One Minister Cabinet 2700 years ago, Panini Titbits-2 (Post No.9535)

compiled BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 9535

Date uploaded in London – –26 APRIL  2021     

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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Panini in his grammar book Ashtadhyayi gives remarkably interesting information about cabinet formation in the government.

He used ASHADAKSHIINA, which literally meant “that which is not seen by six eyes. The Kasika (Kaasikaa) explains it to mean deliberations between two persons only and not more.

“Ashadakshiino mantras, yo dvaabhyaameva kriyate, na bahubhih”

In the political evolution of the Mantri Parishad and with the emergence of the office of the Prime Minister there was a tendency to form a smaller body inside the Parishad/council for more effective and responsible deliberation.

As to the number of ministers constituting this Inner Body, Kautilya supplies valuable information recording the views of earlier political thinkers like

Pisuna

Parasara

Visalaksha and

Bharadvaja

Kautilya states that the number of ministers should three to four (Arthasastra 1-15)

In this matter the most forceful view was that of Kaninka Bharadvaja, the severe theorist who advocated the system of one minister cabinet

“Gubhyam eko mantrayetiti Bhaardvaajah Arthasastra 1-15”

This was the ashadakshiina mantra referred to by Panini,i.e.the secret counsel of the king and the chief minister only, in which Six Eyes had not participated. It signified the same thing as

“Shad karno bhidyate mantrah of later literature”

Bharadvaja held that a plethora of councillors betrayed the secret.

“Mantri paramparaa mantram bhinnati, Artha 1-15”

Cited in the Kasika on 5-2-10

This view was disputed by Visaalaaksha, who perhaps true to the veiled suggestion of his name, was in favour of admitting more ministers to that secret sessions of the council.

The Six Eye must have related to urgent and important matters of the state. Panini refers to Aatyayika Vinayadi gana 5-4-34, urgent business, to which Asoka also refers in Rock Edict 6 and so also Kautilya.

Summoning the ministers and the council, the king shall speak to them on urgent matters,

“Aatyayike kaarye mantrino mantri parishadam chaahuuya bruuyaat, Arth 1-15”

Here ‘mantrinah’ refers to the Inner Cabinet, and ‘Mantri Parishad’ to the fuller Council of Ministers.

The No Six Eyes deliberations belonged to the former.

Similarly, in the Gana patha 4-3-118 ,an act or resolution of the Parishad is called ‘Paarishatka’

All these show how advanced was our political system 2700 years ago

xxx

500 members in Raaja Sabhaa

As distinguished from the Parishad, the General Assembly was represented by the Raaja Sabhaa. Tradition makes King Bindusara having a Council of 500 members.

As examples of Raja Sabha, Patanjali cites Chandragupta Maurya Sabha and Pushyamitra Sabha, Bhashya 1-177

MY OLD ARTICLES:-

King and 8 Ministries in Vedic Period | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com › 2013/05/27 › king-and-8-ministri…

27 May 2013 — Coronation and Consecration · Eight Ministers for Tamil Kings · Ashta Pradhan of Veera Shivaji · Council of Eight Poets: Ashta Diggajas.



Samiti | Tamil and Vedas

tamilandvedas.com › tag › samiti

11 May 2015 — Rig Veda mentioned female members of the Sabha as sabhavati (RV 1-167-3). … Later literature gives us information about Council of Five and …

–SUBHAM—

tags – one member, cabinet, Six Eyes, Panini, Kautilya 

I ORDERED A CAB AND A CABINET CAME! SPEAK ENGLISH PROPERLY (Post No.8347)

WRITTEN BY LONDON SWAMINATHAN

Post No. 8347

Date uploaded in London – 15 July 2020   

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge; this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

THREE MORE INTERESTING LANGUAGE ANECDOTES!

When we were living in Madurai , my brother S Srinivasan had a Telugu friend by name Renga Reddy. He came to our house every evening and my mother gave him hot Indian coffee. We used to teach him Tamil and he used to tell us stories about Telugus getting diamonds and other valuable treasures from old forts in Andhra Pradesh. One evening he looked very tired. We asked him what happened to him. He said in Tamil

“Dukkam, dukkamaa Varuthu (literally translated sorrow, sorrow coming)

We were all shaken; we said, “Oh, Very Sorry! Any bad news from your home town??”

He said again , “No, Dukkam, I did not sleep last night. That is why Dukkam varuthu”.

We all laughed and laughed and our laughter rent the ceiling. He was puzzled.

We said to him, “O Renga Reddy; it is not DUKKAM. It is Thuukkam for sleep in Tamil . You should have said  Enakku Romba Thuukkam , Thuukamaa Varuthu ( Literally translated it would sound—To me, a lot, Sleep, Sleep comes)”

He was so close to our family ; so without taking it in the negative, he also laughed with us.

***

I was teaching Tamil at the University of London (SOAS) for over twenty years. I used to give the foreign Tamil students some interesting anecdotes like this to illustrate what havoc could be caused by wrong pronunciation. I have collected a lot of paper cuttings (PC) for this purpose . Now I am binning them; here are a few more Language Anecdotes which illustrate,

1.MAHABHARATA IS TRUE–  when ‘the embodiment of truth’ Yuthisthira lied (elephant named) ‘Ashwattama is killed’, Drona, the greatest teacher, thought that it was his own son Ashwattama, and became distressed, dejected and got defeated in the great war. Here is an anecdote where British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was “killed” even before her death!!

See my pc from Evening Standard, London dated  13 November 2009

***

2.CABINET WAS DELIVERED INSTEAD OF A CAB!!

A lady had a very bad English accent; she ordered a taxi/cab. The cab never came. She was dead angry; but next day a cupboard was delivered. All because of her bad accent and pronunciation.

Moral:–

Speak English Properly!

See my pc from Metro newspaper 11 April 2008

***

3.WRONG URDU TRANSLATION PUTS SCOTTISH FIREMEN IN A FIX – DONKEY INSTEAD OF CUSHION!!!

THOUSANDS OF fire safety leaflets in Scotland have been withdrawn because a wrong translation in the leaflet’s Urdu version mixed ‘gadda’ (cushion) with a ‘gadha’ (donkey).

Read more from my pc dated 11 November 2006 from Asian Voice magazine

Please see the attachments given below :–

TAGS – WRONG ACCENT, CAB,CABINET, THATCHER DEAD, URDU , WRONG, TRANSLATION

-SUBHAM—