Post No. 8709

Date uploaded in London – –19 SEPTEMBER 2020   

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I wrote about Sumukan Mystery six year ago. Now I have got more information which may help us to find a solution.

Manu , the first law maker, also mentioned Sumukan in the list of bad kings.

Manu says ,

“Vena was destroyed through lack of humility, and so was Nahusha , Sudas , the son of Pijavana , Sumukha , and  

Nimi “– 7-41

I have given ALREADY the details I gathered from Mahabharata and Hindu Hymns (on Ganesh and Vishnu) – please see the link below.

Now I have found  A reference in the book .THE INDUS SCIPT AND THE RIG VEDA. by Egbert Richter Ushanas, Delhi, 1997

The long hair and the animals surrounding him are part of the description of Enkidu in Gilgamesh epic I.ii.34-41

“Aruru washed her hands , she pinched off clay and threw it down

Enkidu she made , the hero also, born from the glory of Ninurta

The body was covered all over with hairs,

His curly hair grew heavily like that of Nisaba

He knows neither men nor country , he is clad like Sumukan

He eats with gazelles from the herbs,

With the animals he throngs in the watering place,

In their crowd his heart rejoices in the water “

It is known from fragments of epic excavated there that the Hittites were acquainted with Enkidu .

In the footnote Usanas says ,

Aruru is a name of the mother goddess,

Ninurta is the god of war,

Nisaba is the goddess of grain,

Sumukan is the lord of the beasts .

It comes in the chapter where he discusses the Pasupati seal of Indus Valley.

So the conclusion is that Pasupati, the lord surrounded by the animals in Indus seal is Sumukan.

If it is correct, then we solve two puzzles :

The Pasupati seal was only a guess by the archaeologists. Since such Lord of the Beasts figures are discovered around the world, it may not be Pasupati (Lord Siva). It may be even Sumukan.

So we solve Indus mystery and Sumukan mystery. No where in Ancient Indian history we came across a king called Sumukhan so far.


Following is from my 2014 post:-

Who is Sumukan?

In Sanskrit hymns we have Sumuka as one of the names of Vishnu (See Vishnu Sahasra Nama) and one of the names of Lord Ganesh. Of the 16 names of Lord Ganesh, Sumukha is the first name. It simply means good faced, Auspicious faced etc. It is also the name of Garuda (eagle).

SUMUKHA In the Mahabarata :

The following story from Mahabharata explains clearly a clash between two groups called Nagas ( snake people) and Eagle people.

“Sumukha was a Naga. He was chosen by Matali to be the husband of his daughter Gunakeshi. His grandfather Aryaka was very pleased when informed about it by Narada .But the eagle who had previously devoured Sumukha’s father Chikura, had vowed to soon devour Sumukha also. In spite of being told of the expected short life span of Sumukha, Matali nevertheless wanted to go ahead with the marriage. He then went to Indra and requested him to give long life to Sumukha. When Indra granted this, the eagle accused Indra of giving shelter to his rightful prey and then tried to scare Indra by showing off his strength. To put the eagle in his place, Indra put his arm on the eagle’s shoulder and then asked him to lift it. The eagle found himself crushed by the weight of Indra’s arm and acknowledged his defeat. (MB:5-103/4)

This episode of early times was related to Duryodhana by Kanva Rishi in an effort to convince him that like the eagle he too would be crushed if he went ahead in his determination to fight against the Pandavas. But even these efforts made no impact on Duryodhana”.
(p.281 of who is who in the Mahabharata).

Sanskrit words in Sumerian culture :Sumukan Mystery | Tamil … › 2014/05/12 › sanskrit-words-in-s…


12 May 2014 – Tamil and Vedas. A blog exploring themes in Tamil and vedic literature. Sanskrit words in Sumerian culture :Sumukan Mystery.

Sumukan, Indus,


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