Lyrics in Sanskrit- Talk by IPS officer (Post.9449)


Post No. 9449

Date uploaded in London – –2 APRIL  2021     

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Indian Express July 19,1985 Paper Cutting

Sri C.L. Ramakrishnan,.IPS, delivered an interesting lecture on Lyrics in Sanskrit Literature under the auspices of Rasodaya at KSR Institue, Mylapore, Madras on July 14;

He pointed out:

1.Lyrics are sweet poems expressing intense personal feelings, thoughts or sentiments of love, sorrow, spiritual devotion. May vary from Just one stanza to hundreds and thousands— khandana kavyas or Laghu Kavyas

2.Rrigveda has many lyrics addressed to variousdeitis, with Picturesque description s of nature. Ushas -the dawn is portrayed as a dancing maiden dressed in beautiful raiment and decked with golden ornaments. Ithihasas and Puranas also contain charming lyrics e.g. Gopika geetam, Rukmini sandesam etc., in Bhagavatam, description of the Pampa lake in the Kishkinda Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana.Sarga1. Kavyas also have lyrics embedded in them.

3.The first lyrical uttterance in the post Vedic period was Valmikis first sloka— born of soka— Maanishaada prathisthaam …..

4.Sandesa Kavyas are erotic lyrics; stotras are devotional lyrics. In the former Mandaa kraanta metre is generally used though there are justifiable exceptions in devotional lyrics all kinds of metres are used e.g.Daya Satakam of Sri Vedanta Desika .

5.The first and long beautiful lyric is Kalidasas MeghaSandesa (66 plus 55 slokas).

The exiled Yaksha sends a message to his beloved through a cloud- grand descriptions of nature abound, apart from portrayals of love -lorn state . This influenced the German poet Schiller. There have been many indian imitations- from 12 th century to 19th century.

Rama shStriof Mylapore wrote Meghaprati sandesa- 11th century Chatakarpara kavya (22slkas) — 6th century, full of Yamaha’s – is a message sent out

by a lady to her lover. The poet is very confident about his excellence.

1.   The most prominent after Kali dasa is the Sandesa Kavya after Kalidasa is Hamsa Sandesa by Sri Vedanta desika Ramas Messag to Sita in Lanka through a swan .- philosophical and poetical imports. ( The animate swan is a better messenger than the inanimate cloud).

2.   Example s of other Sandesa Kavyas are (7th to 19th centuries)

Pavana dootam (Dhuv)

Kokila Sandesa (Uddanta Kavi)

Hamsa Sandesa (Roopa Goswami )

Bringa Sandesa (Vasudeva

Suka Sandesa (Kerala poet

Gatha saptasati ( Satavahana

Amaruka satakam (Amaru

Sataka trayam (Bhartruhari

Chaura Panchasike (50 poems of Bilhana

Buamini vilsam (Jagannatha Pandita

8.Of devotional lyrics we have Panchakas, Ashtakas, Dasakas, Satakas etc.also Dandakas (prose). Famous authors are

Sankara (Praise for all deities),

Vedanta Desika including (Paduka Sataka ),

 Appaya Dikshita,

Bhartruhari, (Narayaneeyam ),

Panchalahiri (Jagannatha Panditah),

Nilakanta Dikshita (Ananta Sagara Srava),

Narayana Tirtha (Tarangini Musical),

 Bana Bhatta (in praise of Mahisasuramardhani),

 Mayura Sataka,

Gita Govindam (Jayadeva),

Krishna Karnamrutam (Leela Suka),

Mukunda Mala (Kuasekharan).

 Some illustrations were given.

 9.Appayya Dikshitas Mowlu Ganga……is very charming. Oh , Lord of the Hall of Gold! On Thy head is the flood of the Ganga and the cool rayed moon too; on Thy hands and feet the cold blooded serpents; on Thy left part of Thy body is the daughter of the snow clad mount, drenched in the waters of compassion, and overall the limbs a thick coating of sand al paste as well indeed. Thou hast tried to keep yourself cool. But all these avail the little- Thou art unable to bear the heat of the fire raging in my heart- where thou abidest— laden with grief! Else why dost thou try continually try to flee from me?

Sri R Thirumalai, IAS ( Reid), who presided, said that lyrics transcend languages may express all sentiments (Rasas) and Rasika adds his own experience to that of the poet. R.R.


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