STAR MYSTERIES IN THE RIG VEDA- PART 2 (Post No.4250)

Written by London Swaminathan

 

Date: 27 September 2017

 

Time uploaded in London- 14-55

 

 

Post No. 4250

 

Pictures are taken from various sources such as google, Facebook friends, newspapers and Wikipedia for non-commercial use; thanks.

 

 

I posted the first part of this article yesterday.

 

Part 2

Atharva Veda added more names to the Nakshatra list.

Punarvasu is recommended by all authorities as suitable for ‘relaying of sacred fires (Punar aadheya); Kathaka Samhita allows Anuradha (star) also.

One Year

In the ceremony of Agnicayana (piling of the fire altar),the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatrasa. The bricks number 756 and they are equated to 27 stars multiplied by 27 secondary stars (nakshatras), reckoned as 720 (instead of 729) with addition of 36 days, the length of intercalary month.

Taiitiriya, Maitrayani and Kathaka samhitas give a list of 28 stars.

 

Taittiriya Samhita divided the stars into two categories:

1.Deva naksatras 1-14 i.e. Krittika to  Visakhe

2.Yama Naksatras- 15-27 i.e. Anuradha to Apabharani (Abijit with No 20 is not included)

 

In Krittika group (Pleiades) the names of the seven stars in the constellation include : Abhrayantii, Meghayantii, Vajrayantii (all connected with rain and clouds)

.

Next to Rohini comes Mrgasiirsa  ( also called Invakaa) and Arudraa (moist), Punarvasu, Tishya (also known as Pushya), Aslesa, Maghas (also known as Anaghaa). They are followed by Phalguni (also Arjuni), Hasta, Citra, Svati (also known as Nistyaa), Visakhe, Anuradha, Rohini (Jyestagni or Jyesta—two stars have the name ROHINI),Vicratu (Mula), Ashadas (Uttara, Purva), Abhijit (in the Lyrae constellation), Srona (Sravana), Sravisthas (also Dhanista), Satabhisaj (having 100 physicians), Prosthapadas, Revati, Asva-yujau (Asvini), Apabharani (Bharani).

 

In the Brahmanas , Nakshatras are joined with the moon such as Tisya- Paurnamasa, Phalghuni paurnamasa etc

The Nakshatras and the Chronology

Sravana always marked the Summer Solstice.

Now we list the stars from Asvini, Bharani, krittika………….; but in Vedic days all the lists of the Naksatras (stars) begin with Kritika. The reason is vernal equinox coincided with it. It happened in 3000 BCE, according to Weber.

 

Jacobi’s argument

German scholar Herman Jacobi contended that in the Rig Veda (RV 7-103 frog hymn; 10-85 marriage hymn) , the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the new year began with summer solstice in Phalguni. He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama nakshatras in the Taittiriya Brahmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the nakshatras.

 

The Winter Solstice in Magha (Regulus)

William Jones calculated it happened in 1181 BCE, taking the starting point at 499 CE given by Varaha mihira; but Davis and Colebrook arrived at 1391 BCE.

Year Beginning in Phalghuni:

Since it is called the mouth of the year, Phalghuni was considered the beginning of the year. Jacobi calculated and said that it happened in 4000 BCE.

 

B G Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with the Magha full moon at the time of the Taitiriya Samhita (2350BCE) and coincided with Phalguni and Caitri  in early periods – i.e. 4000 – 2500 BCE, and 6000-4000 BCE.

 

I am Margasirsha among the months: Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita. Why?

 

Markazi (in Tamil) or Maargairsha was called Aagrahaayana (belonging to the beginning of the year. Spring commenced in Caitra). This means the Vedas older than these calculations.

 

Pole Star

Jacobi pointed out Dhruva means fixed star and this pole star could have happened only in third millennium BCE.

 

All these point out to a very old date for the Rig Veda. If Margasirsa was the first month (as we find in the Bhagavad Gita) it will give us an older date to the Vedas!

Source Book: Vedic Index by Keith and Macdonell

 

Tomorrow I will tell you about Yajur Veda’s statement “STARS ARE WOMEN!”

–Subham-

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