WHAT IS VAIKUNDA EKADASI? WHY DO HINDUS FAST ON THAT DAY? WHY IS IT CALLED MOKSHA EKADASI? (7425)

Written by London Swaminathan

Uploaded in London on  – 6 JANUARY 2020

Post No.7425

contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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Agathi leaves
Hindu Board Game- Snakes and Ladders

INFLUENCE OF VISHNU SAHASRANAMA ON WORLD HISTORY (Post No.7372)

Research article by London swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 22 December 2019

Time in London – 17-59

Post No. 7372

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Here is an alternate reading of the Vishnu Sahasranama, the oldest of the Sahasranamas. One thousand names of any god is a ‘’Sahasranama. Though every Hindu god and goddess has a Sahasranama Vishnu’s one is the most famous of all Sahasranamas. It is the oldest and part of Mahabharata. Great grandsire Bhisma said it in front of Lord Krishna. Saints like Adi Shankara, Parasara Bhatta and Madhwa have commented on it. Hundreds of articles are written by prominent religious leaders on the religious merits of it.

Though I also recite it everyday like any devout Hindu, being an amateur historian, I can’t stop thinking of its influence on world history. Roman and Mitannian King names are in it. I have interpreted the words or its sounds on the bais of history.  Let me tell you what I found in it:-

Five Generations

In the introductory First Part, we see five generations in one sloka- vyasam vasistha naptharam………………… Vyasa, his son Suka, Vyasa’s father Parasara, grand father Sakthi, great grand father Vasistha.

As all Hindus know Vyasa lived just before the beginning of Kaliyuga in 3102 BCE, we are talking about 3200 BCE here.

Sloka 16……yatha sarvani bhutani……….. talks about Big Bang and Big Crunch of cosmology.

Dhyana sloka sees the God as the universe with Sun and Moon as eyes, earth as His feet and Sky as His head. This is a repeat of Purushasuktam of Rig Veda and Viswarupa Darsan of Bhagavad Gita.

Concept of Time

Hindu concept of Time is very different from the Westrn concept of Time. In the main part of Sahasranama, the very first sloka describes god as master of time past, present and future. He is beyond the sway of  Time.

All Gods in Sahasranama

Though it is called Vishnu Sahasranama, all gods’ names are in it – Siva, Sambhu, Aditya, Prajapati, Indra, Sumuka ( Ganesa), Ganesvarah, Vasu, Varuna, Rudra, Indra

Sikkandi ,Nahusha – epic and puranic names

Skanda ,Purandhara , Parameswara,Guha

Lord Kartikeya, Indra, Lord Shiva, Sastha,  figure in the hymn.

Rama , Pranava, Krishna

Names of Rama, Omkara also in the hymn.

Mitannian king

Pratardhana was one of the kings who ruled Turkey- Syria region around 1400 BCE. It is one of the 1000 names of Vishnu.

Manu

World’s first law giver Manu is in the hymn.

Vrsakapi

This is a Vedic deity with lot of funny interpretations such as sexy monkey etc. Since it is in the Sahasranama it is as old as Vedic literature.

Siddhartha

It is the name of the Gautama Buddha ofsixth century BCE

Sipivishta

Another Vedic deity. Names of Vedic deities are found only in this hymn. That proves that Vishnu Sahasranama is the oldest.

Margo (Way)

I am the Way.

Indus valley God

Vishnu is called Maha Srnga- we see God with horn/ srnga in the Indus Valley Seals; though mistakenly identified with Shiva/Pasupati. Later we see Srngi (horned god) Na Eka Srngi (not just one horned) in this hymn.

Kapila (Tamil Poet’s Name)

Kapila is the name of a great rishi. It is in this hymn. Sangam Tamil literature has a Brahmin poet with this name Kapila. He is the most celebrated poet and highest contributor to the 2000 year old Sangam corpus.

Mr Doctor

Hindus are the only people who call god as a doctor and Medicine (Beshajam, Bishak in Rudra of Yajur Veda) here in this hymn God is called Bishak/ doctor).

Gupta dynasty

Gupta is one of the names here in the hymn; probably Gupta dynasty named themselves with this word.

Brahmana

Tamil poets describe God as a Brahmin. This is an echo of Sahasranama

Manatho

Manetho is one of the Egyptian priests who wrote Egyptian history in the third century BCE. Here we have Manatho

Surya Namaskar

Names of Surya found in the Surya Namaskar Mantra are Vishnu’s names found in the hymn.

Cicero

Rome’s greatest orator, lawer, statesman is Cicero. We see Sisirah in the hymn.

Sri Vijaya Dynasty

Sri Vijaya Dynasty of South East Asia took its name

From the Sahasranam. This is in the last part of Sahasranama

Sree

Sri occurs in many words. It simply means, wealth, auspicious , Goddess Lakshmi.

English title SIR and Tamil title Thiru came from Sri.

Vikrama

Many Indian kings including the greatest legendary king Vikramaditya has this name.

Garudadwaja -Flag of Eagle-

Today we see Garuda/ emblem in several countries including USA. Garuda Pillar was erected in Besnagar by Helidorus in 113 BCE. He was the ambassador of Indo-Greek king of Taxila. He called himself Parama Bhagavata/ great devotee f Vishnu.

Thus we see many dynasties and kings in the Sahsranama.

Trees and birds and Stars

Several trees, birds, fish and star names are also found in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

So, an alternate reading of the oldest Sahasranama sheds more light on the history of the world from Turkey/ Syria to Sri Vijayas of South East Asia.

–subham–

–subham–

BRAHMANAS, KSHATRIYAS, VAISYAS MUST STUDY VEDAS- MANU (Post No.7354)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 17 December 2019

Time in London – 13-44

Post No. 7354

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

MANU10,CHAPTER X.

So far we have covered nine chapters with salient features highlighted; I have also added my comments wherever it was appropriate. To day let us look at the 74 slokas in the tenth chapter of Manu Smrti.

First I will give important slokas/ couplets in bullet points.

Sloka 63 – This is the most important sloka in the firsts 70 + slokas. Good qualities are common for all the Four Varnas/castes

Sloka 1 -People who belong to Three castes must learn Vedas. It will be interesting to find out till what time the three castes studied Vedas.

Sloka 8 on wards – Inter caste marriages and specific terms for them in permutation and combinations. We know that inter caste marriages were done during even Mahabharata days. But never heard these many different kinds. This chapter must be a later addition.

Sloka 20 – definition of Vratyas

Sloka 22 – Dravidas

Sloka 32  – Dasyus

Sloka 44 – Yavanas & Dravidas

These terms are used with different connotations. It is not Vedic Dasyu; Like Dravidas we have several people named after Countries/Desa So instead of Geographical connotation we have inter caste people.

Sloka 25 onwards – Sons of Inter Caste couples are dealt with.

We can infer two things from these :-

1.Inter Caste marriages took place

2.Yavanas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Vratyas, Sakar – are all Hindus.

Sloka 47 on wards – their professions

Sloka 56 – death sentence

Sloka 58 – Non Aryan qualities (Here Aryan stands for Cultured, Civilized).

Sloka 64/ 65 – A Sudra becomes a Brahmana in seventh generation

Sloka 69 to 73  Interesting Debate —

Which is important Seed (Husband) or Land (Wife)?

xxxx

Now let us look at the original translation of Slokas?

1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study the Veda; but among them the Brahmana alone shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.

2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence prescribed by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to the law

3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).

4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth caste.

5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers)

6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.

7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.

INTER CASTE  MARRIAGES

8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.

9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.

10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).

11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.

12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).

14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.

15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana.

16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Candala, the lowest of men;

17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).

18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.

19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.

WHO ARE VRATYAS?

20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.

21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.

WHO IS A DRAVIDA?

22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.

23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.

24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.

SONS OF INTER CASTE COUPLES

25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.

26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava,

27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother’s caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones.

28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).

29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).

30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).

31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).

DASYU

32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).

33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.

34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Caivarta.

35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.

36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.

37. From a Candala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.

38. But from a Candala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.

39. A Nishada woman bears to a Candala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).

40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.

41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.

42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.

43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;

YAVANAS, DRAVIDAS

44. (Viz.) the Paudrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.

45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.

46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born.

THEIR OCCUPATIONS

47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;

48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;

49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.

50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.

51. But the dwellings of Candalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth(shall be dogs and donkeys.

52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.

53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.

54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.

DEATH SENTENCE

56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.

58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.

59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.

60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.

61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.

62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)

63. Abstention from injuring creatures, veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating the goods of others, purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes.

64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation.

SUDRA BECOMES A BRAHMANA

65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.

66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the pre eminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,

67. The decision is as follows: ‘He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.’

68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes.

SEED AND LAND DEBATE

69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.

70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:

71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.

72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.

73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ‘Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’

To be continued…………………………….

MORE UNKNOWN POETESSES -MARULA, MORIKA, BHAVAKA DEVI, LALITANGI (Post No.7317)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 8 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 16-24

Post No. 7317

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Ivab7oKFYDQ/Xe0hMt2MZhI/AAAAAAABFOc/Gg1ANvZq1uktyFzzzJW3yQaaziFQ_bd7gCLcBGAsYHQ/s640/dhyana%252C%2Bwoman.jpg

Dhanadeva is a poet quoted by Sharngadhara Paddhati (1363). His verse mentions eloquent achievements of Shiilaa, Vijjaa, Maarulaa, Morikaa and others as poetesses of distinction.


We have already seen the works of Shila and Vijja.


Vijja alias Vidyavati lived before Rajasekhara’s time. One of her poems is in the Abhidhaa vrtti Maatrikaa of 855 CE . This work is written by Mukula who lived during the period of King Avantivarman of Kashmir (855-883 CE).

Vijja’s most often quoted verse is

Nilotpala dala shyamam Vijjakam mamajanata
Vrithaiva Dandinapyuktam Sarma shukla

Mearning
“Without knowing me ,Vijjaka , dark like the petal of a blue lotus, vainly has the poet Dandin said that the goddess of learning is all white.”

Some people change the word ‘maam’ in the verse to ‘taam’ and attribute it to a different person.


Of Marula and Morika little is known; but some of their stanzas are quoted in Jalhana’s SUkti Muktavali, 1258 CE


The Kavindra vachana Samuchchaya quotes some stanzas of poetess Bhaavadevi. Another book also gives her stanzas.


Another ancient poetess is Phalguhastini. Some of her stanzas appear in later anthologies. Since Vamana’s Kavylankara Sutra vrtti is quoting her one Stanza ,she must have lived before 800 CE. Vamana was the Minister King Jayapida of Kashmir 779-813 CE.


Chandala vidya!
Sadukti karnamrita quotes a verse under the joint authorship of Chandala vidyaa, Kalidasa and Vikramaditya. So she must be from Gupta Period.

Another poetess is Jaghanachapalaa. Her stanza is found in Kavindra Vachana Samuchchaya.

We see two stanzas jointly composed by Bilhana and Rajakanya.
Raja Kanya means Princess. Her real name was Shashikala or Chandrakala.
Verses of a poetess named Sarasvati hav ebeen quoted in several anthologies beginning with Sadukti Karnamrita. But she lived before eleventh century.


Rajasekhara Charita mentions the following poetesses:-
KaAmaliIla
Kanakavalli
Sunandaa
Lalitaangi
Madhu Ranga
Vimalaanghi


Of these the last three are from Malwa (Madhya Pradesh).
We don’t know much about others.
We have lost their original works and only quoted stanzas are available now.
No where in the world and in no other language we find such a galaxy of poetesses.
Sanskrit stands far higher than other ancient languages when it comes to Poets and Poetesses.

We are going to see more poetesses.

–subham–

GREAT WOMAN SCHOLAR AVANTI SUNDARI (Post No.7306)

WRITTEN BY London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 6 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 12-29

Post No. 7306

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

One thousand years ago there lived a great scholar by name Avantisundari whom even her husband quoted in his books many times. Like Sarasavani who was moderating the debate between her husband Mandana Mishra and Adi Shankara and Gargi Vachaknaavi of Vedic lore who challenged Yajnavalkya in the All India Philosophical Congress even before Greeks started writing books, we had  great women scholars in India.

Rajasekara was the court poet of Mahendrapaala, a king in Gurjara Pratihara vamsa. Avantisundari ws the wife of Rajasekhara. He lived around 880 CE and his wife Avanti Sundari was Chauhan from Maharashtra. Perhaps he is the only ancient poet who has given credit to his wife. He says in his Kaavya Mimmasaa, “Women also can be poets like men. Genius is inherent in persons irrespective of sex differences. It is heard and seen that princesses, daughters of ministers, courtesans and concubines are possessed of extensive knowledge of the ‘shaastraas’ (scriptures) and poetic genius.”

Rajashekara knew about the great Vedic poetesses, Sangam Tamil poetesses and Sataasi (Gatha Sapta Sati= GSS) Prakrit poetesses. Hinduism has the highest number of poetesses. Ancient India is the country with the highest number of poetesses and scholars. Even before Homer began his Iliad and Odyssey, Ms. Gargi was challenging a great seer for an open debate in a conference held in Bihar 3000 years ago.

Though we have the names of hundreds of scholars most of their works are lost. Some poems are in the Rig Veda, Sangam Tamil literature and GSS. Specimens are quoted in other books as well. Very rarely we have got a full book like Mathura Vijayam of Ganga Devi.

Gatha Sapta Sati (GSS), Prakrit anthology was compiled by Satavahana king Halan approximately 2000 years ago. We find the following poetesses in the anthology:-

Anulkshmii

Asuladdhii

Maadhavii

Prahataa

Revaa

Rohaa

Shashiprabhaa

Baddhavahii

But we don’t know from which of their works Halan compiled their poems or where they were living. Satavahana Dynasty covered areas of Andhra and Maharashtra. Their capital was Pratisthaana (Modern Paithaan on the banks of Godavari, near Aurangabad in Maharashtra).

Served three kings

Avanti Sundari’s husband Rajasekhara was the court poet for three kings- Gurjara Prathihara king Mahendrapaala I (885- 908 CE) and his son Mahipaala I (914-945 CE) and the Kaalachuri king Yuvaraaja.

Avanti sundari is credited with Paaiyalachchii, a Prakrit dictionary. Author Sundaraa is identified with Avanti Sundari. She compiled it for her brother Dhanapaala.

Rajasekhara has quoted Avanti sundari’s views thrice in his work on poetics Kaavya Miimaamsaa (Kavya Mimamsa). He also wrote a famous Prakrit Drama Karpuura Manjarii to entertain her.

Hemachandra (1088- 1172), a later poet also quoted three of her stanzas in his book Deshi Naama maalaa to illustrate the meaning of certain Prakrit expressions. These facts show beyond doubt that Avantisundari was recognized as a rhetorician and poetess of outstanding merit. Unfortunately, none of her works has so far been discovered.

QUEEN SHILA BHATTARIKA

Some verses attributed to Rajasekara in Jalhana’s Suukti Muktaavalii( (1258 CE) speak of the following poetesses:-

Shiilaa Bhattaarikaa

Vikata nitaambhaa

Vijayaanka of Karnataka

Prabhu  devii of Laata desa(Gujarat) and

Subhadraa.

Of these the Karnataaka poetess Vijayaanka is described as Sarasvati incarnate and as a peer of Vaidharbi style of Kaalidaasa. She is sometimes identified with Vijja, Vijjakaa, Bhijjakaa (Vidhyaa= Vidhyaavatii). Her poems are found in most of the Sanskrit anthologies. She is further identified with Vijaya Bhattaarikaa -Queen of Chalukya Prince Chandraaditya, who flourished around the middle of seventh century.

Shiilaa bhattaarikaa is placed by Rajasehara side by side with Baana as having the merit of writing in a type of the Paanchaali (Paanchaala= Punjab) style of composition. Bhataarikaa is attached to queen’s names.  She may be the queen of Bhoja who ruled from Kanauj around 836 CE. Many of her verses are found in anthologies.

Story of Vikatanimbaa

Several of Vikatanimbhaa’s poems are also found in Sanskrit anthologies. Aanandhavardhana’s ‘Dhwanyaaloka’ has a stanza done by her. According to a tradition Vikatanimbaa became a widow and married for the second time. Her husband was a fool who couldn’t even pronounce words properly.

Nothing is known about Prabhudevii; but  a stanza of Subhadraa is quoted in Vallabhadeva’s ‘Subhaasitaavalii’.

Rajasekhara’s Karpura Manjari mentions Tribhuvana Sarasvati as the elder sister of Mahiitala Sarasvati. She may be the poetess of that name, two of whose stanzas are quoted in the Sadukti Karna amrita complied by Sidhra daasa in 1206 CE.

A stanza of a poetess named Siitaa, which is found in anthologies, is quoted by Rajasekhara in his ‘Kavya Mimamsa’. The poetesses Sita and Tribhuvana Sarasvati therefore flourished before the middle of the tenth century.

xxx

School syllabus for girls should include all the ancient poetesses and the girls must be given assignments to collect and compare them with the poetesses of other languages.

At least they must know their names and what they wrote one thousand or 2000 years ago.

Long Live Hindu Poetesses!

xxx

Source book- GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA – editors Swami Madhvananda and Ramesh Chandra Majumdhar, Advaita Ashram, Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas, Year 1953.

–subham–

BHARTRUHARI NOTES FINITO- LAST PART (Post No.7300)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 4 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 19-24

Post No. 7300

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

VERSE 95

Description of woman’s beauty- one more verse- similar to Tamil verses- eye = bow

Glances drawn to her ear,

Shot from the bow of her brow,

And winged by long black lashes.

xxx

VAIRAGYA SATAKAM

VERESE 104

Don’t send your thoughts into the forest of women. There is a thief by name Kaman (cupid) hiding.

“Let not your wandering mind

Roam in the forest of woman’s form

There in the mountains of her bosom

Lurks the robber Kama/cupid”

xxx

SNAKE BITE IS BETTER

VERSE 129

“There is a cure for snake bites, but not for women’s eyes/glances

I prefer being bitten by a terrible serpent

Long, wanton, tortuous, gleaming like a black lotus

To being smitten by her eye

Healers are everywhere to cure one of a serpent’s bite

But there is no spell or remedy for

I was struck by the glance of a beautiful woman”

xxx

VERSE 131

Gems are women; women are gems

“With the monstrous beauty of her face

Her sapphire black tresses

Her hands the ruby of red lotuses

She glowed with the magic of gems”

VERSE 132

Science in Bhartuhari

Hindus correctly named planet Jupiter as Guru. It means heavy. That is the largest planet. Not only that, the sling shot effect of Jupiter is used by scientists to boost the rockets further without using fuel.  Spiritual guru also sends his disciples further up with his sling shot power. The disciples don’t need any fuel/ power. Of all the visible planets, Saturn is the slowest planet

B also compared the heavy bosom to Jupiter and her slow gait to Saturn.

“With her bosom bearing Jupiter’s weight

Her face radiant like moon

Her languid legs saturnine gait

She glowed with planets magic”

Guruna sthana bharena ……………………..

VERSE 143

Ambrosia from woman’s body

VERSE 151

The cyclic recurrence of sunset and dawn serves to measure life’s decay.

It is in Ramayana as well

VERSE 157

“If the pleasures leave him at random

Man suffers unparalleled anguish;

But if he renounces them at will

He reaps the eternal fruits of calm.”

VERSE 160

Moth attracted by lamp, fish attracted by bait in the fishing rod are used by B. These similes are found in all Indian literatures. Also water drop on lotus leaf.

Tiruvalluvar says,

“Do not take to gambling even if you can win. What can the fish gain by swallowing the baited hook?”- Tirukkural 931

VERSE 161

“Earth is my bed, sky is the roof, mountain stream water is my drink/food, wood  bark is my clothing”.

VERSE 173

“Hope is a river

Hope is a river whose water is desire

Conjectures are birds, destroying the tree of delusion

Makes it difficult to fold. Let ascetics who cross

To the opposite shore, exult in their purified minds”

VERSE 190

“Earth is my bed, hands are pillows,

Sky is the roof, breeze is the fan,

Moon is the lamp, indifference is my wife

Renunciation is pleasure, Yogi smeared with Vibhuti/holy ash is the king”.

VERSE 191

B criticizes barter trade with god. In Tamil Purananuru verse we have similar thoughts. Chieftain Ay is praised for not being a barter trade salesman. He does charity not aiming a place in heaven, but to cure the poverty of the poets.

VERSE 194

Don’t postpone

“While his body’s vigour is whole

While his sensuous powers are unimpaired

And life not yet exhausted;

Only then would a wiseman

Strive to perfect his soul

Why attempt to dig a well

When the house is already burning?”

In Tamil there is a saying what is the use of crying Sankara, Sankara when you are dying?

It means there is no use if you cry for help at your last breath.

VERSE 200

APPAR AND ADI SANKARA

How a man’s life is spent or wasted is sung by Adi Sanakara in Bhaja Govindam and Appar in Thevaram. They say one third of one’s life is spent like a playful youth, one third with the family and one third as old age pensioner with hospital appointments. B also echoes the same,

“The span of man’s life is measured hundred years;

A portion each claim callous youth and hoary age;

His prime is spent in servitude, suffering

The anguish of estrangement and disease

Where do men find happiness

In life  less certain and more transient than the waves?”

—finito – subham —

Bhartruhari Notes- Part 4 (Post No.7296)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 3 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 20-48

Post No. 7296

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000



Verse 53
Solar and Lunar eclipse
Rahu revenging on a chosen pair at fixed time. He effects eclipse of the luminous Lords of night and day.

Eclipse and Rahu are in Tamil literature as well.

Verse 54
Ornament for the ear is not Kundala, but Vedas
Ornament for the hand is not Kankan, but doing charity
Ornament for the body is not sandal paste, but good deeds.

Verse 55
Chemistry of a Poet
Victorious are the favoured master Poets
Skilled in the sentiments alchemy
In their body of fame they feel
No threat of old age, death and rebirth


Verse 56
There is a Tamil proverb
Even if milk runs like a river, a dog will only drink it by licking.
B says,
Perceive that a jug draws its measure
Of water from a well or from the sea

Dog and Elephant- Who commands respect?


Verse 57
Look at the world
The dog is obedient, wags its tail and eats and grateful for ever, but people treat it without respect;
The elephant is arrogant, eats carelessly, but people praise it and give respect.

Compare this with Bhagavad Gita (5-18) sloka where Krishna says Pandithah samadarsinah. The scholars look at la earned Brahmin, a dog, an elephant, an outcast with an equal eye.


Verse 58
It is about taxation
Through out India kings adopted same taxation laws,i.e. one sixth of the income is paid to the king. Here B uses cow and calf simile.


In Sangam Tamil literature, in a Purananuru (184) verse, poet says if an elephant is fed grains in the proper way it will come for a long time. But if the elephant is allowed into the field for food grains, everything will be damaged. In the same way a king must tax his people little by little.


B says
King, if you wish to milk your realm like a cow, first nourish the world as you would a calf. When it is nurtured with constant care , a kingdom yields fruits like a wish granting vine , Kalpalatha.


Verse 65
It is about Suryakanta stone, magnifying glass. Several poets including Tirumular  in Tamil use this simile.


Verse 67
It is difficult to correct bad people.
You can’t straighten the tail of a dog, says Tamils.
B says
Trying to correct the bad people is like trying to sweeten the ocean with a drop of honey;
Trying to tie the elephant with lotus stems;
Trying to polish the diamond with a flower.

Verse 68
B says
The silence of fools serves to adorn them.
We see this maxim in all Indian literature

Verse 90


Through out Tamil and Sanskrit literature we see same descriptions of women’s beauty. The similes are unique to Indian literature.


B says
A face to rival the moon,
Eyes that make mockery of lotuses
Complexion eclipting God’s lustre
Thick tresses that shame the black bee
Breast s like elephants swelling losses
Heavy hips,
A voice enchanting and soft
The adornments in maidens is natural.


(If I have to give comparisons, I have to quote from 1000 books.)

Homeopathy Principle



Verse 91
Women is compared to poison and ambrosia by B.
It is the basis of homeopathy.
The germs which gives you the disease is the medicine
The amorous looks of a beauty causes mental disturbance, but the medicine is not outside. She is the cure as well.
Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar also uses this in Tirukkural 1091, 1102

“Her eyes painted black, has two glances; one pains me; the other heals that pain”-1091

“The medicine for a disease is always something different from it : but for the disease caused by this beautiful maid, she herself is the cure”.1102 of Tirukkural

This Homeopathy principle is in the Achamanam or sipping of water done by Hindus whenever they visit different towns. First, they take in small quantity of  water Three times from the temple tank or the village well by repeating God’s names. They won’t get any disease from that particular water. Since they take the germs or poison in  minute quantities it would save them from attacks from those germs. Likeness cures lLkeness is the dictum.

TO BE CONCLUDED TOMORROW WITH THE LAST PART

–subham–

BHARTRUHARI NOTES- Part 3 (Post No.7291)

Written by london swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 2 DECEMBER 2019

 Time in London – 20-41

Post No. 7291

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000


Verse 38


Fate may destroy the swans’ joy but it can never rob it of its skill in separating water from milk.


Hindus believe that the swans have a strange power of separating water from milk and drink only milk . This is in Kalidasa’s works and Tamil literature.


Verse 39


Here B tells another story of a bald- headed man. He went to take rest under the shade of wood apple tree. Alas, there his head was smashed by a large falling fruit,
Verily
Where goes a man deserted by fortune
There do adversaries follow him!

If you are under the influence of good stars, like Issacs Newton you will discover a new law when the apple falls on your head.


In Tamil there are two proverbs,


Patta kaalileye Patum, Ketta kutiye ketum.
The equivalent English proverb is
Troubles come in battalions.

Another Tamil proverb is
Even if you go to Rameswaram, Saneesvaran will follow you.
(Rameswaram is a holy spot, Saneesvaran is the evil planet Saturn)


Verse 40


It is about one’s Karma. You will get the merits of your good karma like the fruit bearing trees. They give the fruits at the right time.

Verse 43


B sings about trident wielding Shiva


Verse 44
Good summary of virtues is here.


Verse 45
Echoes Tirukkural (467)
Begin a task only after estimating/ considering the pros and cons of an action. After beginning the task you should not consider the good and bad sides of it.(467)

Verse 46 and 47


Purva janma punya, the merits you earned in your previous births, will protect you wherever you go.


Vane Rane Satru jalagni madhye.

There is another proverb in Sanskrit- Dharmo rakshati Rakshitah

(whoever upholds the Dharma, will be protected by the Dharma)


Verse 48 is also about the effect of karma in sky and earth

Verse 49


Even Indra suffered in the battle field due to fate.
Even though he had Vajrayudam and Airarvatam he suffered.

(Vajrayudham is his thunderbolt, Airavatam is his powerful elephant)

Verse 52


It is about perseverance—


The gods were not appeased by the fabulous gems
They drew from the Cosmic Ocean;
Nor did they falter where the sea spewed forth
A dreadful poison;
They ceased to churn its milky waters
Only when it yielded up
The nectar of immortal life
The resolute never relinquish their goal.

To be continued……….


BHARTRUHARI NOTES- 1 (Post No.7281)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 30  NOVEMBER 2019

Time in London – 14-59

Post No. 7281

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

FOLLOWING ARE THE NOTES WRITTEN BY ME ON 8TH OCTOBER 1995

I READ Bhartuharis’ Poems Edited by Theodore de Barry, Colombia University Press,1967.

1.I Ching, Chinese traveller, who travelled in India between 671 CE and 695 CE refers to Bhartruhari.

2.B’s Satakatryam (3×100 Niti, Srngara and Vairagya Satakam) contains 21 meters in Sanskrit.

3.Punning is used to strengthen the antithesis between amorous passion and peace.

Pun words  — Passion – Peace

Kesa samyamina sruther (verse 139)

Samyamina- tied up  — self control

Param param gathe – extended to ear—gone to the opposite shore of worldly existence

Sruti – ear – Vedas

Dwijaana – teeth – twice born men

Mukta – pearl – released, liberated

Xxx

Verse 1- Shiva is worshipped as light in the minds of Yogis

Verse 2 – Passion smites even those bereft of life

Verse 3 – Don’t think of suicide, don’t desire wealth of others, Speak the Truth, Do charity , Don’t talk about women’s conduct, Control your desires, Respect elders- this is the gist of scriptures.

Verse 5 – yathaa kincit jnoham……

compare Tirukkural 1110 (the more I come to know now, exposed my ignorance.

When I knew but a little, I was blinded by pride, as an elephant by rut; with my mind so stained, I believed “I am a sage”.

But slowly I learned from the presence of men wise in myriad ways.

My pride was like fever, subdued and I knew, “I am a fool”.

Verse 7 – like a string of pearls napped- this simile is in Gita, Tirukkural, Karnan- Bhanumati game

Verse 8 – you can wake up a sleeping man but not a man who is pretending to sleep is a Tamil proverb.

An ignorant man is readily pleased

More readily is a sage

But a man distorted by trifling knowledge

Brahma himself cannot sway.

Compare He who knows not……………… (proverb)

Verse 9 –

You cannot straighten the tail of a dog is a Tamil proverb

B says you can get gems by opening the mouth of a sea animal (Makara Mani), you may cross the roaring seas, you can wear a snake as a garland, but you cannot change a fool.

Verse 11 – mani sanollita

A warrior hero wounded at arms

And men whose riches are spent in alms.

Verse 15- hartur yati na ko charam

It is about education/ learning; it is in a later time Tamil poem

It eludes the pillage of thieves

Promotes endless joy

Bestowed on those who beg

It was greater yet

And perishes not despite the end of time

Wisdom is a treasure deep within

Kings renounce your arrogance

Towards its masters

Who can rival them?

Also Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar in Tirukkural Chapters 40, 41, 42

Verse 17

Tamil proverb is A tiger never eats grass even if it s very hungry.

And B says

How can a lion , proudest of the creatures,

Stop to feed on withered grass?

Kim jirnam trunam aththimana mahatma agre cara kesari

Verse 18

Walk in the footsteps of great men

Who revealed to the saints this vow

As severe as a sword

Compare Longfellow’s English poem

Kalidasa and Tamil poet Kamban also say that the ancient poets showed them the path .

Verse 19

Tri karana suddhi- this unique to Hindus. They believe that word and deed and thought  must be one and then only one can do wonders.

Manasi, vacasi, kaye (Mano, Vak, Kaya)

This concept is found from Himalayas to  Kanyakumari and no where else in the world.

Verse 20

Greatness of ocean – it supports Vishnu, weight of the deep water and Vadavagni.

It is also in Bhagavad Gita (2-70), Panca Tantra, Kalidasa and Tamil literature

Verse 22

About fate—B gives the gist of three couplets in Tirukkural. Tiruvaluvar, author of Tirukkural sings about the influence of fate in chapter 38.

Most famous Tamil epic is based upon fate.

But yet Hindus believe God can change anything over ruling written fate (Hindus believe that Brahma has already written t on your head; it may mean actual lines n one’s skull or one’s thinking process)

In one of the Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu Shiva is called Mr Effort (Muyarchinathar)

Tiruvalluvar also says in Couples 619, 620 and 1023

B says

We would bow to the gods

But even they submit to destiny’s sway

We would pay destiny homage

But it can only grant reward

In accord with our karma

Nay, if the Karma is the source of all reward

What need have we for destiny or deities?

Our fealty is to karma

Under which even destiny crumbles

To be continued………………………………

AINDRA GRAMMAR, PANINI AND TOLKAPPIAR (Post No.7266)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 26 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-48

Post No. 7266

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Tamils have a special interest in Aindra grammar system. The reason being Tolkappiar, the author of the oldest book in Tamil (Tolkappiam) was well versed in it. Panamparanar who introduces Tolkappiar in his prolegomenon says this. So people wonder whether AINDRA was prevalent before Panini or after Panini or many systems existed at the same time in different parts of India. Tolkappiar says Indra and Varuna are gods of two Tamil regions along with Vishnu, Skanda and Durga representing other three Tamil regions.

Great Tamil poet Kamban says Hanuman was well versed in Aindra grammar. He is also praised as Nava Vyakarana Panditha. (Nava may mean NEW or NINE)

Agrawala says,

“According to Vedic literature Brahma taught grammar to Brihaspati and he taught Indra and Indra taught Bharadwaja. He in turn taught other Rishis (seers). Now we know there was another system Bharadwaja grammar. Bhardwaja was a master of Aindra as well. Panini also mentioned several teachers before him.

Tamils believe that there was one grammar before Tolkappair, codified by Agastya as well. Agastya’s own disciple Tolkappiya did another grammar within a short time.Why? we don’t know. From all these things what we understand is several grammar systems existed simultaneously, because there can’t be more than 50 years difference between Agastya and Tolkappiyar if we believe the story of most famous Tamil commentator Nachinarkiniyar. Tamils also believe that Shiva sent Agastya to codify a grammar to Tamil language. It is in the old Tamil verses. Poet Kalidasa also links Pandya with Agastya in his Raghuvamsa. It is all 2000 year old belief.

Indra is a Vedic God who has the highest number of hymns in the oldest book The Rig Veda. The very construction of the word Aindra (derived from Indra) is also of Sanskrit origin.

But many Tamils do not know much about Panini or other systems of grammar that existed in India. Agrawala in his book ‘India as known to Panini’ gives interesting details:–

KAMBAN, HANUMAN AND AINDRA GRAMMAR

ஐந்திரம் நிறைந்த | Tamil and Vedas

8 May 2018 – அனுமனை நவ வியாகரண பண்டிதன் என்றும் ராமாயணம் வருணிக்கும். நவ என்றால் இரண்டு பொருள் உண்டு. புதிய மற்றும் ஒன்பது …

–SUBHAM–