TAMIL- PERSIAN LANGUAGE LINK 2000 YEARS AGO (Post No.10,778)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 10,778

Date uploaded in London – –    25 MARCH   2022         

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 The whole word knows that horse was domesticated by the Vedic Hindus. There are more words for horse and chariot in the Vedic literature than any ancient literature in the world. The oldest Sanskrit inscription of 1400  BCE comes from Turkey- Syria and it is a horse manual (Kikkuli’s Horse manual with Sanskrit numerals). Neither Iran (Persia) nor Egypt had horse before Hindus exported them. Horse suddenly appears in  Egypt after 1500 BCE, because the pharaoh married two Hindu girls from Turkey. We have full details in Dasaratha letters (also known as Amarna letters) in Egypt. In short, Horse and Sanskrit went together to Ian and Egypt.

Greek Hippos (for horse), English word Mare and Latin Equus for horse are all found in Tamil and Sanskrit. All the words for horse in ancient languages are derived from Tamil or Sanskrit.

Nowhere in the world Asvamedha Yaga (Horse sacrifice) was performed except India. Tamils performed Asvamedha Yagna according to Sangam Tamil literature, numismatic evidence, and Kalidasa’s Raghu vamsa.

Kalidasa, the greatest of the Indian poets of first century BCE, linked Pandyas, Agastya and wet clothes because of Yaga ceremony. It is called Avabhrda Snana (bathing for Yaga). A horse embossed coin with Pandyan Peru Vazuthi’s name was discovered. And Sangam Tamil’s old book Purananuru praised that Peru Vazuthi as a great performer of Yagas. Purananuru says he would salute only two in the world: Lord Shiva and the Brahmins.

Tamils and Persians

Persian language is older than Tamil. They have written records older than Sangam Tamil literature. Behitsun Inscription of Darius and other inscriptions give us lot of information. The word Hindu in inscription occurs there for the first time. Some of the parts of Parsi scripture Zend Avesta belongs to this period (sixth century BCE). The parent of the Persian language is Avestan. The Gathas (songs) of Zend Avesta are dated between 600 BCE and 1000 BCE.

Asva of Rig Veda changed to Aspa in the Avestan language. Tamils also changed the V as P in ancient literature. Purananuru and Tolkappiam (Tamil’s oldest book) used uVamai instead of Vedic uPama. The Brahmin author of oldest book Tolkappiar even named one of his chapters with Sanskrit word Upama (uvamai iyal in Tamil).

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PARI=Mare, IVULI—Equa, IBHA- Hippo

Tamil Thesaurus Chudamani Nighandu gives thirty words for Horse. But there is no Tamil dictionary or no Tamil Nighandu without Sanskrit words. They give more Sanskrit words as Tamil. They did not see any difference between Tamil and Sanskrit.

Pari, Puravi, Kuthirai and Ivuli are used for horse in 2000 year old Sangam literature. There are more than 150 places for these four words. There are more words like Pai Maa, Kali Maa etc.

Let us first look at what a great Tamil scholar Dr R P Sethu Pillai said in 1944 (Words and Their Significance was published again in 1974 by University of Madras);my comments follow his writing:

“The Greek and Hebrew languages bear testimony to the commercial relations that subsisted in ancient times between Tamil India and foreign countries. The old Tamil poems give a a catalogue of commodities imported from other countries by land and sea. Among the commodities that came from distant countries beyond the seas a prominent place is assigned to the horse.

Quote in Tamil

Neerin vantha Nimir Parip Puraviyum—Pattinappalai line 185.

It is probable that the Arab merchants who maintained active commercial relations with the Tamil country for several centuries arrived on a lucrative trade in Persian and Arabian horses. The words designating the equipment of  the horse seem to indicate that it was not an indigenous animal. The saddle is denoted by the term CENAM which is derived from the Persian ZIN. LAKAAN, the reins is a corruption of the Persian LAGAAM. CAVUKKU, the whip is obviously the Persian CHAABUK. (See Malcom’s Persia, Vo.II, page 516,517)

Among the 30 words given in Cudamani as synonyms for the horse, KORAM and PARI seem to be significant. One of the Persian words designating the horse is KURRA. The Telugu word Gurramu (horse) bears a close resemblance to the Persian KURRA. In Tamil KORAM is used generally in the sense of horse and particularly with reference to the royal horse of the Chola dynasty. Malcom says that the horses of Turkoman or Khorassan breed were noted for their great size and strength and were most prized by the soldiers of Persia. It is possible that KORAM used with reference to Chola horse is a corruption of the Persian Khorassan. The mare is denoted by the term FARAS in Persian. The resemblance of the Tamil word PARI- horse, to this Persian word is remarkable”.

–from Words and their Significance, Dr.R P Sethu Pillai, University of Madras, 1974.

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MY COMMENTS

In his scholarly work, Dr R.P.S. has completely ignored Sanskrit words. I can see this in the whole book. May be he is not well versed in that language or deliberately avoided it. The second defect in his whole book is he mixed modern and ancient words. Pari, Puravi and Kuthirai are from Sangam Tamil books. Senam/saddle, Lagaan/rein and Koram/horse are modern words.

A great Tamil saint Manikkavasagar used Pari and Ivuli. He came after Sangam period.

Persian language is closer to Sanskrit than any other language in the world. That has Faras.

If we go to etymology of Equs in Latin, Hippos in Greek or Mare in English, they don’t go too far. All these stop abruptly.

It is very easy to see Tamil or Sanskrit link.

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PARI=MARE=FARAS

Pari ,Mare and Faras are cognate words.

P/F= M= V are interchangeable

(Some examples: Badra=Madra in Panini; Mandi=Bandaar; Manual= Panual in Tamil; Money= Pana; Pasture= Meychal in Tamil; Full= Muzu in Tamil= Purna in Sanskrit)

So I derive Mare and Faras from Tamil Pari.

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TURAGA is in Amarakosa for horse. About 100 horse related Sanskrit words are in Amarakosa, the first thesaurus in the world.

The country Turkey is derived from Turaga/Horse country.

Oldest Sanskrit Horse Manual of 1400 BCE discovered in Turkey also confirmed it. All the special type of horses were trained there.

But Rig Veda mentioned special horses from Sindhu and Sarasvati only. We know they were earlier than 1400 BCE.

If you swap letters in the word TURAGA you get Tamil word KUTHIRAI. Tamil colloquial word for horse is Kuruthai (reverse it; you get Turkey)

More over horse is famous for jumping (galloping).

Tamil word Kuthi= Jump.

Swapping letters and mirror images (reverse) are accepted in linguistics.

So one doesn’t need to go to Kurra for Kuthirai

‘Horse’ came from Sanskrit ‘Haya’.

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IVULI, Tamil word for horse

Latin word for horse is Equus; related to Mycenean Greek IKKOS. The closest available word is Tamil Ivuli.

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Hippos, Greek word for Horse

This is a tricky word. All encyclopaedias will link it with elephant. If we accept them, it is from Rig Vedic word IBHA for elephant. But I doubt it.

It can be derived from ASVAS, the most common word for horse in all the four Vedas.

Hippos= Sippos (H=S) = Sivvos (P=V)= Cheval (French word for horse)= Cabalos

other derivations: –

Hippos = Avvos= Asvas (swapping of letters)

Hippos = hi=I; pp=vv; os= l= IVULI in Tamil

Hippos = Haya in Sanskrit for horse

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Conclusion

All the old words in ancient languages can be traced to Tamil or Sanskrit. The missing links can be found in one of the two languages. To my surprise Persian Kurra, Faras, European Mare come closer to Tamil than Sanskrit.

Hippos /Greek come closer to IBHA/elephant of Vedas or Ivuli of Tamils

Latin Equus/ Greek Ikkos also come closer to Tamil Ivuli.

Asva is already there in Avestan as Aspa. Looking back at the Sanskrit names of all Middle Eastern countries such as

Syria= Surya, Iran= Aryan, Sumer= Su Meru, Lebanon = Lavana/ salty white, Baghdad= Bhagavan Datta, we can boldly say that Hindus migrated there and spread our culture. The biggest proof lies in Kikkuli’s Horse Manual with Sanskrit instructions and Mitannian Agreement with Vedic Gods as witnesses (RV.10-125-1), both dated 1400 BCE. In addition to  Vedic Gods we see Dasaratha, Pratardhana, Sathya Vacha etc. Suryas is found in Kassite 1800 BCE records.

TAMIL WORDS USED IN THE ARTICLE:-

பரி/ PARI , கோரம்/KORAM, குர்ரம்/ KURRA , குதிரை/ KUTHIRAI  , இவுளி/ IVULI , புரவி/PURAVI, சூடாமணி நிகண்டு / CHUDAAMANI NIGHANDU

–subham–

 tags- Horse, Faras, Tamil, Persian, Pari, Ivuli, Hippos, Sanskrit, Asva

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