Post No. 10,984

Date uploaded in London – –    14 MAY   2022         

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This is part 3.


Purananuru verse 17, composed by Kurugkoziyur Kizar on King Yanikatshey Mantharan Cheral Irumporai–

First line ‘Then Kumari Vada Perum Kal’ )describes Himalaya as Big Northern Rock

Kalidasa’s Kumarasambhavm has it in the very first line

Asthi Uttarasyam Disi Himalaya= Is in the Northern direction……

Kalidasa says the rock/mountain touched eastern and western oceans.  Tamil poet also uses seas in the east and west.

Kalidasa’s geographical knowledge is amazing. He described the whole of greater India including Afghanistan


Purananuru verse  39 by Marokkathu Nappasalaiyar on Choza King Kuamutrathu Thunjiya Killi Valavan–

The poet used the line ‘Ponpadu Nedungkottu Imayam’= Golden Streaked High Peaked or Long ranged Himalaya.

This is also in Paranar’s verses Puram 369 , Natrinai 356

Kalidasa used this golden colour to Himalayas in Raghuvamsa and Sakunatalam 7-9 Kachana Srnga and Hemakuta.

Of all the Sangam Tamil poets, two famous Brahmins Kabilar and Paranar are well versed in Sanskrit.

This we know from Kabilar’s teaching of Tamil to North Indian Brahma Dutta who ridiculed Tamil language. Kabila sang Kurinchippattu to impress him. At the end, Brahmadutta himself composed a Tamil Verse, which is included in the Sangam corpus.

Paranar’s Sanskrit knowledge is seen in his expressions such as ‘Golden Himalayas’, ‘Divine Himalayas’, Himalayas where ‘Apsaras women are living’ etc (see Puram359, Natrinai 356 and Pathirupathu 43-7 to 10)

Kadavul Nilaiyiya Kal Ongu Imayam= High Himalayas considered as divine

He also translated the Rig Vedic lines (though a lot of rivers pouring waters into ocean, it never overflows or crosses its boundary) in many places.

Kumattur Kannanar also translated Kumarasambhavam’s slokas in Pathitrupathu 11-21 to 23 where he described the deer sleeping and dreaming, ‘Most famous Himalaya where the (Aryas) saints are doing Tapas/penance’.

“Aariyar thuvanriya Perisai Imyam” 11-23 pf Pathitrupathu

Tamil Sangam Poets Paranar, Kabilar, Kumattur Kannanar, Avur mulankizar, Nappasalayar , Mudamosiyar , Kari Kizar, Nagarajan and Kopperunchozan use Kalidasa’s lines. Kalidasa knew more about the Himalayas. He described the Pothiya of Pandyas and Afghan areas as well.

In Puram 214 poet Kopperum Choza used the expression ‘Fame like the High Himalayas’.

In Puram 166, Avur Mulankizar greets Kaundinya Vishnudasa ‘to have fame and name like the bamboo growing Himalayas’.

In Puram 132, Mudamosi also described the deer living in the ‘sky top Himalayas.

We doubt the visits of all these Tamil poets to Himalayas. But they believe in what Kalidasa said.

Before Kalidasa no one else touched Himalyas in so many places and none of them used all the 16 names Kalidasa given to Himalayas. This smahes another cliché that Kalidasa belonged to Gupta age. He was the court poet of the greatest Hindu King Vikramaditya.

So may poets repeated What Kalidasa said in his seven books. No one would say that North Indian Kalidasa copied all Tamil poets. Kalidasa was closer to Himalayas and his Meghaduta shows his thorough knowledge from Vindhyas to Himalayas.

Here are references from Kalidasa:

Kumarasambhava – 1-18 slokas in first chapter. Then 3-16; 6-29, 33, 47; 8-21

Vikramorvasiyam – 5-22; 1-4

Sakuntalam 7-9

Since Tamils worshipped Siva and Muruga more than Vishnu, they copied all the matter from Kumara(Murugan) sambhavam.

It is not a comprehensive list of references to Himalaya. There are more in Tamil and Sanskrit books.


tags- Himalaya, Kalidasa, Tamil Sangam poets, Golden, Peak

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