Written by London Swaminathan 



Date: 21 MARCH 2018



Time uploaded in London – 12-46


Post No. 4837

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources.





There is a natural wonder near Viluppuram. At 20 miles from Viluppuram, is Tiruvakkarai where there is a fossil wood park. Many people who visit the famous Vakrakali temple and the Siva temple do not know about the fossil wood or stone tree park. I would suggest the Geological Survey of India who maintain the park place sign posts near the temple.


Tiruvakkarai has hundreds of fossilised trees spreading over a vast area—247 acres. The entry is free. It has got trees 20 million years old. They were washed away millions of years ago and buried under the earth. They are now wood stones. The department has installed big boards in Tamil and English explaining it to laymen. They have done a very good job. A watchman is getting the signatures of visitors on a note book, which must be appreciated.


There is another fossil wood park near Perambalur.

Scientists have found out the types of trees. Following are the facts given on the board at Tiruvakkarai:-

Fossilwood of Mesembrixylon schmidianum (gymnosperms/non -flowering plants)

Peuce schmidiana (angiosperms/flowering plants)


How big the trees are?

30 metres long with a diameter of 1-5 metres


How did the trees become stones?

During the petrification period, the organic matter inside the tree is replaced with silica/sand


How did they know they were washed away from another area?

Absence of roots and branches indicate toward in this direction.

Who discovered it?

In 1781 an Europena recorded the occurrence of it.

What is the use of preserving it?

These trees tell the age of the earth and the flora and fauna of an area.

Trees’ annual rings are preserved even in the fossilised wood.

They are of Mio-pliocene Sedimentary Rocks.

In some parts of the world they even indicate the drought, volcanic eruptions happened millions of years ago.





Genetics and other Sciences in Chanakya Niti (Post No.4818)

Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 15 MARCH 2018


Time uploaded in London – 14-47


Post No. 4818

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.







Chanakya, one of the greatest geniuses of India, lived 2300 years ago. He was a statesman and an economist. Though he was not a scientist he has composed slokas on various subjects including science. Here are some slokas/couplets:


While  a being is still in womb the following five are created for him—

Life span, action, wealth, knowledge and death.

Chanakya Niti 4-1


aayuh karma ca vittam ca vidhyaa niddhanameva

pancaitaani hi srujyante garbastarayaiva dehinah


This sloka points out that astrology is true. One year after the birth of a baby, the horoscope of that baby is cast in Hindu houses. The family astrologer used to write the education, job, money matters and the life span of that child. So, we know that this type of belief existed 2300 years ago!


Manikkavasagar, one of the four great Saivite Tamil saints, also describe the development of foetus in the womb. He lived 1500 years ago in Tamil Nadu.


Hindu knowledge about gem stones is found in all the Tamil and Sanskrit books. Here is what Chanakya says,

Ruby is not found in every mountain, pearl is not met with in every elephant, good people are not found everywhere, sandal wood is not found in every forest.


saile saile na maanikyam mauktikam na gaje gaje

saadhavo nahi sarvatra candanam na vane vane


The belief about gem stones is same in Sanskrit and Tamil books. They believed that in addition to oysters, pearl is ‘born’ in bamboos, elephants and scores of plants and animals!


Hindus knew that ruby, sapphire, diamonds are available in certain places only. They knew the fauna and flora of the country. Even Kalidasa, who lived 2000 years ago (see my research article on Kalidasa’s age), sings about the sandal wood available In Tamil Nadu. This sloka points out that beliefs were same even 2300 years ago in a vast land mass. So foreign rulers were not the people who united India.


Will the ladle know the taste of the food it serves?

A Tamil Siddha sang ,

Will the ladle know the taste of the curry it serves?


Chanakya also says the same!

People who go through the four Vedas and Darmasastras (Law books) time and again, still they do not know their own self like a ladle the taste of the cooked food.

patanti caturo vedaan dharmasaastraanyanekasah

aatmaanam naiva jaananti darvii paakarasam yathaa



It is amazing to see that for 2300 years the same simile is used by Tamils and Sanskrit scholars to illustrate the same point.



Time brings close to death, it destroys them. It keeps awake while others are asleep. It is difficult to overstep time



kaalah pacati bhutaani kaalah samharate prajaah

kaalah supteshu jaagarti kaalo hi duratikramah






Date: 3 FEBRUARY 2018


Time uploaded in London- 7-05 am


Compiled by London swaminathan


Post No. 4696







There is a very interesting exhibition in London Wellcome Centre about Ayurveda, the Indian medical system. This is a free exhibition held until 8 April 2018. It is next to the Euston Square underground. The title given to the Exhibition is ‘Ayurvedic Man—Encounters with Indian Medicine’.

What is in the Exhibition?

Valuable collection of Sanskrit manuscripts, pictures and displays of surgical instruments. There is a beautiful video show of Himalayan herbal wealth.


A leaflet about the exhibition explains the title as follows:

“The exhibition sheds light on Sir Henry Wellcome’s historical collections that relate to Ayurveda and Indian medicine and traces how health narratives have been shaped by multiple cultural encounters.

The exhibition takes its title and inspiration from the Ayurvedic Man – an 18th century Nepali painting depicting the organs and vessels of the male body according to classical Ayurveda. It showcases an executive range off material from our collections, including Sanskrit, Persian and Tibetan manuscripts, vibrant gouche paintings and erotic manuals.”



What is Wellcome Centre?

Ninteenth Century philanthropist Sir Henry Wellcome had enormous interest in medical knowledge around the world. He collected lot of medical antiquities. Now it has become a charitable organisation funding medical research in 70 countries. Their website has full details of their funding, research and library details.

Wellcome collections include rare Ayurveda, Unani books and microfilms of rare medical books around the world.

Now I will show some of the displays:

Sushruta was the Father of Surgery. He describes a lot of surgical instruments. On the basis of his description, model instruments were created. They are displayed in London exhibition. Sushruta describes rhinoplasty – fixing artificial nose. See the pictures below:-



The Wellcome Centre has another display by the side of the temporary Ayurveda Exhibition. Henry Wellcome’s profile is displayed there.

Henry Welcome was a man of many parts: entrepreneur, philanthropist, patron of science and pioneer of aerial photography. He also created one of  the world’s great  museums: a vast stockpile of evidence about our universal interest in health and the body.

Henry Solomon Wellcome (1853—1936) was born in a Protestant family in America. He came to Britain as an ambitious salesman and remained, initially to help establish Boroughs Wellcome and Co eventually to build a pharmaceutical empire. He also had a fascination for the past and collected lot of treasures with medical, historical and anthropological interests. Now they are housed in museums and libraries around the world. Here is his picture:






(Sri Ramanuja lived for 120 years)



Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 6 DECEMBER 2017 


Time uploaded in London-  17-05



Post No. 4465

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



The concept of long life is found in the Rig Veda; the wish for a life span of 100 years is seen in lot of places in the Vedic literature. This shows that the Vedic Hindus were very much health conscious. This shows also that they were highly civilised. Their target was a welfare society.


Every day the Brahmins do Sandhya vandana (water oblation) three times and in the noon ceremony, they recite a long Mantra looking at the son through Varuna Mudra; this Mudra (hand gesture) prevents damage to the eye. In the long Mantra they pray to Sun God to give them good eye sight, good hearing, good speaking skills and ever happy mood. They also pray for invincibility. Every sentence finish with the words ‘for 100 years/autumns’ (saradas satam)

(Kanchi Shankaracharya 1894-1994)

Pasyema saradas satam

Jivema saradas satam

Nandaama saradas satam

Modaama saradas satam

Bhavaama saradas satam

Srnvaama saradas satam

Prabravaama saradas satam

Ajeetaasyama saradas satam


Dirgayutva, longevity, is a constant object of the Vedic prayers. Atharva Veda has spells to prolong existence.


When Hindu youths salute the elders they always bless them with long life. They say ‘Dirgayusmaan Bhavaha’ (Live for long). When they bless them like this, they mean a full life of 100 years without any disease or difficulties.


Atharva Veda and Panchvimsa Brahmana use the word Dasami for the period of life between 90 and 100 year. Rig Veda called it Dasama Yuga (1-158-6) meaning the ‘tenth stage of life’.

Dirgatamas lived for 100 years (according to Sankhayana Aranyaka)

Mahidasa Aitareya lived for 116 years (says Chandogya Upanishad)


(Trailinga Swami of Varanasi lived for 280 years)

Greek Scholar Onesikritos

Onesikritos, who accompanied Alexander the Great, visited India and wrote that the Hindus lived sometimes unto 130 years. Buddhist Jataka Tales also say people wished a long life of 120 years. This was the condition of India 2300 years ago.


The Brahmanas regularly express the reward for ritual actions by the phrase ‘sarvam aayur iti’ meaning ‘he lives all his days’.


In our own times Kanchi Shakaracharya lived for100 years (1894 to 1994). Sri Gnanananda Swami of Tirukovilur in Tamil Nadu lived for 150 years. Trailinga Swami of Varanasi lived for 280 years (1607-1887). If we go by these records Hindus lived longer than anyone mentioned in the Guinness Book of Records.


Sri Ramanuja lived for 120 years and Vedanta Desika lived for 101 years.

Bharadwaja story also shows that one could live unto 400 years.

Manu in his Manavadharma Shastra says,

“In the Krta Yuga people were free from sickness and worries and the life span of man is 400 years. In the Treta yuga it was 300 years, in the Dwapara Yuga 200 years and in Kali Yuga 100 years” (Manu 1-83)

It adds that the seers can increase their age through penance.

(Sri Gnanananda Swamil lived for 150 years)

Tamil saivites believe that Tirumular lived for 3000 years (but not in human body)


What we infer from all the Vedic writings is that the Vedic Hindus were health conscious and they aimed to live for 100 years.


The story of Bharadvaja (from my old post)

There is a story in the Taittiriya Brahmana (3-10-11-3) about  Bharadvaja studding the Vedas

Bharadvaja lived through three lives in the state of a religious student (brahmachari). Indra approached him when he was lying old and decrepit and said to him,

“Bharadvaja, if I give you a fourth life how will you use it?”

Bharadvaja said, I will be a Brahmachari studying the Vedas”

Indra showed him three mountain like objects, as it were unknown. From each of them he took a handful, and, calling to him, Bharadvaja!

“these are the three Vedas. The Vedas are infinite. This is what you have studied in your three lives. Now there is another thing which you have not studied. Come and learn it. This is universal science. He who knows this conquers a world as great as he would gain by the triple Vedas.


–Subham —


Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 27 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 14-55



Post No. 4250


Pictures are taken from various sources such as google, Facebook friends, newspapers and Wikipedia for non-commercial use; thanks.



I posted the first part of this article yesterday.


Part 2

Atharva Veda added more names to the Nakshatra list.

Punarvasu is recommended by all authorities as suitable for ‘relaying of sacred fires (Punar aadheya); Kathaka Samhita allows Anuradha (star) also.

One Year

In the ceremony of Agnicayana (piling of the fire altar),the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatrasa. The bricks number 756 and they are equated to 27 stars multiplied by 27 secondary stars (nakshatras), reckoned as 720 (instead of 729) with addition of 36 days, the length of intercalary month.

Taiitiriya, Maitrayani and Kathaka samhitas give a list of 28 stars.


Taittiriya Samhita divided the stars into two categories:

1.Deva naksatras 1-14 i.e. Krittika to  Visakhe

2.Yama Naksatras- 15-27 i.e. Anuradha to Apabharani (Abijit with No 20 is not included)


In Krittika group (Pleiades) the names of the seven stars in the constellation include : Abhrayantii, Meghayantii, Vajrayantii (all connected with rain and clouds)


Next to Rohini comes Mrgasiirsa  ( also called Invakaa) and Arudraa (moist), Punarvasu, Tishya (also known as Pushya), Aslesa, Maghas (also known as Anaghaa). They are followed by Phalguni (also Arjuni), Hasta, Citra, Svati (also known as Nistyaa), Visakhe, Anuradha, Rohini (Jyestagni or Jyesta—two stars have the name ROHINI),Vicratu (Mula), Ashadas (Uttara, Purva), Abhijit (in the Lyrae constellation), Srona (Sravana), Sravisthas (also Dhanista), Satabhisaj (having 100 physicians), Prosthapadas, Revati, Asva-yujau (Asvini), Apabharani (Bharani).


In the Brahmanas , Nakshatras are joined with the moon such as Tisya- Paurnamasa, Phalghuni paurnamasa etc

The Nakshatras and the Chronology

Sravana always marked the Summer Solstice.

Now we list the stars from Asvini, Bharani, krittika………….; but in Vedic days all the lists of the Naksatras (stars) begin with Kritika. The reason is vernal equinox coincided with it. It happened in 3000 BCE, according to Weber.


Jacobi’s argument

German scholar Herman Jacobi contended that in the Rig Veda (RV 7-103 frog hymn; 10-85 marriage hymn) , the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the new year began with summer solstice in Phalguni. He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama nakshatras in the Taittiriya Brahmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the nakshatras.


The Winter Solstice in Magha (Regulus)

William Jones calculated it happened in 1181 BCE, taking the starting point at 499 CE given by Varaha mihira; but Davis and Colebrook arrived at 1391 BCE.

Year Beginning in Phalghuni:

Since it is called the mouth of the year, Phalghuni was considered the beginning of the year. Jacobi calculated and said that it happened in 4000 BCE.


B G Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with the Magha full moon at the time of the Taitiriya Samhita (2350BCE) and coincided with Phalguni and Caitri  in early periods – i.e. 4000 – 2500 BCE, and 6000-4000 BCE.


I am Margasirsha among the months: Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita. Why?


Markazi (in Tamil) or Maargairsha was called Aagrahaayana (belonging to the beginning of the year. Spring commenced in Caitra). This means the Vedas older than these calculations.


Pole Star

Jacobi pointed out Dhruva means fixed star and this pole star could have happened only in third millennium BCE.


All these point out to a very old date for the Rig Veda. If Margasirsa was the first month (as we find in the Bhagavad Gita) it will give us an older date to the Vedas!

Source Book: Vedic Index by Keith and Macdonell


Tomorrow I will tell you about Yajur Veda’s statement “STARS ARE WOMEN!”


Comets: Shakespeare also believed Hindu Views (Post No.4218)

Written by London Swaminathan


Date: 16 September 2017


Time uploaded in London- 18-48


Post No. 4218


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



In Sangam Tamil literature and Hindu epic literature lot of references to comets (dhumaketu) are vailable.; all those references fear the evil effect of the comets. Ancient tamils used both Sanskrit word Dhumam (smoke) and the lieral translation of Dhema Ketu + Pukaik kodi in Purananuru.

Shakespeare also had the same belief about comets in his drama Julius Caesar, Calpurnia says

“When beggars die, there are no comets seen; the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes” Julius Caesar 2-2-30/31



Calpurnia, wife of Julius Caesar, begs her husband not to venture out on this morning, the ides of March. Caesar has spent a restless night and there is a wild storm raging. Calpurnia has had disturbing dreams, as well; crying out three times in her sleep, “They murder Caesar!” She begs him to stay home. Caesar sends word to the priests and they, too, return a warning that Caesar must stay home. Calpurnia is very upset , especially because of the strange events of the preceding evening: reports that a lioness was seen giving birth in the streets of Rome, the dead rising from their graves, warriors fighting in the clouds, reports of horses neighing and dying men groaning, ghosts shrieking. Comets were seen during the night, which Calpurnia interprets as a prophecy of the death of a prince.


Shakespeare had similar views about eclipse which is also in Tamil and Sanskrit books.

Tamil Belief

Meteors: Kudalur Kizar (Puram 229) described the effect of a meteor he and his colleagues saw in the sky. They predicted that the Chera King Mantharan Ceral Irumporai would die in seven days time and it came true.

Comets: Like any ancient community Tamils were also afraid of the comets. They used the Sanskrit word ( Dhuma ketu) and Tamil word (Pukai Kodi) for it. Reference: Puram 117and 395 Also in post- Sangam Tamil epic Manimekalai 6-64, 7-74, Silappadikaram 10-102


Tamil Poet Bharati On Halley’s Comet
1.Like a palm tree set on a millet plant,
With a growing tail on a little star,
You blaze forth in kinship with eastern moon
Oh, lustrous comet! I bid you welcome

2.You range over countless crores of Yojanas
They say your endless tail wrought of gas
The softness of which is indeed peerless

  1. They say that yourtail touches the earth too
    An you fare forth with no harm to the poor;
    The wise talk of your myriad marvels.
    ( I have given only 3 stanzas from 7 stanzas of translation by Dr T N Ramachandran)

Varahamihira on Comets:


  1. Dhumaketu | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about Dhumaketu written by Tamil and Vedas. … is considered as Dhumaketu – a portentous comet … //



  1. ISON comet | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about ISON comet written by Tamil and Vedas. … Dhumaketu in Sanskrit means Lord Ganesh and the … // …




Mantra, Tantra and Yantra -Tamil Poet and Particle Physics Agree (Post No.3843)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 23 APRIL 2017

Time uploaded in London:- 18-23

Post No. 3843

Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


An old Tamil poem written by an anonymous author in ‘Neethi Venpa’, an anthology of didactic poems, gives us valuable information about God and Guru, Mantra, Yantra and Tantra.


The poet says: “If you have faith in God, Guru (spiritual teacher), Mantra (Vedic Hymns etc.), Tantra (Tantric Texts; left handed rituals), Yantra (Magical letters on metal plates), Medicine, Initiation methods of ascetics – all these seven will come true only when you have faith in them; if you don’t believe them, they will not be fruitful”.


This statement becomes more relevant and gets new meaning in the context of scientists’ latest discoveries. There are lot of articles appearing in science journals about the Placebo effect and Particle physics.

Patients who are given fake (placebo) medicines, without their knowledge, are cured faster than the patients who took real medicine. The scientists have found out that faith plays a major role in the treatment.


In the same way, the particle physics says that even the observer can influence the result of an action. People were wondering how come the religion and science are very different in producing results. They asked if two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen react with each other and produce water for everyone in any laboratory in the world, why not the religious rituals do this? We read about miracles performed by the saints, but ordinary men can’t do miracle. Moreover, the same saint cannot do the miracle for everyone, every time, why?


Now that we know observer can interact with the things or actions he watches; Everything is dependent upon the intensity of the observer’s thoughts. I guess the more powerful the observer is, better results are achieved. More research into particle physics will bring out more truths about Hindu beliefs. In the next fifty years or so, scientists will agree with the Hindu saints in full. They will also agree with us that Time Travel is possible mentally (not physically) without interfering in the past or future. I can compare it with the pdf and word versions of a document. You can’t edit it in pdf version. Like that, we can’t edit the past, future and present. But you can watch it (read only document). Only great saints can interfere in it.



My Old Article on the same subject is given below

Space ships and Special Prayer Days (Posted 10 February 2012)


The title may look strange to many of you. You may wonder what a spaceship has got to do with special prayer days. I would like to explain why Hindus insist doing prayers on special days and at special times and in earmarked places. If the prayers are done by great saint’s miracles do happen. But when we do the same, no such miracles occur. Why?


Hindus believe that praying on festival days like Shivratri, Durgashtami, Ganesh Chathurthy, Kanda Shasti, Janmashtami, Rama Navami etc will increase the benefits many folds. Praying during solar or lunar eclipse will also boost the power of our prayers is a popular belief. Hindu scriptures support this belief. Is it true that certain places or certain days or certain times are more beneficial than other days? Yes, it is true.


When Adi Shankara sang the Kanakadhara Stotram a shower of golden gooseberries (amalaka) fell from the heaven for the sake of a poor devoted lady. When Saivite Nayanmars and Vaishnavite Alwars sang hymns, hundreds of miracles happened. It is the same old story with a lot of saints like Nivritti, Jnandev, Sopana, Muktabhai, Eknath,Namdev, Tukaram, Ramdas, Chaitanya,  Shirdi Saibaba, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Ramana and many more Babas.


Why doesn’t God answer our prayers when we sing the same old hymns sung by our saints?


Let’s look at this example:

If you want to send a spaceship into space orbit or beyond that point you need to plan a lot of things. You can’t launch a spaceship from anywhere on earth. You must have a space station at a vantage point, most times near the sea or uninhabited places. Moreover the latitude and longitude of that place must be taken into account. For example, it is advantageous if the launch pad is nearer the equator.


You have to design a rocket which exceeds a speed of at least eight miles per second (11.2 kilometres/second). This is called escape velocity. Then you must have sufficient energy to lift the rocket. The heavier the rocket, the more fuel you need to get to this speed. Then you must have an aim – like the Moon or Mars, and do the calculations accordingly and correctly. If you make even a small mistake in the calculation, the space pod at the tip of the rocket may fall back on earth or travel several thousand miles away from its destination. We often read of such failures in the newspapers. Most space missions to Mars have failed.

For launching every rocket they have Launch Windows. They have to fire the rocket at a specific time. If they miss it they have to wait for another like that. This is especially true when scientists want to launch a spaceship to a particular planet: they have to calculate the orbit of that planet and the time it comes closest to earth etc. If they want to use the ‘gravitational slingshot’ to speed up the journey, they have to adhere to a particular time. This will save an enormous amount of fuel.


One can apply this principal to prayers on special days or by special people:

We must have some aim and focus only on it (like the space ship). We must make great preparations like selecting a particular place, day and time (like launch windows). We must have enough fuel (number of times or recitation of mantra) and right speed (intensity of prayer). If our ego, hatred, desire, bad thoughts etc. are eliminated then the prayer becomes fruitful. We attain ‘escape velocity’ for our prayers and it goes straight in to orbit (of God). Since saints like Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhwa, Chaitanya or Yogis and Rishis knew these “launch windows” and they attained the escape velocity easily for their prayers to achieve great success. But we always waiver, make the wrong calculations and the wrong demands so our rockets (prayers) easily fail.


Special festival days are like launch windows – they are the right time for our prayers to be sent. Our prayers will easily reach the target. Festival days act like gravitational slingshots – our prayers, even if you recite the mantra just 100 times, are boosted several thousand times. In short it reaches its destination and gives you the expected results quickly.




The Wonderful and Complicated Organ Called Brain (Post No.3822)

Written by S NAGARAJAN


Date:16 April 2017


Time uploaded in London:-  5-29 am



Post No.3822



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.





The actual storage capacity of the human brain has never been measured, although it has been estimated that during our lifetime we store about ten times more information than is contained in all the books in the Library of Congress.
Anthony Smith, in his beautiful book, ‘The Mind’ quotes that if a computer were to be constructed like a human brain, there would have to be ten thousand million of the most minutest transistor valves which at a few pence each, would cost 375 million Sterling pounds for a start. All the connections at two cents each would cost far more and the contraption would need an aircraft-hangar. This was written by a writer in pre-chip age.

The human brain is about 8 inches in length 4 inches in height, and weighs 3 pounds only.
Mr. V.Pekelis writes in his famous book, ‘Cybernetics A to Z’:
The questions looms large in the minds of scientists: how does the brain hold the fantastic amount of information accumulated by a man during his lifetime? Scientists are laboring unceasingly to solve the problem of the origin of memory. The opinion holds that our brain is made up of 12-14 billion neurons. It can be presumed that each neuron is capable of storing more than one unit of information. The presumption that this minute particle of the brain is able to assume ten or hundred states to record information seems less justified. Even if this was the case, it would be impossible to imagine how the brain is able to hold the gigantic reserve of intelligence. We can not but presume that memories are recorded on the molecular level, that molecules of memory are active in the brain. Those are enormous, very complicated molecules, which look like rope ladders with cross-beams of two types. These molecules, placed in a definite order, like the dots and dashed in the Morse code, constitute a peculiar atomic and molecular ABC.


How much can be recorded with the aid of it? Let us make some calculations. Each molecule has 10000 cross-beams of two types. The chromosomes of human cells contain some 100000 genes. This means that the number of elementary signs will be 100000 x 10000 = 10 billion. This is equivalent to 50000 pages of the Grand Encyclopaedia. But this is not the final word. If we go on, it will become clear to us that that with an ‘ideal’ code the text written with the aid of the two signs of our chromosomes would amount to hundreds of thousands or even millions of encyclopaedia pages.

In an ordinary walk to a nearby Provisional Stores to buy something, we make at least forty important life saving decisions analyzing the records already stored.

When we cross the roads, when we drive, when we park, we take important decisions.
Imagine how many important decisions are to be taken by a man/woman in a lifetime.
In order to make our life full and meaningful, we have to use our god-gifted brain with a purpose.
This can be learned. The skills could be acquired by practice.
How to use it purposefully will be subject for the future article.


Kalidasa’s simile in Tamil ‘Kalitokai’ about Water Purification! (Post No.3775)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 31 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 9-38 am


Post No. 3775


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.



Picture: A girl is fetching water from Railway Supply Pipes in Agartala, Tripura

Kalidasa has used over 1300 similes and imageries in his seven works. Out of the 1300 plus similes, Sangam Tamil poets have used over 200 similes; This places Kalidasa before the Sangam Poets i.e. before 2000 years ago. I have shown in my research articles posted here from 2011 that only Sangam poets copied Kalidasa and not vice versa. It is all about Ganges, Himalayas and mythologies. Here is one more example from his drama Malavikagnimitram (Malavika+ Agnimitram). This is repeated verbatim by the Sangam Tamil poet Nallanthuvanar in Kalitokai verse 142)


Here is the reference from Kalidasa’s work:

“Just as a stupide person becomes wise by association with the wiser, similarly the turbid water becomes clear by contact with the purifying fruit of the Kataka tree” – Malavikagnimitram II-7


Mandoapyamandataameti samsarhgena vipachchitaha

pankacchidaha phalasyeva nikarshaenavilam payaha


Here is the Tamil poet’s simile:

“ How come she has become bright and composed now! As soon as she embraced that broad chested man, she has become clear like the water that has become crystal clear after adding the Thetraankottai (Clearing nuts)” – Kalitokai, Verse 142;  Nallanthuvanar in Neithal Kali.


Kalitokai is an anthology of Sangam Tamil period. It is dated to first three centuries CE.


Though this water purification method is known to all the villagers from Kanyakumari to Kashmir, the way the two poets used betrays copying. Since Kalidasa is praised sky-high by the whole world for his usage of similes he couldn’t have copied. His similes are found in Gatha Sapta Sati and Sanagm Tamil Literature—over 300 similes! Had Kalidasa copied from all the 300 poets the world would have condemned Kalidasa as a copy cat! Moreover, the way and the place he used the imageries proved that his were the originals. Apart from these things, Kalidasa knew the Northern parts of India and Hindu mythology than the Southern Tamil and GSS Prakrit poets. This places Kalidasa in the first two centuries of BCE. ( For more proof , please read my articles comparing Kalidasa and the Sangam Tamil Literature)


I have given below my previous article on the water purification methods:




Water Purification Techniques in Ancient Indian Literature!


Written by London swaminathan

Research Article No. 1688; Dated 3 March 2015.

Water is a rare commodity in certain parts of India. There is a proverb in Tamil, “Treat Water as Precious” – “Neeraiyum Seeraadu”. Villagers have to walk miles together just to get some water for their day to day essential use. Even that water is murky or muddy. Indian literature is full of stories about mass migration because of big droughts. We read about the droughts and migration in Vedic literature and later Tamil literature. Indus valley civilization was also affected by acute drought. Mahabharata described the drought in Saraswati River basin and the Brahmins moved out of that area.  have collected all the references to drought in the Vedas and Tamil literature for my research.

Even in the areas where water is available, there were certain periods of acute scarcity. So the ingenious people have found out some techniques for water purification. Usually they dugout water springs in the dry river beds or some places identified by the trees. Varahamihira has dealt with this in a separate chapter in his Brhat Samhita (Please read my earlier article on this topic: How to find water in the desert? Posted on 16th February 2015 in this blog)

Tamil Books on Water purification

Kalitokai is an anthology of Sangam Tamil period. It is dated to first three centuries CE. A confused woman who later became clear and composed is compared to the water that is purified by the clearing nuts (Kalitokai, Neithar Kali by Poet Nallanthuvanar):

“ How come she has become bright and composed now! As soon as she embraced that broad chested man, she has become clear like the water that has become crystal clear after adding the Thetraankottai (Clearing nuts)”

Naladiyar is an anthology of 400 verses in Tamil. It is dated to eighth century CE. One of the verses says about the unlearned people,

“Though they be unlearned, if they move in the society of the learned, the former will grow wise and learned just as the new earthen pot by its contact with the bright coloured “Paathiri” flower, imparts its fragrance to the water deposited in it”.



jalakatakarenu nyayah

Sanskrit language has got many Nyayas (analogies or similes) and one of them is jala katakarenu nyaya. The nyaya is used to illustrate that dirty things can be purified by mixing with good things. If you mix the kataka powder (Clearing nut powder), then the water gets purified-  is the message. This is used by great people like Sri Sathya Sai baba to bring out the sacrifice one makes in community service. He used to say, “bring out the good in the society and disappear like Kataka powder. Once it purifies the water it dissolves in the water and loses its shape. A social worker also should sacrifice his name, fame and identity when he serves the community like the kataka powder” — is the message, he gives.

KATAKA = Strychnos potatorum = clearing nut tree= Thetra maram in Tamil

It is a common sight in South Indian houses that a corner is allocated for a mud pot. There the mud pot is placed on a heap of river sand and in the water pot they put Vettiver or pathiri flower for fragrant and cool drinking water.



Varahamihira on Water purification

Brhat Samhita – Chapter 54

“A mixture of antimony, and the powder of Bhadramusta ( a kind of grass) bullbs, andropogon, Rajakostaka and myrobalan combined with Kataka nuts should be dropped into a well.

Anjanasusthosariirai: saraajakosathakaamalakachurnai:

Kathakafalasamayukthairyoga kuupe pradhaatavya:

(Kataka = Strychnos potatorum- Clearing Nut tree. Cilliya mara , Tettamaram in Tamil and Malayalam;  Anjana is translated as antimony; but it has other meanings in Sanskrit).

Even the water that is muddy, bitter, saltish, bereft of good taste, and of bad odour, will become clear/pure, of good taste and good smell and endowed with other qualities”.

The villagers living in arid areas will be benefitted if they follow ancient scriptures. In African countries they use the seeds of Moringa oleifera, a common vegetable used in South India and Sri Lanka.



The Glory of Betelgeuse – Ardra Star! (Post No.3691)

Written by S NAGARAJAN


Date: 5 March 2017


Time uploaded in London:-  5-16 am



Post No.3691



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






The Glory of Betalgeux – Ardra – Which Is Two Crores and Fifty Lakhs Spheres of the Size of the Sun!


In Sanskrit it is called as Ardra. In English it is Betalgeux. The astronomical name is Alpha Orion.

In Tamil only two stars are prefixed with the word ‘Thiru’ which means ‘most respected’. One is Thiruvadirai and the other is Thiruvonam.

Thiruvadirai is Betalgeux. This star denotes Shiva. The other star denotes Maha Vishnu.

The presiding deity of the star Betalgeux is Rudra, that is Shiva.

This star could be easily spotted in the sky because of its size and relatively close distance from the earth.

According to Sir James Jeans, the famous author of ‘Mysterious Universe’, the star Betalgeux is so voluminous that it can contain two crores and fifty lakhs of spheres of the size of our Sun. And the Sun is thirteen lakhs of times bigger than our earth. Such is the enormous size of Betalgeux.


It is so fiery in nature, that one observer has rightly describes the star after seeing it through 100 inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory in America thus: “I saw it blazing; How many millions of Suns rolled into one! I seemed almost to hear the roar of that unbelievable furnace seething across the night, burning for ever and ever, from the beginning of time to that incalculable day when time shall have no longer any meaning’.

This is the third brightest star in the sky.


The Hindu puranas give the name Manmada for the God of Love. Manmada is being identified as Sagittarius in the sky.

We can see the disappearance of Sagittarius, that is Manmada, in the western horizon as Rudra – Betalgeux – rises in the east. This has been effectively and picturesquely described in the purana through a simple story.



The puranas say that Manmada is immediately burnt and instantly reduced to ashes as fiery Rudra – Betelgeux – rose up and extended his fierce glance over the offending cupid.

This episode is being gloriously sung from time immemorial to this day in every nook and corner of India. The dancers with their imaginative skills capture this beautiful scene and reproduce it in every stage till this day.


In the Puranas we may find that always the demonic forces are 180 degrees opposite to that of the Divine forces.

The sky is divided into 360 degrees and always the divine forces win over the demonic forces which are always exactly opposite to them.

Thus, Ardra is one such star glorified by the Puranas, Lord Shiva burnt the evil passion instantaneously.



This is called Kama Dahanam meaning burning of evil passion.

Mahabharata describes the burning of Khandava Forests.

Valmiki in Ramayana describes as how Hanuman burnt the city of Sri Lanka.

Napoleon described the historic burning of Moscow in 1812 as ‘fierest, the most terrific and the most sublime sight the world ever beheld’.



These are all of the descriptions of the earthly fire of a much smaller area.

When we think of the fiery perennial burning for billions and billions of years in the sky we are dumbfounded.

We are reminded of this great Betalgeux in our every day life through a small story of Purana.

Observe the sky and then read the Puranas. We may understand the Puranic stories in a better manner the real meaning of which are hidden in the vast, never-ending, limitless, immeasurable space.