Post No. 10,737

Date uploaded in London – –    12 MARCH   2022         

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“The earth is round like a wheel, produced by the Creator t the end of darkness. It consists of five elements, in the midst of it is the Meru of the gods “.

-Paulisa Siddhanta

Paulus of Greece , fouth century CE

“Vruttaa chakravadavanistamasya pare vinirmitaa dhaatraa

Panchamahaabhutamayii tanmadhye merurmaraanaama”

Though the above sloka is attributed to Paulus of Greece by Bhatta Utpala, the concept of Meru, the concept of Pancha Bhuta, the concept of God creating Earth are all in the Vedas.

Continued from yesterday………………………

Anyway let us look at a few more Sanskrit words in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil Literature :-

1.MANDILAM (Round / Circle). Found in Sangam Tamil

Sanskrit word  Mandalam/ Mandilam occurs in many places in Sangam Tamil literature which is 2000 year old. But only in a few places it is associated with earth.

There are other words for Round:

2.Round/Rotary/ Rotate = Ratha

These are related to Tamil word (r)Urundu,  ( r) Urundai,

Urul = Roll (if you reverse Ratha, you get Ther; even in Tamil literature they always say URUL perum THER= Rolling Chariot)

This Urundai is associated with Earth and Universe even by Manikka vasagar in his Tiru Vasagam (See Tiru Anda Pakuthi)

This Urul (U/roll), Urundai(r/ound) , Rotate(Ratha) and Wheel (valam) are also Sanskrit words, but used in Sangam Tamil literature.

Here I wanted to emphasize my theory. Linguists would say that any word find in European languages is Sanskrit. They are shy to use the word Sanskrit, so they would say IE or Proto IE (Indo-European). If we accept their arguments all Tamil words – Mandilam, Urul, Urundai, Valam etc are IE. But I say all the ancient languages (Greek, Latin, Hebrew) came from Sanskrit and Tamil. I have shown it in 150 articles so far.

Let us continue…………….

3.Andam = Egg (Brahma+andam, Akila+andam etc)

4.Kolam = Globe

5.Oval = Ovum (Tamil Aval/pounded rice, which is oval shaped)

6.Wheel = Valam in Tamil (found in Sangam Tamil literature)

7.Circle = Chakra

8.Cakata = Vandi/ Cart (found in  Sangam)Tamil Literature

If you look at these words deeply, you can see all are linked to Sanskrit or Tamil. All are associated with round shape and earth.

Bhagavatha Purana is the mainstay of Krishna Bhaktas where we have the full life history of Krishna. In Mahabharata, we see adult statesman Krishna.

Bhagavatha in Sanskrit have all these ANDA/egg with Brahmandam etc.

Though Bhagavatha is dated around Gupta period by foreigners, I would place it in Pre Sangam period. I will cite only 3 references just to cut it short.

1.Sangam Tamil book Akananuru has reference to Krishna and Gopis and river Yamuna (Thozunai in Tamil Akam verse 59)

2. A Greek called himself Parama Bhagavata (Great Bhakta of Lord Krishna/Vishnu) in 113 BCE (see Heliodorus Pillar in Besnagar)

3.Balarama and Krishna are in coin of Agathocles (see my article 1323 of Oct.2014 and earlier Dr Nagaswamy’s articles)

So we know Krishna cult was all over India around 200 BCE.

That means Anda, Brahmanda are as old as Bhagavata purana. But yet I would give the credits to Tamils because Sangam Literature dating is beyond doubt, beyond debate.

Based on the ‘Tamil’ words PARUTHI (see my first part of this article), MANDILAM and URUL/URUNDAI, I would confirm that Tamils knew Earth is Round at least from Sangam Period.

Here are the references:–

Akam 59-4 Krishna, Gopis and River Yamuna

Mandilam in Tamil linked to Earth:-

In most of the places it is used with Sun. At least in 4 places Tamil poets use Round/Mandilam with Earth. I have highlighted them below:-

Aka – 11-1, 31-1, 104-5, 122-11, 260-1, 263-2, 277-1, 363-3, 367-1, 378-14, 381-5, 71-13; 269-17;nedu.161;pari- 17-32, 21-2313-8; Pura.8-6, 30-3,367-1, 175-9;madu.190, 390

Kuru. 300-7 (by Siraikkudi Anthaiyar, Earth is mentioned)

Narrinai 67-1, 69-1;Perum. 442;Kali. 7-7, 25-1, 71-1, 141-12;

Kurinji 216



Sanskrit books from the period of Brhat Samhita of Varaha Mihira clearly say that Earth is Round. But Tamil Sangam books are dated earlier than Varahamihira. They are crystal clear in saying that the Earth is Round. So Hindus knew it at least for 2000 years. There may be earlier references.


Sanskrit references

Meaning of the Sanskrit Word ANDA in  Srimad Bhagavatam (SB): 

Anda SB means Srimad Bhagavatam and NOT Satapata Brahmanam in ISKCON dictionary)


Compound Sanskrit Words Containing: anda

  aṇḍa-golayo—and the globe of the universe    SB 5.20.43
  aṇḍa-ja—one born from an egg    SB 5.18.32
  aṇḍa-ja-indram—Garuḍa, the king of all the birds, who are born from eggs    SB 8.10.57
  aṇḍa-kaāha—the covering of the universe (consisting of seven layers    SB 5.17.1
  aṇḍa-kaāha-bhittim—the strong coverings of the universe    Antya 1.164
  aṇḍa-kaāham—the covering of the universe    SB 7.8.15
  aṇḍa-kośa—the whole universe    SB 7.14.36
  aṇḍa-kośasya—of the universe    SB 2.8.16
  aṇḍa-kośa—the universe, which resembles a big egg    SB 5.26.38
  aṇḍa-kośa—egg-shaped universe    SB 6.16.37
  aṇḍa-kośe—within the universal shell    SB 2.1.25
  aṇḍa-kośāt—from the egg    SB 3.26.53
  aṇḍa-koi-koibhi—millions of such universes    SB 6.16.37
  aṇḍa-madhya-gata—situated in the center of the universe    SB 5.20.43

  aṇḍa-rāśaya—huge combination of universes.    SB 3.11.41

  hiraya-aṇḍa-samudbhava—his material body was created from Hiraṇyagarbha.    SB 5.20.44  āṇḍa-kośa—the universe    SB 3.11.40
  āṇḍa-kośa—egg    SB 3.20.15
  āṇḍa-kośe—within the global universe    SB 3.6.6


Meaning of MANDALA

Sanskrit dictionary

Maṇḍala (मण्डल).—a. [maṇḍ-kalac] Round, circular; मण्डलाग्रा बृसीश्चैव गृहान्याः पृष्ठतो ययुः (maṇḍalāgrā bsīścaiva ghānyā pṛṣṭhato yayu) Rām.5.18.12.

-laḥ 1 circular array of troops.

2) A dog.

3) A kind of snake.

-lam 1 A circular orb, globe, wheel, ring, circumference, anything round or circular; न्यग्रोधं च सुमण्डलम् (nyagrodha ca sumaṇḍalam) Mb.12.169. 12; करालफणमण्डलम् (karālaphaamaṇḍalam) R.12.98; आदर्शमण्डलनिभानि समुल्लसन्ति (ādarśamaṇḍalanibhāni samullasanti) Ki. 5.41; स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलया चकाशे (sphuratprabhāmaṇḍalayā cakāśe) Ku.1.24; so रेणुमण्डल, छाया- मण्डल, चापमण्डल, मुखमण्डल, स्तनमण्डल (reumaṇḍala, chāyā– maṇḍala, cāpamaṇḍala, mukhamaṇḍala, stanamaṇḍala) &c.

2) The charmed circle (drawn by a conjurer); मण्डले पन्नगो रुद्धो मन्त्रैरिव महाविषः (maṇḍale pannago ruddho mantrairiva mahāvia) Rām.2.12.5; जानन्ति तन्त्रयुक्तिं यथास्थितं मण्डलमभि- लिखन्ति (jānanti tantrayukti yathāsthita maṇḍalamabhi- likhanti) Mu.2.1.

3) A disc, especially of the sun or moon; तेनातपत्रामलमण्डलेन (tenātapatrāmalamaṇḍalena) R.16.27; अपर्वणि ग्रहकलुषेन्दुमण्डला (aparvai grahakaluendumaṇḍalā) (vibhāvarī) M.4.15; दिनमणिमण्डलमण्डन भवखण्डन ए (dinamaimaṇḍalamaṇḍana bhavakhaṇḍana e) Gīt.1.

4) The halo round the sun or moon.

5) The path or orbit of a heavenly body.

6) A multitude, group, collection, assemblage, troop, company; एवं मिलितेन कुमारमण्डलेन (eva militena kumāramaṇḍalena) Dk.; अखिलं चारिमण्डलम् (akhila cārimaṇḍalam) R.4.4.

7) Society, association.

8) A great circle.

9) The visible horizon.

1) A district or province.

11) A surrounding district or territory.

12) (In politics) The circle of a king’s near and distant neighbours; मण्डलचरितम् (maṇḍalacaritam) Kau. A. 1.1.1; सततसुकृती भूयाद् भूपः प्रसादितमण्डलः (satatasuktī bhūyād bhūpa prasāditamaṇḍala) Ve.6.44; उपगतोऽपि च मण्डलनाभिताम् (upagato’pi ca maṇḍalanābhitām) &c. R.9.15.

And many more.


 tags- Earth , Round, Mandilam, Sangam Tamil, Discovery

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