Written by London swaminathan

Date: 10 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 9-28 AM (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5307


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



A great poet by name Kamban wrote the Ramayana in Tamil verses about 1000 years ago. Though he said that he followed Valmiki , he deviated in some places. But the main story remained intact unlike the South East Asian Ramayanas.


15 billion years ago, there was an explosion and the universe expanded from a  hot, central core; what we see as stars, galaxies, solar system etc evolved from it in stages. The big crunch theory says that the continuously expanding universe will stop expanding at one point in time and collapse suddenly. It is like a blowing balloon suddenly explodes and collapses.


Hinduism is the only religion which says the age of universe is around 15 billion years; other religions place it a few thousand years back. In Hinduism, all the Sanskrit words and Tamil words for all heavenly bodies including universe is globular or circular or spherical.

Now to Kamban… He says in Yuddha kanda,

Seeing the condition of his brother Lakshmana, Rama sobbed. Then Devas said,

“O the Supreme! Like the spider

which can spin the finest thread

out of itself, and make a web

and can withdraw it all

You will never cease to make

and unmake these various worlds,

All lives, inside out

Which you will swallow and spit out”


–The Brahmastra chapter.


Here expanding universe and crunching universe is compared to the spider web. And it is explained more clearly in ‘swallowing and spitting out’, i.e. the big crunch and big bang. According to Hindus it is done again and again. But scientists have not reached to that level. Even big crunch is only in hypothesis.


If it is a passing remark in only one place one may even ignore it. But Kamban and other Hindu scriptures repeatedly say it (Please see the link given below to my articles dealing with the same theme).

In the earlier Aranya Kanda (canto, under the chapter on Sarabanga, this point is discussed; there Kamban talks about the Great Deluge. He says everything merges in to Him at the time and at another creation it changes into many. In short, Hindus looked at Time as cyclical and all the events also repeated.

Manikka vasagar, a great Saiva saint, who lived several hundred years before (around 6th century) Kamban described the universe in clearer terms:

“The development of the sphere of the elemental universe

Its immeasurable nature, and abundant phenomena

If one would tell their beauty in all kits particulars

As- when more than a hundred million in number spread,

The thronging atoms are sent in the ray that enters the house

So is He the great One, who exists in the minutest elements

If you would know him, Brahma and rest with Vishnu

His greatness, source, glory and end

Conjoined with His eternity, His extent, His abiding essence




Here we can see the word used is ‘spherical’, ‘more than a hundred million’, ‘spreading/expanding’.


All these correlates with the words in Big Bang Theory. Manaikkavasagar used a simile which every Indian would easily understand; India is a tropical country with dust every where. When the sun ray enters the house through small holes in the roof of a hut or through the narrow window of a house one would see millions of dust particles floating. He rightly compared it to the expanding universe. One would see the dust particles floating and moving. They don’t stand still; That is what happening in the universe; everything is floating(galaxies and Stars) in the vast expanse of time and space. They are moving without stopping.


It is amazing to see such images in the Rig Vedic Nasadiya Sukta and other hymns.


How did they know all these things? Did they ravel back in time? Did they find it by intuition? Hindu scriptures talk about different periods of time at different levels for different people (like Brahma and Indra; they lose their posts after certain period and new ones come). We couldn’t even find such things in science fiction stories or novels until very recently.


Kamban mentioned the universe, various worlds etc in other cantos as well.





Compiled by London swaminathan

Date: 10 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 7-11 AM (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5306


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



The festival of Gathemangal is celebrated in the memory of mythical demon Ghantakarna’s death. (Photos: AP)

Nepalese woman gather and prepare the material to make an effigy of demon Ghantakarna symbolizing demolition of evil during the Ghantakarna festival in Bhaktapur. According to the legend, a demon named Ghantakarna terrorized the villagers by stealing the children and women of the village. He used to demand money and other gifts from the villagers. His body was painted in red, blue and black and he wore a pair of bells on his ears. He looked very scary and every time he moved, the bells jingled. He got his name from the bells on his ears, i.e. Ghanta meaning ‘bell’ and Karna meaning ‘ears’.


Nepalese people gather to watch burning of effigy of demon Ghantakarna symbolizing demolition of evil during the Ghantakarna festival.


Nepalese people prepare an effigy of demon Ghantakarna prior to burning it symbolizing demolition of evil. According to legend, one day, a large number of frogs came to the village and began to croak near Ghantakarna’s place. He became furious but the frogs did not stop. They croaked even louder and when he tried to catch them, they jumped into the water. He, too, jumped into the water without realizing that it was a swamp and soon started to drown. The frogs swarmed around his head and he drowned to death. In this way, the frogs saved the village and the villagers from the demon.

Nepalese people burn an effigy of demon Ghantakarna symbolizing demolition of evil. The festival of Gathemangal or Ghantakarna Chaturdasi, like most of the Nepali festivals, is an example of the victory of good over evil.




Gantakarna ( Bell Eared Karna)

The story of Gantakarna is very interesting. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

says, “Be not a bigot like Gantakarna”.

Gantakarna worshipped Shiva, but hated all other deities. Siva appeared

before him and expressed his displeasure. He advised him to treat all gods with

respect. But he wouldn’t change. Just to teach him that God is one, Siva

appeared again, but in the form of Hari Haran (Half Vishnu+ Half Siva). It made

him worse. He showed to ‘Arti ‘ etc to Siva side only. He blocked the nostrils of

Vishnu so that the incense fragrance would not reach him. Siva warned him

that he would suffer for his bigotry. Ghantakarna was least bothered about

Shiva’s warning. He retired to a village. Knowing his attitude, children of the

village deliberately uttered Vishnu’s name in front of him. Vexed at this,

Ghantakarna hung two bells (Ghanta) on his ears (Karna). When the boys cried

out “Vishnu, Vishnu”, he would ring the bells so that he would not hear them.

He spent his entire life by ringing the bells!


இந்துக்கள் பாம்புகளை கும்பிடுவது ஏன்? விஞ்ஞான விளக்கம் (Post No.5293)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 6 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 9-51 AM  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5293


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.



இந்த ஆண்டு (2018) ஆகஸ்ட் 15ம் தேதி நாக பஞ்சமி வருகிறது. நாடு முழுதும் இந்துக்கள் பாம்புகளைக் கும்பிடுவார்கள்.

நாக பஞ்சமி என்றால் என்ன?


ஏன் பாம்புகளை வழிபட வேண்டும்?

இது பற்றிய இரண்டு கதைகள் என்ன?

கொஞ்சம் ஆராய்சி செய்வோமா?


சில பகுதிகளில் நாக பஞ்சமியை ஒரு மாதம் வரை கொண்டாடுகிறார்கள். ஆடி மாத பஞ்சமியிலிருந்து ஆவணி சுக்ல பக்ஷ பஞ்சமி வரை கொண்டாடுகிறார்கள்.


நாக பஞ்சமி தினத்தன்று என்ன செய்வார்கள்?

பாம்புகளை வழிபடுவார்கள்;


பாம்புப் புற்றுகளில் பால் வார்ப்பார்கள்


பாம்பு, பறவைகளின் படங்களை சுவர்களிலும் கோலங்களிலும் வரைவார்கள்.


பருப்பு, கோதுமைகளை அரைத்து அதில் புல்லை முக்கி பாம்பு போல செய்வார்கள். அத்தோடு இனிப்புகளைப் பாம்புப் புற்றுகளில் இடுவார்கள்.


மானஸா தேவி என்னும் நாக தேவதையை வழிபடுவார்கள்


நாட்டில் ஒவ்வொரு மாநிலத்திலும் ஒரு வழக்கம் இருக்கிறது


இது பற்றி இரண்டு கதைகள் உண்டு

ஒரு பிராஹ்மணப் பையனை பாம்பு கடித்து விட்டது. அவனைக் காப்பாற்ற அவனது இரண்டு சஹோதரிகளும் மானஸாதேவியை வழிபட்டனர். அந்தப் பையனுக்கு மீண்டும் உயிர் வந்தது. அவனும் சஹோதரிகளுக்கு விருந்து வைத்தான் ஆகையால் இது சஹோதர-சஹோதரி விருந்து நாளாகவும் அனுஷ்டிக்கப்படுகிறது.


இரண்டாவது சம்பவம்


சந்த் என்ற வணிகனுக்கு மானஸா தேவி மேல் கொஞ்சமும் நம்பிக்கை இல்லை. அவனது ஒவ்வொரு குழந்தையும் பாம்பு கடித்து இறந்தபோதும் அவன் வழிபட மறுத்தான். மீண்டும் ஒரு மகன் பிறந்தான்.

அந்த மகனுக்கு கல்யாண நாள் நிச்சயிக்கப்பட்டது. அந்த தினத்தில் மானஸா தேவி அந்த வணிகனுக்குப் பாடம் கற்பிக்க அந்த மணமகனைக் கடித்தாள்; அதாவது பாம்பு கடித்து அந்த மணமகன் இறந்தான்.


ஆனால் புது மணப்பெண், அந்த சடலத்தை எரிக்க வேண்டாம் என்று சொல்லி விரதம் இருந்தாள். அவளும் உடல் இளைத்து எலும்புக்கூடாகும் தருணத்தில் மானஸா தேவி மனம் இறங்கி அருள் பாலித்தாள். பிண மகன் மீண்டும் மணமகன் ஆனான். வணிகன் பெயர் சந்த். மணமகனை மீட்ட கற்புக்கரஸியின் பெயர் வெஹுலா.


இப்படி நாடு முழுதும் பாம்புக்கடி மரணங்களும் அவர்கள் மீண்டு வந்த அற்புதங்களும் உண்டு. நாயன்மார் ஆழ்வார் கதைகளிலும் பாம்புக் கதைகள் இருக்கின்றன. இவற்றைத் தனியே எழுதியுள்ளேன்.


நாக பஞ்சமி மூலம் இந்துக்கள் எப்படி இயற்கையைப் பாதுகாக்கிறார்கள், போற்றுகிறார்கள் என்று இப்பொழுது வெளிநாட்டினரும் புகழத் துவங்கி விட்டார்கள்; அறிவியல் ரீதியில் பார்த்தால் பெரும்பாலான பாம்புகள் விஷமற்றவை. மக்களின் பயமும் பீதியும் வெளியாட்களின் பிரச்சனையும் தான் சிக்கலை உருவாக்குகிறது. மேலும் பாம்புகள் மனிதனின் எதிரிகள் அல்ல;  தானாக வந்து எவரையும் தாக்குவதில்லை. அதைத் தாக்கும்போதோ மிதிக்கும்போதோ அவை தற்காப்புக்காகத் திருப்பித் தாக்குகின்றன. குழந்தைகளும் பாம்புகளும் விளையாடும் படங்களைப் பார்க்கிறோம்; ஏனெனில் அவை நண்பனுக்கு நண்பன்; எதிரிக்கு எதிரி.


150 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் வெளியான வெள்ளைக்காரர் புஸ்தகங்களில் சில படங்கள் இருக்கும்;


காளி கோவிலில் குழந்தைகளைப் பலி கொடுக்கும் படம்

பெண்களை, கணவனின் சிதையில் தூக்கி எறியும் படம்

மரங்களையும் பாம்புகளையும் பெண்கள் வழிபடும் படம்


இப்பொழுதும் இவைகள் பழைய புஸ்தகங்களிலும் பத்திரிக்கைகளிலும் உள. நான் அடிக்கடி லண்டனில் பிரிட்டிஷ் லைப்ரரியிலும் லண்டன் யுனிவெர்ஸிட்டி லைப்ரரியிலும் பார்த்துப் பார்த்துச் சிரிப்பேன்;


இவை எல்லாம் உண்மையில் நடந்திருந்தால் இன்று இந்துக்களே உலகில் இருந்திருக்க மாட்டார்கள். கோடியில் ஒன்று நடந்தது உண்மைதான். இன்று மேலை நாடுகளில் இதைவிடக் கூடுதல் கொடுமைகள் நடப்பதை லண்டனில் பத்திரிக்கைகளில் தினமும் படிக்கிறோம்.


ஏனைய விஷயங்களை புறத்தே ஒதுக்கி வைத்து விட்டு பாம்பு வழிபாடு பற்றி மட்டும் பார்ப்போம்.


உலகில்  அறிவியல் அடிப்படையில் அமைந்த மதம் இந்து மதம்; எல்லாப் பண்டிகைகளுக்கும் அறிவியல் விளக்கம் உண்டு.

இந்தியா ஒரு விவசாய நாடு. மக்களின் மிகப்பெரிய தொழில் விவசாயம்.

உழுதுண்டூ வாழ்வாரே வாழ்வார் மற்றெல்லாம்

தொழுதுண்டு பின் செல்பவர் (குறள் 1033)

உழவர்களே  தன்னுரிமையோடு வாழ்வார்கள்; மற்றெல்லோரும் பிறர் முன்னால் கைகட்டி, வாய் புதைத்து வாழ்பவர்கள்; இயல்பாகவே உழவர் பின்னால் செல்பவர்கள்.


விவசாய உற்பத்தி குறைந்தால் பஞ்சம் வெடிக்கும்; அராஜகம் பிறக்கும் ஆகையால் விவசாய உற்பத்தியைப் பாதுகாப்பது அவசியம்.

எலிகள் மூலம் ஏற்படும் சேதம் மிக மிக அதிகம். அதோடு பூச்சிகளும் சேதம் விளைவிக்கும். இவைகளைக் கட்டுப்பாட்டிற்குள் வைப்பது பாம்புகளே (Vital link in the food production chain) .


ஆதிகாலத்தில் வீட்டுக்குள் பாம்புகளைக் கண்டாலும் கூட அவைகளைக் கொல்ல மாட்டார்கள். பானைக்குள் அல்லது பெ ட் டிக்குள் பிடித்து வயற்காட்டில் விட்டு விடுவார்கள் அல்லது பாம்புப் பிடாரனை அழைத்து அவன் கையில் அந்தப் பணியை ஒப்படைப்பர்.

வயல் வெளிக்குள் நடந்து செல்வோரும் இரவில் ஒத்தையடிப் பாதையில் வருவோரும் கைகளைத் தட்டிக்கொண்டே வருவர் பாம்புகள் விலகி ஓடி விடும்! (பாம்புகளுக்கு காதுகள் உண்டா? அவைகளால் கேட்க முடியுமா என்பதை வேறு ஒரு ஆராய்ச்சிக் கட்டுரையில் விளக்கிவிட்டேன்; அதன் விஞ்ஞான விளக்கத்தை கட்செவி (கண்ணே செவி/காது) என்னும் ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரையில் காண்க)

ஆக எலிகளைக் கொல்ல பாம்புகள் உரிய அளவில் இருக்க வேண்டும் என்பது இந்துக்கள் அறிந்த உண்மை.


பாம்பைக் கண்டால் படையும் நடுங்கும் என்பது பழமொழி; ஆனால் நல்லோர் அவையில் புகுந்த பாம்புகளையும் அவர்கள் கொல்ல மாட்டார்கள் என்று ஸம்ஸ்க்ருத, தமிழ்ப் பாடல்கள் சொல்லும். ஆக பாம்புகளின் மீதுள்ள பயத்தை எப்படிப் போக்குவது?

குறிப்பாக பெண்களும் சிறுவர்களும் பயப்படுவர். ஆண்டு தோறும் பண்டிகை நடத்தி நாக பஞ்சமி கொண்டாடுவதன் மூலமும் வெள்ளிக் கிழமைதோறும் புற்றிலுள்ள பாம்புகளுக்குப் பால் வார்ப்பதன் மூலமும், நாக பஞ்சமி தினத்தன்று பாம்பு படங்களைக் கோலம் வரைபடம் ஆகியவற்றில் வரைவதன் மூலமும், கோவில் தோறும் நாகர் சிலைகளை வைப்பதன் மூலமும் மக்களை உளவியல் ரீதியில் (psychologically prepared)  இந்துக்கள் தயார்படுத்த்தினர்.

பாம்புகளைக் கட்டித் தழுவுங்கள்; கொஞ்சிக் குலவுங்கள் என்று நான் சொல்ல வரவில்லை; அதை அவஸியமின்றி அடித்துக் கொன்று அழிக்காதீர்கள்; அவைகளையும் இயற்கை எனும் சங்கிலியில் ஒரு வளையம் என்பதை உணருங்கள்.


பாம்புகளை அழித்தால் வயல் வெளியில் எலிகள் பெருகும்; எலிகள் பெருகினால் உணவு உற்பத்தி குறையும்.


வாழ்க நாக பஞ்சமி; வளர்க நாகங்கள் (புற்றுக்குள் மட்டும்)!!!




Written by London swaminathan

Date: 4 August 2018


Time uploaded in London – 11-59 AM  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5288


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.






This year (2018), Naga Panchami falls on 15th of August. It is a Hindu festival celebrated throughout India. Though the stories change from area to area the basis is same. People worship snakes or snake goddess on that day. Snake goddess is found in Rig Veda, Greece, Indus Valley and South Indian villages (Please see my articles listed at the end).


It falls on Suklapaksha Panchami of Ashada (Adi in Tamil) month.


(Naga= snake, Panchami= Fifth Lunar day)



English word snake came from Sanskrit= S+Naga= Snake

English word serpent came from Sanskrit Sarpa

Tamil word Aravu/ Aravam came from Sanskrit Sarpam (s dropped, p=v;according to linguistic rule)


Hindus show great respect to environment. They want to keep disturbance to the nature to the minimum. From the morning, they worship nature. Before putting their feet on earth (floor) they ask for pardon (Padas sparsam Kshamsvame). Before they dig the land for wells or ploughing the land, they ask for pardon. They say cutting the trees is a sin. They called the earth mother (Bhuma Devi= Gaiya in Greek). It is in the oldest book, the Vedas.


They are scientists; so, they know that optimum utilisation of nature is the best. Though they know snakes are poisonous animals, they still worshipped the poisonous cobras. They knew that snakes are required to kill the rats in the fields. If the rats are not controlled food production will be reduced. They knew snakes form a vital link and it maintains an equilibrium in Nature. That is why all Hindu gods are adorned with snakes!


They also know that snakes never bite a man unless and otherwise they are threatened or disturbed. People walking in the villages, particularly during nights just clap the hands and walk ( can the snakes hear human sounds? do they have ears? discussed in my previous articles)


In some parts of India Naga Panchami continue for one month till the Panchami of next month (Ashada to Bhadra).

Holes in the anthills are considered to be the homes of cobras. Women worship them even on ordinary Fridays and they pour milk in the holes.


Bengalese plant a milky white plant (Euphorbia Lingularum) on these days on a raised mound of earth in the courtyards of their houses and worship Goddess Manasa Devi. They worship her to get immunity from snake bites or avoiding bitten by snakes. If anyone has died due to snake bite in the family all of them join in worship and they pour milk in the ant hills where snakes live.


Punjabis draw a black figure on the wall to avoid snakes coming into the houses. The figure represents snake goddess.


In the central parts of Indi,a they paint snakes and birds on walls and they make a paste with wheat and pulses. They dip grass in the paste and make snake figures. They offer sweets and milk to the snakes.


In Maharashtra and other parts, they offer milk and dried rice to snakes. They pour it in the places where they live. They even avoid digging and ploughing on those days.


In Karnataka, a vrata(fasting) named Citranemi is observed.


In Mithila (Bihar- Nepal border) Mauni Panchami is celebrated.


In Orissa and Dravida, Guru Panchami is celebrated by worshipping Lakshmi and Gauri on that day.





In South India the story is about a Brahmana boy bitten by a cobra when he went to get a Ketaki flower ( Thazam Pu in Tamil; Pandanus Fascicularis) . His sisters followed a vow (Vrata) and brought him back to life. The fourth day of waxing moon in Sravana month is observed as Festival of Brothers and Sisters. They observe it.


Another story


Chand was a merchant who did not believe in the Goddess Manasa devi. As a result, he lost all his sons due to snake bites. But yet he was very obstinate and never paid reverence to the Goddess. He got one more son who was the apple of his eyes. He was still obstinate in not worshipping Manasa and Manasa Devi was also relentless and she bit his son on his wedding day in spite of his precautions. His newly wed wife Vehula did not allow his body to be cremated. She was fasting till her body became a skeleton but never stopped her prayers to Manasa. She begged to Manasa for the restoration of his husband’s life. At last Manasa relented and gave his life back.


It is the belief of many that a person supposed to be dead by a snake bite, really lives in a state of suspended animation for a long time after.

Hindus, by not killing the snakes, the vital animal in the food production chain, increase the production of food grains. The snakes keep even frogs and toads in control which freely enters every home during rainy season.


Villagers don’t fear snakes even when it enters a house; they simply trap it in a box or pot and release it in the field. They know the value of it.


Every village has some snake charmers, who handle snakes without any fear. Every village has a medicine man with anti-dotes for venom. But yet snake bites kill hundreds of villagers; it is said that more people die in panic or not seeking proper help.




What do Hindus do on Naga panchami Day?


1.They go to ant hills where the snakes live, they pour milk or feed them with some eatables (only vegetarian food).


2.They actually worship the snakes if they see them with utmost reverence.


3.They worship snake goddess Manasa Devi and other snake (Naga sculptures) stones.


4.They draw pictures of snake goddesses on the walls in houses.


  1. They draw pictures of snakes and birds which will drive away the fear of snakes.


  1. Through these activities, they psychologically prepare children and women not to panic when they see snakes in the garden or filed.


Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures have hundreds of snake bite stories; most of the bitten people came back to life by the grace of a saint or God.


Being a tropical country India has hundreds of varieties of snakes and most of them are non-poisonous.


Foreigners have taken several videos and films in appreciation of Hindus’ reverence to snakes




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RESEARCH ARTICLE WRITTEN by London swaminathan


Date: 18 JULY 2018

Time uploaded in London – 6-51 am (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5231


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.





We come across child prodigies around the world. Science could not explain the phenomenon satisfactorily.


Is it because the parents were brilliant and the children inherited it?

Is it because they are brought up in such an environment which made them geniuses?

inherited or Acquired?

Does Nature play a role or Nurture is the cause?

Heredity or Environment?

All these questions are debated very often and no explanation satisfies the inquisitive mind. Intelligent people are born even in remote villages where there is no formal education is available. Great people are born in illiterate families.

Adi Shanakara was a genius at the age of 16

Jnana Sambanda composed poems at the age of 3.

Bharati and Vivekananda attained fame by the age of 39!


Several Hindu geniuses became great when they were very young.

Hindu approach to this child prodigy is different. They belive whatever you have learnt in your previous births is deciding your intelligence at birth; Then you can continue improving it and go higher and higher. Lord Krishna made it very clear in the sixth chapter of Bhagavad Gita (BG. 43 t0 46)


Hindu scriptures Bhagavad Gita, Tamil Veda Tirukkural, Manu Smrti and Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsam are some of the books where we come across references to SEVEN BIRTHS and carrying and improving the knowledge from birth to birth.

Jnana Sambadar, The Wonder Boy of Tamil Nadu


Of all the books mentioned above, Tamil Poet’s Tamil Veda Tirukkural spoke about it in at least six places.

Let me quote them:

1.No evil will befall a man in all the seven births he may have if he begets children of irreproachable character- Kural 62


2.The noble minded will remember for all the seven births the friendship of those who saved them from affliction 107


3.If a man learns to control his five senses in one birth as the tortoise, that power will stand by him in his seven births- 126

4.The heritage of culture acquired in one birth lasts to the seventh – 398

5.Devote yourself to what the wise commend as worthy, else you will not find joy in all seven births – 538

6.A fool does so much sinful deeds in one birth that he suffers infernal  misery in all seven births- Kural 835

Tamil Saint Poet Tiruvalluvar

Manu says

If any one of these (Rig, Yajur, Sama Veda Scholars) fed and honoured at a ceremony for the dead, the hosts’ ancestors going back to seven generations will be perpetually satisfied- 3- 146 of Manu Smrti


This is another translation

3-146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, the ancestors of him who gives the feast, as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time.


Seven generations may also mean several generations.

In one of the commentaries of Tirukkural seven different types of births are also mentioned: Devas, Human beings, Demons, Birds, Animals, Reptiles and Water creatures

All these show that there are seven births of a person or seven generations or seven different levels (from Devas to fish)


Kalidasa in his Raghuvamsam is clear like Tiruvalluvar: In chapter 1-20 he says,

“Dilipa’s actions were known only when their benefits are felt. it was kept like a secret like one knows the previous births by the results obtained in the current birth. The message is clear that one gets whatever one deserves depending upon the good things one has done in previous births 1-20.


In another sloka (18-50), Kalidasa says King Sudarsan did not need any help from the teacher as everything he learnt in his previous births came very handy. He remembered everything he learnt already.

Hindu saint/poet Tiruvalluvar from old book

This is echoed by Tamil Poet Valluvar when he said that what one learns in one birth will be helpful in seven births.


Lord Krishna, Manu, Kalidasa and Tiru Valluvar agree on one point: What you do in one birth will have its effect in seven births.

Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita says that one can even improve his learning in the next birth/s

“There he comes to be united with the knowledge acquired in his previous birth and strives more than before for perfection “– BG 6-43


This explains the amazing knowledge of child prodigies. Hindus believe that it is neither genetics nor environment that makes a person. Even if we consider these two are the factors, believers can still argue that is also given to one due to the Karma (action) in one’s previous birth.




விட்ட குறை தொட்ட குறை- வள்ளுவன், மநு, கண்ணன் தரும் வியப்பான தகவல் (5229)

RESEARCH ARTICLE WRITTEN by London swaminathan


Date: 17 JULY 2018

Time uploaded in London – 14-56 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5229


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


விட்ட குறை தொட்ட குறை- வள்ளுவன், மநு, கண்ணன் தரும் வியப்பான தகவல் ( POST No.5229)

இளம் வயது மேதைகள் பற்றி நிறைய கேள்விப்படுகிறோம்; படிக்கிறோம். நமது குடும்பங்களிலேயே சிலருக்கு இசையும் நடனமும் இயற்கையாகவே வருகிறது. சிலர் கணிதத்தில் புலிகளாக இருக்கின்றனர். சிலர் ஐந்து ஆறு வயதிலேயே கவி பாடுகின்றனர். இவற்றுக்கு எல்லாம் விஞ்ஞானத்தில் சரியான விளக்கம் காணப்படவில்லை. ஆனால் தமிழ் வேதமாகிய திருக்குறளில் தெய்வப் புலவன் இது பற்றித் திரும்பத் திரும்ப விளம்புகிறான். கண்ணனும் பகவத் கீதையில் மொழிகிறான். மநுவும் அவனது சட்டப் புத்தகமாகிய மனு ஸ்ம்ருதியில் நுவல்கிறான். கொஞ்சம் ஆழமாக உழுவோம்; அகலமாக உழுதல் பயன் தராது.



மநு சொல்கிறான்: ஒருவன் ரிக் யஜுர், சாம வேதத்தில் வல்லவனான ஒருவனுக்கு உணவு படைத்தால் அவனது ஏழு தலை முறை கடைத்தேறும் என்று.

அதாவது இந்துக்களின் நம்பிக்கை– ஒருவன் செய்யும் வினையானது ஏழு தலை முறைகளுக்குப் பயன்படும். அவனது ஏழு தலை முறைகளுக்கோ அவனது உறவினரின் ஏழு தலைமுறைக்கோ எப்படிப் பொருள் கொண்டாலும் சரியே.


கண்ணபிரான் பகவத் கீதையில் இன்னும் கொஞ்சம் விளக்குகிறான்:

நல்லது செய்பனுக்கு கெடுதி என்பதே வராது என்று சொல்லிவிட்டு அத்தகைய நல்லோர் யோகிகளின் வீட்டிலோ செல்வந்தர்களின் வீடுகளிலோ பிறப்பான் என்று சொல்லிவிட்டு:-


தத்ர புத்தி ஸம்யோகம் லபதே பௌர்வதேஹிகம்

யததே ச ததோ பூயஹ சம்சித்தௌ குரு நந்தன- 6-43


“அங்கு முன் உடலில் உண்டாகிய அந்த புத்தியின் கூட்டுறவை அடைகிறான். குரு நந்தன! மேலும் அதைவிட மேலான நிலையை எய்த முயல்கிறான்”– என்கிறார்


இதற்கடுத்த ஸ்லோகம் ஒன்றில் (6-45) பல பிறப்புகளில் படிப் படியாக முன்னேறி உயர்ந்த கதியை அடைகிறான் என்கிறார்.


அதாவது ஒருவன் கற்ற விஷயங்கள் மறுபிறப்பிலும் உதவி, மேலும் மேலும் ஒருவனை உயர்த்துகிறது.


நாம் கற்கும் கல்வி FIXED DEPOSIT பிக்ஸட் டெபாஸிட் அல்லது லாங் டேர்ம் டெபாஸிட் LONG TERM DEPOSIT போல பலன் தரும்.


இதைக் காளிதாசனும் ஆமோதிக்கிறான்.

ரகுவம்சம் என்னும் காவியத்தில் மன்னன் திலீபனின் அரசாங்கப் பணிகள் அனைத்தும் ரஹஸியமாகவே இருந்தன; பலன் கிடைத்த பின்னரே அரசனின் செயல் என்ன என்பதை அறியமுடிந்தது. அதாவது இந்த ஜன்மத்தில் ஒருவருக்குக் கிடைக்கும் வெற்றியைக் கொண்டு அவனது முன் ஜன்ம புண்யத்தை அறிவது போல. ( ரகு 1-20) என்கிறார்.


சுதர்ஸனன் என்பவன் கல்வி கற்றது ஆசிரியர்களுக்குச் சிரமம் இல்லாமல் இருந்து. அவன் கற்பதெல்லாம் பூர்வ ஜன்மத்தில் கற்றதை நினைவு  படுத்திக்கொண்டது போல எளிமையாக இருந்தது (18-50)

இங்கும் பூர்வ ஜன்மக் கல்வி அடுத்த ஜன்மத்தில் பயன்பட்டதைக் காளிதாஸன் பாடுகிறான்.


இவர்கள் எல்லோரையும் விட வள்ளுவன்தான் தெளிவாகச் சொல்கிறான்:-


அவன் ஒன்றல்ல, இரண்டல்ல, ஆறு குறள்களில் செப்புகிறான்:

62, 107, 126, 398, 538, 835

எழு பிறப்பும் தீயவை தீண்டா  பழிபிறங்காப்

பண்புடை மக்கட் பெறின் -62



நல்ல புதல்வர்களை பெற்றால் ஒருவனுக்கு ஏழு பிறப்பிலும் தீயவை தீண்டாது. இது மநு சொன்னதைப் போல இருக்கிறது


எழுமை எழு பிறப்பும் உள்ளுவர் தங்கண்

விழுமந் துடைத்தவர் நட்பு- 107

தமக்கு நேர்ந்த துன்பத்தை விலக்கியவரின் நட்பைப் பெரியோர்கள் ஏழு பிறவிகளிலும் நினைத்துப் பார்ப்பர்.


இதற்கு ஒரு பழைய உரை– தேவர், அசுரர், மனிதர், மிருகம், பக்ஷி, ஊர்வன, நீர் வாழ்வன என்றும் விளக்கம் தரும்; அப்படிப் பார்ப்பதும் இந்து தர்மமே.


ஒருமையுள் ஆமை போல் ஐந்தடக்கல் ஆற்றின்

எழுமையும் ஏமாப்புடைத்து – 126



ஒரு பிறவியில் ஆமை போல புலன்களை அடக்கக் கற்றுக் கொண்டால் ஏழு பிறவிக்கும் பாதுகாவலாக அமையும்; இது கிருஷ்ணன் பகவத் கீதையில் சொன்னதை அப்படியே சொல்லுவது போல உள்ளது.

ஒருமைக்கண் தான் கற்ற கல்வி ஒருவற்கு

எழுமையும் ஏமாப்புடைத்து – 398


இதில் வள்ளுவன் மிக தெளிவாகச் சொல்லுகிறான்; ஒரு பிறப்பில் கற்ற விஷயங்கள் ஏழு பிறப்பிலும் தொடந்து வந்து உதவும்.


கற்ற கல்வியானது எந்தப் பிறப்பிலும் மறையாது.


எழு பிறப்பு என்பதை பல, எண்ணற்ற பிறப்புகள் என்றும் பெரியோர்கள் வியாக்கியானம் செய்வர்.



புகழ்ந்தவை போற்றிச் செயல் வேண்டும் செய்யாது

இகழ்ந்தார்க்கு எழுமையும் இல்-  538


அறிவுடையோர் சொன்ன விஷயங்களை நினைவிற் கொண்டு செயல்பட வேண்டும். அப்படிச் செய்யாதோருக்கு ஏழு பிறப்பிலும்  நன்மை உண்டாவது இல்லை.


ஒருமைச் செயலாற்றும் பேதை எழுமையும்

தான் புக்கழுந்தும் அளறு-  835


பேதை என்பவன் யார்? ஏழு பிறவியில் அடையக்கூடிய , அனுபவிக்கக்கூடிய நரக துன்பத்தை ஒரே பிறவியில் செய்யக்கூடியவன் ஆவான்

காளிதாசனும் வள்ளுவனும் கண்ண பிரானும் மநுவும் சொன்னது என்ன?

நீங்கள் படித்த எந்த விஷயமும் வீண் போவது இல்லை; ஒவ்வொரு பிறவியிலும் வந்து உங்களுக்கு உதவும்; அங்கிருந்து மேற்கொண்டு கற்று அடுத்த படிக்கு முன்னேற உதவும்.

இனியும் தேவார திவ்வியப் பிரபந்தத்தையோ

வேத வேதாந்தங்களையோ (வேதாந்தம்= உபநிஷத்) படிப்பதை தாமதிக்கலாமா?


அடுத்த ஜன்மத்தில் நீங்களும் இளம் வயது மேதை ஆவீர்கள்!

TAGS-ஏழு பிறப்பு, விட்ட குறை தொட்ட குறை, இளம் வயது மேதை



Research Article Written by London swaminathan


Date: 8 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 15-49  (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5196


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


What is cloning?

an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells, produced asexually from one ancestor or stock, to which they are genetically identical.


That is, you create a replica of a human being without sexual intercourse. In my 2014 articles about Ten Medical Mysteries in Mahabharata, I have listed the ancient techniques of Test Tube babies, cloning etc. (see the link below for the full article).

Apart from the cloning references in the Mahabharata we have more references in Devi Bhagavata, Vishnu Purana and Manu Smriti:-


Cloning through Blood

Rakta Bhija (blood Seed)’s story is in Devi Mahaatmya. The demon Rakta Bheeja has a strange power. No one can kill him because when his blood is shed, another demon will emerge from each  drop of his blood. He fought with the Goddess Chaamunda. Each drop of his blood as it fell on the ground produced a new Asura (demon). But Chamundaa Devi found a new technique to stop it. She drank his blood in full and devoured his flesh. No more demons came out.


This story is a clear proof of blood cloning. If we place all stories of cloning together found in Hindu literature and study them we will know they are not fancy stories or science fiction.


Churning the Body of MEN to produce children!

Mahabharata gives innumerable stories of strange births, particularly men giving birth to babies. Till cloning techniques were reported in news papers, people couldn’t understand such stories and they were either baffled or they ridiculed such stories.


Here are two more from two different sources:


A legend in Vishnu Purana says that King Nimi requested Vaishtha to perform a fire sacrifice which would last for 1000 years. The sage pleaded a prior engagement to Indra for five hundred years, but offered to come at the end of that period. The king made no remark and remained silent and so Vaishistha rushed to the Royal court of Nimi as soon as he finished 500 year Yaga (fire sacrifice). He took silence as Yes. In the meantime, Nimi had finished the Yaga with the help of another sage called Gautama.


Enraged by this Vaisishtha cursed Nimi to become ‘Body less’ (Vi+Deha). This curse was given to him while Nimi was sleeping. When he woke up he became angry saying that a sleeping person cannot be cussed according to Hindu law and he cursed Vasistha back. Vaisistha perished as per the curse and came back in another body. But in Nimi’s case he died because of the curse. And then the sages CHURNED HIS BODY AND PRODUCED A SON CALLED MITHI. The city of Mithila, Sita’s birth place got the name from this legendary King Mithi.


Here churning the body is a technical term for cloning.

This is proved in another story

Story of Vena

Vena, son of Anga and a descendant of Manu Swambhuva issued a proclamation regarding Fire Sacrifices:

“Men must not sacrifice or give gifts or present oblations. Who else but myself is the enjoyer of sacrifices? I am forever the Lord of the Offerings”.

The sages remonstrated him respectfully, but in vain. They admonished him in stronger terms; but when nothing worked, they slew him with blades of consecrated grass. After his death the sages beheld clouds of dust and inquiry  found that they arose from the bands of men who had taken to plundering because the country was left without a king.  A King less (A+rajaka)country is severely criticised in the Hindu epics and mythologies.


As Vena was childless, the sages after consultation, RUBBED the thigh ( in Hari Vamsa, they rubbed his right arm) of the dead king to produce a son. From it there came forth a man like, a charred log, with flat face and extremely short. The sages told him to sit down (Nishida). He did so and thus became a Nishida, from whom sprang the Nishaadas dwelling in the Vindhya mountains., distinguished by their wicked deeds.

(Nishada= hunters, Forest dwsellers)

(This shows that their first experiment of CLONING went wrong and wicked people were produced ; something like Jurassic Park film)

The sages then RUBBED the right arm of the dead body of Vena and from it sprang the majestic Prithu, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni/ Fire God. The story of Vena is found in Mahabharata, Manu Smrti commentary, Padma Pura and Hari Vamsa.

Here RUBBING stands for CLONING.

Prithu gave the name Prithvi to earth.


The Puranas faithfully reported that the cloning went wrong in the first experiment. Puranas never lie.


The ancient sages used technical jargon like RUBBING or CHURNING the dead body for CLONING.


As the science develops new techniques or make new inventions we understand our mythology better.


For Ten More Mysteries from the Mahabharata , please read my old article:



cloning | Tamil and Vedas

Posts about cloning written by Tamil and … Cloning ( as we saw in Rakthabheeja demon story), … // …




Indian Medical wonder! Magic Medicine for Asthma! (Post No.5152)




Date: 26 JUNE 2018


Time uploaded in London –  16-32 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5152


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.


India is a land of wonders. Miracles happen everywhere. Even today the miracles continue to happen in every field of life. Rationalists failed miserably to stop such things, because the majority population believes in them. And it works; if it does’t work, it would have gone with the wind. When one does something without expecting money, there is no scope for complaint. No one had side effect so far with the miraculous Asthma cure available in South India. Now eleven western TVs and Newspapers cover this annual event. Here is a report from London Newspaper:-

Forget inhalers – meet the Indian people who swallow live FISH to try and cure their asthma

  • Gulping down fish stuffed with yellow herbal paste ‘will help breathing’


  • 156-year-old treatment from Hindu saint contains a secret formula of herbs 



  • Family claims having the treatment three years running will cure asthma




With pinched noses and watery eyes, every year thousands of Indians line up to swallow live fish as a traditional treatment for asthma.

Asthma sufferers gather every June in the southern city of Hyderabad to gulp down the fish stuffed with a yellow herbal paste, in the hope it will help them breathe more easily.

Administered by the Bathini Goud family, the therapy is a secret formula of herbs, handed down by generations only to family members.

But the family will not reveal the secret formula which they claim was received from a Hindu saint in 1845.

The herbs are inserted in the mouth of a live sardine, or murrel fish, and the wriggling 5cm fish are slipped into the patient’s throat, often leaving them gagging.

The family maintains the fish clear the throat on their way down and permanently cure asthma and other respiratory problems – if the treatment is administered three years running.

After digesting the treatment, patients are told to go on a strict diet for 45 days.

Thousands of people travel from across India for the free medicine during a two-day period, the specific dates of which are determined by the onset of the monsoon every June.

Patients employ various methods to get the fish down.

For vegetarians the herbal medicine is given without fish. Patients say it works very well.


Parents are often forced to pry open the mouths of reluctant children who cry at the site of squirming fish, while others pinch their noses, tip their heads back and close their eyes.

Rights groups and doctors have complained that the treatment is ‘unscientific’, a violation of human rights and unhygienic, claims rejected by the family.

And the crowds also appear to disagree. The Indian government arranges special trains for the ‘fish medicine’ festival every year and extra police are on duty to control crowds, AFP reports.


  1. The Goud family has been distributing the ‘miracle drug’ for 160 years
  2. The fish stuffed with a paste, is believed to be a cure for asthma
  3. 35,000 fish ‘prasadam’ distributed till now, arrangements made for a lakh

Fish ‘prasadam’, which is believed to cure asthma, was on Wednesday administered to thousands of patients who came here from various parts of the country.

The programme, which began on Wednesday morning at the Exhibition Grounds in Nampally, will continue for 24 hours.

Members of Bathini Goud family were administering the fish stuffed with a herbal paste — reportedly believed to be a cure for asthma and other breathing ailments.

Amid elaborate arrangements made by police and various departments, the distribution of ‘prasadam’ began at 8 am, marking the beginning of Mrigasira Karthi or the onset of monsoon.

Despite it being a subject of controversy, patients descended here in the hope of finding some relief to their nagging respiratory problems through the “miracle drug”.

Police set up separate queues for women, physically-challenged and senior citizens to ensure smooth conduct of the annual event. A total of 32 counters were set up.


Hundreds of people coming from different states had reached the venue on Tuesday and obtained tokens.

Goud family members claimed that 35,000 people took the fish ‘prasadam’ till Wednesday evening. They said arrangements to supply one lakh fingerlings were made.

The medicine, which the family has been distributing for 160 years, consists of a yellow herbal paste, the ingredients of which have remained a family secret. The paste is first stuffed into a live three centimetre-long murrel fish that is then slipped through the throat of the patient.

If taken for three successive years, the medicine is believed to cure asthma.

The family claims to be distributing the fish medicine free of cost for over 160 years. It renamed the drug as ‘prasadam’ a few years ago when it became a subject of controversy.

Some groups approached a lower court seeking a ban on the “unscientific” practice, claiming that since the herbal paste contains heavy metals it can cause serious health problems.

But the Goud family claims that the tests in laboratories conducted as per court orders revealed that the herbal paste is safe.
It claims that the secret formula for the herbal medicine was given to their ancestor in 1845 by a saint after taking an oath from him that it would be administered free of cost.

Source: daily Mail, London and Indian Newspapers.



DATE OF RAMAYANA 5100 BCE (Post No.5100)

Written by London swaminathan

Date: 11 JUNE 2018

Time uploaded in London –  18-16 (British Summer Time)

Post No. 5100

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.

I was reading the book ‘Dating the Era of Lord Ram’ by Pushkar Bhatnagar, 2004, Rs.395

He has concluded that Rama lived around 5100 BCE on the astronomical evidence in the Valmiki Ramayana. First let me give his conclusions and then his introduction. It is a book with sixty colour star maps.  His conclusions are


The archaeological evidence suggesting the date of Saraswati Sindhu region sites up to 8000 BCE,

astronomical dating of some of the verses of the Rig Veda to 6500 BCE,

the Astronomical dating of Ramayana at around  5100 BCE,

date of composition of the last Mandala of the Rig Veda around 5000 BCE,

strong evidences suggesting the traditional date of 3137 BCE as the date of Mahabharata,

probable date of Puranas well after the beginning of the Kaliyuga and the drying up of the Saraswati River around 1900 BCE

makes highly agreeable and logically acceptable timeline of our civilization.


His introduction in the book gives the following interesting details:

“The Ramayana clearly mentions that a lunar eclipse had occurred on the day Hanuman visited Lanka in search of Sita. On examination of the sequence of events narrated in the book

(Ramayana) I had concluded that it was the full moon day of either the month of Margasirsh (Maarkazi in Tamil) or Paush (Thai in Tamil)of the last year of exile (5076 BCE). However, I had no means to verify whether a lunar eclipse had actually occurred about 7000 years or not.


My belief and understanding was that the software I was using  did not have the capability of  showing the occurrence of lunar eclipse. I browsed the web for any other software. These efforts bore no fruit. For almost five years I had desperately wished and prayed that somehow I could verify and demonstrate the occurrence of Lunar eclipse so that my findings become complete in all respects.


Since no solution could be found to this puzzle and being completely helpless in this regard, I submitted my manuscript to the publishers for publication in the month of October 2003. (He just mentioned that he could not verify the lunar eclipse in the manuscript).

After a few days, I read in the newspapers that a lunar eclipse was to occur on the morning of 9 November 2003 and it would be visible from India. Late in the evening of 8th, without any specific hope of finding a solution, intuitively I felt like examining the position of the sun and the moon during the eclipse due to occur the next day, though the software. My intention was to compare the positions of the sun and the moon during the eclipse of 9 th. However as soon as I entered the time of the occurrence of the eclipse in the software I was surprised to find that the software was displaying the occurrence of the eclipse very precisely. Without wasting a moment, I entered the date 12 September 5076 BCE. (full moon day of lunar month Margasirsh, which according to me the day Hanuman visited Lanka.


With a pounding heart, I started examining the position of the moon. And then came the stamp of Divine confirmation! The software demonstrated that a lunar eclipse had indeed occurred that evening – exactly at the time when it had been described in the Ramayana. I could not believe five year long hopelessness was transformed into triumph in just a matter of five minutes! “

-Pushkar Bhatnagar10 May 2004

This shows the author’s long and sincere research into the date of Ramayana.




Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 31 May 2018


Time uploaded in London – 16-58


Post No. 5063


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.




The ‘Kuvalayamaalaa’ written by Udyotana Suri, dated 779 Ce gives several interesting real life stories. In one story, it is said that a Brahmin by name Chandrasoma accompanied a party of acrobats and bards to a village because of utter poverty.

The people has assembled to see the show. Chandrasoma’s wife also came to see it. He suspected his wife’s fidelity and killed her in a rage. After realising that he had done a heinous crime, he started lamenting over his deed and decided to immolate himself in the funeral pyre. But people pulled him out and took him out to the assembly of learned scholars. The majority of the Pandits advised him to quit his home and go on a pilgrimage to various holy places. They asked him to donate all his belongings to Brahmins. After offering oblations to manes he will be freed from punishment.


Jain literature also give lot of information about business travel.


16 types of Winds

Jain monks and Jain merchants did lot of sea voyages. Jain literature gives very realistic accounts of sea voyages. The Avasyaka churni informs us there were regular sailings from Madurai to Saurashtra (During Sangam Tamil times, South Madurai was on the sea shore; later it was destroyed in a Tsunami). It is mentioned in a story that the ruler of Madurai, Pandusena had two daughters. When they were sailing to Saurashtra, they met a shipwreck during a storm and they offered prayers to Skanda and Rudra.


(From Skanda and Siva, we come to know they were Tamil princesses of Pandya Kingdom). The successful termination of a sea voyage depended on favourable wind. The sea wind is divided into sixteen categories, namely:

1.Praaciina vaata (Easterly wind)

  1. Udiiciina vAaata (Northerly wind)
  2. Daakshinaatya vaata (Southerly wind)
  3. Uttarapaurastya (Northerly wind moving against forward movement)
  4. Sattvasuka ( wind blowing in all directions)
  5. Dakshina-Puurva tungaara ( astrmy wind in S E direction)
  6. Apara- Dakshina Bijaapa ( the wind blowing from S.W.)
  7. Apara Biijaapa ( West wind)
  8. Aparottara garjabha (N W Storm)
  9. Uttara sattvaasuka
  10. Dakshina sattvaasuka
  11. Puurvatungaara
  12. Dakshina Bijaapa

14.Paschima Biijaapa

  1. Paschima garjaabha
  2. Uttariyaa Garjaabha


All these technical terms show that the merchants had their own jargon of sea travel. A sailor would understand such terms better than  laymen.



Kalidasa in his famous drama Sakuntala talks about seven types of winds and he was the poet who composed a long poem on Six Seasons (Rtu Samharam). Since India is affected by monsoons the society is weather conscious. Kalidasa composed his famous Meghaduta on the basis of South West monsoon’s progress from the middle of India to the Himalayas. Since he was a resident of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh he begins the monsoon story from MP instead of Kerala or Andaman Islands where from it enters India.

From my earlier post:


Seven types of Atmospheric Layers

Sakuntala drama of Kalidasa has a reference to the different pathways in the heaven (Act 7-5); commentators explain all the seven paths as follows:

“According to Hindu mythology, the heavenly region is divided into Seven Paths, with a particular Vayu/wind is assigned for each.


The first of these Vayupathas or vayu margas is identical with the bhuvar loha., or atmospheric region, extending from earth to sun. The wind assigned to this area is AVAHA.


The other six make up the Swar loka or heavenly region with which Swarga (paradise) is often identified in the following order:-

The second marga/path is that of the sun; and its wind called PRAVAHA, causes the sun to revolve.

Third path is that of moon and its wind is SAMVAHA impels the moon

Fourth is that of the stars or lunar constellations and its wind is known as UDVAGA; this causes the stars to revolve.

Fifth path is that of the planets and its wind is VIVAHA

Sixth is that of the Saptarishi or Greta Bear Constellation and the Milky Way; its wind PARIVAHA bears along these luminaries.

And the last- seventh- is that of the Dhruva or Pole Star; the pivot or axis of the whole planetary system; its wind is PARAVAHA, causing the revolution of the Pole Star (Dhruva Star).