Hindu gods in Zend Avesta- Part 2 (Post.10,642)


Post No. 10,642

Date uploaded in London – –    8 FEBRUARY   2022         

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We have already seen Indra, Aryaman, Vayu, Vritragna, Bhaga, Aramati, Narasamsha,Trita and 33 gods. We will see more angels in this second part.

There are common legends in both the Vedas and the Zend Avesta. But the difference is Hindus attributed them to the gods whereas Iranians or Parsis attributed them to the angels and the heroes.

Yima kshaeta (Jamshed) and Yama Raja

The names and the epithets are same. Yima is identical with Yama and khshaeta means king, same as Raja/ king. The family name of both is also the same. Vivahao or son of Vivanghvat in the Zend Avesta. Here’ in the Vedas he is the son Vivasvan.

In Zend Avesta, Yima gathers round him men and animals in flocks, and fills the earth with them; and after the evils of winter had come over his territories, he leads a select number of beings of the good creation to a secluded spot, where they enjoy uninterrupted happiness

According to the hymns of the Rigveda , Yama, the king, the gatherer of the people, has descried a path for many, which leads from the depths to the heights. He first found out a resting place from which nobody can turn out the occupants; on the way the forefathers have gone, the sons will follow them. – Rigveda 10-14-1/2

Yama is here described as the progenitor of the mankind; as the first mortal man, he experienced death. He gathered round him all his descendants. This happy ruler of the blessed in paradise has been transformed, in the modern Hindu mythology, into the fearful god of death.

In the legends of Iranians ,Yima was the king of golden age and the happy ruler of the Iranian tribes


Trita, Thrita, Thraetaona ( Fredun) and Trita, Traitana.

He who is one of the Sama family, from which the great hero Rustam sprang, is in the Zend Avesta. He is the first physician, the curer of the diseases created by Ahriman; an idea which we find attached to Trita in the Vedas. He is said, in the Atharva Veda, 6-113-1, to extinguish illness in men, as the gods have extinguished it in him; he must sleep for the gods,19-56-4.

He grants a long life (Taittriya Samhita, Krishna Yajur Veda).

Any evil thing is to be sent to him to be appeased RV 8-47-13

This is hinted in the Zend Avesta by the surname Sama, which means ‘appeaser’

In the Chatur vida Upayas ,we have Sama, dhana, beda, Danda.

He is further said to have been once thrown into a well, whence Brihadpati rescued him- RV1-105-17.

Hindus called him a Rishi and ascribed to him several hymns in the Rigveda Eg. 1-105

But there are some hymns which show him with godly virtues.

He drinks Soma, like Indra, for obtaining strength to kill demon Vritra RV.1-187-1

He cleaves with his metal club the rocky cave where the cows are concealed 1-52-5


Thraetaona (Fredun)

Thraetaona is easily recognised in the Vedic Traitana, who is said to have severed the head of a giant from his shoulders RV 1-158-3

His father is called Athwyo, which corresponds exactly with the frequent surname of Trita in the Vedas,viz., Aptya. Trita and Tritana seem to have confounded together in the Vedas , whereas originally they were quite distinct from one another.

Trita was the name of a celebrated physician, and Traitana that of a conqueror of a giant or a tyrant; the first belonged to the family of the Samas, the later to the Aptyas. In the Zend Avesta, the original form of the legend is better preserved.

It is in the Homa Yasht 7.

There is more interesting comparison between the Kavi, Kavya in the Zend Avesta and the Usanas Kavi in the Bhagavad Gita and the Rigveda. We will look at it in the third part.


My comments

Martin Haug thinks about only one Trita. But there may be more than one Trita and Traitana. If one does similar feats then we call him with the same name of the original performer

Tamil word in Avesta!!

In 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature the word eema = Yima is used for all funeral ceremonies. It is interesting to compare it with Yima in Avesta. Eema is closer to Avesta than Yama in the Rigveda.

To be continued……………………………….

tags- Tamil word,eema, Trita Aptya, Yima, Yama, Parsi