Post No. 10,979

Date uploaded in London – –    13 MAY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

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KALIDASA used the following name for the Himalayas:-

Himalaya ,Himadhri ,Adhrinatha ,Bhutaresvara,

Ekapingala, Gauriguru, Girichakravartin, Kuberasaila,

Nagendra, Sailaraja, Hemakuta, Kailasa, Krauncha,

Inndhamadana, Kshiddarapati, Pralayadhri

This mountain is referred to in over 150 Sanskrit books covering all subjects including herbs, medicine, gems and animals. But the references in Ramayana , Mahabharata , Kautilya Arthashastra and Jataka Tales are important. They are all written before Kalidasa. Tamil literature came after those books.

The wisdom library web page has given full details; following are important for our comparative study:

Total 1483 pages in 150 books for  “Himalaya, Hima-ālaya, Hima-alaya, Hima-ālayā, Himālaya, Himālayā, Himalayas, Hima-ālayas, Hima-alayas, Hima-ālayās, Himālayas, Himālayās”. Showing most relevant pages first:

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (H) next»] — Himalaya in Sanskrit glossary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Himālaya (हिमालय).—

1) the Himālaya mountain; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः (astyuttarasyā diśi devatātmā himālayo nāma nagādhirāja) Ku.1.1.

2) the white Khadira tree. °सुता (sutā) an epithet of Pārvatī.

Derivable forms: himālaya (हिमालयः).

Himālaya is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms hima and ālaya (आलय).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Himālaya (हिमालय).—m. (-ya) The Himalaya range of mountains, which bounds India on the north, and separates it from Tartary; the Imaus and Emodus of the ancients, giving rise to the Ganges, and Indus, and many other considerable rivers, and containing the highest elevations in the world: in mythology, the mountain is personified as the husband of Menaka, and the father of Ganga or the Ganges, and Durga or Uma in her descent as Parvati, the mountain nymph, to captivate Siva, and withdraw him from a course of ascetic austerity practised in those regions. E. hima cold, or frost and snow, and ālaya abode.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Himālaya (हिमालय).—i. e. hima-ālaya, m. The Himālaya range of mountains, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 1.

— OR —

Himālaya (हिमालय).—m. the Himālaya range of mountains.

Himālaya is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms hima and ālaya (आलय).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Himālaya (हिमालय).—[masculine] the Himālaya mountain (abode of snow).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Himālaya (हिमालय):—[from hima > him] a m. ‘abode of snow’, the Himālaya range of mountains (bounding India on the north and containing the highest elevations in the world; in mythology personified as husband of Menā or Menakā [by whom he had a son Maināka] and father of Pārvatī, ‘daughter of the Mountain’, and of Gaṅgā, who, as the personified Ganges, is generally regarded as his eldest daughter), [Bhagavad-gītā; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. …] the white Khadira tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Himālayā (हिमालया):—[from himālaya > hima > him] f. Flacourtia Cataphracta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Himālaya (हिमालय):—[from hima > him] b [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] yati, to resemble the Himālaya, [Dhūrtasamāgama]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Himālaya (हिमालय):—[himā+laya(ya) 1. m. Himālaya range personified as the husband of Menakā and father of the Ganges.

2) Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)

Rig Veda 5.61.19 < [Sukta 61]

opulent Rathavīti dwells upon the (banks of the) Gomatī (river), and has his home on (the skirts of) the (Himālaya … having water, rivers, being in the plural ral; it may be a river which rises in the first range of the Himālayas


6) The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)

Jataka 312: Kassapamandiya-jātaka < [Volume 3]

Jataka 323: Brahmadatta-jātaka < [Volume 3]

Jataka 328: Ananusociya-jātaka < [Volume 3]

+ 163 more chapters / show preview


7) Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)

Chapter 36 – The story of the king of Himalayas’ younger daughter Uma < [Book 1 – Bala-kanda]

Chapter 35 – The origin of the holy river Ganga < [Book 1 – Bala-kanda]

Chapter 112 – Prince Bharata is reconciled to becoming Shri Rama’s deputy < [Book 2 – Ayodhya-kanda]

+ 26 more chapters / show preview


19) Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)

Section CVIII < [Tirtha-yatra Parva]

Section CXL < [Tirtha-yatra Parva]

Section III < [Ashvamedhika Parva]

+ 15 more chapters / show preview


24) Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)

Chapter 11 – Examination of Gems that are to be entered into the Treasury < [Book 2 – The duties of Government Superintendents]

Chapter 17 – The Superintendent of Forest Produce < [Book 2 – The duties of Government Superintendents]

Chapter 12 – Agreement for Undertaking a Work < [Book 7 – The End of the Six-fold Policy]

+ 2 more chapters / show preview


28) Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)

Chapter 72 – On Chowries (cāmara-lakṣaṇa)

made of their tail the Cāmarī deer (Bos grunniens) appears to have been created in the caves of the Himālayas

Chapter 14 – On Kūrma Vibhāga

Uttarabhādrapada represent the northern division consisting of the six mountains of the Kailāsa, the Himālayas

Chapter 81 – On Pearls (muktā-lakṣaṇa)

Saurāṣṭra, the Tāmraparṇi river, Pāraśava (Persia), the island of Kubera, the country of Pāṇḍyavāṭa and the Himālayas

Chapter 16 – On the planets (graha-bhaktiyoga)

Chapter 43 – On Indra-dhvaja (Indra’s banner)

Chapter 5 – On the course of Rāhu (rāhu-cāra)


From Tamil Sangam Literature:

Purananuru (Puranaanooru), verse 2, Poet Muranjiyur Mudi Naagaraayar on Chera King Perunchotru Uthiyan Cheralatahan

The poet says Long live like the Himalaya and Pothiyam (hills in South India). The Himalayas is described by the poet as a place “ where deer and their fawns sleep in the warmth of Brahmins Three Fires (Yaga, Yajnas) in the daily Sandhya rituals “. In the same verse poet refers to Four Vedas too.

Tamil poet copied it from the first ten verses of Kumarasambhavam of Kalidasa . Poet has an epithet for Himalayas ‘golden Peaked’. This is a translation of Kanchana Srnga (now pronounced like Kanchen Junga).

The poet’s name is Mr Nagarajan. Like English changed Raja as Royal, nagara’J’a is changed to nagara’Y’ar. We see J-Y change 2000 years ago!


Purananuru Verse 6, Poet Kaarikizaar on Pal Yaaga Saalaa Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi

The King has an epithet one who performs many Yagas. The first line is ‘Snow clad long range mountain’; old commentators interpreted it as Himalayas.

This poet adds an interesting detail about the king:-

He would bow his head only twice:-

When Brahmins of Four Vedas bless him and when he goes round Shiva temple .

Naan Marai Munivar = Anthanar is in the old commentary.

Needless to say that Four Vedas (Naan Marai) are recited by Brahmins only 2000 years ago in Tamil Nadu.

Kshatriya kings would bow their heads only to Brahmins.

To be continued…………………………..

tags- tags- Himalaya, Kalidas, Tamil literature, Wisdom library

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