Tamil Hindu Encyclopaedia – Part 1(Post No.11,330)


Post No. 11,330

Date uploaded in London – 6 OCTOBER 2022                  

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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 Ancient Tamils were ardent Hindus. They were well versed in Vedas, Itihasas/epics and Puranas/Mythology. Many of their names are in Sanskrit. They reveal lot of new information which are not in Sanskrit; probably we lost them. The oldest book Tolkappiam, talks about Dharma Artha and Kama in many places, surprisingly in the same order. Oldest part of the Sangam corpus, Pura nanuru (naanuuru) also sings about the Dhrama artha kama . The best book in the Tamil is Tirukkural and its real name is Muppaal (three divisions- Dharma, Artha Kama. Moksha is included in the Ascetism chapter.

Many of the Poets’ names are in pure Sanskrit such as Damodaran, Kesavan, Vishnudasan (Vinnanthaayan in Tamil), Kannadasan (kannanthaayan in Tamil), Kaamaakshi (Kaamakkanni in Tamil), Valmiki, Brahma, Sulochana (Miss Nakkannai in Tamil), Raadhaa ( in Tamil Nappinnai= Miss Hair Beauty) Mahadevan (maathevan in Tamil), Rudraksha (Uruththiran kannannaar in Tamil) so on and so forth.

We have references to Raja Suya Yaga and 21 types of Yagas and Yupa sthambas. We have evidence of Eagle shaped Yaga Kunda, and Asvametha Yaga.

In the first part of this Tamil Hindu Encyclopaedia

I will list all the references and in the second part, I will add poems and brief explanation.

Here we go

Sangam Tamil literature is nearly 2000 year old. The oldest part belongs to first century BCE and the latest part belongs to third century CE. But they were made anthology only later, probably in the fourth century CE. We have 18 books running to 27,000 to 30, 000 lines. Since some people don’t consider the ‘in between’ Pathikams, the number of lines differ.

In the eighteen books we have Pathuppattu (paththuppaattu) and Ettuththokai.

Pathuppattau consists of Ten long poems- idylls

Ettuththokai consists of Eight Anthologies

Pathu is Ten and Ettu is Eight in Tamil.


1.Shamudrika Lakshnanam

1.Shamudrika Lakshnanam (Science of Body features and their link to behaviour and virtues)

Thaal Thoi Tadakkai- long hands extending to knee- Aajaanu Baahu in Sanskrit

Rama is praised as Ajanubhahu Aravintha lochana/long hands, lotus like eyes in Sanskrit.


Thaal Thoi Tadakkai- Akananuru 312-11;

Purananuru – 59-2;  90-10;

Kurinjippattu – Line 123

( Akanaanuuru is abbreviated as Akam, Puranaanuuru- Puram, Kurinjippaattu – Kurinji)


Three Lines on chest  (Sempori in Tamil)

Some commentators think that it is not three lines but Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth is mentioned. When the poets described men, particularly kings, they used Sempori.

Sem in Tamil means both Red and Best/Proper

Following are the references:

Puram – 68-5; 161-27;

Pathitruppaththu – 88-30

(Pathitruppaththu is abbreviated as Pathitru)

Kurinji – lines 121-123

Tirumurukaatruppatai – Lines 104-105

(Tirumurukaatruppatai is abbreviated as Muruku)


Vishnu with Lakshmi on his chest

Sri Vatsa in Sanskrit and Tamil translation is ‘Tiru Maru Marba’.

Tiru Maru Marba literally means Sri/Lakshmi Emblem/Mole (on) Chest.

It is the name of Vishnu, ‘one who carries Lakshmi on his chest’.

Tiru Maru Maarba is found in

Paripaatal – 1-39 (abbreviation Pari.)

Kalittokai 104-10 (Kali. is abbreviation)

Perumpanatruppatai (perum paanaatrup patai)- line 29 (abbreviation- Perum)

This emblem is found in Jain Tirtankara  (Arukan) statues as well.


Lotus Eyed Vishnu /Krishna/Rama

Rama, Krishna and Vishnu are praised as Lotus eyed- Aravinda Lochana

But it is found only in Post Sangam work Tirukkural (5th century CE)

Thaamaraik Kannaan- Tiruk Kural 1103


Lotus Seated – All the goddesses are lotus seated, but it is mostly used to denote Lakshmi.

Tiru Valluvar used it in Kural – 617

Tamil words used:-

தாள் தோய் தடக்கை மார்பில் செம்பொறி மூன்று வரிகள் தாமரைக் கண்ணான்தாமரையினாள் திரு மறு மார்பன் ஆஜானுபாஹு அரவிந்த லோசனஸ்ரீ வத்ச

To be continued…………………

Tags- Tamil, Hindu, Encyclopaedia, Shamudrika lakshana, Body features

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