KRTA (YUGA) – WIN, KALI (YUGA)-LOSS! (Post No.8797)


Post No. 8797

Date uploaded in London – –10 OCTOBER 2020   

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Hindus divided the ages into four. They are called Krta Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga.

Of these two are based on Numbers  Treta =3 and Dwapra=2. Of the four Ages/Yugas Krta is the first and so it must be Four (4). So they are in descending order 4,3,2,1. But Kali yuga is  1 and 0.

The reason for this descending order is given in Dharma Shastras/ Hindu Law Books. They imagined Dharma as a cow with four legs. In the first age which is called as Satya Yuga, Golden Yuga etc Dharma was described a cow with four legs. In Treta Yuga it lost 25% of dharma/honesty and so it is named Number 3. In Dwapara Yuga it lost 50% of honesty, i.e. two legs/feet. So it is Dwapara (2) Yuga. In Kaliyuga , Dharma lost one more feet and so only one foot, I.e.25%  alone is left. In other words Dharma is on shaky foot.

So, Kali may be called 25% Yuga with one leg. It is struggling to preserve dharma. In other words it is going to lose.

When the world is finished Kaliyuga would have finished and  a new era would dawn. Hindus believed in cyclical time.

All these numbers are in gambling. We don’t know whether the Yugas came first or Gambling Numbers came first.

Here is the jargon in gambling:

Dicing is mentioned as a game from the time of the Rig Veda onwards. 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature mentioned the dicing. When a Brahmin and a king played dicing they became angry and threw coins at one another. Then they came to compromise according to a verse in Purananuru. Post Sangam period has the Tamil Veda Titukkural which has a full chapter on Dyuta (Soothu in Tamil). Tamil word for dicing is derived from Sanskrit word Dyuta. This shows the 3000 year long history on this game. Manu and other law makers brand this game as a vice. Whole of India knew that the greatest epic of Hindus , Mahabharata is based on dicing.

2700 year old Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentioned it in 4-4-19 and 3-3-37 Aksha Dyuta or simply Dyuuta.

Panini and Patanjali give more details and more words regarding this game. We see them in Mahabharata as well.

Nowadays two pieces are used to play this game. But in the ancient period, five coins/pieces  were used according to Taittiriya Brahmana . Vedic Index gives the names of five pieces as :–

Aksharaja, Krita ,Treta ,Dwapara and Kali .

From the period of Panini till the latest commentary Kasika , they used Paanchikaa Dyuuta.

Gambler was called Kitava . When all the five pieces fall with faces turned upwards, or all the five pieces fall face down the thrower wins the game; when the fall is otherwise , he loses it.

When four pieces fall alike and one is different, the dicer exclaims


Salakaa pari


It means missed by one aksha or a by a single salaka.

If the throw fell amiss  by two, it is called dwipari, three -tripri and four- chatuspari

When all the five pieces fell uniformly the throw was called a winning throw and the technical term for it is

Krita ; the name for the losing throw is Kali .

Buddhist Veda Dhammapada called a deceitful player kitavo satho. He tries to conceal his losing or kali throw- verse 252-. Chandogya Upanishad also called the winning throw krita.

In the sabhaparva of Mahabharata sakuni is described  by vidura as krita—hasta- man of winning throws.

Panini also mentioned krita and kali throws 3-1-21

Vidura pandita Jataka tale –545—used the same words.

Later only four pieces were used

But whether it is 4 pieces or five pieces, Krita meant win and Kali meant loss.

We get more information from Mahabharata that it is played in Sabhas (sort of Casinos) . Kautilya also confirms it.

Panini even mentioned wager or stake money – satasya divyati ,satasya pratidivyati- 2-3-57, 2-3-59 all denoting he stakes a hundred rupees.

This shows that India had decimal coin/currency system 2700 years ago, even before the Greeks .

-tags– Dice, Dice pieces, Krita, Kali


Story of an Envious Neighbour!


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date : 4 September  2015

Post No. 2125

Time uploaded in London : 19-18

He who is envious needs no enemy to ruin him. Envy itself is enough to bring him ruin – Tirukkural couplet 165

There were two people living next to one another in a village nearby a forest. One has a big and beautiful house and the other has an ordinary house. The person with the small house was very jealous of his neighbour. But that neighbour was very good.

One day the jealous person decided to go to the forest and do some penance for getting more money. To his surprise, an ascetic appeared before him in a short time. He asked the man what he wanted. When he told his story, the ascetic did not find much time to judge the person. But yet he gave him three boons to the jealous person on one condition:

“Look! My dear friend. I can see that you are very jealous of your neighbour. But yet I will fulfil your desire. Here is a dice. You have three chances to become rich. Because you are jealous of your neighbour whatever you get , your neighbour will get double the times. After giving the dice he went away”.

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The jealous man came home and started scheming. First he threw the dice and asked for a big and beautiful house with all the facilities. He got it at once and his neighbour got it twice the size. Now his jealousy grew more. He remembered the proverb, “Even if I lose one eye, my enemy must lose both the eyes”. So he threw the dice for the second time praying that he should lose one of his eyes. He lost it. His neighbour lost both the eyes. Now he was very happy. He was thinking about what else he can do to destroy his neighbour. Suddenly a “good” idea flashed in his mind. He threw the dice for the last time praying half of his house must go beneath the ground. And it went down immediately. His neighbour got it doubly. His whole house went under the ground. Because he became blind, he did not realise what was happening. But his servants saw the happiness on the face of the jealous neighbour and found out the mumbo jumbo he was doing. They beat him severely and took all his wealth and ran away.


This is a folk tale. Villagers spread their age old wisdom through stories.