To Talk or Not to Talk: Bhartruhari Puzzled (Post No.5923)

Written by London swaminathan

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Date:12  JANUARY 2019


GMT Time uploaded in London –14-44
Post No. 5923
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FOUR TIPS FOR SELF IMPROVEMENT- MANU (Post No5856)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 30 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London –9-35 am
Post No. 5856


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Manu’s administrative skill is revealed in chapter seven; the world praised him for his ideas on administration, taxing, spies and ambassadors.

His first four slokas given below are applicable to anyone who wants to succeed in life.

Britain and other western countries follow one sixth taxing– 17.5% until today. This is in all Tamil and Sanskrit books of ancient India. Manu says beautifully about taxing- Tax the people in three ways:-

Like a leech

Like a calf

Like a bee

For highly paid staff, suck like a leech (60% tax)

For middle income groups take tax like calf (20% tax)

For the low income group take (nectar) like a bee! (it helps the plants in pollination and the flowers never lose anything! Actually they are not taxed at all).

Tiru Valluvar, author of Tamil Veda has borrowed all the ideas in this section and repeated them in Tirukkural.

The commentators on this section quote widely from another Sanskrit treatise Nitisara of Kamandaki.

Here are the interesting matter in bullet points

We continue here with the Seventh chapter slokas 99 to 160.

1.Sloka 7-99-102 BEAUTIFUL ADVICE

The advice given to kings is applicable to anyone who wants to succeed in life politically or financially.

2.TIRUKKURAL

All the ideas put forth by Manu here are in Tamil Tiruukral under Royalty (chapters 39-63), State Cabinet (chapters 64 to 73) politics (chapters 74 to 78) and Alliance (Tirukkural chapters 79-95).

Great scholars like V R Ramachandra Dikshitar, Dr Nagaswamy and others have written books on it. Some of the couplets in Tirukkural are verbatim translations of Manu!

About awarding death sentence and using Force, Valluvar follows Manu (Kolaiyir Kodiaaarai Venthoruththal…..).

(About the age of Valluvar and Manu, I have already written; Valluvar came several centuries after Manu)

3.Manu’s slokas 7-110 to 7-120 are about organisation in Administration

4.Animal similes

Tortoise and Heron similes are used by Krishna in Bhagavad Gita, Valluvar in Tirukkural and Bhartruhari, Tirumular etc.

See Manu’s use of Tortoise, Heron, Lion, Wolf, Leech, Calf and Bee in slokas 105, 106,129.

Commentators give lot of information on these similes! Very interesting!

5.Protect Vedic Scholars

Manu says it in sloka 7-135. Tamil Veda author Tiruvalluvar also warns rulers, if the king doesn’t rule properly, “Cows won’t give milk, Brahmins will forget Vedas” (aapayan kundrum, aru thozilor nuul marappar)

6. Hindu scriptures always insist one sixth of one’s income as tax. This is followed by many countries even today

7.Who is a Dasyu?

Manu explains Dasyus as Thieves and Robbers. Kalidasa also followed it in Shakuntala. In addition to sloka 7-143, Manu explains who is a Dasyu in chapter 10 as well. We will see it later. Foreigners deliberately called Dravidians and aborigines as Dasyus. They did it to divide the Hindu society. Every society in the world has goodies and baddies- Devas and Asuras, Angels and Demons. But foreigners deliberately interpreted Dravidians and aborigines as Dasyus. Dasyus are baddies in a society.

8.Warning about women!

Manu’s sloka 7-150 warns about keeping parrots and women in secret political consultations. This is found in all ancient Tamil and Sanskrit books, probably in other cultures as well.

9.Slokas 7-153 ++ talk about Spies and Ambassadors which we see in Ramayana and Mahabharata as well. This shows India was the most advanced civilization in the ancient world.  To achieve such a maturity, India must have existed several thousand years before the Babylonian, Egyptian and Greek civilizations.

10.Sloka 7-125 shows that women were working in those days. Pay structure is also discussed.

xxxx

Now we continue with the Seventh Chapter of Manu Smrti:-

Manu Smrti Chapter 7 contd.

Instructions to a King


FOUR POINT FORMULA


7-99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained;

what he has gained let him carefully preserve;

let him augment what he preserves, and

what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.


100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.


101. What he has not yet gained, let him seek to gain by his army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by various modes of increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow on worthy men.

7-102. Let him be ever ready to strike,

his prowess constantly displayed, and

his secrets constantly concealed, and

let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.



103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.

104. Let him ever act without guile, and on no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ.



TOTOISE  SIMILE


7-105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the tortoise hides its limbs, even so let him secure the members of his government against treachery, let him protect his own weak points.


HERON SIMILE


7-106. Let him plan his undertakings patiently meditating like a heron; like a lion, let him put forth his strength; like a wolf, let him snatch (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat.


107. When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find, by the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest.

108. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients, then let him, overcoming them by force alone, gradually bring them to subjection.

SAMA, DANA, BEDA, DANDA

109. Among the four expedients, conciliation and the rest, the learned always recommend conciliation and the employment of force for the prosperity of kingdoms.


NIP IT IN THE BUD


7-110. As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his kingdom and destroy his opponents.


111. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom.

112. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms.

113. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his kingdom well, easily prospers.

114. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty officer), the midst of two, three, five or hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom.

ORGANISE 10, 20, 100, 1000



7-115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thousand.

116. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty.

117. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand.

118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain.

119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town.

120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss;



TOWN SUPERINTENDENT


7-121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among the stars.

122. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.

123. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).

124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil-minded, may take money from suitors, and banish them.

WOMEN IN EMPLOYMENT ANND WAGE STRUCTURE


7-125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in proportion to their position and to their work.

126. One pana must be given daily as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months and one drona of grain every month.

127. Having well considered the rates of purchase and of sale, the length of the road, the expense for food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty.

128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.



LEECH, CALF,BEE SIMILE



7-129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.


130. A fiftieth part of the increments on cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.

131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarified butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used for flavouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit;

132. Of leaves, pot-herbs, grass, objects made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all articles made of stone.



PROTECT VEDIC PUNDITS


7-133. Though dying with want, a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas/ VEDIC PRIESTS , and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom, must perish from hunger.

134. The kingdom of that king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger, will even, ere long, be afflicted by famine.

135. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct, the king shall provide for him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and shall protect him in every way, as a father protects the lawful son of his body.

136. Whatever meritorious acts such a Brahmana performs under the full protection of the king, thereby the king’s length of life, wealth, and kingdom increase.

137. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic, pay annually some trifle, which is called a tax.


138. Mechanics and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour, he may cause to work for himself one day in each month.

TAX WITH DISCRETION


7-139. Let him not cut up his own root by levying no taxes, nor the root of other men by excessive greed; for by cutting up his own root or theirs, he makes himself or them wretched.

140. Let the king, having carefully considered each affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.

141. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men, let him place on that seat of justice his chief minister, who must be acquainted with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a noble family.

142. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully protect his subjects.



REAL MEANING OF DASYU


7-143. That monarch whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly call for help, and he and his servants are quietly looking on, is a dead and not a living king.

144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just mentioned, is bound to discharge that duty.

145. Having risen in the last watch of the night, having performed the rite of personal purification, having, with a collected mind, offered oblations in the fire, and having worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of audience which must possess the marks considered auspicious for a dwelling.



MEET PEOPLE


7-146. Tarrying there, he shall gratify all subjects who come to see him by a kind reception and afterwards dismiss them; having dismissed his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers.

147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, and retiring there in a lonely place, or in a solitary forest, let him consult with them unobserved.

148. That king whose secret plans other people, though assembled (for the purpose), do not discover, will enjoy the whole earth, though he be poor in treasure.

149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those deficient in limbs.



WOMEN AND SECRET


7-150. Such despicable persons, likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them.

151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with himself alone or with his ministers, on virtue, pleasure, and wealth,

152. On reconciling the attainment of these aims which are opposed to each other, on bestowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons from harm,



SPIES AND AMBASSADORS


7-153. On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings (already begun), on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the doings of his spies.

154. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes of spies, on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle of neighbours he must carefully reflect.

155. On the conduct of the middlemost prince, on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour of the neutral king, and on that of the foe let him sedulously meditate.

72 CONSTITUENT PARTS


7-156. These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of neighbours); besides, eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve.



157. The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five other constituent elements of the circle; for, these are mentioned in connexion with each of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists, briefly speaking, of seventy-two constituent parts.


158. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two.


159. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (employed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and policy (alone).

160. Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, dividing the army, and seeking protection.

–subham–

WATER GIVEN TO COW BECOMES MILK; WATER TO SNAKE -POISON!! (Post No.5854)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 29 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London –18-08
Post No. 5854


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

BHARTRUHARI’S NITI SATAKA VERSES 45, 46

45. Cruelty, causeless quarrels, the desire for another’s

wife or money, envy of the good, or of one’s own relatives.

These are the natural characteristics of wicked men– niti sataka

Greatest of the ancient Tamil poets, Tiru valluvar, author of the Tamil Veda Tirukkural, also say the same:-

Envy

He who is envious needs no enemy to ruin him. Envy itself is enough to bring him ruin- Kural/couplet 165

The mean find fault with others even if they eat and dress themselves normally – 1079

Another’s wife

A man who seduces another’s wife because she is easily accessible will suffer the consequence of everlasting sin – Kural/couplet 145

The man who commits adultery can never escape ENMITY, SIN,FEAR AND INFAMY- 148

Covetousness

If a man is so devoid of equality as to covet another’s wealth, not only will  his family be ruined, but many other ills will also betake him – 171

Cruelty

Killing leads to all other sinful acts- 321

xxx

46. An evil man should be avoided though he be

adorned with learning. Is a snake less feared because it

is ornamented with jewels ? – niti sataka 46

A Tamil poets puts it in a better way,

If you see a horned animal stay away at least by five yards; if an animal like horse that can kick you hard, keep the distance to at least ten yards; if it is a made elephant you have to leave at least 1000 yards; but if it s a bad man, don’t even make yourself visible. That means run as far as possible so that he cant see you! This is in Niti Veba by an anonymous author.

Another verse by poet Munaippadiyar in Tamil Ara Neri Charam, says,

Look, if you give water to cows it gives you back milk; if the same water is given to snake you get only poison. This is the difference between good and bad people; The bad,  even if they read scriptures; they mis quote it; interpret it in the wrong way.

So Bhatruhari is right in comparing bad people to snakes!

अकरुणत्वम् अकारणविग्रहः
परधने परयोषिति च स्पृहा ।
सुजनबन्धुजनेष्वसहिष्णुता
प्रकृतिसिद्धम् इदं हि दुरात्मनाम् ॥ 1.45 ॥

दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो
विद्यया‌உलकृतो‌உपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितः सर्पः
किम् असौ न भयङ्करः ॥ 1.46 ॥

tags- Niti sataka 45, 46,Bhartruhari, snake water, cow , Cobra jewel

–subham-

Fate decides your Wealth, say Shakespeare, Bhartruhari and Valluvar (Post No.5810)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 21 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 18-07
Post No. 5810


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

Fate decides your Wealth, say Shakespeare, Bhartruhari and Valluvar (Post No.5810)

Bhartruhari and Tamil poet Valluvar agree on several points in this sloka of Niti Sataka.

1.A person’s wealth is decided by his fate

2.Fate is written by Brahma, Hindu God of Creation on one’s head or forehead.

3.Saint Vidyaranya’s story shows that Harihara and Bhukka got it even whenthey were in arid land. But Saint Vidyaranya couldn’tget in the present birth (Read the story given below)

4.Valluvar explains it more clearly. One needs effort to get wealth. Inspiration and perspiration give wealth. But that comes only when your Good Karma (Punya done in one’s previous birth) acts. If you have bad Karma (papa), then laziness will engulf you.

44. Whatever fate has written on the forehead of each,

that shall he obtain, whether it be poverty or riches.

His abode may be the desert, but he shall gain no more if

he live even on Mount Meru. Let your mind be constant.

Do not be miserable through envy of the rich. The

pitcher takes up the same quantity of water whether it be

from the well or the ocean.

यद्धात्रा निजभालपट्टलिखितं स्तोकं महद्वा धनं
तत्प्राप्नोति मरुस्थले‌உपि नितरां मेरौ ततो नाधिकम् ।
तद्धीरो भव वित्तवत्सु कृपणां वृत्तिं वृथा सा कृथाः
कूपे पश्य पयोनिधावपि घटो गृह्णाति तुल्यं जलम् ॥ Niti Sataka 1.44 ॥

Look at the following couplets: –

Tirukkural 371, 377, 380

Except as ordained by the Lord, who measures out each man’s meet

Even the millionaire cannot enjoy his hoards -377

Even a millionaire cannot enjoy his wealth except as ordained by Fate. This is exactly what Shakespeare meant when he said in Hamlet,

There is a Divinity that shapes our ends

Rough-hew them how we will– Hamlet

Another couplet

The constructive industry that produces wealth, and the destructive indolence

That brings about adversity in life ,are both the outcome of fate-371

The last couplet of the chapter on fate is as follows,

What is more potent than Fate? It forestalls every expedient one may resort to for averting it- 380

Another translation of the same couplet

Destiny is supreme, because its intended consummation will surely come about

Even if planned efforts are made to overcome it-380

STORY:- Vidyaranya found Golden Treasure!

Kanchi Shankaracharya (1894-1994 Paramacharya) in his Madras Discourses (1957-1959) gives the story of Vidyaranya’s discovery of gold and using it for establishing Vijayanagara Empire. Born as Madhava in a village in Karnataka he prayed to Goddess Mahalakshmi, Goddess of Wealth, for enormous amount of wealth. Lakshmi appeared before him and told him that he can’t enjoy wealth in this birth but it was possible for him to get it in the next birth. An idea flashed in his mind immediately. He told Goddess Lakshmi that he would take Sanyas ( Renunciation) which is considered a ‘second birth’ for a Hindu. Lakshmi agreed and gave him tons of gold. As soon as he saw rocks of gold and hills of gold he wept loudly. He knew that sanyas (renunciation ) means no attachment to anything worldly. “Oh My God, What Have I done? How can I touch gold when I have become a Sanyasi (an ascetic)”, he cried. Goddess Lakshmi disappeared while he was wondering what to do next.

At that time of history in 14th century AD, Muslim forces invaded South India and destroyed most of the temples along its routes. Madhava, who was later known as Vidyaranya, called two goatherds Harihara and Bhukka and asked them to build a city at the chosen place at the appointed auspicious time. Both of them did it and utilised the entire gold to establish a mighty and wealthy Hindu empire—later known as Vijaya Nagara Samrajya.

There is another story about Sri Vidyaranya, who later became Jagadguru of Sringeri Mutt, about making gold shower in the lands of Vijayanagara Empire. When there was a draught, Harihara and Bhukka approached Vidyaranya swami for help. He prayed to goddess Lakshmi again and there was a shower of gold in the capital city.

Water pot simile

Another interesting information in this sloka is Bhartruhari’s simile of water pot in in the ocean; This is followed by Tamil poetess Avvaiyar as well. Avvaiyar lived a few centuries after Bhartruhari. Another Avvaiyar lived before him in Sangam Age.

“Though you dip the measure/pitcher deep in the deep sea water, it will not contain four measures. O Maid ! Though riches and husband are choice, the happiness of the couple hangs on fate or destiny”—Muthurai by Poetess Avvaiyar

Tag- water pitcher, Wealth,Fate, Valluvar, Bhartruhari

–subham–

TAXATION – VIEWS OF BHARTRUHARI, MANU, KALIDAS, VALLUVAR (Post No. 5794)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 17 December 2018
GMT Time uploaded in London – 17-09
Post No. 5794


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

LET US CONTINUE WITH NITI SATAKA OF BHARTRUHARI

SLOKAS 40,41,42, 43

CHANGE IN MEN’S FORTUNE

40. A man who is famishing longs for a handful of

grain ; but when he has revived, he looks on the whole

earth as a mere handful of grass. So objects seem great

or small according to the condition of the men who

possess them : it is the change in men’s fortune which

makes things seem greater or smaller.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa said the following story:–

“Money is an upadhi ( a deceptive influence) of a very strong nature. As soon as a man becomes rich, he is thoroughly changed. A Brahmin who was very meek and humble used to come to Dakshineswar every now and then. After some time he stopped his visits, and we knew nothing of what happened to him. One day we went to Konnagore in a boat. As we were getting down from the boat, we saw him sitting on the banks of the Ganges, where in the fashion of a big folk, he was enjoying the breeze of the river.

 On seeing me, he accosted me in a patronising tone with the words, ‘Hello, Thakur! How do you do now?’

 At once I have noticed the change in his tone and said to Hriday who was with me, ‘I tell you Hriday, this man must have come by some riches. See what a great change has come over him!’ And Hriday burst into laughter.

Panachatantra fables also has a similar story. The rats that were lying idle started jumping and dancing after they found and ate  some grains. They had lot of left over in storage.

In Tamil there is a proverb, If a person of lower status gets some money suddenly, he will hold an umbrella over his head at the dead of night!

Such is the influence of wealth or money!

HOW TO TAX

41. If, king ! if you would enjoy this earth, which is

as fruitful as a cow, nourish it as carefully as you would

a calf. The earth brings forth fruits without end like

the creeper of plenty if it is perpetually and carefully

cultivated.

MANU ON TAXING

7-128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.

7-129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.

7-130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.

Kalidasa on Taxation

प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत्।
सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः॥ १-१८

prajānāmeva bhūtyarthaṁ sa tābhyo balimagrahīt |
sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṁ raviḥ || 1-18

prajaanaameva bhuutyartha.m sa taabhyo balimagrahiit |
sahasraguNamutsraSTumaadatte hi rasa.m raviH  || Raghu vamsa 1-18

prajAnAm eva bhUti artham sa tAbhyo balim agrahIt | sahasra guNam ut SR^iSTum Adatte hi rasam raviH || 1-18

1-18. saH= he, dilIpa; prajAnAm= for people; bhUti artham eva= for wellbeing, for welfare state or works, for the sake of, only; tAbhyaH= from them; balim= SaSTa amsha rUpam karam= tax in one sixth part of produce; agrahIt= taken; hi= indeed, reasonably; raviH= sun; sahasra   guNam= thousands, multiples of; ut SR^iSTum= utsarjana kriyA visheSa= to pour forth [rains, raindrops]; rasam= essence [of waterdrops]; Adatte = takes.

That king dilIpa takes only one sixth part of peoples income as tax, that too for the sake of a welfare state, indeed, like the sun taking earthly water-drops only to indemnify her with multiples of raindrops thereof. [Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsam 1-18]

Valluvan on Taxing

A sceptered king , demanding illegitimate gifts or extorting taxes beyond approved limit

Is like an armed robber relieving wayfarers  of their belongings- kural 552

KING IS LIKE A COURTESAN

42. The behaviour of kings is as uncertain as the way

of a courtesan. Now it is false, now true now with

harsh, now with agreeable words now cruel, now mer-

ciful at one time liberal, at another covetous either

always squandering money or heaping it together.

Poet of Sangam age Markandeyan (Purananuru verse 365) also compares the  with kingdom to a courtesan. Earth is always considered a woman and since the kings come and go earth is lamenting like a courtesan.

KING’S SIX VIRTUES

43. Authority, fame, the guarding of Brahmans, liberality, feasting, protection of friends : what profit is there to those who serve kings if they have not gained these

six blessings ?

परिक्षीणः कश्चित्स्पृहयति यवानां प्रसृतये
स पश्चात्सम्पूर्णः कलयति धरित्रीं तृणसमाम् ।
अतश्चानैकान्त्याद्गुरुलघुतया‌உर्थेषु धनिनाम्
अवस्था वस्तूनि प्रथयति च सङ्कोचयति च ॥ 1.40 ॥

राजन्दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुम् एतां
तेनाद्य वत्सम् इव लोकम् अमुं पुषाण
तस्मिंश्च सम्यगनिशं परिपोष्यमाणे
नानाफलैः फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः ॥ 1.41 ॥

सत्यानृता च परुषा प्रियवादिनी च
हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या ।
नित्यव्यया प्रचुरनित्यधनागमा च
वाराङ्गनेव नृपनीतिरनेकरूपा ॥ 1.42 ॥

आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां
दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणं च
येषाम् एते षड्गुणा न प्रवृत्ताः
को‌உर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण ॥ 1.43 ॥

–subham–

31 Quotations from Niti sataka of Bhartruhari (Post No.5713)

Compiled by London Swaminathan


swami_48@yahoo.com


Date: 29 November 2018


GMT Time uploaded in London 13-56

Post No. 5713
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

DECEMBER 2018 ‘GOOD THOUGHTS’ CALENDAR

This month’s calendar consists 31 quotations from Bhartruhari’s Niti Sataka

FESTIVAL DAYS-  Dec.11- Poet Bharatiyar’s Birth Day, 16-Dhanur/ Markazi month begins, 18-Vaikunda Ekadasi and Gita Jayanthi, 23-Arudra Darsan, 25-Christmas

NEWMOON DAY- 6 ; FULL MOON DAY- 22 ; EKADASI FASTING DAYS-3, 18 ;

AUSPICIOUS DAYS- DECEMBER 12, 13, 14

 

DECEMBER 1 SATURDAY

Great persons offer donations with their hands;
Offer obeisance to gurus with their heads;
Speak the truth with their tongues;
Listen to the wisdom by their ears and
Observe purity in their hearts.

DECEMBER 2 SUNDAY

Great Turtle upholds the earth; pole star makes the planets to go round it. The birth of those who spend their lifetime in the service of others is worthwhile.

DECEMBER 3 MONDAY

Vast and mighty ocean is endless and bright and able to bear all the burden; on one side Vishnu sleeps and on the other side demons rest. On one side mountains lying and on other side submarine fire (Great people are like that).

DECEMBER 4 TUESDAY
The sincere and noble friend prevents his friend from committing wrong deeds. He inspires his friend to get involved in good things.

DECEMBER 5 WEDNESDAY

The sun makes the lotus blossom, moon makes the lily blossom, monsoon clouds make rains without any request;
Noble persons serve others even when not asked for .

DECEMBER 6 THURSDAY

The noble ones renounce all desires. They practise forgiveness and are free from pride. 

DECEMBER 7 FRIDAY

Very few saints are full of nectar of good deeds in their mind, speech and body. They win over the love of all the three worlds.



DECEMBER 8 SATURDAY
Indra with all his thunder bolt as weapon, Airavata as vahana, gods as soldiers , Brihaspati as Guru and blessing of Lord Vishnu– was defeated by his enemies. Fate alone should be our refuge and not our own efforts.

DECEMBER 9 SUNDAY

The noble person may fall on the ground like a ball but, would rise again. However, an inferior person falls on the ground like a lump of clay.

DECEMBER 10 MONDAY

The moon is full of nectar and is controller of all Medicines and is on the lock of Lord Shiva. Yet the moon cannot avoid it’s waning .
Fate alone is responsible for whatever happens in this world

DECEMBER 11 TUESDAY

The trees stoop when they bear fruits. The clouds descend low when they have enough water to give The noble persons observe even greater humility when they become prosperous.

DECEMBER 12 WEDNESDAY

One may be in the forest or ocean or among enemies or under difficult circumstances; but one is protected by the good deeds of the past 

DECEMBER 13 THURSDAY

One shall get only what is destined by according to one’s actions. Who can change what is destined for the future?

DECEMBER 14 FRIDAY
Neither handsomeness nor nobility, nor learning brings good fruits. Only the penance under gone in the past brings good fruits.



DECEMBER 15 SATURDAY
Any action carried out in haste would result in one’s own heart like a thorn.

DECEMBER 16 SUNDAY

When the fruits of noble deeds get exhausted, all the prosperity gets scattered like the pearls of a necklace which gets broken during love making.

DECEMBER 17 MONDAY
Do only the noble actions which turn a sinner into a saint, an illiterate into the learned, enemy into a friend and poison into nectar.

DECEMBER 18 TUESDAY
Indeed the ways of Karma are mysterious. It changed Brahma into a potter, Vishnu had to take ten avatars, Shiva had to roam with a skull in his hand

DECEMBER 19 WEDNESDAY
Give up all your attempts to destroy the patience of the noble ones by heaping misfortunes upon them, because such attempts would be futile.

DECEMBER 20 THURSDAY
A determined person never gives up his quality of patience even when harassed or troubled.

DECEMBER 21 FRIDAY

Real ornament for wealth is modesty, humility for knowledge, charity for money and absence of anger for penance.

DECEMBER 22 SATURDAY

For those whose bodies are filled with pure character, fire becomes cool water, ocean becomes a small stream, Mount Meru becomes a small stone and lion becomes a tamed deer..


DECEMBER 23 SUNDAY

Patient and determined persons win over the three worlds

DECEMBER 24 MONDAY

Gods never stopped till they collected nectar from the ocean. They were not freighted by poison. Thus the steady minded persons do not end their efforts until they attain their goals.

DECEMBER 25 TUESDAY
The true ornament of ear is listening to Vedas and not ear rings. The real ornament of hands is the giving of alms in charity and not bangles or bracelets.

DECEMBER 26 WEDNESDAY

He is the real son who pleases his father by good deeds. She is the real wife who always thinks about the good of her husband.

DECEMBER 27 THURSDAY
A drop of water that falls in an oyster shell becomes a pearl. A drop of water that falls on a piece of red hot iron instantly gets burnt up. Thus the quality of the contact with good saints or the wicked determines the result of such a company.

DECEMBER 28 FRIDAY

The saintly persons observe the pledge to do ,charity silently, to welcome guests who come to their homes, to observe silence after doing good things.

DECEMBER 29 SATURDAY

I bow down to those great persons who seek the company of saints, who admire the virtues of others and who are devoted to Shiva.

DECEMBER 30 SUNDAY
Shadow in the morning is long, but becomes shorter as the day advance s;In the afternoon the shadow is short, but grows longer as the sun sets. The friendship with the wicked and the noble ones decreases and increases accordingly.

DECEMBER 31  MONDAY

My mind feels the seven thorns: dull moon during day, charming woman who lost her youthfulness, lake without lotus flowers, face of an illiterate, greedy employer, noble man facing trouble and wicked person enjoying palace life.



HAPPY NEW YEAR TO YOU.

AND MORE

Bhartruhari quotations from Nitisataka

The heart of a great man is soft and delicate like a lotus flower when he is in prosperity. But his heart becomes hard like a rock when he is in adversity.
xxx
The path of one’s ultimate good is clearly shown in all the scriptures, it is non-violence, truth, not coveting others wealth, respect for gurus and silence when talking about others’ women.
xxx

Great persons always observe patience in adversity and peace full and forgiving in prosperity.
xxx

The deer, the fish and the noble person happily subsist on grass, water and contentment. Yet the hunter, the fisherman and the wicked persons are unnecessarily being hostile towards them.

xxx
How can one be happy living near a wicked person who has thrown moral s and ethics to the winds?

xxx

If a person observes silence he is considered dumb, if he talks too much he is called talkative. The path of service is mysterious and even the yogis are unable to understand it.
xxx
If one has greed, there is no necessity of other wickedness. If one cherishes back biting, there is no need for other sins.

TAGS- Bhartruhari quotations, December 2018 calendar.


–subham–

பர்த்ருஹரி சொல்லும் விஞ்ஞான விஷயங்கள் (Post No.5685)

Himalaya pictures from Radhika Balakrishnan

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 21 November 2018

GMT Time uploaded in London –10-34 am
Post No. 5685

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog

பர்த்ருஹரி இந்த ஸ்லோகங்களில் சொல்லும் அறிவியல் துளிகள்

1.மலைகள் பறந்தன;

2.சூரிய காந்தக் கல் நெருப்பைக் கக்கும்;

3.பூமியைப் பாம்பு தாங்குகிறது-

பர்த்ருஹரி நீதி சதகம் தொடர்ச்சி

ஸ்லோகங்கள் 31,32,33

 

 

‘பெருந்தன்மை கொண்டபெரியோர்கள், கொடையாளிகளின் சக்திக்கும் பெருமைக்கும் அளவே இல்லை. இந்த பூமியை ஆதிசேஷன் என்னும் பாம்பு தாங்குகிறான். அந்த சேஷ நாகத்தை ஆமை தன் முதுகில் தாங்குகிறது. அநத ஆமையை கடல் தனது அடித்தளத்தில் தாங்கி நிற்கிறது’.—1-31

காளிதாஸன் போன்ற உலகப் புகழ்பெற்ற கவிஞர்களும் பூமியைப் பாம்பு தாங்குவதாகக் கருதினர். இதன் விஞ்ஞான விளக்கம் தெரியவில்லை. இதை அப்படியே சொல்லுக்குச் சொல் பொருள் கொள்ளாமல் அதன் தாத்பர்யத்தை அறிய வேண்டும். உலகில் ஒவ்வொரு பழைய கலாசாரத்திலும் இப்படிப்பட்ட நம்பிக்கை இருந்தது. கிரேக்கர்கள அட்லஸ் (Atlas) என்பவன் தனது தோளில் பூமியைச் சுமப்பதாக நம்பினர். இதனால் தேசப்பட புத்தகத்துக்கு அட்லஸ் என்று பெயர் சொல்லுவர்.

வஹதி புவனேஸ்ரேணிம் சேஷஹ பணாபலகஸ்திதாம்

கமடபதினா மத்யே ப்ருஷ்டம் ஸதச தார்யதே

தமபி குருதே க்ரோடாதீனம் பயோதிரநாதராத்

தஹஹ மஹதாம் நிஸ்ஸீமாநஸ்சரித்ர விபூதயஹ – 31

वहति भुवनश्रेणिं शेषः फणाफलकस्थितां

कमठपतिना मध्येपृष्ठं सदा स च धार्यते ।

तम् अपि कुरुते क्रोडाधीनं पयोधिरनादराद्

अहह महतां निःसीमानश्चरित्रविभूतयः ॥ 1.31 ॥

XXX

‘தேவர்களின் தலைவனான இந்திரன் இமயமலை மீது தன் வஜ்ராயுதத்தை வீசித் தாக்கினான். அப்போது இமயத்தின் மகனான மைநாக பர்வதம் தந்தையை விட்டு ஓடிப்போய் கடலில் அடைக்கலம் புகுந்தது. இது சரியான செயலன்று. மகன் என்னும் பெயருக்கு ஏற்ற செயலுமன்று’ – 1-32

மலைகள் ஆதிகாலத்தில் பறந்தததாகவும் ,இந்திரன் அவற்றின் சிறகுகளை வெட்டியதாகவும் புராணங்கள் புகலும்.இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியை உவமையாகப் பயன்படுத்துவர் புலவர் பெருமக்கள்.

இதில் பெரிய அறிவியல் உண்மை இருப்பதாக நான் கருதுகிறேன். டைனோஸரஸ் போன்ற ராட்சத மிருகங்கள் பூமியிலிருந்து அழிய பெரிய விண்கற்களே காரணம் என்று விஞ்ஞானிகள் இப்போது பகர்வர். பூமியின் துவக்க கால சரிதத்தில் இத் தாக்குதல்கள் அதிகம் இருந்தன. இன்றும் ஒவ்வொரு நொடியும் பூமியில் விண்கற்கள் விழுந்தபோதும் அவை காற்றில் பஸ்மம் ஆகி சாம்பல மட்டுமே பூமியில் விழும். இரவு நேரத்தில் வானத்தை உற்று நோக்குவோர் நட்சத்திரங்கள் விழுவது போலக் காண்பது எல்லாம் இந்த விண்கற்களே. ஆயினும் துவக்க காலத்திலிவை அதிகம் இருந்தது.

இதை பாமர மக்களுக்கு விளக்க எழுந்த கதைதான் மலைகள் பறந்ததும் அதை இந்திரன் வெட்டி வீழ்த்தியதும்.

இந்த பர்த்ருஹரி ஸ்லோகத்தில் சொல்லவரும் நீதி ஒருவருக்கு ஆபத்து ,, வருகையில் — குறிப்பாக தந்தைக்கு ஆபத்து வருகையில் — மகன் ஓடிப்போவது — உதவாமல் பயந்து ஒளிவது — முறையன்று– வீரமும் அன்று என்பதாகும்.

நீதியைப் புரிந்து கொண்டு விட்டோம். இதிலுள்ள அறிவியல் விஷயங்களை நுணுகி ஆராய்வோம்:

1.பூமியின் ஆரம்பகட்டத்தில் விண்கற்கள் (Meteorites) , நுண்கிரஹங்களின் (asteroids) தாக்குதல் அதிகம் இருந்ததை இந்துக்கள் அறிவர்.

  1. உலகில் கடலுக்கு அடியிலும் மலைகள் இருப்பது (Submarine mountains) இந்துக்களுக்கு நன்கு தெரியும். (சக்ரவாள மலை பற்றியஎனது கட்டுரையில் முன்னரே விளக்கி இருக்கிறேன்)

3.பிற்காலத்தில் இந்த விண்கல், நுண் கிரஹவீ ழ்ச்சி அறவே நின்றதையும் இந்துக்கள் அறிவர். ஆகையால்தான் இந்திரன் பறக்கும் மலைகளின் சிறகுகளை வெட்டி அவற்றை கடலுக்குள் அனுப்பிய கதைகள் எழுந்தன.

கடலியலும் (Oceanography), பூகர்ப்ப இயலும் (Geology) வளந்த இந்த நாட்களில் நாம் படிப்பதை புராணங்கள் கதை ரூபத்தில் நமக்குக் கற்பித்தன.

அது மட்டுமல்ல; இந்திரன்தான் உலகின் முதல் சிவில் எஞ்சினீயர். அவன் மலைப் பாறைகளை அகற்றி தண்ணீரை விடுவித்த கதை உலகின் பழமையான் நூலான ரிக் வேதத்திலேயே உளது.

இதை அறியாத சிலர் இந்திரன் அரக்கனை வெட்டி வீழ்த்தியதாகவும் அவர்கள் பழங்குடி மக்கள் என்றும் பிதற்றினர். இந்திரன் என்பது தலைவன், மன்னன், முழுமுதற் சக்தி போன்ற பல பொருட்களில் ரிக் வேதத்தில் வருகிறது. ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேலான இடங்களில் இந்திரன் பெயர் வநததை ‘ஒரு ஆள்’ என்று நினைத்து வெள்ளைக்காரர்கள் குழம்பிப் போய் நம்மவர்களையும் குழப்பிவிட்டனர்.

வரம் பக்ஷச்சேதஹ ஸமதம கவன்முக்தகுலிஸ

ப்ரஹாரைருத்ரச் சதூபஹலதஹனோத்ரார குரூபிஹி

துஷாரத்ரேஹ்ஹே ! பிதரி க்லேசவிவசே

ந சாசௌ ஸம்பாதஹ பயஸி பயஸாம் பத்யூருசிதஹ -32

वरं पक्षच्छेदः समदमघवन्मुक्तकुलिशप्रहारैर्
उद्गच्छद्बहुलदहनोद्गारगुरुभिः ।
तुषाराद्रेः सूनोरहह पितरि क्लेशविवशे
न चासौ सम्पातः पयसि पयसां पत्युरुचितः ॥ 1.32 ॥

XXX

சூர்யகாந்தக் கல், சூரிய ஒளியை நெருப்பாக கக்குவதை காளிதாஸன், தமிழில் திருமூலர் போன்ற ஏராளமான புலவர்கள் பயன்படுத்துவதால், லென்ஸ் (Lens), உருப்பெருக்கு ஆடி (Magnifying glass) பற்றி இந்துக்களுக்கு முன்னரே தெரிந்ததை நாம் அறிய முடிகிறது.

இதோ பாட்டின் பொருள்

சூரிய ஒளிபட்டவுடன் உயிரே இல்லாத ஜடப்பொருளான சூர்ய காந்த மணி கூடப் பிரகாஸிக்கிறது; நெருப்பை உமிழ்கிறது. அப்படி இருக்கையில் பெரியோர்களை யாரேனும் அவமதித்தால் அவர்கள் சும்மா இருப்பார்களா? 1-33

ஆக, பல விஞ்ஞான உண்மைகளை உவமையாகப் பயன்படுத்துவதால் இவைகளைப் பாமர மக்களும் அறிந்தது புலனாகிறது. நம்மில் பலர் எப்படி டெலிவிஷன், ரேடியோ, மொபைல் போன் பற்றிய விஞ்ஞான விஷயங்களை அறியாமலேயே அதை பயன்படுத்த மட்டுமே தெரிந்து கொண்டது போல பாமர மக்களுக்கு உவமை மட்டுமே தெரியும். அதன் பின்னுள்ள விஞ்ஞான விஷயங்கள் தெரியாது.

பூமியின் சலனம் பற்றி முழுதும் அறியாவிட்டால் இந்துக்கள் கிரஹணத்தைக் கணக்கிட்டும் இருக்க முடியாது. ஜோதிட சாஸ்திரத்தை உருவாக்கி இருக்கவும் முடியாது. சனிக் கிரஹம் குருக் கிரஹம் போன்றவற்றுக்கு விஞ்ஞானப் பெயர்களை சூட்டி இருக்கவும் முடியாது.

சனிக் கிரஹம் (சனை= மந்தம், மெதுவாக) சூரியனைச் சுற்றிவர 30 ஆண்டுகள் ஆவதை அறிந்து சனைச் சரன் (மந்த கதியில் செல்வோன்) என்று பெயரிட்டனர்.

குரு என்றால் கனமான என்று பெயர்; கிரஹங்களில் பெரியது குரு (வியாழன்)) என்பதாலும், குருவைப் போல ஒருவரை உயர்த்தி, உந்தி விடுவதாலும் (Slingshot Gravity effect) அந்த கிரஹத்துக்கு குரு என்று பெயரிட்டனர், இந்த ‘ஸ்லிங் ஷாட் எப்பெக்ட்’ இப்பொதுதான் விஞ்ஞானிகளுக்குத் தெரியும். இனி வரப் போகும் எதிர்காலக் கண்டு பிடிப்புகளை இந்துக்கள் முன்னரே அறிவித்துவிட்டதை  எனது முந்தைய  கட்டுரைகளில் பட்டியலிட்டு விட்டேன்.

யதசேதனோபி பாதைஹி ஸ்ப்ருஷ்டஹ ப்ரஜ்வலதி ஸவிதுரினகாந்தஹ

தேஜ்ஸ்வீ புருஷஹ பரக்ருதநிக்ருதிம் கதம் ஸஹதே – 33

Tags- நீதி சதகம், பர்த்ருஹரி, சூர்யகாந்த மணி, பறக்கும் மலைகள், பூமி பாம்பு, சேஷ நாகம்

–சுபம்—

IF YOU HAVE PATIENCE, YOU DON’T NEED AN ARMOUR- BHARTRUHARI (Post No.5577)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 22 October 2018

Time uploaded in London – 19-40

(British Summer Time)

Post No. 5577

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

IF YOU HAVE PATIENCE, YOU DON’T NEED AN ARMOUR- BHARTRUHARI (Post No.5577)

Bhartruhari’s Niti Sataka 21,22,23

 

We have already seen 20 slokas from Niti Sataka of the great poet Bhartruhari. Today we will look at three more slokas and compare them with Tamil Veda Tirukkural. In each couplet, he deals with various subjects unlike Tiruvalluvar. So every line can be compared with sayings of other great people. In sloka/couplet 21 he deals with Anger, Friendship, Wicked people, Wisdom, Modesty and liking for Poetry. This is his unique style which is seen later in many Sanskrit Subhashitas (golden sayings).

  1. If a man has patience, what need has he of armour?

If he has anger in his heart, what further enemy need he

fear ? If he has knowledge, what need of fire to consume

evil ? If a friend, what need has he of divine medicines ?

If there are malicious people about him, why should he be

afraid of serpents ? If he has perfect wisdom, what need

of riches ? If he is modest, what need has he of orna-

ment ? If he gives his mind to poetry, what need has he

of power ?

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tamil Veda Tirukkural, says about anger,

IF ONE WISHES TO SAFEGUARD ONESELF, ONE SHOULD CONTROL ANGER.IF NOT, IT IS BOUND TO RUIN ONESELF- TIRUKKURAL  305

THE FIRE OF ANGER WILL DESTROY NOT ONLY THE PERSON UNDER ITS INFLUENCE BUT ALSO HIS KIN WHO MINISTERS TO HIM IN THE PATH OF RIGHTEOUSNESS-306

FRIENDSHIP

GENUINE FRIENDSHIP HASTENS TO REDRESS DISTRESS EVEN LIKE THE HAND WHICH PICKS UP QUICKLY THE GARMENT THAT SLIPS- 788

LIVING WITH SNAKES

TO LIVE WITH MEN WHO HAVE NO SYMPATHY IS TO LIVE CLOSELY WITH A SERPENT IN A HUT-890

Liking for poetry is not seen in Tirukkural but it also deals with the joy that learning brings.

 

  1. Be well disposed towards relatives ; liberal to infe-

riors : always hate the evil ; love the good ; be obedient to

princes ; honour the wise. Be firm towards enemies ; be

respectful to venerable men ; deal shrewdly with women.

The man who frames his life after these precepts prospers

in the world.

DEALING WITH ENEMIES

THE REMNANT OF AN ACTION AND OF AN ENEMY WILL BE FOUND AS RUINOUS AS THE REMNANT OF A FIRE – 674

LET THE THORN BE WEEDED OUT WHEN IT IS TENDER; WHEN GROWN, IT WILL PRICK THE HAND OF WHO NIPS IT- 879

ON MODESTY

FOOD, CLOTHING AND THE LIKE ARE COMMON TO ALL MEN; BUT MODESTY IS THE CHIEF FEATURE OF THE GOOD—1012

LOVE BEGETS AMITY, AND THAT IN TURN BRINGS AN IMMEASURABLE GLORY OF FRIENDSHIP- 74

 

23.The company of wise and saintly persons removes ignorance and stupidity from the intellect. It makes the speech truthful, increases self-respect,drives away sin and crime, makes the mind happy and cheerful and makes one popular in society. Tell me what the company of saints does not offer?

Tiruvalluvar, Tamil poet who lived at least 1500 years ago says in his Tirukkural:
“Weigh the worth and chose for friendship men of ripe wisdom who know the law (Kural 441)

“Cultivate amity and seek help from men who remove present ills and guard you from future ills (Kural 442)

TO PLEASE GREAT MEN AND MAKE THEM ONE’S OWN IS THE RAREST OF THE RARE BLESSINGS- KURAL 443

TO ESTEEM MEN WHO ARE GREATER THAN ONESELF AND FOLLOW IN THEIR FOOTSTEPS IS THE HIGHEST OF ALL POWERS – 444

Greatest philosopher of India, Adi Shankara, says,
“ Satsangatve nissangatvam
Nissangatve nirmohatvam
Nirmohatve nischalatattvam
Nischalatattve jeevanmuktih” –Bhajagovindam (9)

“Through the company of the good, there arises non-attachment; through non-attachment there arises freedom from delusion; through freedom from delusion there arises steadfastness; through steadfastness, there arises liberation in life”- Bhajagovindam

Bhagavan Ramana has rendered this verse into Tamil in his supplement to Ulladu Narpathu (supplement to Forty Verses on Existence)

 

Avvaiyar on the same theme

Tamil poetess Avvaiyar, who lived several centuries ago, says

“Sweet is solitude; sweeter is to meditate upon god. Sweeter still is the company of wise people (saints); and the sweetest is to think about the great people always, whether you are wide awake or sleeping. (i.e.to follow them is the sweetest thing in the world)”

In another verse in ‘Vaakkundaam’, she reemphasizes this point,

“It is good to see good people; good to listen to them, it is better to talk about their virtues and the best is to go along with them”.

क्षान्तिश्चेत्कवचेन किं किम् अरिभिः क्रोधो‌உस्ति चेद्देहिनां
ज्ञातिश्चेदनलेन किं यदि सुहृद्दिव्यौषधं किं फलम् ।
किं सर्पैर्यदि दुर्जनाः किम् उ धनैर्विद्या‌உनवद्या यदि
व्रीडा चेत्किम् उ भूषणैः सुकविता यद्यस्ति राज्येन किम् ॥ 1.21 ॥

दाक्षिण्यं स्वजने दया परिजने शाठ्यं सदा दुर्जने
प्रीतिः साधुजने नयो नृपजने विद्वज्जने चार्जवम् ।
शौर्यं शत्रुजने क्षमा गुरुजने कान्ताजने धृष्टता
ये चैवं पुरुषाः कलासु कुशलास्तेष्वेव लोकस्थितिः ॥ 1.22 ॥

जाड्यं धियो हरति सिञ्चति वाचि सत्यं
मानोन्नतिं दिशति पापम् अपाकरोति ।
चेतः प्रसादयति दिक्षु तनोति कीर्तिं
सत्सङ्गतिः कथय किं न करोति पुंसाम् ॥ 1.23 ॥

–subham–

EVIL ACTS WILL KILL YOU & YOUR FAMILY SLOWLY- MANU WARNS (Post No.5538)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 14 October 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 6-59 am (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5538

 

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

IN THE LAST POST, I MISSED TO QUOTE THE MOST FAMOUS QUOTATION OF MANU, GIVEN BELOW

4-138 A MAN SHOULD TELL THE TRUTH AND SPEAK WITH KINDNESS; HE SHOULD NOT TELL THE TRUTH UNKINDLY NOR UTTER LIES OUT OF KINDNESS. THAT IS THE ETERNAL LAW.

 

If you can’t read all the slokas/couplets given below, please read 12 important points; then you will know what Manu spoke about.

 

LET US CONTINUE WITH FOURTH CHAPTER OF MANU SMRTI

MY COMMENTS- 12 important points!!!

1.Sloka 151 about maintaining environmental purity

2.Slokas 160, 162 What is pleasure? What is pain? What is Good? What is bad? beautifully explained

3.Sloka 161 warns about attacks on good people

4.Slokas 172-174 reminds Tamil proverb God kills slowly (deivam Nindru Kollum); English proverb- The mills of the God grind slowly (H W Longfellow’s poem as well); evil actions kill an entire generation.

5.Sloka 178 is beautiful advice- Walk  in the footsteps of Great Men

6.Sloka 186—Warning to Brahmin priests- Don’t get addicted to Daanaas=donations= dakshinas=  fees= gifts.

Two Stories

7.Slokas 196, 197 is about Rudraksha cat (hypocrites) in Sanskrit literature and Mahabali Puram sculptures and the Panchatantra story of heron and crab ( I have written articles about them. Even Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar warns about such hypocrites)

Manu says indirectly Don’t Eat in Restaurants

8.Slokas 205 to 229 say ‘You are what you eat’, ‘You are where you eat’. He gives a list of banned foods and places.

9.Slokas229, 233

What is the best gift? water and Vedas.

10.Sloka 235- benefit of giving Daana and benefit of receiving Daana/gift

 

11.Sloka 238: Be like ants; gather (Punya) little by little

SPEECH

  1. Sloka 256–Speech is the root of everything; Manu warns ‘Be Careful’;

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar also warns ‘Guard your Tongue’; ‘when fruitful words are there why pluck unripe ones?’

 

Here we go…………………………..

ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURERS

4-151. Far from his dwelling let him remove urine and ordure, far let him remove the water used for washing his feet, and far the remnants of food and the water from his bath.

  1. Early in the morning only let him void faeces, decorate (his body), bathe, clean his teeth, apply collyrium to his eyes, and worship the gods.
  2. But on the Parva-days let him go to visit the images of the gods, and virtuous Brahmanas, and the ruler of the country, for the sake of protection, as well as his Gurus.
  3. Let him reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him), give them his own seat, let him sit near them with joined hands and, when they leave, (accompany them), walking behind them.
  4. Let him, untired, follow the conduct of virtuous men, connected with his occupations, which has been fully declared in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the sacred law.
  5. Through virtuous conduct he obtains long life, through virtuous conduct desirable offspring, through virtuous conduct imperishable wealth; virtuous conduct destroys (the effect of) inauspicious marks.
  6. For a man of bad conduct is blamed among people, constantly suffers misfortunes, is afflicted with diseases, and short-lived.
  7. A man who follows the conduct of the virtuous, has faith and is free from envy, lives a hundred years, though he be entirely destitute of auspicious marks.
  8. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others; but let him eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself.

PAIN AND PLEASURE

4-160. Everything that depends on others gives pain, everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure; know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain.

  1. When the performance of an act gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but let him avoid the opposite.
  2. Let him never offend the teacher who initiated him, nor him who explained the Veda, nor his father and mother, nor (any other) Guru, nor cows, nor Brahmanas, nor any men performing austerities.
  3. Let him avoid atheism, cavilling at the Vedas, contempt of the gods, hatred, want of modesty, pride, anger, and harshness.
  4. Let him, when angry, not raise a stick against another man, nor strike (anybody) except a son or a pupil; those two he may beat in order to correct them.
  5. A twice-born man who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the intention of (doing him) a corporal injury, will wander about for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell.

WARNING ABOUT 21 BIRTHS

4-166. Having intentionally struck him in anger, even with a blade of grass, he will be born during twenty-one existences in the wombs (of such beings where men are born in punishment of their) sins.

  1. A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who does not attack him, will suffer after death exceedingly great pain.
  2. As many particles of dust as the blood takes up from the ground, during so many years the spiller of the blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the next world.
  3. A wise man should therefore never threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade of grass, nor cause his blood to flow.
  4. Neither a man who (lives) unrighteously, nor he who (acquires) wealth (by telling) falsehoods, nor he who always delights in doing injury, ever attain happiness in this world.
  5. Let him, though suffering in consequence of his righteousness, never turn his heart to unrighteousness; for he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous, wicked men.

EVIL ACTS WILL SLOWLY KILL YOUR FAMILY

4-172. Unrighteousness, practised in this world, does not at once produce its fruit, like a cow; but, advancing slowly, it cuts off the roots of him who committed it.

  1. If the punishment falls not on the offender himself, it falls on his sons, if not on the sons, at least on his grandsons; but an iniquity once committed, never fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it.
  2. He prospers for a while through unrighteousness, then he gains great good fortune, next he conquers his enemies, but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root.
  3. Let him always delight in truthfulness, (obedience to) the sacred law, conduct worthy of a cultured person, and purity; let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly under control.
  4. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to the sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to men.
  5. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or with his eyes, nor crooked (in his ways), nor talk idly, nor injure others by deeds or even think of it.

 

WALK IN THE FOOTSTEPS HOLY MEN

4-178. Let him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and his grandfathers followed; while he walks in that, he will not suffer harm.

  1. With an officiating or a domestic priest, with a teacher, with a maternal uncle, a guest and a dependant, with infants, aged and sick men, with learned men, with his paternal relatives, connexions by marriage and maternal relatives,
  2. With his father and his mother, with female relatives, with a brother, with his son and his wife, with his daughter and with his slaves, let him not have quarrels.
  3. If he avoids quarrels with these persons, he will be freed from all sins, and by suppressing (all) such (quarrels) a householder conquers all the following worlds.
  4. The teacher is the lord of the world of Brahman, the father has power over the world of the Lord of created beings (Pragapati), a guest rules over the world of Indra, and the priests over the world of the gods.
  5. The female relatives (have power) over the world of the Apsarases, the maternal relatives over that of the Visve Devas, the connexions by marriage over that of the waters, the mother and the maternal uncle over the earth.
  6. Infants, aged, poor and sick men must be considered as rulers of the middle sphere, the eldest brother as equal to one’s father, one’s wife and one’s son as one’s own body,
  7. One’s slaves as one’s shadow, one’s daughter as the highest object of tenderness; hence if one is offended by (any one of) these, one must bear it without resentment.

 

DON’T GET ADDICTED TO GIFTS/DANA/DONATIONS

4-186. Though by his learning and sanctity he may be entitled to accept presents, let him not attach himself too much to that habit; for through his accepting many presents the divine light in him is soon extinguished.

  1. Without a full knowledge of the rules, prescribed by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents, a wise man should not take anything, even though he may pine with hunger.
  2. But an ignorant (man) who accepts gold, land, a horse, a cow, food, a dress, sesamum-grains, (or) clarified butter, is reduced to ashes like (a piece of) wood.
  3. Gold and food destroy his longevity, land and a cow his body, a horse his eye (sight), a garment his skin, clarified butter his energy, sesamum-grains his offspring.
  4. A Brahmana who neither performs austerities nor studies the Veda, yet delights in accepting gifts, sinks with the (donor into hell), just as (he who attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is submerged) in the water.
  5. Hence an ignorant (man) should be afraid of accepting any presents; for by reason of a very small (gift) even a fool sinks (into hell) as a cow into a morass.
  6. (A man) who knows the law should not offer even water to a Brahmana who acts like a cat, nor to a Brahmana who acts like a heron, nor to one who is unacquainted with the Veda.
  7. For property, though earned in accordance with prescribed rules, which is given to these three (persons), causes in the next world misery both to the giver and to the recipient.
  8. As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone sinks (to the bottom), even so an ignorant donor and an ignorant donee sink low.
  9. (A man) who, ever covetous, displays the flag of virtue, (who is) a hypocrite, a deceiver of the people, intent on doing injury, (and) a detractor (from the merits) of all men, one must know to be one who acts like a cat.

 

TWO STORIES- RUDRAKSHA CAT AND HYPOCRISY OF A HERON

  1. That Brahmana, who with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent on attaining his own ends, dishonest and falsely gentle, is one who acts like a heron.
  2. Those Brahmanas who act like herons, and those who display the characteristics of cats, fall in consequence of that wicked mode of acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra.
  3. When he has committed a sin, let him not perform a penance under the pretence (that the act is intended to gain) spiritual merit, (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras.
  4. Such Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life) by those who expound the Veda, and a vow, performed under a false pretence, goes to the Rakshasas.
  5. He who, without being a student, gains his livelihood by (wearing) the dress of a student, takes upon himself the guilt of (all) students and is born again in the womb of an animal.
  6. Let him never bathe in tanks belonging to other men; if he bathes (in such a one), he is tainted by a portion of the guilt of him who made the tank.
  7. He who uses without permission a carriage, a bed, a seat, a well, a garden or a house belonging to an (other man), takes upon himself one fourth of (the owner’s) guilt.
  8. Let him always bathe in rivers, in ponds, dug by the gods (themselves), in lakes, and in waterholes or springs.
  9. A wise man should constantly discharge the paramount duties (called yama), but not always the minor ones (called niyama); for he who does not discharge the former, while he obeys the latter alone, becomes an outcast.

DON’T EAT THE FOLLOWING

  1. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya, by one who sacrifices for a multitude of men, by a woman, or by a eunuch.
  2. When those persons offer sacrificial viands in the fire, it is unlucky for holy (men) it displeases the gods; let him therefore avoid it.
  3. Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated, angry, or sick (men), nor that in which hair or insects are found, nor what has been touched intentionally with the foot,
  4. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked, nor that which has been touched by a menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog,
  5. Nor food at which a cow has smelt, nor particularly that which has been offered by an invitation to all comers, nor that (given) by a multitude or by harlots, nor that which is declared to be had by a learned (man),
  6. Nor the food (given) by a thief, a musician, a carpenter, a usurer, one who has been initiated (for the performance of a Srauta sacrifice), a miser, one bound with fetters,
  7. By one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta), a hermaphrodite, an unchaste woman, or a hypocrite, nor (any sweet thing) that has turned sour, nor what has been kept a whole night, nor (the food) of a Sudra, nor the leavings (of another man),
  8. Nor (the food given) by a physician, a hunter, a cruel man, one who eats the fragments (of another’s meal), nor the food of an Ugra, nor that prepared for a woman in childbed, nor that (given at a dinner) where (a guest rises) prematurely (and) sips water, nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of impurity have not elapsed,
  9. Nor (food) given without due respect, nor (that which contains) meat eaten for no sacred purpose, nor (that given) by a female who has no male (relatives), nor the food of an enemy, nor that (given) by the lord of a town, nor that (given) by outcasts, nor that on which anybody has sneezed;
  10. Nor the food (given) by an informer, by one who habitually tells falsehoods, or by one who sells (the rewards for) sacrifices, nor the food (given) by an actor, a tailor, or an ungrateful (man),
  11. By a blacksmith, a Nishada, a stage-player, a goldsmith, a basket-maker, or a dealer in weapons,
  12. By trainers of hunting dogs, publicans, a washerman, a dyer, a pitiless (man), and a man in whose house (lives) a paramour (of his wife),
  13. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of their wives), and by those who in all matters are ruled by women, nor food (given by men) whose ten days of impurity on account of a death have not passed, nor that which is unpalatable.
  14. The food of a king impairs his vigour, the food of a Sudra his excellence in sacred learning, the food of a goldsmith his longevity, that of a leather-cutter his fame;

YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT

  1. The food of an artisan destroys his offspring, that of a washerman his (bodily) strength; the food of a multitude and of harlots excludes him from (the higher) worlds.
  2. The food of a physician (is as vile as) pus, that of an unchaste woman (equal to) semen, that of a usurer (as vile as) ordure, and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt.
  3. The food of those other persons who have been successively enumerated as such whose food must not be eaten, the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin, bones, and hair.
  4. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of one of those, (he must) fast for three days; if he has eaten it intentionally, or (has swallowed) semen, ordure, or urine, he must perform a Krikkhra penance.
  5. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas; but, on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept raw (grain), sufficient for one night (and day).
  6. The gods, having considered (the respective merits) of a niggardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer, declared the food of both to be equal (in quality).
  7. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them, ‘Do not make that equal, which is unequal. The food of that liberal (usurer) is purified by faith; (that of the) of the) other (man) is defiled by a want of faith.’
  8. Let him, without tiring, always offer sacrifices and perform works of charity with faith; for offerings and charitable works made with faith and with lawfully-earned money, (procure) endless rewards.
  9. Let him always practise, according to his ability, with a cheerful heart, the duty of liberality, both by sacrifices and by charitable works, if he finds a worthy recipient (for his gifts.)
  10. If he is asked, let him always give something, be it ever so little, without grudging; for a worthy recipient will (perhaps) be found who saves him from all (guilt).

GIFTS AND BENEFITS

  1. A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst), a giver of food imperishable happiness, a giver of sesamum desirable offspring, a giver of a lamp a most excellent eyesight.
  2. A giver of land obtains land, a giver of gold long life, a giver of a house most excellent mansions, a giver of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty (rupa),
  3. A giver of a garment a place in the world of the moon, a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world of the Asvins, a giver of a draught-ox great good fortune, a giver of a cow the world of the sun;
  4. A giver of a carriage or of a bed a wife, a giver of protection supreme dominion, a giver of grain eternal bliss, a giver of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman;
  5. The gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts, water, food, cows, land, clothes, sesamum, gold, and clarified butter.

 

RECEIVING AND GIVING GIFTS- SEAT RESERVED IN HEAVEN

  1. For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift, for that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with due honour its (reward).
  2. Both he who respectfully receives (a gift), and he who respectfully bestows it, go to heaven; in the contrary case (they both fall) into hell.
  3. Let him not be proud of his austerities; let him not utter a falsehood after he has offered a sacrifice; let him not speak ill of Brahmanas, though he be tormented (by them); when he has bestowed (a gift), let him not boast of it.
  4. By falsehood a sacrifice becomes vain, by self-complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost, longevity by speaking evil of Brahmanas, and (the reward of) a gift by boasting.

 

BE LIKE ANTS

  1. Giving no pain to any creature, let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit, for the sake (of acquiring) a companion to the next world, just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill.
  2. For in the next world neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor sons, nor relations stay to be his companions; spiritual merit alone remains (with him).
  3. Single is each being born; single it dies; single it enjoys (the reward of its) virtue; single (it suffers the punishment of its) sin.
  4. Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood, or a clod of earth, the relatives depart with averted faces; but spiritual merit follows the (soul).
  5. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiritual merit, in order (that it may be his) companion (after death); for with merit as his companion he will traverse a gloom difficult to traverse.
  6. (That companion) speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and effaces his sins by austerities, to the next world, radiant and clothed with an ethereal body.
  7. Let him, who desires to raise his race, ever form connexions with the most excellent (men), and shun all low ones.
  8. A Brahmana who always connects himself with the most excellent (ones), and shuns all inferior ones, (himself) becomes most distinguished; by an opposite conduct he becomes a Sudra.
  9. He who is persevering, gentle, (and) patient, shuns the company of men of cruel conduct, and does no injury (to living creatures), gains, if he constantly lives in that manner, by controlling his organs and by liberality, heavenly bliss.
  10. He may accept from any (man), fuel, water, roots, fruit, food offered without asking, and honey, likewise a gift (which consists in) a promise of protection.
  11. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) may be accepted even from a sinful man, provided (the gift) had not been (asked for or) promised beforehand.
  12. During fifteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely-offered gift), nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).
  13. A couch, a house, Kusa grass, perfumes, water, flowers, jewels, sour milk, grain, fish, sweet milk, meat, and vegetables let him not reject, (if they are voluntarily offered.)
  14. He who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is bound to maintain, or wishes to honour the gods and guests, may accept (gifts) from anybody; but he must not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (presents).
  15. But if his Gurus are dead, or if he lives separate from them in (another) house, let him, when he seeks a subsistence, accept (presents) from good men alone.
  16. His labourer in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-herd, his slave, and his barber are, among Sudras, those whose food he may eat, likewise (a poor man) who offers himself (to be his slave).
  17. As his character is, as the work is which he desires to perform, and as the manner is in which he means to serve, even so (a voluntary slave) must offer himself.
  18. He who describes himself to virtuous (men), in a manner contrary to truth, is the most sinful (wretch) in this world; he is a thief who makes away with his own self.

 

SPEECH IS THE ROOT OF EVERYTHING

  1. All things (have their nature) determined by speech; speech is their root, and from speech they proceed; but he who is dishonest with respect to speech, is dishonest in everything.
  2. When he has paid, according to the law, his debts to the great sages, to the manes, and to the gods, let him make over everything to his son and dwell (in his house), not caring for any worldly concerns.
  3. Alone let him constantly meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his soul; for he who meditates in solitude attains supreme bliss.
  4. Thus have been declared the means by which a Brahmana householder must always subsist, and the summary of the ordinances for a Snataka, which cause an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy.
  5. A Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas, conducts himself in this manner and daily destroys his sins, will be exalted in Brahman’s world.

 

END OF FOURTH CHAPTER

 

–subham–

PERSON WITHOUT LEARNING IS A PAINTED CLAY DOLL (Post No.5536)

Written by London Swaminathan
swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 13 October 2018

 

Time uploaded in London – 14-19 (British Summer Time)

 

Post No. 5536

 

 

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

 

Bhartruhari Nitisataka Slokas 16,17,18,19,20

 

हर्तुर्याति न गोचरं किम् अपि शं पुष्णाति यत्सर्वदा‌உप्य्
अर्थिभ्यः प्रतिपाद्यमानम् अनिशं प्राप्नोति वृद्धिं पराम् ।
कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं विद्याख्यम् अन्तर्धनं
येषां तान्प्रति मानम् उज्झत नृपाः कस्तैः सह स्पर्धते ॥ 1.16 ॥

 

 

 

16.Kings! Cast off your pride before those who have the inward treasure wisdom; they are not despoiled by robbers, but their treasure, always increasing, grows greater when it is shared with the needy; not even at the end of the world does it perish. Who indeed may compare with them.

 

Many didactic Tamil poets have also sung about it. They said

Education can’t be washed away in floods, cannot be burnt, it cannot be taken by the rulers. It increases more when you give it to others. Thieves can’t touch it and guarding it is very easy.

 

Another Tamil poet described what is beauty and described education adds beauty to a person.

17.Despise not wise men who have attained to knowledge of the truth. They are not held bound by riches, for they count wealth even as grass. The stalk of a water lily will not bind an elephant infuriated by passion.

 

अधिगतपरमार्थान्पण्डितान्मावमंस्थास्
तृणम् इव लघु लक्ष्मीर्नैव तान्संरुणद्धि ।
अभिनवमदलेखाश्यामगण्डस्थलानां
न भवति बिसतन्तुर्वारणं वारणानाम् ॥ 1.17 ॥

 

`18.The Creator in his anger may hinder the swan from sporting in the lotus bed, his dwelling: but he cannot take away his faculty of separating milk from water.

अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् एव
हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितो विधाता ।
न त्वस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धां
वैदग्धीकीर्तिम् अपहर्तुम् असौ समर्थः ॥ 1.18 ॥

 

19.Bracelets are no ornament to a man nor strings of pearls shining like moon; nor yet bathing, nor perfumes, nor flowers, nor decorated hair. Perfect eloquence alone adorns a man. Adornments may perish but the ornament of eloquence abides for ever.

केयूराणि न भूषयन्ति पुरुषं हारा न चन्द्रोज्ज्वला
न स्नानं न विलेपनं न कुसुमं नालङ्कृता मूर्धजाः ।
वाण्येका समलङ्करोति पुरुषं या संस्कृता धार्यते
क्षीयन्ते खलु भूषणानि सततं वाग्भूषणं भूषणम् ॥ 1.19 ॥

Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar in his Tamil Veda Tirukkural says ,

 

 

Those who cannot express their thought acquired after deep study

Are like a bunch of flowers without fragrance—Kural 650

 

The pomp of a person without deep and subtle learning is like the fine painting on a clay doll– Kural 407

 

20.Wisdom is indeed the highest ornament that a man possesses. It is a valuable to be carefully guarded, for wisdom gains food, glory and blessing. It is the Lord.

विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपम् अधिकं प्रच्छन्नगुप्तं धनं
विद्या भोगकरी यशःसुखकरी विद्या गुरूणां गुरुः ।
विद्या बन्धुजनो विदेशगमने विद्या परा देवता
विद्या राजसु पूज्यते न तु धनं विद्याविहीनः पशुः ॥ 1.20 ॥

 

In relation to them that have studied noble books, others are like beasts in relation to men — 410

 

Men without learning are like worthless barren lands. Kural 407

 

—-Subham——