2014
3. Kalidasa’s age: Tamil works confirm 1st century BC. Posted on 22 January 2012
4. Nature’s Orchestra in the Forest: Sanskrit Tamil Poets’ Chorus (Post No. 3489); 27 December 2016
5. Pearls in the Vedas and Tamil Literature

Posted on Post No. 1048 ; dated 17th May 2014.

  1. Gem Stones in Kalidasa and Tamil Literature (13 February 2012)

 

–Subham–

 

 

Husband is God!!! Who will believe Valmiki, Kalidasa and Sangam Tamil Poets? (Post No.3717)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 12 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 19-37

 

Post No. 3717

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

There is a saying in all old Sanskrit and Tamil books that ‘Husband is God’; I don’t know how many modern Hindu women would agree with this ‘old fashioned’ thought. When I was a school by there was, a film titled ‘Kanavane Kankanda Deivam’ i.e. Husband is the visible God! Now people may laugh at this idea, leave alone believing it!

 

The second idea repeated very often in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature and Sanskrit literature is that the ‘same husband must come as her husband in future births’!! How many women would dare to say this to her husband in private or in public? How many women can tolerate such a thing if it happens!! Is in it horrible?

 

My mother had never said my father’s name in public! This is the third old fashioned idea that Hindu women had in the past. Now, my wife says my name loud and clear ten times in public when there was an opportunity to say it. But I myself had the difficulty of finding a gentleman’s’ name in a village, when I was working as the secretary of Madurai District RSS (Jilla Karyavah). The woman refused to say her husband’s name when I asked her and she gave me lot of tips and clues! It was like a puzzle I had to solve!

 

For instance if her husband’s name is Rama chandran, she would say her husband’s name is Sita’s husband name. If I say just Rama , then she will say ‘yes’ and add the moon with that name! Then I have to derive Rama Chandra from that! (Chandran is the Sanskrit word for moon)!

 

I don’t know how many Hindu women still believe in these ‘’old fashioned’’ views.

 

If you dare to put these views to any woman and ask her opinion, she may say ‘NO’ or a conditional YES (if my husband is like Rama, ‘YES’, if he is like Krishna ‘NO’)!

 

Let me give examples from Tamil and Sanskrit books:-

“Supressing his sobs, Rama replied to his mother, who was weeping, and said:- As long as sge lives, a woman’s god and her master is her husband; further the king is thine absolute lord as well as mine.”

 

This is a conversation between Rama and Kausalya about Kaikeyi and Dasaratha.

 

“By obedience to her husband, a woman attains the highest heaven, even if she has failed to render due homage to the Gods.”

 

–Ayodhya kanda, chapter 24, Vlmiki Ramayana

Tamil Poet supports Valmiki

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda, Tirukkural says

“A wife who may not worship God but wakes up with worshipful devotion to her husband has the power to make rainfall at her bidding”- Kural 55

 

In fact Tiruvalluvar’s wife Vasuki is attributed with so many miracles because of her devotion to her husband.

 

Valmiki has repeated this in many places; one more instance from the same Ayodhya kanda:

“O, son of an illustrious monarch! a father, a mother, a brother, a son or a daughter-in-law enjoy the fruit of their merits and receive what is their due, a wife alone follows the destiny of her husband. For a woman it is not her father or her son nor her mother friends nor her own self, but the husband who in this world and the next is ever her sole means of salvation.”

Sita said this to her husband Rama.

In Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsa Kavya, Sita says that she would do penance to get Rama as her husband in her next birth!

साहम् तपः सूर्यनिविष्टदृष्टिः
ऊर्ध्वम् प्रसूतेश्चरितुम् यतिष्ये।
भूयो यथा मे जननान्तरेऽपि
त्वमेव भर्ता न च विप्रयोगः ॥ १४-६६

sāham tapaḥ sūryaniviṣṭadṛṣṭiḥ
ūrdhvam prasūteścaritum yatiṣye |
bhūyo yathā me jananāntare’pi
tvameva bhartā na ca viprayogaḥ  || 14-66

 

Thus situated, I shall, after the birth of the child, endeavour to practise penance with my eyes fixed on the sun in such a manner that I may gain you as my unseparated husband. [14-66]

But, once Thy son is born,/Unswerving I shall fix my weary eyes/On yon bright Sun, and by severest modes/Of penance strive that in some future life/Thou only be my Lord, my Lord for aye!

(It is called Panchagni penance, i.e. Five Fire Penance. Uma did this type of penance to get Siva s her husband in Kalidasa’s Kumara sambhava. On four sides there will be fire and one would stand in the sun which is the fifth fire. And in this heat the penance would be done).

 

Tamil Epic Silappadikaram has the following passage:

 

In a divine chariot at the side of Kovalan, Kannnaki went up to heaven.. Because it is a fact that Gods will worship her who worships not God but worships her husband, Kannaki, that jewel among women of the earth, became a goddess and the guest of the ladies of heaven (Katturai Kaathai, Silappadikaram)

Manimekalai, another Tamil epic, has a similar passage.

Sangam Poets

 

Tamil work Kuruntokai (49) of Sangam Period has a similar poem:

A man left the courtesan and returned to his lady love. Immediately the lady was over the moon and said, “ O , My Lord, even in the next birth you must be my lord and I must be your lover.—Poet Ammuvanar.

A wife cried because…………………………..

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkura says,

“The moment I said we will not part IN THIS LIFE

Her eyes were filled with tears” – Kural 1315

 

the idea is that when her husband stated that they will not part in the PRESENT LIFE, she immediately held, that he was envisaging the possibility of their parting in the next life, which she did not kindly take to. Hence the tears.

 

Kalidasa says Aja and Indumati became husband and wife again in this birth. (Raghuvamsa 7-15)

 

रतिस्मरौ नूनमिमावभूताम् राज्ञाम् सहस्रेषु तथा हि बाला।
गतेयमात्मप्रतिरूपमेव मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम्॥ ७-१५

ratismarau nūnamimāvabhūtām
rājñām sahasreṣu tathā hi bālā |
gateyamātmapratirūpameva
mano hi janmāntarasaṁgatijñam || 7-15

“These two are undoubtedly Rati Devi and Manmatha in human form… that is why this maiden has chosen Prince Aja as her own match from among thousands of kings… after all, it is heart that cognises connubial tie-ups existing in all lifecycles… [ raghu vamsa 7-15]

 

Natrinai  (Verse 397 by Poet Ammuvanar) is another book in the Sangam literature. A woman laments: I am not worried about death; whoever is born must die. But if I am born as a non-human being in my next birth I may not get this man as my husband. That is what worries me much”.

There are lot of such examples in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. This is a common thought reflected in Manu Smrti and other Sanskrit works. It is amazing to see the same though from land’s southernmost end to the Northern Himalayas. The absence of such a view in other cultures explode the Aryan Dravidian divisions. India is one and there is no different culture. There is only one culture which is unique in the world.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Word Research shows Sanskrit is the Oldest Language! (Post No.3709)

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 10 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 21-15

 

Post No. 3709

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

I gave some excerpts from “Vedic and Indo-European Studies” written by Nicholas Kazanas, (Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, year 2015) yesterday.

 

Here are some more issues raised by him. I found his research into 400 words in Indo European languages very interesting. Here is what he says in his summary:

 

The second study is about, “Coherence and Preservation in Sanskrit” (published in Kumar 2009, 108 184, but revised since). Herein are examined more than 400 IE lexical items (nouns, verbs etc) occurring in the IE branches and denoting fairly common and as far as possible invariable things, qualities and activities like arm and foot, anger and love, father and mother, bowl and barley/grain, to breathe and to fly and so on. This study shows that Sanskrit lacks 53, some of which may well have not been PIE, Germanic lacks 145, Greek 149, Baltic 185 in 207, Celtic 210 and Slavic 215. Thus Sanskrit preserves a much larger stock whereas Greek, with its early and voluminous literature does not surpass Germanic, and Latin, with an almost equally early and rich literature, lags behind Germanic and Baltic. Another and perhaps more important aspect is that while many words appear in Germanic, Greek, Latin etc, only as isolated lexemes without a family of cognates (e.g. daughter’), in Sanskrit many such words have root- nouns, adjectives and verbal forms. Sanskrit has organic coherence. Both facts indicate that Sanskrit is by far the most archaic branch and most faithful to PIE.

PIE= Proto Indo-European

I E = Indo European

xxx

 

Rig Vedic Poetry is better than Greek Poetry

The third study, “Rigvedic All-comprehensiveness reinforces the conclusion that Sanskrit is the most archaic of the IE branches and closest to PIE. In the second chapter are examined the lexical items. Here, in the third, are examined grammatical and poetical aspects and in every case the Vedic language and poetry are seen to contain everything found in one or two of the other branches. For instance, the Periphrastic Perfect is found in Hittite but not in ancient Greek or Latin (in both it appears as a later innovation), is also present in Vedic. The Greek poetry has strict metre but little or no alliteration where as Germanic poetry has as one of its basic elements alliteration but not strict metre: both of these are present in the poetry of Rig Veda.

 

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Vedic and Avestan

The fourth study, ‘Vedic and Avesta’ is very technical and shows that contrary to mainstream belief, Vedic is far older than Avestan. It shows also that it is the Iranians who moved out of the wider Saptasindhu to Bactria/Gandhara, then to South East Iran and North westward.

xxx

 

  1. As the title Vedic and Indo-European Studies indicates, the volume consists of dealing with common in both areas so that one may illuminate the other. Following facts rather than conjectures and reasoning rather than repetition, I arrive at unorthodox conclusions that diverge from mainstream (usually mechanical) thinking.

 

The most significant conclusion is that the Rig Veda furnishes facts that militate against many prevalent notions in many disciplines and studies in academia like the beginning of language or religion. Another conclusion concerns the origins of the Indo Aryan or Vedic people and the obnoxious Aryan Invasion/Immigration Theory. The AIT (-Aryan Invasion Immigration Theory) is a major impediment in mainstream IE (Indo European) scholarship but it is not the only one. In fact this is an external structure established by other, internal or psychological tendencies like inattention, love of ease, mechanicalness, arrogance, obstinacy, ambition, greed etc, all sprouting from an unchecked ego; all these can be encapsulated in the triad arrogance, greed, ignorance (more in the sense of ignoring than not knowing). And it is these that often motivate us rather than love and promotion of truth, the primary purpose of all scholarship (And if your mind, dear reader, rejects all this as claptrap unrelated to scholarship, then it is in the thralls of the triad.)

 

xxxx

Research on Vedic God Rhbu

 

Let us now go to Greece holding in mind the adjective name rbhu ‘intelligent fashioner. Scholars generally agree that this word is cognate with English Germanic ‘elf’ ( Elf, Alp etc), Old Slavic rabh ‘servant’ and the name of the Greek poet-musician-hero Orpheus.

 

In the Rig Veda ( 1.20, 110; 3.60, 7.48 etc) the Rbhus are three brothers, sons Sudhanvan, who perform several miraculous deeds through the power of mind’. For instance, RV 4- 2 says “ratham ye cakruh suvrtam sucetaso a-vibvarantam manasas pari dhyaya.

The wise-ones who fashioned the fine-rolling, impeccable car by visionary power ‘dhi’- out of mind/ manas. But the three are often indicated as one. Thus in the RV the indicated by the singular Rbhu as one. Thus in the Rig Veda the name appears both in the singular and in the plural.  The three brothers, though mortal, thanks to their great mental power gain, the favour of the gods and stay in the mansion of the Sun god where they serve as priests and become immortal gods themselves.

 

–Subham–

 

 

Hindus Migrate to Europe 8000 Years Ago! (Post No.3708)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 9 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-08

 

Post No. 3708

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Nicholas Kazanas, a scholar from Athens has given amazing details about Hindus in his latest book “VEDIC AND INDO EUROPEAN STUDIES”. It is written for scholars with lot of linguistic studies and a layman can’t follow it easily. But he himself summarised beautifully well in the introduction. I will give only interesting points from the intro and the contents of the book.

 

Migration

AIT (Aryan Invasion/Immigration Theory) is wrong. On the contrary Hindus went into Europe 8000 years ago. He quoted the following:

Genetics also has in the 2000 decade established beyond any doubt the fact that genes flowed into Europe from N W India (Gujarat, Rajsathan, Sindh); these are the R1a 1a and the M458 and they travelled north westward before 8000 years ago (see underhill 2010)

Emeneau’s Ignorance

M B Emeneau wrote in 1954 : “At some time in the second millennium BC a band or bands of an Indo European language, later to be called Sanskrit, entered India over the North West passes. This is our linguistic doctrine which has been held now for more than a century and a half. There seems to be no reason to distrust the arguments for it, in spite of the traditional Hindu ignorance of any such invasion”.

Nicholas, in his book says: “However it is Emeneau himself who suffers from ignorance, not the Hindu tradition. For only 12 years later, in 1966, an article by the eminent archealogist George Dale in the Scientific American showed beyond any doubt that there has been no invasion, no bloodshed, no conquest, no violence. Note, too, that Emeneau talks of a doctrine and arguments and not of data, evidence and facts. Now where as historians like A L Basham accepted it readily (1975), it took Western and many Indian Sanskritists to accept this fact and change the theory into one of peaceful immigration.

 

Date of Rig Veda 3500 BCE!

All modern texts on Sanskrit and ancient Indian literature refer to the chronological scheme set out by Max Muller in his History of Sanskrit Literature (1859). What they don’t say is how he arrived at this’

 

This scheme was based on a ghost story in Katha sarit sagara (composed in 1100 CE) which mentions a certain Katyayana. This person was identified by Muller with the sutra writer Kaatyaayana, placed in the third century BCE. Thus working from that date as his basis, he set up the following chronological scheme:

Chandas (RV) – 1200-1000 BCE

Mantras (Atharva, Yajus) – 1000-800 BCE

Brahmanas, Upanishads – 800-600 BCE

Sutras etc. – down to 200 BCE

 

This chronology came into criticism at that time ( by Goldstrucker, Whitney, Winternitz and others) and even Muller admitted that nobody could determine the dates of the Rig Vedic hymns which could be from 1500, 2000 or even 5000 BCE. But his earlier scheme stuck and is being taught today in all Western Universities and most Indian ones.

However, all archaeologists today, experts in the area of Saptasindhu (Allchin, Kenoyer, Poschel, Shaffer and many others), emphasize the unbroken continuity of the native culture from c.7000 to 600 BCE, when the Persians began to invade the region.

The Indo- Aryans are indigenous to Seven River region (Sapta Sindhu) what is today North West Pakistan and North West India, since there is no evidence for any intrusion into that area before 600 BCE. The Rig Veda was complete but for minor passages by 3100 BCE when the Harappan culture begins to arise

 

Consequently, I take it that Rig Veda was composed in the 4th millennium BCE at least, the Brahmanas and the Upanishads early in the 3rd and some of the Sutra texts 2500 BCE.

 

Egypt, Babylonia learnt Maths from India!

 

Of great significance are two articles by American historian of science A.Seidenberg wherein he argues that Egyptian, Babylonian and Greek mathematics derive from the Indic Sulbasutras of Apastamba and Baudhayana or a work like that, dated c 2000 BC as lower limit, thus furnishing totally independent evidence; in these he took account of the work of Neugebauer, Cantor et all. Seidenberg wrote of this original work: its mathematics was very much like what we see in the Sulabasutras. In the first place, it was associated with the ritual. Second, there was no dichotomy between number and magnitude. In geometry, it knew the Theorem of Pythagoras and how to convert a rectangle into a square. It knew the isosceles trapezoid and how to compute its area.

(Source: Vedic and Indo-European Studies by Nicholas Kazanas, Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi, year 2015)

 

—to be continued………………………

 

 

Three Stories about Stupid Shepherds! (Post No.3701)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 7 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-41

 

Post No. 3701

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

Shepherds of India were uneducated and ignorant. There are lot of stories about their stupid acts. The most famous shepherd story was about Kalidasa. There was a king who had a very educated intelligent, but arrogant daughter. She refused to marry anyone because all of them were defeated by her in debates. The ministers lost their patience. So they were looking for a fool who can be presented as the greatest scholar and thus insult the arrogant princess.

 

As they were going through the country side they saw a shepherd who was sitting on upper branch of a tree and cutting down the lower part. They got hold of him and trained him in gestures. He learnt the sign language quickly because there were only two signs. They told him that he would get a big reward from the king if used the gestures to answer any question put to him.

The shepherd was taken in a palanquin to present him as the scholar cum prince of a neighbouring country. For every gesture princess showed he used the two gestures he was taught. Since ministers taught him the gestures they had ready  explanations for his gestures. They gave big philosophical explanations for both the gestures. The princess was very much impressed with his scholarship and married him.

 

During the first night, the princess came to the bridegroom’s chamber. But to her surprise he was fast asleep and snoring! She waited for several hours and yet he did not get up. The princess tried to wake him up by sprinkling some scented water. At that time the shepherd (scholar) was dreaming about his sheep. When he felt the sprinkled water, he was shouting to his sheep (in dream). When she threw some flowers on him, he was saying, “ Get away, you foolish sheep”.

 

Now the princess knew for sure that something went wrong. She understood that she was married to an idiot. She drew off her sword and woke him. She told him,”Tell me the truth. Who are you? If you do not speak now, I shall kill you.”

 

He confessed that he was a shepherd and he acted according the ministers’ instructions. Immediately the princess gave him some money and asked him to run away from the palace.

 

The shepherd felt ashamed and went and slept in a Kali (goddess) temple on his way. He started praying to her to give him true knowledge. Goddess also felt very sorry for him. She knew that he was punished for no fault of his. She asked him to open his mouth and wrote a magic spell on his tongue. From that moment he started composing poems. Later he became the most celebrated poet of India – Kalidasa.

 

Second Story

But not all the shepherds were as lucky as Kalidasa. There was a shepherd at the foothills of Western Ghats. He followed the trade of his forefathers. One day he missed a lamb when counting his flock. At once he started off in search of his lamb. He wandered about till mid-day. In the afternoon, he felt exhausted and thirsty. He looked down into a well for water holding one of his lambs on his neck. When he looked down into the well he saw his own reflection and the lamb in dim light deep inside the well. He grew angry and shouted, “Oh, robber; I have got you at last. Bring up my lamb, otherwise I will throw huge rocks into the well”. When he stooped down to pick up stones, his lamb on his neck fell into the well. Later he regretted his foolish action.

 

Shepherd and Robbers!

The third story is about a money lender and a shepherd. There was a money lender in a village who was in the habit of taking money to different villages. On a certain day, he took lot of cash and hired the service of a shepherd to take him through the forest. Shepherds knew those routes very well. Half way through, it became dark and so they had to lie down under a tree. Moneylender was afraid of the robbers and told his shepherd companion to lie down in a place without making any noise. He went to a nearby tree and slept under it. About mid night a gang of robbers passed that way. One of them said: “Look here! take care here is a log of wood lying down on our way; don’t knock against it”.

“You, idiots; Talk sensibly. Am I a log of wood? Will a piece of log in your town have hundred rupees in a piece of cloth around its waist?” – said the shepherd who was lying down. “Oh, here is fellow, catch him!” said the robbers. The shepherd lost his 100 rupees. One of the robbers had some doubt about the currency note. I wonder whether this note is false or true”.

 

The ignorant shepherd grew angry and shouted at the robbers, “What do you mean? If you have any doubt about the currency note, ask my Chettiar friend who deals with money every day. He is lying there.”

 

“Ho, ho, there is another person with money, hiding in the bush. Catch him”, sad the robbers. The money lending Chettiyar was caught and beaten unmercifully. He lost all his money.

 

He returned to his village the following morning, having learnt a bitter lesson by taking an ignorant shepherd as his companion.

 

–Subham–

Father in Sanskrit and Tamil Literature (Post No 3690)

Picture of Tiruvalluvar

 

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 4 March 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 15-20

 

Post No. 3690

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

In the Atharva Veda (3-30):-

“The union of hearts and minds

and freedom from hate I will bring you

Love one another as the cow

loves the calf that she has borne.

 

Let son be loyal to father

and of one mind with his mother;

let wife speak to husband words

that are honey-sweet and gentle.

 

Let not a brother hate a brother,

nor a sister hate a sister

unanimous, united in aims

speak you words with friendliness

 

I will make the prayer for that

concord among men at home

by which Devas do not separate,

nor ever hate one another”.

–Atharva Veda 3-30

 

Hindus consider Mother, Father and Teacher as Gods:

Mata, Pita, Guru (Teacher), Deivam

Linguists know that the English words Mother, Father, Teacher and Deity came from these Sanskrit words.

There is another interpretation for the above Sanskrit quote. Respect is given to in the following order; mother, father, teacher and god.

 

All the saints have praised god as Mother and Father. So they knew that no one else can excel their love and affection. I have given below some similes and verses about father in Sanskrit and Tamil literature.

 

Tamil Veda Tirukkural says:

What a father is expected to do his son is to make him fit to hold the foremost pace among the learned (Kural 67)

The duty of the son to the father is to make others exclaim “ what penance has he done to be blessed with such a worthy son.”

 

Tiruvalluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural knew about the penance domne by the parents of Adi Shankara and Markandeya.

 

Picture of Agastya

In the Rig Veda

Several passages in the Rig Veda show father as a standard of affection. The Vedic seers implore the fire god to be of easy access as a father is to his son

sa nah pite’va suunave agne suupaayano bhava RV 1-1-9

 

Vyusitaasva protects all the castes as a father protects his own sons:apaalayat sarvavarnaan pitaa putraan ivau rasaan –Mahabharata 1-112-13;1-110-11; 3-3-5

 

Yudhisthira going into exile into the forest is described as abandoning his subjects like a father abandoning his sons:

pite’vaputraan apahaaya caa smaan. Mbh 3-24-9

 

Sometimes, paternal affection takes the shape of advice, e.g. like a father instructing his sons, Matali instructs the Pandavas and goes away:

pite’va putraan anusisya cai’naan.Mbh 3-161-25

 

Arjuna implores Lord Krishna to pardon his faults as a father pardons those of a son, a friend those of a friend, a lover those of his beloved:

pite’va putrasya sakhe’va sakhyh priyah priyaayaa rhasi deva sodhum.Mbh 6-33-44

 

as a father lifts his fallen son, so does the minister lift the fallen king Samvarana who is unable to bear his beloved Tapati’s sudden disappearance:

tam samutthaapayaam aasa .. pite’va patitam sutam.Mbh 1-162-5

 

Bhisma embraces Karna by one arm as a father embraces his son:

pite’va putram gaangeyah parisvajyai ‘kabaahunaa.6-117-7

 

Damayanti, lamenting, accuses the Himalaya of not consoling her with its voice as a father consoles his distressed daughter:

giraa naasvaasayasy adya svaam sutaam iva duhkhitaam. 3-61-52

from very childhood, Parasara, the grandson treats vasistha as his father:

janmaprabhri tasmims ca pitarii’va

vyavartata. Mbh 1-169-4; 3-24-7

Picture of Tamil Poet Tiruvalluvar

 

In Kalidasa:-

In the Raghu Vamsa by reason of his protecting and maintaining the subjects, he was virtually their father. Their real fathers were merely the source of their birth.

Raghuvamsa 1-24

Vasistha blesses Dilipa, “May you stand like your father, at the head of those who are blessed with worthy sons”. RV 1-91

 

Again, the great sage Kautsa blesses Raghu, “May you obtain a son wothy of your excellence as your father obtained yourpraiseworthy self”

Raghuvamsa 5-34

 

Just as King Pundarika was the father with an excellent son Devanika, who was ready to please his father, similarly, the son had an excellent father by reason of loving his son. The image suggests the perennial affection between the father and son. Raghuvamsa 18-11; 17-2

 

Also read my previous article:

 

Ruler is Father and Mother: Hindu Concept in Tamil … – Tamil and Vedas

https://tamilandvedas.com/…/ruler-is-father-and-mother-hindu-con…

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11 Feb 2017 – Hindus considered the Rulers as their father and mother. Generally, Guru and God are praised as father and mother by the Hindus in their …

 

–Subham–

 

31 Beautiful Quotations from the Panchatantra! (Post No.3675)

March 2017 GOOD THOUGHTS Calendar

 

Compiled by London swaminathan

 

Date: 27 FEBRUARY 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-33

 

Post No. 3675

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

March 11 Masi Makam; 13 Holi; 14 Karadaiyan Nonbu;  29 Telugu New Year (Yugadhi); March 8 -International Women’s Day

27– New Moon Day

12 –Full Moon Day

Auspicious Days— 9, 15, 23, 26.

March 1 Wednesday

Wealth: “Let the wealth you earn circulate (invest)

and you keep it still

Water in a full tank, lacking an outlet

spills over and go to water (Chapter 1-2)

 

March 2 Thursday

Wealth: “Wealth lures wealth as tame elephants the wild;

wealth cannot be earned by wishful thinking

there can be no trade without wealth (1-3)

 

March 3 Friday

Wealth: “The man who lets the wealth that Fortune showers on him

sit idle, finds no happiness in the world,

nor I the next. What is he then?

A confounded fool performing a watchman’s role- 1-4

 

March 4 Saturday

Earned by valour alone:

“No rite of consecration

no sacred ablution

do beasts of the forests perform

to crown the lion as king? (1-6)

 

March 5 Sunday

Poking Nose: “He who pokes his nose where it does not belong,

surely meets his end;

for that’s what happened to the monkey who meddled

with the wedge, my friend” (1-8)

March 6 Monday

Kin and kith: If a man does not hold dear the well-being

of parents, kin, dependants, and himself,

what good is his living in the world of men?

A crow too lives long eating ritual offerings (1-11)

 

March 7 Tuesday

Scurvy: Easily filled is a tiny stream

easily filled the cupped paws of a mouse

easily pleased a scurvy fellow;

he gives thanks for crumbs (1-14)

 

March 8 Wednesday

Effort and Conduct: By no man’s smile is any many raised high;

frown is any man cast down;

By no man’s up or down, a man rises or falls in life,

by the true worth of his actions and conduct 1-18

 

March 9 Thursday

Virtue and Vice: With greatest effort are stones carried uphill;

and with the greatest ease do they tumble down;

so too with our own self, through Virtue and Vice 1-19

 

March 10 Friday

Understanding: “What is left unsaid, the learned, wise, infer

The intellect sees clearly revealed

another’s true intent and purpose,

gains knowledge from expression of face and eyes

from tone of voice, gait

from gesture and deportment 1-20

March 11 Saturday

Courtier: “A courtier in the palace should act with extreme caution;

a pupil in his teacher’s house, with respect and discretion;

Those unmannerly who do not know their place

will soon meet with extinction like oil lamps

lighted at dusk in dwellings of the poor -1-25

 

March 12 Sunday

Women: Kings and women and slender climbing wines

cling to whatever they find close to them

such is the way of the world 1-27

 

March 13 Monday

Wise: “The wise do not care to serve the King

Who cannot recognise each ones individual merit

Such service is wholly barren of all fruit

Like the tillage of a salt meadow 1-31

 

March 14 Tuesday

He who stands in the forefront in battle

But walks behind King in the city

Waits in the palace at the Royal chamber door

He is beloved of princes 1-35

March 15 Wednesday

He who looks upon dice as Deaths messenger

And drink as Deadly Poison

Who sees other men’s wives simply as forms

He is beloved of princes 1-44

 

March 16 Thursday

If the master gets angry, his man bends low

Sings his praise, extols at his largesse

Hates his foes, dotes on those who he favours,

That is the sure way to win someone over

Without recourse to magical arts 1-53

 

March 17 Friday

Even a worthless bit of straw comes in handy

For the great ones to pick their teeth or scratch their ears

What today then of the service a person

Endowed with speech and limbs can render, O King 1-58

 

March 18 Saturday

A fine gem fit to grace a gold jewel,

If mounted in a cheap tin setting

Does not scream, nor refuses to gleam

It is the jeweller who is put to shame 1-63

 

March 19 Sunday

In a place where no difference is perceived

Between a priceless gem with eye of fire

And a fragment of pale crystal

How can a gem trade flourish there? 1-66

 

March 20 Monday

Shaping: A horse, a weapon, a text, a lute

A voice, a man and a woman

They perform Ill, or well

According to who master’s them 1-68

 

March 21 Tuesday

Birth: Silk is spun by the humble worm

gold is born of rock

the lotus from the mud

ruby from the serpent’s hood

A person of merit shines

by the light of his own rising merits

of what consequence is his birth? 1-69

 

March 22 Wednesday

Confiding: A man might confide some things to his wife

some to his close friends, and some to his son;

these deserve his trust; but not reveal

all matters to everyone in sight 1-73

 

March 23 Thursday

Relief:  true and tested friend, a faithful wife,

a loyal servant, a powerful master,

disclosing his troubles to these

a man discovers great relief 1-74

 

March 24 Friday

Son: Joyous in prosperity,

not cast down in adversity

steadfast in battle

rarely does a mother bear such a son

the ornament of the three worlds  1-79

 

March 25 Saturday

Sycophants: A blade of grass bends low, powerless,

tosses about, light, lacking inner strength

A man who lacks a sense of honour and pride,

is like a pitiful blade of grass -1-80

 

March 26 Sunday

King: As a man in perfect health

disdains all doctors and drugs

so, a king free of troubles

thinks little of his ministers 1-89

 

March 27 Monday

Lie: Even the smallest lie spoken before a king

has the gravest consequences;

the ruin of the speaker’s parent and teacher

and that of the gods as well 1-90

 

March 28 Tuesday

King is God: Blended of essences of all gods,

a king is formed; so sages sing

Look upon him, therefore, as a god

never speak an untruth to a king 1-91

 

March 29 Wednesday

Humility: A hurricane does not uproot the pliant grass

that bends low before its fury;

it snaps only proud, lordly trees;

A man might let his valour speak

only to others of equal might 1-93

 

March 30 Thursday

Ministers: A kingdom is held firm by ministers

who are tested and true, straight, resourceful,

accomplished and endowed with inner strength,

as a temple is well-supported by pillars

straight, strong, well polished and firmly grounded 1-95

 

March 31 Friday

Sweetness: Sweet as nectar is the fire’s warmth in winter;

Sweet as nectar is the sight one’s beloved;

Sweet as nectar is royal favour;

Sweet as nectar is food cooked in milk 1-97

 

Book used : The Pancatantra, translated by Chandra Rajan (Panchatantra was written by Vishnu Sarma before fifth century CE in Sanskrit)

 

–Subham–

Perfume Simile in Hindu Literature (Post No.3639)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 15 FEBRUARY 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 19-19

 

Post No. 3639

 

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Many of you would have read the famous quote of Shakespeare in Macbeth:

 

“Here is the smell of blood still. All perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand.”

 

But the art of perfume making spread to various parts of the world from India. I have already written about the art of perfume making from Brhat Samhita of Varaha Mihira and Kamasutra of Vatsyayana. It is considered one of the 64 arts prescribed to all the women of ancient India. So there is no wonder we have some quotations and similes in our epics. here is one form Mahabharata:

As the perfume of flowers (in contact with them) scents clothing, water, sesame seed, or the ground, so qualities are born from contact (with the good or evil)

vastram aapas tilaan bhuumim gandho vaasayate yathaa

puspaanaam adhivaasena tathaa samsargajaa gunaah (Mbh 3-1-22)

 

In the olden days we mixed perfume with water, oil and used them.

In Tamil we have a proverb (Puuvoodu serntha naarum manam perum). Even the string that is used to make garlands gets the fragrance of the flowers. We use this to say that anyone who hasthe company of scholars will shine like the scholars.

 

There is another proverb saying that even the weaving tools in Kamban’s house will sing Ramayana!

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says that if anyone has done good or bad that lingering smell will still be there. So one must be careful not to join the same group:-

 

“The cup in which garlic juice is kept retains the odour, though washed several times. Egotism is such an obstinate aspect of  ignorance that it never disappears completely, however hard you may try to get rid of it.”

 

Once a Marwari gentle man, approached Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and said, “How is it, Sir, that I do not see God although I have renounced everything?”

The Master: “Well, haven’t you seen leather jars for keeping oil? If one of them is emptied of its contents, still it retains something of the oil as well as its smell. In the same way there is still some worldliness left in you, and its odour persists.”

 

–Subham–

 

 

Nectar and Poison in Tamil and Sanskrit Books (Post No.3636)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 14 FEBRUARY 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 20-55

 

Post No. 3636

 

 

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

In Sangam Tamil Literature, which is 2000-year-old, Sanskrit word Amrita (nectar) is used in at least 40 places with three different Tamil spellings (amiztham, amirtham, amutham). Tirukkural, which belongs to the post Sangam period has at least three couplets with the word Amrita. Mahabharata which is several thousand years old has got interesting slokas on nectar and poison (Amrita and Visha)

 

Here are few similes on Amrita and Visha from Mahabharata:

 

yat tad agre visam iva

parinaame amrtopamam

tat sukha saatvikam proktam

aatma buddhi prasaadajam 6-40-37

 

That which is initially like poison (but) like nectar in maturity, that is called the saatvika happiness, born of serenity of soul and mind.

 

visayendriya samyogaad

yat tad agre amrtopamam

parinaame visham iva

tat sukham rajas am amrtam 6-40-38

 

That which is initially like nectar owing to contact of the objects of sense and the sense and the sense organs, but like poison in maturity, that is known as Rajasam happiness.

 

Vyasacompared Amritam with sweetness and extreme contentment, sweet fruits (3-155-44), water (3-152-22), an interesting story (1-90-5) and a consoling word (1-147-24).

 

Poison is compared with anger.

The sage’s son of hot temperament is likened to poison (visakalpa rseh sutah 1-36-23)

 

Yudhisthira is very much pained to remember the insult to Draupadi in the assembly; this painful insult is likened to the essence of poison.

duuve visaye va rasam viditvaa (3-35-17)

 

That great army of Dhrtaraastra), while destroyed in three battle field, displayed violent paroxysms like a man after having drunk poison) 6-79-23)

saa vadhyamanaa samara dhaartaraastri mahaacamuuh

vegan bhhuvidhaams cakre visam piitve va maanavah

 

Amrita in Tamil Veda Tirukkural:-

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural, used the word nectar in three couplets:-

“The food into which the children’s little hands have been dipped will be far sweeter to the parent than nectar” (64)

 

“ A discourse addressed to unsympathetic hostile ears is like poring sweet nectar into a filthy gutter” (720)

 

“Her arms are made up of nectar, for their touch revives my life whenever it occurs” (1106)

 

–Subham–