Naga Worship in Afghanistan (Post No.3154)


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 14 September 2016

Time uploaded in London: 20-43

Post No.3154

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.

Afghanistan, now a Muslim country, was once ruled by Hindu and Buddhist Kings. Many of them were from the Naga tribes. Their names and the mode of worship explode the half-baked Western theories that they were non-Aryans. Here is an excerpt from the book “The Sun and the Serpent” by C F Oldham, Indian Army Officer, 1905.


“The great Persian hero Ruustam was the son of Zaal, and his mother was Ruudabeh, the daughter of a serpent chief. Ruustam was called a Kaabuli because of his relationship with Afghanistan.

Ferishta tells us that the race of Zahaak, one after another, succeeded to the chieftainship of Ghor until the time of the Prophet. We learn also, from the same authority, that the genealogy of the kings of Ghor, according to the most authentic historians, could be traced upwards by the names for three and twenty generations.

Minhaaju-s Siraaj, who came from Ghor to India in 1227 CE and whose father was Kazi to the army of Mahomed Ghori, commences his history with a genealogical list, which traces their descent back through Zahaak to Noah. It seems therefore, that the ruling family of Kaabul, in the time of Ruustam, and the chiefs of Ghor, as late as the thirteenth century, claimed to be of serpent race. The Rig Veda mentioned Ahi, the serpent chief and the Zend Avesta mentioned Azi.


People of the country between Kaabul and Kashmir worshipped the Nagaa demi gods.


In the Pahlavi Kaarnaam-I Artakshir Papakaan it is mentioned that the Persian King Artakshir in the first half of the third century was defeated more than once, and his camp taken, by Haftan Bokht. This chief who was ruler of Kirmaan and Lord of the Dragon, worm or serpent, eventually defeated and killed. The ruins of his fortress of guzaaraan are near the town of Bam, not far from the frontier of Baluchistan. The bam fort is still known as Kut-i-Kirm, or fort of the worm or serpent.


My comments:-

Kirm, English word germ, all come from the same Sanskrit root for worms. Kut is the Sanskrit word for peak and living place (Kuti, hut etc). All the Kings from the times of Ruustam, the legendary Persian hero, they had relationship with Naga tribes or Kings. This author interprets Ahi, enemy of Indra, as a Naga Chief in the Hindu Kush area. He may be right.

Idol worship was prevalent in spite of conversion to Muslim religion.



“Other traces of the serpent race remain in the neighbouring country. In Baluchistan is the Koh—I Maaraan or the Mountain of the Serpents. Which doubtless took its name from the race of Zahaak.

And one of the legends of Heraat says that this fortress was founded by a daughter of Zahaak.


“Notwithstanding the conversion of the people to the Mohammedan faith, traditions connected with the serpent (Sanskrit word Sarpa = snake) race still remain in the wild country between Persia and the Indian border. Near Mazar, in northern Afghanistan, is the village of Gor-i-Maar, or grave of the serpent, where a great serpent is said to have been killed by Ali. Amongst the Kafirs of the Hindu Kush, also, there is a tradition that the Bashgul valley was once held by a great serpent, who devoured travellers passing that way, and who was killed by Imra or Indra.


Reports of Chinese Pilgrims

The first clear descriptions we have, of the country between Kaabul and the Indus, are those of the Chinese pilgrims who visited India as the holy land of Buddhism. Of these Fah Hian arrived in India about 400 CE, and seems to have travelled by way of Baatli and the Upper Indus valley.


This pilgrim says: “Crossing the River Sinto (Sindhu/Indus), we come to Wuchang, where commences Northern India.”

Wuchang, or Udyaana, included the valley of Swat river and much of the neighbouring country.

Fah Hian goes on to say that the language and the dress of the people, and their food and drink, are the same as in Mid India. They were, therefore, an India race. He further describes the religion of Buddha as very flourishing, and mentions that Sakya (Buddha) visited this country, to convert a wicked Naga.


“Fah Hian also says that the Nagas of the Tsung-ling mountains (Hindu Kush), when evil disposed, spit poison, winds, rain and snow. He notes, too, that in Udyaana a stranger was entertained for three days and was then requested to find a palce for himself”. This is a Rajput custom, which is referred to by Quintus Curtius in his account of the entertainment of Alexander by Taxiles, and which exists to this day.



My Comments

In Tamil also we have a proverb that Feast and Medicine is only for three days. There is another saying in Tail, First day- Vazai Ilai/on a full length Banana leaf; Second Day- Thaiyal Ilai/Stiched Leaf; Third day-Tharaiyila/on the floor; Fourth Day- thalaiyila/on your head!

So this custom of entertaining a guest is done only for three days from Kanyakumari to Kashmir.


“Sung Yun, another pilgrim, entered Udyaana about 518 CE by way of Kashkara (Chitraal) valley. He records that the king of the country was then a Buddhist, who observed a vegetable diet, and that the Buddhism was flourishing.


Naga Temple with 50 Priests!

This pilgrim mentions a regular system of irrigation from the rivers, which indicates a considerable degree of civilization. He also escribes a Naga temple, which was served by fifty priests or more, and says that the king propitiates the Naga with gold and jewels and other precious offerings.


“The pilgrim says a former Naga Raja of this lake was killed by another Naga, who seized upon his possessions and caused great mischief by raising storms. A stupa and a vihara, built by Kanishka Raja, were six times destroyed by the Naga. At last Kanishka collected his army, intending to destroy the Naga chief, but then he submitted.

In Lamghaan, wich was subjected to Kapisa, there were about ten sungharamas with few followers, and there were several scores of Deva temples. In a great cavern was the abode of the Naga Gopala. At Hidda, a neighbouring town, were many relics of Buddha, including a skull bone and an eye ball.


“In Gandhara which was then governed by an officer from Kapsa, was the ancestral home of the king of Kaabul and of so many neighbouring countries.


“Hiouen Tsiang, on his way back to China, was entertained by this king at the city of Udabhaandapura or Waihnad, which as noticed by Cunningham, and more flly by Stein of one of the capitals of the Hindu Saahiya Dynasty the pilgrim marched with the king by way of Lamghan to Kabul. This again shows that the  Kshatria king of Kaabul was one of the Saahis of the Kator or Pala dyasty of Gandhara.


The pilgrim describes some of the towns and villages as deserted, but others were rich and prosperous. There were many sugharamas and stupas, some of them in ruins and many temples of the Devas. It is mentioned too that men came from every part of India to pay their vows at the temple of Bhima devi.


This is the country which was said by Sung Yun, in AD 520, to have been destroyed by the yetha two generations before. The Hindu rajas had evidently recovered possession.


“Hiouen Tsiang next came to Udyaana, which has been described by earlier pilgrims. Here he found the law of Buddha greatly respected but Buddhism was less flourishing than formerly. There were temples of the Devas, and the Naga demigods still ruled the elements and still presided over that lakes and fountains.


The pilgrim visited the fountain at the Naga Apalaala, which the source of the Swat river. He visited also the Stupa built by Uttara sena, the Sakya king of Udyaana over the relics of Buddha.

“Hiouen Tsiang relates the history of Uttarasena, and of his marriage with the daughter of the Naga raja, through whose influence he obtained the kingdom. He also says that over the head of the princess appeared the hoods of a nine headed Naga.


The he visited Takshasilaa. Whenever the people wanted rain or shine, they went with Buddhist priests to the tank of Nagaraja Elapatra, where after praying, they immediately obtained their desires.”



From this source we learn

1.From Kabul to Indus Hindus lived there until seventh century.

2.Buddhis religion existed along with Hinduism

3.Worship of Brahmanical Gods and Naga demi gods was practised

  1. Naga worshipping people inhabited the area.







Great Sacrifice to Kailang Nag in Himachal (Post No.3149)


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 13 September 2016

Time uploaded in London: 8-05 AM

Post No.3149

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


Following is an excerpt from the book, “The Sun and the Serpent” by C F Oldham, 1905


“Some years ago I was invited by the Chak or local chief of Baramaor, in the valley of the Ravi River, to attend a great sacrifice to Kailang Nag. The object of the sacrifice was to obtain fine weather for the sowing, which had been delayed by storms. Kailang, like other Naga demi gods, is supposed to control the weather.


On my arrival, I found the people assembled on the open grassy space in front of the temple. The men and boys sat together, the women and girls being at a little distance. Soon the music struck up, and some of the men and boys began to dance in a circle, the chela dancing in the centre. After a time, the music became wilder and the dance more energetic. The chela continued dancing, and he applied the suungal (spear) to his own back and shoulders and to those of some of the dancers. Some of the men then applied another similar scourge to their own backs, with great effect, amid shouts of Kailang Maharaj ki jai (Victory to the great king Kailang).


Then all being ready, the victim – ram – was led out, and having shown, by shivering, that it was acceptable to the deity, its head was struck off. The body was immediately lifted off by several men, and the chela, seizing upon it, drank the blood as it spouted from the neck, amid renewed shouts of Kailang Maharaj ki jai. The carcase was thrown down upon on the ground, and the head, with a burning coal upon it, placed before the threshold of the temple.


The dancing was then renewed, and became more violent, until the chela gasped out Kailang Aya (kailang has come). All then became silent, and the prophet announced that the sacrifice was accepted and that the season would be favourable. This was received with a storm of shouts of Kailang Maharaj ki jai and the chela sank down exhausted. Water was poured over him, and he was vigorously fanned till he showed signs of revival. The assembly then began to disperse.


There are many temples in the Himalaya, at which human beings are said to have been offered in times of drought and threatened famine (in the olden days).


Buddhist Story

Kailang Nag had a shrine in the valley of the Chandra Bhaga river. Tradition says that human sacrifices were very frequent. At last it came to the turn, to provide the victim, of a widow, who had an only child – a son. The boy was accordingly devoted. The mother in great distress, was sitting near the temple, when a Buddhist monk came by, and, on hearing the woman’s story, offered to take the place of the victim.


Next day was fixed for the sacrifice. There was a great gathering, and the monk was present. He said, however, that he did not wish to be killed by anyone but the Naga; and that he would sit at the temple, until the deity came to devour him. This was agreed to. After sitting there for some days, without anything happening to him, the monk persuaded the people that the Naga did not wish men to be sacrificed.

From that time, no more human victims were offered to Kailang.


My comments

Sacrificing goats, sheep, rams, cocks happen in similar fashion in all parts of India. I have heard such stories in Madurai in Tamil Nadu. This shows that the culture was same even among illiterate tribal people.



“At these temples, either of Nagas or Devas, votive offerings are made, as in the Catholic Church. These are in fulfilment of vows made during sickness, danger or misfortune. Thus a man may promise a trident or Vasuki or Takshaka; or a plough, or a sword or bullock yoke to the tutelary deity of the village. These are generally represented by small models, which are placed in the temple.


Memorial stones

Around most of the old temples , either of Devas or of Nagas, , are arranged a number of stone tablets, like small tombstones on each of which is rudely carved the figure of a man and woman. These are monuments of deceased villagers, and correspond to grave stones in our church yards. As the dead are burned, there are no graves.

Similar memorials are sometimes placed at the village spring, at the crossing of a stream, or in some other frequented place. And sometimes in addition to the tablet, some work of public utility, as a resting-place for travellers, a fountain or a bridge over a stream is erected in memory of the wealthier villagers.

The monuments to the rajas (kings) are on a larger scale, and upon them were, formerly sculptured the representations of the wives and dependants who accompanied the chief to the other world.

My comments

The votive offerings and the tulabharam (weighing oneself in a big balance against anything that one wants to offer to the deity) are in Tamil Nadu and Kerala temples as well as ancient Sumer ( I have written an article about it).

Even today replicas of body parts in silver and other metals are offered to gods and goddesses.

The tomb stones are also found in different parts of India. In Karnataka and Rajsthan had emblems were erected for the women who did Sati. In Tamil Nadu and Karnataka Hero Stones were erected. Navakandam statues (human sacrifices before a war by a loyal soldier) are found throughout Tamil Nadu. So the culture was same throughout the country.



Indra Dwaja

“At some of the temples of the Devas, a pole or a mast, called Dhuj (Dwaja=Flag) is erected. This is a pine tree stripped of its branches, and it is renewed yearly,the old one being burned. As its name denote,this is the standard of the deity. It is referred to in the Mahabharata (Adi Parvan Adivansaavataarana, p.lxii.173), where Indra directs the king of Chedi to set up an Indra Dwaja. In processions a small Dhuj (Dwaja) is often carried by the chela. On the Indus and other Punjab rivers, the boatmen place a pole surmounted by a tuft of hair at the bows or at the masthead of their boats, as the Dhuj (Dwaja) of Kwaja Khizr, which is the Mussulman (Muslim) name for Varuna, the ancient Sea-God”


My old articles on the same subject:-

Indra Festival in the Vedas and Tamil Epics

Posted on August 11, 2012

Why did Sumeria and Egypt worship Indra?

Research Paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1288; Dated:14th September 2014.

Oldest Engineer in the World- Indra: A Dam buster or a Dam Builder?

Research Article written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1268; Dated 4th September 2014.

3000 Gods in Mesopotamia! Similar to Hindus!!

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Post No.1296;Dated 18th Sept. 2014.

Sapta Rishis in Sumeria! Similar to Hindus! More Tamil and Sanskrit words in Sumer!

Research paper written by London Swaminathan
Research article No.1419; Dated 18th November 2014.

Hindu Vestiges in Iraq ( Posted on 12th August 2014)
Indus Valley to Egypt: Lapis lazuli Export (posted 0n 6th Sept.2014)
Why did Sumer and Egypt worship Indra? (Posted 14th Sept.2014)
Double Headed Eagle: Indian—Sumerian Connection (18th December 2011)
Birds for Finding Direction: Sumeria to Tamil Nadu via Indus Valley (Posted 8th April 2013)
Cremation: Sumerian – Hindu Similarities (Posted on 14th May 2014)
Sanskrit Words in Sumerian: Sumukan Mystery (Posted on 12th May 2014)
A Hindu Story in Sumerian Civilization (Posted on 11th May 2014)
Mysterious Fish Gods around the World (Posted 27-10-2012)
Tulabharam: Indian – Sumerian Connection (Posted on 2nd January 2012)
Serpent Queen: Sabarimalai to Indus Valley
Hindu Vahanas around the World
Hindu Vahanas in Iraq (Posted on 21st October 2012)

(Most of these articles are published in Tamil as well around the same dates)


The Great Scorpion Mystery in History ( November 2012)
Mysterious Fish Gods around the World (October 2012)
Hindu Mudras in Egyptian and Sumerian Statues (October 2012)
Hindu Eagle Mystery Deepens — posted on 16th Feb. 2013
Gods and Birds, posted on 3rd Feb. 2013
Double Headed Eagle: Sumerian –Indian connection– posted on18 December 2011.
Tulabharam: Indian-Sumerian Connection (January 2012)
3000 Gods in Sumeria! Similar to Hindus!! (18th September 2014)
Why did Sumer and Egypt Worship Indra? (14th September 2014)
Sanskrit Words in Sumeria: Sumukan Mystery (12 May 2014)
A Hindu Story in Sumerian Civilization (11th May, 2014)
How old is Indian Civilization?
Creation: Vedic Hymn and Babylonian Hymn
Birds for Finding Direction: Sumer to Tamil Nadu
Indus Valley to Egypt: Lapis Lazuli Export (6th September 2014)
Did Indra Attack Sumeria? (9th October 2014)
Hindu Kings who Ruled Syria and Turkey (11th October 2014)
Hundred Sanskrit Names from 1800 BCE to 1400 BCE (14th October 2014)
Su Meru, Ku Meru, Pa Meru, Meru ((posted on 8th November 2014)
Rig Vedic king and Sumerian King 2600 BCE (posted on 14th November 2014)

வாகனங்கள் தோன்றியது எங்கே?
எந்தக் கடவுளுக்கு என்ன வாகனம்?
சுமேரியாவில் தமிழ் பறவை
தேள் தெய்வம்