Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 16  September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 14-49 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5437

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.





Bhartruhari composed 300 slokas and they are in three books- Neeti Sataka, Srngara Sataka and Vairaga Sataka. The Neeti Sataka looks at the ethical issues; let us look at two slokas.


बोद्धारो मत्सरग्रस्ताः
प्रभवः स्मयदूषिताः ।
अबोधोपहताः चान्ये
जीर्णम् अङ्गे सुभाषितम् ॥ 1.2 ॥

The learned are filled with jealousy, the wealthy are full of arrogance, all others are ignorant. Therefore my words of wisdom have become emaciated 1-2


There are a few stories to illustrate these points.

Learned men suffer from jealousy. Tamil poet Valluvar says,


‘The wise will do no wrong actuated by jealousy as they realise that evil bound is to result from such wrong doing- Tirukkural 164


He who is envious needs no enemy to ruin him. Envy itself is enough to bring him ruin’- Tirukkural 165


1.Bandi, an arrogant scholar was in the Court of Janaka who ruled from Mithila. He used to challnege scholars coming to the Royal court and if the scholars lose they will be thrown into river nearby. This was the fate of many and one of them was Kahoda, a Brahmin scholar. Kahoda’s son Ashtavakra learnt about his father’s death at the age of 12. He set out to avnge him. The lad was possessed of great wisdom and great ability.  He got better of the court poet Bandi who worsted his father. He insisted that Bandi should be thrown into river and it was done. This story is found in Vana Parva of Mahabharata.

2.There is a similar story in Tamil Nadu. A poet of 15th century by name Villiputhurar challenged all the scholars and cut the ear of the opponent if he was lost. Many lost their ears. Once Arunagirinatha, a great saint and disciple of Lord Skanda happened to be at the same place. He was challenged by Villiputhurar. Arunagiri accepted the challenge and on his part asked the meaning of certain verses composed by him on Lord Muruga. Villiputturar couldn’t answer his questions and his ear was cut off.


3.The greatest of the Tamil poets of ancient Tamil Nadu, Tiruvalluvar was also asked to prove his book Tirukkural a genuine one and above fault. In ancient India book launch was not an ordinary meeting. Great scholars will assemble and try to tear the new poet like sharks in the sea. He has to answer all critics and prove that his book is fit for approval. When Tiruvalluvar came with his master piece Tirukkural, jealous poets challenged him. There was a magical plank which would allow only genuine poets to sit on it. It allowed only Tiruvalluvar and his book throwing all other wrong doers into water.


These anecdotes show how jealous were scholars in those days. In the same way money also corrupts.


There are two anecdotes from Mahabharata and Ramakrishna Paramahamsa’s life.

4.Drupada was the king of Punjab (Panchala) and he was the schoolmate of Drona, greatest archer and teacher of Pandavas and Kauravas. When Drona went to see him as an old classmate, he was sent back saying that he did not know him at all. When the Pandavas and their cousins finished their training under him ,they asked what Guru Dakshina ( convocation fees for the teacher) would make him happy. Drona told them that they had to bring Drupada and make him fall at his feet. Arjuna took the challenge and defeated Drupada in a battle and brought him as a prisoner of war. Drona got half of his kingdom and released him. This shows that power and money corrupt.


5.Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the great saint of Calcutta always warned about Kamini and Kanchana (Women and Money/gold). He narrated the following anecdote:

“Money is an upadhi ( a deceptive influence) of a very strong nature. As soon as a man becomes rich, he is thoroughly changed. A Brahmin who was very meek and humble used to come to Dakshineswar every now and then. After some time he stopped his visits, and we knew nothing of what happened to him. One day we went to Konnagore in a boat. As we were getting down from the boat, we saw him sitting on the banks of the Ganges, where in the fashion of a big folk, he was enjoying the breeze of the river.


On seeing me, he accosted me in a patronising tone with the words, ‘Hello, Thakur! How do you do now?’


At once I have noticed the change in his tone and said to Hriday who was with me, ‘I tell you Hriday, this man must have come by some riches. See what a great change has come over him!’ And Hriday burst into laughter.


That is the evil power of money.




अज्ञः सुखम् आराध्यः
सुखतरम् आराध्यते विशेषज्ञः ।
ब्रह्मापि तं नरं न रञ्जयति ॥ 1.3 ॥


It is easy to explain an ignorant man. It is even easier to explain to a wise and leanrned person. But, even Brahma cannot explain and please a person who has only a little knowledge and yet considers himself to be the mot learned man 1-3

In Tamil there are some proverbs to say that that a fool cannot be taught. ‘He will argue that the rabbit he caught has only three legs’.

There is another proverb which says ‘a dog’s tail can never be straightened!” And the last one is “An ignorant idiot and a crocodile will never lose the grip of its catch’. That is an idiot will stick to his argument,come what may.


There is an Arabic saying which categorizes people into four types:-


“He who knows not, and knows not that he knows not, is a fool. Shun him.
He who knows not, and knows that he knows not, is simple. Teach him.
He who knows, and knows not he knows, is asleep. Wake him.
He who knows, and knows that he knows is wise. Follow him.”





ஸம்ஸ்க்ருதத்தில் 650 நாடகங்கள்- நேருஜி தகவல் (Post No.5404)

Written by  London Swaminathan



Date: 8 September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 8-25 am (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5404

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.



ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழியின் சிறப்புகள் பற்றி எவ்வளவோ படிக்கிறோம். பாரதத்தின் முதல் பிரதமரான ஜவஹர்லால் நேரு, நாடு சுதந்திரம் அடைவதற்கு முன்னர் எழுதிய டிஸ்கவரி ஆப் இந்தியா (DISCOVERY OF INDIA) என்ற நூலில் வேறு இடத்தில் கிடைக்காத பல செய்திகளை எழுதியுள்ளார்.


ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழியில் பாஷா, காளிதாசன்,சூத்ரகன், ஹர்ஷர் முதல் ஒன்பதாம் நுற்றாண்டு முராரி வரை பலரும் நாடகங்களை எழுதினர். சில்வன் லெவி (SYLVAIN LEVY) என்ற பிரபல இந்தியவியல் அறிஞர் 189 ஆசிரியர்கள் எழுதிய 377 நாடகங்களின் பட்டியலை வெளியிட்டார். அதற்குப் பின்னர் வெளியான ஒரு பட்டியலில் 650 நாடகங்கள் இருப்பதாக நேருஜி தனது புஸ்தகத்தில் எழுதியுள்ளார்.


1924 ஆம் ஆண்டிலேயே சூத்ரகன் என்ற பிரபல ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத நாடகாசிரியர் எழுதிய ‘ம்ருச்ச கடிகம்’ (மண்ணியல் சிறுதேர்) நியூயார்க்கில் நாடக மேடை ஏறியதும் அது பற்றி நேஷன் என்ற பத்திரிக்கையின்  கலை விமர்சகர் ஜோஸப் வுட் க்ரட்ச் நீண்ட விமர்சனம் எழுதியதையும் அப்படியே கொடுத்துள்ளார் நேரு.

“அந்த நாடகம் யார் எழுதியது, எந்த நூற்றாண்டில் எழுதியது என்பதைவிட அதன் இதயத்தைத் தொடும் அம்சங்களும், உண்மையுமே மிகவும் கவர்ர்ந்திழுக்கிறது. இது போன்ற ஒரு தூய நாடகத்தை ஐரோப்பாவில் காண முடியாது” என்றார்.


ஷேக்ஸ்பியர் எழுதிய Mid Summer Night’s dream

‘மிட் சம்மர் நைட் ட்றீம்’ என்ற நாடகம் அந்தக் காலத்திலேயே , அதாவது 1892 ஆம் ஆண்டில்– ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழியாக்கம் செய்யப்பட்ட செய்தியையும் எழுதியுள்ளார்.



1789-ஆம் ஆண்டில் ஸர் வில்லியம் ஜோன்ஸ் (SIR WILLIAM JONES) காளிதாசனின் சாகுந்தலம் நடகத்தை ஆங்கிலத்தில் மொழிபெயர்த்து வெளியிட்டவுடன் மேலை உலகம் முழுதும் பெரும் வியப்பும் மகிழ்ச்சியும் உண்டானதாகவும் உடனே அவரது மொழி பெயர்ப்பின் அடிப்படையில் ஜெர்மன், பிரெஞ்ச், இதாலிய மொழிகளில் சாகுந்தலம் வெளியானதாகவும்நேருஎழுதுகிறார். அது மட்டுமல்ல கெதே (GOETHE) போன்ற பெரும் புலவர்களை இது மிகவும்  ஈர்த்தது என்கிறார்.

நாடகங்களுக்கு அறிமுகம்/ பீடிகை (PROLOGUE) எழுதுவது ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத நாடகங்களில் மட்டுமே உண்டு. காளிதாசன் நாடகங்களைப் பார்த்துத்தான் பாஸ்ட் (FAUST) போன்ற நாடகத்தில் அறிமுகம்/ பீடிகை இடம்பெற்றது என்றும் சொல்கிறார்.


ஆக்ஸ்போர்ட் பல்கலைக்கழக ஸம்ஸ்க்ருதப் பேராசிரியர் வில்ஸன் (WILSON) பவபூதி, காளிதாஸன் நாடகங்களைப் புகழ்ந்து எழுதியதையும் மேற்கோள் காட்டுகிறார். ‘இசை போன்று ஒலிக்கும் மஹத்தான காவியங்கள்’ என்பது வில்ஸனின் பாராட்டுரை.


2800 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் பாணினி விதித்த வரம்புக்குள் இவ்வளவும் நடந்துள்ளது. ஒன்பதாம் நூற்றாண்டுக்குப் பின்னர் நாடகம் முதலிய கலைத்துறைகள் படிப்படியாகக் குறைந்தமைக்கு இஸ்லாமிய மதத்தின் கலை வெறுப்பே காரணம் என்று ஒரு கருத்து உள்ளது. இந்தக் கலைகள் அனைத்தும் இந்தியாவின் தேசீய மதத்தைத் தழுவி இருந்ததால் ஆட்சியாளரின் ஆதரவு கிடைக்காமல் போயிற்று என்பதைக் குறிப்பிட்ட நேரு இதை முழுதும் ஏற்பதற்கில்லை. ஏனெனில் அதற்கு முன்னரே கலைகளின் வீழ்ச்சியைக் காண முடிகிறது என்பார்.


ஸர் வில்லியம் ஜோன்ஸ் சொன்ன கருத்தை அப்படியே கொடுத்துள்ளார்.


“சம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழி, எவ்வளவு பழமையாக இருக்கட்டும்; அதன் அமைப்பு மிகவும் அதிசயமானது. கிரேக்க மொழியை விட சிறப்பானது; லத்தீன் மொழியைவிட வளம் பொருந்தியது; இரண்டு மொழிகளையும் விடசெம்மையானது; ஆயினும் வியப்பான ஒற்றுமையைக் காணமுடிகிறது. வினைச்சொற்களின் வேர், இலக்கண அமைப்பு ஆகியவற்றில் அதிக ஒற்றுமை இருப்பதை தன்னிச்ச்சையாக நடந்தது என்று எண்ண முடியாது. எந்த ஒரு மொழி அறிஞனும் அவை ஒரே மூலத்திலிருந்து பிறந்த மொழிகள் என்றே எண்ணுவான். அந்த மூல மொழி இப்போது இல்லாமல் இருக்கலாம்”.


நேருவும் தனது சொற்களில் சம்ஸ்க்ருத்த மொழியின் வளமை, பழமை, செம்மை ஆகியவற்றைப் பாராட்டுகிறார்.


பாணினி பற்றி (ABOUT PANINI)

உலக மஹா இலக்கண மேதை, உலகின் முதல் இலக்கண புஸ்தகத்தை எழுதிய, பாணினி பற்றி ஜவஹர்லால் நேரு, டிஸ்கவரி ஆப் இந்தியா- வில் கூறுகிறார்:-

“கி.மு. ஆறாவது அல்லது ஏழாவது நூற்றாண்டிலேயே பாணினி என்பவர் ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத இலக்கணத்தை எழுதிவிட்டார். அவருக்கு முந்தி இருந்த இலக்கண வித்தகர்களின் பெயர்களையும் அவர் செப்புகிறார். அவரது காலத்தில் ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழி செம்மொழியாகி  எப்போதும் வளரும் இலக்கியமாக உருப்பெற்றது. அவர் எழுதிய புத்தகம் வெறும் இலக்கண புஸ்தமன்று. அதற்கும் மேலானது . பாணினியின் இலக்கணம் (அஷ்டாத்யாயி) பற்றி சோவியத் (ரஷ்ய) பேராசிரியர் ஸ்டெசர் பாட்ஸ்கி பகர்கிறார்: ‘

‘மனித சிந்தனையின் மஹத்தான சாதனைப் படைப்புகளில் இதுவும் ஒன்று. இதுவும் இதன் மீது பதஞ்சலி எழுதிய மஹாபாஷ்யம் என்னும் பேருரையும் இந்திய விஞ்ஞான சிந்தனையின் அடிப்படையாகத் திகழ்கின்றன.’


பாணினிக்குப் பிறகு பல வியாக்கியானங்களும் பிற்சேர்க்கைகளும் வந்த போதும் இன்றும் அது, ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத இலக்கணத்தின் அளவுகோலாக நிற்கிறது. பாணினி யவன லிபி பற்றிச் சொல்லுவது வியப்பானது – அலெக்ஸாண்டர் படையெடுப்புக்கு மிக நீண்ட காலத்துக்கு முன்னரே இந்தியாவுக்கும் கிரேக்க நாட்டுக்கும் தொடர்பு இருந்ததை இது காட்டுகிறது.


பாணினி பல்வேறு நாட்டியங்கள் பற்றி உரைப்பது 2700 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னரே நாட்டியம், நாடகம் வளர்ந்ததைக் காட்டுகின்றது.



கீத் போன்றோர் கி.மு.300 வாக்கில் பாணினி இருந்ததாகச் சொன்னாலும் அவர் புத்தர் காலத்துக்கும் முந்தியவர் என்பது தெளிவாகத் தெரிகிறது. பாணினி சொல்லும் விஷயங்களில் எங்குமே புத்தமத வாசனை துளிக்கூட இல்லை.



வட மேற்கு இந்தியாவில் தற்போதைய பெஷாவர் (பாகிஸ்தானில் உள்ளது) நகருக்கு அருகில்  புத்தர் பிறபதற்கு முன்னர் (2700 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர்) தட்ச சீலம் நகரில் ஒரு பல்கலைக்கழகம் இருந்தது. விஞ்ஞானம் மருத்துவம் கலைகள்,சம்யம் ஆகியவற்றைப் போதித்தது (இதுதான் உலகின் முதல் பல்கலைக்கழகம்).அதில் கல்வி கற்க தொலைதூரப் பிரதேசங்களில் இருந்து பிராஹ்மணர்களும் பிரபுக்களின் பிள்ளைகளும் பயமின்றி, ஆயுதப் பாதுகாப்பின்றி பயணம் செய்ததை ஜாதக் கதைகளில் காண்கிறோம். அதில் படித்துப் பட்டம் பெறுவதை பெறும் கௌரவமாகக் கருதினர். பாணினியும் இந்த இடத்தில் கல்வி கற்றவரே.முன்காலத்தில் பிராஹ்மண (வேத) பாடங்கள் கற்பிக்கப்பட்டது. பிற்காலத்தில் பௌத்தம் கற்பிக்கும் கேந்திரமாக மாறியது.


(அடைப்புக் குறிக்குள் இருப்பது நான் சேர்த்த விளக்கங்கள்.  நாடு சுதந்திரம் அடைவதற்கு முன்னர், சிறைவாசத்தின்போது நேரு எழுதியது டிஸ்கவரி ஆப் இந்தியா. அனைவரும் படிக்க வேண்டிய நூல்)



650 Plays! Nehru on Sanskrit Wonders!! (Post No.5402)

Compiled by  London Swaminathan



Date: 7 September 2018


Time uploaded in London – 18-25 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5402

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.

We read about wonders of Sanskrit language. Jawaharlal Nehru adds more interesting information which most of us don’t know.

Following is taken from his book Discovery of India before Independence: –

“Europe first learned of the old Indian drama from Sir William Jones translation of Kalidasa’s Shakuntala, published in 1789. Something in the nature of a commotion was created among European intellectuals by the discovery and several editions of the book followed. Translations also appeared in German, French Danish and Italian. Goethe was powerfully impressed and he paid a magnificent tribute to Shakuntala.

The idea of giving a Prologue to Faust said to have originated from Kalidasa’s prologue, which was in accordance with the usual tradition of the Sanskrit drama.
Wilson who used to be Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford university, has said of these two,
‘It is impossible to conceive language so beautifully musical or, so magnificently grand, as that of the verses of Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti.

Islamic Rule is cause for decay ??

The stream of Sanskrit drama continued to flow for centuries but after Murari , early in the ninth century, there is a marked decline in the quality. That decline, and a progressive decay, were visible in other forms of life’s activities. It has been suggested that this decline may be partly due to the lack of royal patronage during the Indo -Afghan and Mogul periods and the Islamic disapproval of the drama as an art form, chiefly because of its intimate association with the national religion. But there is little substance in the argument though political changes at the top had some indirect effect. The decline was obvious long before the political changes.


Yet , in spite of all this, it is astonishing the Sanskrit drama continued to be produced right through the mediaeval period and up to recent times. In 1892 appeared a Sanskrit adaptation of Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream. Manuscripts of old plays are continuously being discovered. A list of these prepared by Professor Sylvain Levi contained 377 plays by 189 authors. A more recent list contains 650 plays.


An English translation of Shudraka’s ‘Mrichakatika’ drama was staged in New York in 1924. Mr Joseph Wood Krutch , the dramatic critic of the ‘Nation’ wrote of it as follows,
‘Here, if anywhere the spectator will able to see a genuine example of that pure art theatre of which theories talk, and here, too, he will be led to meditate upon that real wisdom of the East doctrine but in a tenderness, far deeper and truer than that of the traditional Christianity which has been so thoroughly corrupted by the hard righteousness of Hebraism. A play wholly artificial but yet profoundly moving because it is not realistic but real. Whoever the author may have been, and whether he lived in the fourth century or the eighth century he was a man good and wise with the goodness and wisdom which not come from the lips or the smoothly flowing pen of the moralist but from the heart……..
Nowhere in our European past do we find, this side the classics, a work more completely civilised.


Vitality and Persistence of Sanskrit

Sanskrit is a language amazingly rich, efflorescent, full of luxuriant growth of all kinds, and yet precise and strictly keeping within the framework of grammar which Panini laid down two thousand six hundred years ago. It spread out, added to its richness, became fuller and more ornate, but always it stuck to its original roots.

Sir William Jones observed as long ago as 1784,
‘The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek; more copious than the Latin and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stranger affinity, both in the roots of verbs ,and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all without believing them to have sprung from some common source which perhaps no longer exists’.

Nehru has given a detailed list of Sanskrit books with short descriptions in the Discovery of India.






Homer and Vyasa- Iliad, Odyssey and the Mahabharata (Post No.5357)

Blind Poet Homer of Greece


Date: 24 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 9-03 AM (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5357


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.







Greek poet
Lived 8 th century BCE

Of all the ancient poets of Greece Homer is the most mysterious and most extraordinary. He is known as the author of the two earliest works of European literature, the Iliad and the odyssey. Nothing at all is known for certain about his life, and many scholars have argued that he never even existed.

The Iliad and odyssey describe events during and soon after the Trojan war, a conflict between Ancient Greek s and citizens of a city called Troy around 1250 BCE. The works were probably composed several hundred years after this time. If Homer was a real person , he may have lived during the 8th century BCE. Those who argue that Homer is a myth say that the poems are the work of several generations of poets combined into one long text at a much later date.

Whatever the truth, the name of Homer was revered in Ancient Rome and Greece. The Iliad and the odyssey were regarded in much the same way as Christian Bible was later regarded in medieval Europe. They were the basic education al texts of the time q, and quotations from them were used to settle disputes and resolve moral problems.

Both the Iliad and the Odyssey are epic poems. They tell the stories of heroes and their incredible deeds in a mythical past when gods and goddesses interfere d directly in the lives of mortals. Characters and events from the Iliad and the odyssey were often used by the later Greek writers and are still referred to in the European literature today. James Joyce’s novel Ulysses, written around 3000 years later, is based on the adventures of Odysseus, hero of the odyssey.


Comparison of Homer and Vyasa

Vyasa wrote the longest epic in the world. His master piece Mahabharata has over 200,000 lines. If you compare it with Homer, the first poet of Greek literature, who wrote the Iliad and the odyssey, you will enormous know the size of the Hindu epic. Both of Homer’s epics have only 30 000 lines.

Dr F A Hassler of America says about the Mahabharata ,
“I have studied it more than any other work for a long time past, and I have made at least 1000 notes which I have arranged in alphabetical order for the purpose of study. The Mahabharata has opened to me, as it were, a new world, and I have been surprised beyond measure at the wisdom, truth, knowledge , wisdom and love of the right which I have found displayed in its pages. Not only so, but I have found many of the truths which may own heart has taught me in regard to the Supreme being and His creations set forth in beautiful, clear language”.

Professor Sylvan Levi says
“The Mahabharata  is not only the largest, but also the grandest of all the epics, as it contains throughout a lively teaching of morals under a glorious garment of poetry”

Mahabharata is an inexhaustible mine of proverbial philosophy— Macdonell’s Sanskrit literature.

American ethnologist Jeremiah Curtin says,
“I have never obtained more pleasure from reading any book in my life. The  Mahabharata will open the eyes of the world to the true character and intellectual rank of the people of India. The Mahabharata is a real mine of wealth not entirely known, I suppose, to anyone outside your country, but which will be known in time and valued in all civilized lands for the reason it contains information of the highest import to all men who seek to know in singleness of heart, the history of our race on earth, and the relations of man with the Infinite Power above us, around us and in us.”


Saint Hilarie Batholemy thus speaks of the Mahabharata in the Journal Des Savantes of September 1886 ,
“When a century ago Mr Wilkins published in Calcutta an extract from the grand poem Mahabharata, and made it known through the episode of the Bhagavad Gita, the world was dazzled with its magnificence. Vyasa the reputed author of the Mahabharata, appeared greater than even Homer, and it required a very little indeed to induce people to place India above Greece….. It has not the less been admitted that this prodigious Hindu epic is one of the grandest monuments of its kind of human intelligence and genius”.

Titus Munson Coan says,
“The Hindu epics have a nearer significance for us than anything in the Norse mythology. The Mahabharata, one of the longest of these poems, has wider romantic element in it than King Frithiop’s Saga; its action is cast upon a grander scale, and its heroes belittle all others in mythology. The Hindu poems, early though are, contain ethical and human elements that are unknown to the Norseman. It is in this that their enduring, their growing interest remains for the mind of Europe and America”.

Mon A Barth says ,
“Some portions of the Mahabharata may well compare with the purest and most beautiful productions of human genius. The Ramayana is three times as large as Homer’s Iliad and the Mahabharata four times as large as the Ramayana. Homers Iliad and odyssey have thirty thousand lines, the Mahabharata has two hundred twenty thousand lines, and in addition a supplement of sixteen thousand three hundred seventy four couplets. But it is not in size alone that the sacred epics of Valmiki and Vyasa excel They enchant by the wondrous story they tell us of an ancient people’s life, faith and valour. There is also a lively teaching of morals under a glorious garment of poetry. Matchless vivacity, unsurpassably tender and touching episodes, and a perfect store house of national antiquities, literature and ethics”.


Source book
Is Hindu a Superior Reality, Krishan Lal Jain, 1989


More About Rig Vedic Kings : Nine Interesting Points (Post No.5336)

Research Article Written by London swaminathan

Date: 18 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 21-17  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5336


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources including google, Wikipedia, Facebook friends and newspapers. This is a non- commercial blog.



Kings and Queens of Rig Veda

I am just updating my previous post with the following new information:

So far my research has revealed More Interesting Information

1.We have Sumerian and Iranian names in the Rig Veda.

2.Sindhudvipa (name of a seer) is a very interesting name, meaning king of Indus valley . This links Rig Veda with the Indus Valley Civilization. The follow up is in Mahabharata- Jayadratha of Sindhudesa (3100 BCE)

3.Another interesting name is Pratardhana (1380 BCE) . This name is found in Vishnu Sahasranama and Mitanni Civilization (1380 BCE inscription). Mitanni King is not the Rig Vedic king who is very old. But the interesting fact is that the Rig Vedic name has travelled up to Turkey.

4.Revolutionary Naabhananethista is a very interesting name for several reasons; the name itself is strange; more linked to Sumerian sound; another reason is Hindu scriptures say that he revolted against the family and so his father Manu and brothers did not allot him a share in the property; He is like Akhenaten of Egypt. In Sumerian/ Assyria another king with similar name revolted against the formal religion and introduced new god like Akhenaten. So this revolutionary Nabananedisthta needs further research.

  1. I have already discussed Sumuka which is found only in Manu Smrti and Sumerian literature Nowhere else!
  2. Dumuzi/ Sammata/ Fish God mystery is also discussed already (please look at the bottom for links)

7.There is another interesting detail added by P L Bhargava: King’s younger brother and some Vaisyas become Brahmins by becoming Rishis. We see such a thing in Ilanko of Tamil literature and other Puranas.

8.Iranian King Balbhutha figures in the Eighth Mandala of Rig Veda where Camel Dana and Cow Dana are described. The Rig Veda covers a vast area from Iran to Gangetic Plains. It also covers Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq, Middle Eastern Countries) and China.

9.The word ‘Anasa’ (snub nosed or no nose people) are described in the Rig Veda. They belong to Mongoloid race of China, Tibet, Mongolia etc. Foreigners deliberately invented Aryan- Dravidian division and dubbed ‘Anasa’ as Dravidians and distorted Hindu history. Likewise Dasa/slave is found in Greece as well.


Following is from P L Bhargava Book:–


“Younger brothers of kings became seers ( Rishis)  and they founded Brahmin families.

In Tamil literature we see Ilango, younger brother of mighty Chera king Cheran Senguttuvan, became an ascetic and composed Tamil epic Silppadikaram.

Among early kings, Manu, Saryaata, Puruuruvas, Nahusha, Yayaati and Puuru were hymn makers. Among Aikshvaakus, Maandhaatri, Trasadasyu, Vasumanas, Tryaruna and Sindhudvipa were composers of hymns.

Among Pauravas, Suhotra, Ajamiidha, Pratardana, Mudgala, Kusika, Gaathin, and Sudaas were authors of hymns. Among AanavasSivi and among Yaadavas Viitahavya were makers of hymns.

Among Vaisyas or commoners, there were three well known hymn makers, viz.,Manu Savarni, Naabhaanedishtha, and Vatsapri. They all became Aatreya Brahmins.
Among ladies to whom hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed the most celebrated were Urvasii, Lopaamudraa, Visvavaaraa, Apaalaa and Ghoshaa. Urvasi was wife of king Puruuruvas and Lopaamudraa was wife of Agastya (This shows Rig Veda knew Vidarbha area. Lopamudra was the princess of Vidarbha; Agastya came to South Tamil Nadu) . They are perhaps the heroines rather than the authors of the hymns ascribed to them. The other three, however, appear to have actually composed the hymns attributed to them. Visvavaaraa and Apaalaa were of the Atreya family. Ghoshaa was the daughter of king Kakshiivant and expressly calls herself a ‘kings daughter ‘.

Source India in the Vedic Age PL Bhargava, Jaipur, 1956



160 Kings in Rig Veda!

posted on 23 Nov.2014


Bharata Dynasty in the Rig-Veda:–


Trksi Dynasty

4.Trasadasyu Purukutsa









  1. Vedic Kings | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Vedic Kings written by Tamil and Vedas. … Egyptian King and Rig Vedic King. … //tamilandvedas.com/2014/11/23/160-kings-in-rig-veda/

  1. Rig Vedic King and Sumerian King 2600 BCE! | Tamil and Vedas


Rig Vedic King and Sumerian King … So there is confusion about who did what.Indra in the RigVeda is a god as well as a title … //tamilandvedas.com/2014/11/14 …

Sumukan | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Sumukan written by Tamil and Vedas. about; Fatness Anecdotes (Post No.3526) … (for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR swamiindology.blogspot.com)





RESEARCH ARTICLE Written by London swaminathan Date: 5 August 2018 Time uploaded in London – 15-47 (British Summer Time) Post No. 5291 Pictures shown here are …



Linguists’ bluffing blasted by Tamil Language (Post No.5252)

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 24 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 7-19 am  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5252


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


Following is the question and answer from The Guardian Newspaper of London and my comments are added at the end


How do YOU know the correct way to pronounce a dead language?

“Old languages don’t die. They just fade into new languages (at least most of them do). While the entire sound system of ancient language rarely survives intact, fragments can usually be found scattered around its various daughter languages.


For example, many traits of Latin pronunciation are directly observable in Italian French Spanish and Romanian. The job of linguistic historian is to try to piece these various bits together. The most tried and tested technique is comparative reconstruction, which focuses on the systematic sound correspondences that emerge when we compare the same words in different sister languages. Where this exercise turns up different sounds, it is usually possible to trace them back to a common historical source.

For example, many English words beginning with ‘t’ correspond to words beginning with ‘ ts’ ( Spelt z) , in sister language German; compare English ten, to, time with German Zein, zu, zeitgeist.


On the basis of this and many similar correspondences, we can reconstruct a Common Germanic parent language in which the older sound in this particular instance is the knowledge that each type of sound change takes place in one direction only. On the strength of what happens in many other languages, we know that ‘t’ at the beginning of a word can turn into ‘ts’ but not vice versa. The more  widely we cast our comparative net, the further we can reach back into the mists of time. The ‘t’ of early Germanic itself derives from an even older ‘d’ — contrast English two and tooth with, say, Italian ‘due’ and ‘dente’. Ultimately we arrive at the sound system of an ancient Indo-European tongue, the common ancestor of languages as apparently diverse as English, French, Russian, Irish, Greek and Urdu.”

John Harris, Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University college, London





Compare changes in Tamil

IN TAMIL also we see ‘S’ of Sanskrit change into ‘T’ in Tamil

I will give some examples though there are hundreds of such words

Purushan– Purutan
Visesham– Visetam
Sishya — Seetan
Joshyam — Jothitam
VishaM —  Vitam
Koshtam — Kottam
Pushpam — Putpam

In my earlier research articles, I have  Exploded all the OLD theories about similarities or changes in Indo- European languages. In fact, those changes or similarities are found even in Pacific Ocean and Mayan languages. In short, all the bluffing of ‘D’ of Aryans changing into ‘L’ after contacting Dravidians, are wrong. Once they study the similarities between Tamil and Sanskrit or other languages they will know all those are nothing but SHEER bluffing.



Tamil and Sanskrit: Rewrite Linguistics Theory


Tamil and Sanskrit: Rewrite Linguistics Theory … But this D/L or R/L changes are natural. They are in Tamil … in Tamil itself. In Sanskrit language Sandhi .

Ja and Ya in Indian languages | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Ja and Ya in Indian languages written by Tamil and … with other languages will rewrite linguistic … this change lies in Tamil and Sanskrit …



Origin of Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas


They believed that Siva’s drum Damaruka gave Sanskrit from one side and Tamil from another side. … //tamilandvedas.com/2014/11/13/origin-of-tamil-and-sanskrit/


  1. Vowels = Life, Consonants = Body; Hindu concept of Alphabet …


Research paper No 1958 Written by London swaminathan Date: 27 June 2015 Uploaded in London at 20-15 I have been arguing in my earlier posts that the Western …


Sanskrit Alphabet | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Sanskrit Alphabet written by Tamil and Vedas


  1. Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older? | Tamil and Vedas


Tamil or Sanskrit: Which is Older? … my pet theory is Tamil and Sanskrit originated from a common source on the … comparative reconstruction pays no attention to …

  1. Tamil and Sanskrit | Tamil and Vedas


Posts about Tamil and Sanskrit written by Tamil and Vedas. … (for old articles go to tamilandvedas.com OR … Tamil and Sanskrit, Tamil Grammar. Posted by Tamil …





Compiled by London swaminathan


Date: 9 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 20-49  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5201


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


There is a good article written by S P Caturvedi of Nagpur in the Woolmer Commemoration Volume published in 1940. I am attaching the pages for verbatim report.

Following are the interesting points in the article:

1.Sanskrit was a Spoken language; even Sudras spoke Sanskrit.

2.Age of Panini is closer to Mahabharata; he lived before ninth century BCE.

3.Panini lists 2000 roots; but only 900 were used in Classical Sanskrit.

4.There is a big time gap between Panini and Patanjali.

  1. Panini did not use the word Samskrtam for the language.

6.Panini’s vocabulary was ancient.

  1. The vocabulary of Ashtadyayee was vast and rich; almost all conceivable topics in the world are covered.
  2. There is no force in the argument that Sanskrit was refined or adorned by Panini. Grammarians don’t create languages. They only write grammar for the existing language.

The article is very crisp and interesting: –










RESEARCH ARTICLE by London swaminathan


Date: 5 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London –   2-09 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5183


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




Sangam Tamil Literature is at least 2000 years old; Rig Veda came several thousand years before that. Vyasa divided them into four Vedas 5100 years before our time according to tradition.


Rig Veda has used Yupa in two meanings

Sacrificial post-5-2-7

A pillar or a post-1-51-14

2000-year-old Tamil Literature used the same Sanskrit word in several places in two meanings; sacrificial pot or just a post.

Let me explain the places where it is used in the meaning of a sacrificial post; in addition to the Sanskrit word Yupa, it has beautiful translated it as Velvi Thun in a few other verses. Velvi = Yaga and Thun= post or pillar.


Tamil kings are well versed in Yagas and Yajnas. Under the guidance of able Brahmins, they did Rajasuyam and Asvamedham.


Sangam Literature consists of 18 books. Of them Purananuru is the encyclopedia of Tamil community.

Following are the very important references of YUPA:-

Purananuru  verse 224- line 1

Purananuru  15-21

Velvi Thun (Yaga Post)- Purananuru verse 400

Perumpanatruppadai- Lines 315-318

Akananuru – Velvi Nedunthun -220

Purananuru- 400

In addition to the above verses, we come across a reference to Rajasuyam in Purananuru verse 367. The Rajasuyam was performed by the Choza king Perunarkilli and attended by Ukkra Peruvazuth and Chera king Mari Venko. Avvaiyar, the mst famou Tamil poetess was over the moon to see all the three kings in unity. Tamils were notorious fighters who fought with one another for 1500 years continuously. That was the reason for Avvaiyar’s great jubilation.

From the above Yupa or Velvi Thun references we come to know that the kings who did Yaga and ereced Yupa post were:

1.Greatest of the Choza kings Karikalan

2.Greatest of the Pandya Kings Mudu Kudumi Peruvazuthi

3.Choza Nalamkilli

4.Sellur Kosar Community

5.Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan

6.perhaps Rajasuyam performer PerunaR Killi


Some interesting details about them are:

Kadiyalur uruttiran Kannan (Rudraksha of Kadiyalur) sings about King Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan—

“A king fisher coloured like a  sapphire seeking for prey took the jewel of  in its bill, and instead of going to the leaf of the Palmyra tree filled with birds, sat on the YUPA at which learned finished their sacrifice; it looked like a swan lamp on the mast of the boat of the Yavanas and twinkled like Venus which heralds dawn” (Perum Panatruppatai)


In the Puram verse 15, poet Nettimaiyar is wondering about the powerful Pandya Mudukudumi , whether his enemies are more in number or the Yupa post more in number. The emperor as performed so many yagas.

Kalidasa also confirms it in his Raguvamsa Kaya. When the Panady king was introduced to Indumati, her maid says this king always appear in wet cloth worn during Asvamedha Yajna (actual verse mentioned only Avabruda Snana done during Asvameda). Recent discoveries include the kings name in Tamil on a coin with Ava/horse image.


Before going into the details available in Hindu scriptures about the appearance and significance of Yupa, let me list the famous 19 Yupa posts discovered so far:-

1.Isapur, Mathura in Uttarpraesh, dated 102 CE

2.Kosam, Prayag, U.P. – 125 CE

  1. and 4.Naandsaa, Udaipur, Rajas. – 225 CE

5.Barnaala, Jaipur, Rajs.- 227 CE

6-9.- Badvaa- Kotah, Rajas.- 238 CE

10.Nagar, Jaipur, Rajas.- 264 CE

11.Barnaala, Jaipur- 278 CE

  1. Bijayagarh, Bharatpur, Rajas.- 71 CE

13-19- Kotei, Borneo, Indonesia- Seven Sanskrit Inscriptions on Yupa Stone Pillars- King Mulavarman 400 CE.

( This is not a comprehensive list)

Yupa inscriptions in Sanskrit


In Borneo scattered undated materias are found near Kapuas, Rata and the Mahkam rivers or in isolated pockets, the earliest epigraphic data from the island refer to Kotei at Muarakaman, on the Mahakam river in Borneo dated 400 CE.

The Kutei inscriptions are seven in number, of which four were found in 1879 and the rest in 1940. The inscriptions belong to Mulavarman, son of Asvavarman and grandson of Kundungga.

The inscriptions engraved on stone Yupas or sacrificial posts, refer to the performance of certain rituals and offerings of various kinds.

Mulavarman Sanskrit Inscription in Bangkok Museum.

In the second part let us look at the appearance of Yupa.


–to be continued…………………….





Date: 19 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  21-08  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5129


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Manu Smrti- Third Chapter continued….

My Comments

1.Hospitality is a unique feature of Hindu culture. It is found in Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures with equal emphasize only among the ancient languages. Sita of Ramayana and Kannaki of Tamil epic Silappadikaram worried about their inability to feed and honour the guests. The concept of feeding complete strangers to get religious merits is unknown in other ancient cultures. This shows that Hindus are the sons of the soil and they developed the culture in their own land. This explodes the theory of Vedic Hindus coming from outside.

Another aspect coming to light in the slokas is that the culture and the values were same from Kanyakumari Kashmir. It is equally empahsized in both Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures.

2.Manu Smrti is the oldest law book, older than Hammurabi’s (I have pointed out the reasons for my conclusion already). Here is one more point: The Vedic deities are mentioned in the slokas quoted here. If it is composed in second century BCE we would not have come across Vedic Kuhu and Anumati

  1. The five sacrifices given to five groups include trees, dogs, crows and people of Four Castes. That shows Manu is compassionate towards all living beings. Feeding dogs and crows as part of religious sacrifice is unknown in other cultures. This shows the uniqueness of Hindu culture. Feeding the crows and watering the plants as sacred thing is found in ancient Tamil books; it is one more proof to show that the culture in one from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.
  2. Sacrificing to goblins along with Vedic deities is also strange. But when we consider trees, crows and dogs are included in the list, it is not strange.


5.Manu asked the Hindus to give four things: Mat, Water, Room and KIND WORDS. It shows his high thoughts.

6.His definition of a GUEST is good; those who stay one night only are considered guests; he asks everyone to feed all the four castes; This does not correlate with the 40 or odd slokas/couplets which the Dravidians and Marxists use for their Anti Manu propaganda. They are later interpolations.

  1. Another strange thing is ‘newly married’ get priority in eating; he wants them to enjoy life fully!

8.Manu says the householder can eat only after feeding kinsmen, servants and the guests! This is unknown in any part of the world except the Hindus from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.

  1. Ancient Tamil literature also confirm all the oblations to manes who live in SOUTHERN Direction. So Tamils were ardent Hindus as others in the North. It is in Tirukkural and Purananuru. This explodes the theory of half -baked theories of Vedic Hindus coming from outside India. No other ancient culture has such belief about SOUTH or daily oblations to manes with WATER. Use of water in every ceremony shows that it is a tropical culture.
  2. He who prepares food for himself is a sinner is in Manu and Bhagavad Gita.
  3. Last but not the least, Manu asks to honour people who comes once a year! Good Advice!!


Third Chapter continues……………………..

Sacrifice to Vedic Deities

3-83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at the Sraddha which belongs to the five great sacrifices; but let him not feed on that occasion any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.

3-84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:

3-85. First to Agni, and next to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods Visve Devah, and then to Dhanvantari,

3-86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice well).

  1. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).


To the Trees

3-88. Saying, ‘Adoration to the Maruts,’ he shall scatter some food near the door, and some in water, saying, ‘Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw some on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, ‘Adoration to the trees.’

  1. Near the head of the bed he shall make an offering to Sri fortune, and near the foot of his bed to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.


Goblins- Ghosts

3-90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and in the day-time one for the goblins roaming about by day, and in the evening one for the goblins that walk at night.

  1. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains from these offerings in a southerly direction for the manes.


To the Crows

3-92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Candalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.

  1. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).
  2. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student.


Equal to Cow Donation/ Go Daana

3-95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher.

  1. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even a small portion of food as alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit.
  2. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.
  3. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.
  4. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.
  5. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.

Give Four Things!

  1. Grass, room for resting, water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.


One Night Stay is a Guest

  1. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).
  2. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where there is a wife, and where sacred fires are kept.
  3. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food.
  4. A guest who is sent by the setting sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at supper- time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.

Hospitality to Guests

  1. Let him not eat any dainty food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.
  2. Let him offer to his guests seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour while they stay, to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.
  3. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, the householder must give him food according to his ability, but not repeat the Bali offering.

Non Brahmin Guests

  1. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).
  2. But a Kshatriya who comes to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher.
  3. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.


Feed all the Four Castes

  1. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.
  2. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished with seasoning according to his ability, at the same time with his wife.

Newly Married Get Priority

  1. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.
  2. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.
  3. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.
  4. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.
  5. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. (It is in Bhagavad Gita)


Once a Year!

  1. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year has elapsed since their last visit.
  2. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule.

to be continued………………….

Ganesh and Navagraha in Japan!! (Post No.5125)



Date: 18 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-26  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5125


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



Those who are interested in the ancient history of India and Japan must buy Lokesh Chandra’s book

‘Cultural Interflow Between Indian and Japan’ (published by International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi, 2014) It is in A 4 size with lots of pictures an diagrams. It contains lot of information which is not known to the outside world. Mr Lokesh Chandra and his father Dr Raghuvira are renowned scholars and authority on Indo- Japanese relations of ancient periods.


I am going to give you some interesting information only in bullet points; for full information one must read the book.

Mahbaharata in the Kabuki Theatre

The well known kabuki drama Naru-kami is derived from the legend of Rsyasrnga known in Japanese as Ikkaku Sennin, that is Ekasrnga. The whole legend has been translated from Chinese into French by Edouard Chavanes. Hsuan tsang mentions a hermitage in Gandhara where Ekasrnga lived near the foot hills of Swat mountains

Homa and Homa Kundas in Japan

Goma (homa in Sanskrit) is lit in metallic vessel on a wooden altar. A ninth century scroll in the Toji monastery has different homa altars for the worship of planets (Nava Graha) and 28 constellations (naksatra- isti). This Goma- ro – dan -yo scroll has coloured illustrations of the planets, constellations and their altars. Goma is the esoteric fire, the calm and the fury of the ritual rhythms in the cosmic counterpoint of invocations with Sanskrit mantras.

Gigantic Rock with Sanskrit hieronym

Along a road stands an oval rock about ten feet high on flat roundish base of another rock, with the Sanskrit monogram RO. Sanskrit letters implying deeper levels. A modern Japanese girl in mini, her hair dyed blonde and perhaps with a styrene injection for a round feminine form, stops by, graciously puts a tangerine on a piece of paper, as an offering to the planets. RO is the symbolic syllable of the Biijaakshara for Nava Graha Puja (Nava Graha= Nine Planets). Such are the frozen levels of culture ever echoing at different strata of existence and consciousness.

Bugaku and Gigaku

Bugaku and Gigaku dances are performed on the occasion of the Great Consecration ceremony at the Todaiji temple. Indian cultural influence is very easily recognised in bugaku’s structure. For instance one of the popular stories of Bugaku is the Bali Dance, which reproduces Ramayana’s famous story of the fight between Vali and Sugriva in the Kishkinda forest.

Gigaku, introduced twelve centuries ago, reproduces Indian legendary stories. Gigaku was also performed at the Great Buddha Consecration ceremony and moved spectators to laughter. Gikaku, masked comical dance, was believed to have been very popularly performed at the Todaji and other temples in Nara in those times.


Biwa= Veena

The largest lake in Japan, Lake Biwa,  is named after its close resemblance to the shape of a biwa. Thus, the Indian Viina, became the origin of Japan’s largest lake.

Buddhism in Japan

In 552 CE, the monarch of Paekche (Kudara/Korea) presented a gilt bronze image of Saakyamuni, Sutras, banners and umbrellas to the Japanese emperor Kimmei. The emperor replied that, “never from former days until now have we had the opportunity of listening to so wonderful a doctrine”.

Korea sent monks, a nun, a Buddhist image maker and an architect to the Japanese emperor in 577.

In 584, a stone image of Maitreya was brought from Paekche.


Indian monk Dharmabodhi (Hoodoo) came via China and settled in Hokkezan.

The Brahmin Archbishop

Floating in a sea of verdant woods in the golden ornament of the imposing roof of the Daibutsu-den “Hall of the Great Buddha” of the Todaiji temple. It enshrines the Viraat Rupa of Rocana, in the form of a gigantic statue, in the national temple eighth century Japan. Emperor Shomu had vowed to raise this statue to a height of 48 feet to symbolise the power of the profane and profound. Twelve years and immense materials were spent in casting the Daibutsu.


on 9th April 752 it was consecrated in a sumptuous ceremony, which was presided over by Bodhisena, the first historic Indian to have visited Japan. He was a Brahmin of Bharadvaja Gotra. Inspired by Manju Sri, he went to China to Wutai shan mountains sacred to Manju sri. At Imperial invitation, he arrived in Japan in 736 CE where he was warmly welcomed. The people knew him as the Baramon(Brahmin) Archbishop. He attained Samadhi on 25 February 760.


In Todaiji temple consecrated by the Brahmin Archbishop, we can view an expressive range of Nara sculptures of Brahma, Indra, Four Lokapaalass, Surya, Candra, Sarasvati and Sri Mahaadevi. Among them is a Krishna like figure playing the flute.


In front of the Great Hall of Buddha stands the eighth century octagonal bronze lantern adorned with musicians.


Largest Buddha statue in the largest wooden building is found here.


Bodhisena had rescued a  monk shipwrecked in the ocean on his way to China. This monk came to Japan along with him where he received a cordial welcome from monk Gyogi and was taken to the capital Nara in 736. His name was Buttestu (Buddhasthira??) He introduced music from his native land of Champa. He introduced Hindu- Buddhist music dances and dramas in Sanskrit.


Indian Cotton

Praajnaa (born 744 CE) was a monk from Kapisa who had studied at Nalanda University. In 781 he went to China and translated several Sutras. His writings in palm leaves were brought to Japan


In 799 an Indian was washed ashore somewhere in the Makawa province. A young man of twenty years, with nothing to cover his body except a straw coat and short drawers, he was stranded in a country where none understood him. Years later when he became conversant with Japanese, he said that he had come from India. He had seeds of cotton with him. He lived at the Kawadera temple at Nara. Two ancient chronicles Nihon -koki, and Ruiju-kokushi mention that he introduced the cultivation of cotton which became the most important clothing material. The Japanese words WATA or HATA for cotton are derived from Sanskrit ‘Pata’.

Ka, ka, ki, ki, ko, ku


India and Japan drink from common springs of culture. I go to children’s school and hear the Goju-on

a i u e o

ka ki ke, ke ko

It reminds me of my childhood when I recited, in like manner, the syllabary

Ka, Kaa, Ki, Kii, Ku, Kuu, Ke Kai …..

The Japanese language is written in the kana syllabary along with Kanji or Chinese characters. The kanji unites India and Japan at the deepest levels.

A Japanese child recites the IROHA poem, which has all the fifty sounds of the alphabet and every syllable occurs only once It is called Citrakaavya in  Sanskrit.

When many decades have passed, the child now matured, realises that he had sung impermanence in the IROHA, as he saw the cherry blossoms fade and fly away. It is a free translation of the Sanskrit poem.


One of the greatest poems in Japanese language, it was inspired by the Sanskrit work, Mahapari nirvana Sutra. To this day every Japanese child begins his education with this IROHA poem. Japan has preserved this stanza in original Sanskrit. It has been lost in India.

Ganesh Temples in Edo

The German doctor Phillip Franz von Siebold lived in Edo, Japan during he years 1823-28. He wrote Pantheon von Nippon (1832). He notes that Ganapati was popular among the masses in the Edo period, and there were several temples. The area is known as  Shoten Choo, Ganapati Township, to this day. I visited the Ganapati Temple Shotengu in the frequented area of Asakusa.  In 1970 I saw a huge gathering of young boys and girls who had come to pray for success in their courtship as he is Nandikesvara (Kangiten). Senior people too thronged for all kinds success.

There were 131 shrines to Sarasvati. The German text deserved to be translated into English to get vivid picture of vibrant Buddhism in Edo. In 1836 a shrine to Varuna was consecrated to prevent typhoons. The Japanese worshipped Indra for long life, Brahma to succeed in Imperial service, Varuna for rain, Garuda to cure poisoning and Mahaa  kaala (Good Time) for good business and for victory in war. Japan has the oldest functioning temple of Ganapati in the world.



My comments

The book by Lokesh Chandra has about 400 pages. It is an encyclopaedia on Indo-Japanese Cultural Links. If I give all the information in the book, it will be a gross violation of copyright rules. Everyone must buy the book and read it.


After reading the book, I feel Japan is a fertile field for spreading Hinduism. There we see a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.





Enku made 100,000 Chip Buddhas (see my article posted yesterday)