pictures are from Grand Anaicut in Tamil Nadu; taken by London swaminathan


Post No. 8886

Date uploaded in London – –3 NOVEMBER 2020   

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All of us know that a Hindu marriage is legally done , completely done, only when the couple takes Seven Steps together. Please see my links to previous articles on SEVEN STEPS.

 I also wrote about the oldest and the most famous Chola king KARIKALAN (SIMILAR TO KALMASHA PADAN OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY).


Three things show that he was competing with the oldest Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvazuthi of Purananuru, who established YUPA polls through Pandya kingdom by doing Yagas and Yajnas. Oldest Tamil verse says Pandyan emperor would bow his head  only on  TWO occasions:-

One time to Brahmins

Another time during circumambulation of Siva Temple.

Karikal Choza was similar in many respects.

1.He constructed Yaga Kunda in Eagle shape as prescribed in the Vedas

2.He sent Wind Sailed Ships and controlled the whole of Indian Ocean.

He knew the monsoon and used it fully, says Purananuru. Ships that went with sails are in the oldest book in the Rig Veda as well.


(Please see the references and my 10 year articles about how Ravana easily went to Patna and Himalayas by using monsoon; also Rajatarangini says that Kashmiri kings invaded Sri Lanka using Returning Monsoon)

Karikal Choza (Chola) is dated first century BCE and Panini is dated 8th century BCE.


Now I am reading the Tamil translation of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi for the second time. The Translation was done by Dr K Meenakshi of Pune and published in three parts by World Tamil Research Institute, Chennai-600 113

Panini Sutra 5-2-2

Saapta padheenam sakyam

The commentator says (I think it is from Mahabashya of Patanjali) that walking seven steps together and saying seven words mean firm Friendship. That is the definition of Friendship.

It is also in Rig Veda’s Wedding Mantras. (see my links below)

What Panini said 2700 years ago was followed by Karikal Choza, the gretaest of the Choza Race. Other Vedic rites such as Eagle shaped Yaga  Kunda (Fire Sacrifice Altar) also confirm he was out and out a follower of the Vedas.

Thanks to Panini we come to know the greatness of Number Seven

In Indus-Sarasvati River Bank civilization we see more seals with Number 3 and Number 7 which confirms that it is Hindu Civilization.


Purananuru verse 224 – Eagles Shaped Yaga Kunda

Porunar Atruppadai – lines 165-167 Walking Seven Steps during Farewell Ceremony

Purananuru verse 66 – Using Wind for sailing ; knowledge of Sailors and Monsoon.

Seven Steps | Tamil and Vedas › tag › seven-steps


20 Jul 2016 — Posts about Seven Steps written by Tamil and Vedas. … The seven steps are the seven grades of life. Compare this with the seven ages of life …

walking 7 steps | Tamil and Vedas › tag › walking-7-steps


8 Nov 2016 — Posts about walking 7 steps written by Tamil and Vedas. … The next ceremony is called saptapadi or seven steps. This is the most important …

கரிகால் சோழன் | Tamil and Vedas › tag › கரிக…


18 Jan 2012 — கரிகால் சோழன் வேத நெறி தவறாது ஆண்டவன். 2000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் ஆண்ட இவன் சோழ மன்னர்களில் மிகவும் புகழ்பெற்றவன். இவன் …

கரிகாலன் வரலாறு கூறும் … › 2015/01/23


23 Jan 2015 — காண்க: கரிகால் சோழனின் பருந்து வடிவ யாக குண்டம், ஜனவரி 18, 2012. 2.கரிகாலன், ரிக் வேத மந்திரத்தில் சொன்னபடி, ஏழு அடி …

கரிகாலன் | Tamil and Vedas › tag › கரிக…


29 May 2018 — பாடலின் பொருள் : சோழ மண்டலத்தை ஆண்ட மன்னர்களுள் திறமை வாய்ந்த மன்னனான கரிகால் சோழன் தன் உயிர் பிழைத்தல் காரணமாக …

கரிகாலன் மகள் | Tamil and Vedas › tag › கரிக…


8 Mar 2017 — ஆதி மந்தி என்பவள் கரிகால் சோழனின் அருந்தவப் புதல்வி; அவள் ஒரு … சோழன் மகள் ஆதி மந்தியும், சேர நாட்டரசனும், ஆதியின் …

நீண்ட காலம் ஆண்ட மன்னன் … › 2015/01/21


21 Jan 2015 — இவர்களில் யார் காவிரியில் அணை கட்டிய கரிகாலன் என்பது … ஏனெனில் சோழர்களின் தலை நகராக தஞ்சாவூர் உருவாநது மிகவும் …

கரிகாலச் சோழன் | Tamil and Vedas › tag › கரிக…


30 Apr 2018 — கரிகாலன் என்ற சோழனின் மகளுக்கு பெரிய வலிப்பு நோய் வந்தது. எத்தனையோ வைத்தியர்கள் தம்மால் இயன்ற வைத்தியம் செய்து …

சோழர்கள் | Tamil and Vedas › tag › சோழ…

15 Jul 2013 — சேரர்களுக்கு முன்பாக பாண்டியர் பெயரும் சோழர் பெயரும் … கரிகால் சோழன் பருந்து (கழுகு) வடிவ யாக குண்டம் அமைத்து …

தாம்ரலிப்தி | Tamil and Vedas › tag › தாம்…


22 Sep 2014 — இந்தியர்களுக்குப் பருவக் காற்றின் ரகசியம் தெரியும். … உனது முன்னோர்கள் காற்று இயக்கும் திசையை அறிந்தே அதற்கான …

tags — Panini, Karikal Choza, Karikalan, Seven Steps

Hindu and Muslim Wedding (Post No.2988)


Compiled by London swaminathan

Date:20 July 2016

Post No. 2988

Time uploaded in London :–5-44 AM

( Thanks for the Pictures)




(for old articles go to OR


Following piece is an interesting excerpt from a 100-year-old book written by a Muslim scholar: –


Source: Life and Labour of the People of India by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Barrister at Law, London, 1907


What is the marriage ceremony?

There are many picturesque and pretty rites, and feasting for days on end is the order of the day. But the chief incident of better class Hindu marriage ceremony consists in what is called the Bhaunri — the seven steps taken in unison.  All this is symbolical. The seven steps are the seven grades of life. Compare this with the seven ages of life in your own immortal bard, or the seven sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, or the seven planets of ancient astronomy, after which the names of the week were named.


Among the Muhammadeans these picturesque ceremonies are not recognised. In the first place, the parties are little older. In the second  place, the Mohammadan marriage is a civil contract in which neither party merges its identity in the other.


The Hindu is bound to invite his whole caste or community, within a reasonable distance, to his wedding festivities; The Mohammadan only his select friends. The Mohammadan ecclesiastical ceremony is of the simplest description, as simple as that among the Society of Friends.


Many of the Muhammadan families restrict themselves to the ecclesiastical ceremony, but the majority have adopted or inherited in addition the customs of the country. Some even use a modified form of the Bhaunri. Prolonged feasts and ceremonies, with music or noise (whichever you prefer to call it and martial-looking pro- cessions (a relic of marriage by capture), are quite common.


A wealthy family’s bridal party would be mounted on palanquins, horses, elephants, and chariots, such as Abhimanyu might have used in the Great War. Coins would be scattered on the march, to be scrambled for by boys and youths of the poorer classes.



Fireworks play a very important part in the rejoicings incident to an Indian marriage. Most of the firework makers drive a roaring trade in the marriage season, and earn the best of their profits during that time, hibernating during the rest of the year. Thus marriage is good for trade.


The marriage season is limited to two or three months of the year, generally in the spring: but the heavenly aspect varies in different years. When the stars are most propitious there is regular marriage boom, with a concomitant boom the trade in fireworks, cloths, and fancy articles. But the stars may also ruin trade if they frown to the astrologers and indicate a slump in the marriage market.


If we may trust to the fidelity of Hogarth, English popular marriage customs were not so English popular marriage customs were not so very different in the eighteenth century from what we may observe every day in India at the present time. Take the wedding scene in the series of pictures entitled “Industry and Idleness.” The industrious apprentice has at last won the band of his master’s daughter. At the festivities the proud bridegroom is seen offering the drummer — shall we call him tom tom boy? —  bakshish in time form of hard coin. The butchers are there with the marrow bones and cleavers, just as you would find the representatives of different trades following an Indian bridal party, each with the emblems of his trade — the sweeper with his broom, and the barber with his bag. You have further in Hogarth the beggar with his merry ballad but mournful face. An Indian Bhat might well have sat for a model. But what is this? – a poor woman with a child in one wallet and “the crumbs that do fall from the master’s table” in another. Evidently a Chamarin come to assert her claims on the lord of the feast.




How is the bride dressed, and what does she look like? Dare I attempt a word-picture? It would be more satisfactory if a gifted artist’s brush were allowed to tell its own tale. I have the honour to possess a picture in oils, The Hindu bride,” painted by Mrs Barber, which won a medal at the Simla Fine Arts Exhibition some years ago. It is a symphony in colours, but most difficult to reproduce. Let us try to gain an idea of the bride’s appearance by means of a feeble description.


There is the girl, with the brightest of black eyes, and a face more round than oval. The white of those eyes is of dazzling purity, like the modest little soul that looks out of them, but you can scarcely see the eyes. The cloth which serves both for head gear and body garment is drawn closely over the face. It would be difficult to name the colour of this piece of drapery. It is semi-transparent, and lets you see the glory of the raven hair and the sparkle of the jewels worn on the person, but it adds its own contribution of colour to the general harmony. Perhaps we should not call it colour: Pas la couleur, rien que la nuance, as Paul Verlaine would say. It is a suggestion in light blue silk gossamer, with a border worked in gold and silver threads, which both stiffens and enriches the airy stuff.



The jewellery errs on the side of profusion, but jewellery there is no trace of vulgarity. The drapery, which, in concealing it, heightens its effect, gives it a subdued tone where it might otherwise “cry aloud”. A row of little pearls hooked into one of the plaits of hair covers the parting of the hair in the middle. From it hangs on the forehead a flat little pendant of pearls, rubies, and moon stones, set in gold. This pendant also fits into the scheme of the caste mark if the girl is Hindu otherwise it is artistically meaningless.


The hair is gathered into a knot behind, and a garland of the sweet-smelling bela flowers is intertwined with it snowy white on raven black, filtered through the blue of the drapery. From the nose hangs a pearl drop, and there are sapphire earrings to match. The neck is absolutely loaded with ornaments, but you only catch a glimpse of them through an indiscreet opening of the veil. The upper arms carry amulets and charms, and the lower arms bracelets and bangles of many shapes and styles of workmanship.



There are rings, not only for the fingers, but also for the right thumb, and one of them has a miniature mirror with a receptacle underneath for a plug of cotton wool saturated with otto of roses. There are anklets and toe rings to complete the tale of ornaments. Such is the bride as she sits on her machia, a sort of low chair, made of wood turned on the lathe and lacquered.”

A portion of the jewellery is often borrowed for the occasion. The jewellery is rarely false except in circles affected by “modern civilization”.


I have devoted so much space to the marriage customs, because I find that they are of perennial interest to people of all temperaments among all nations. Did not Lady Augusts Hamilton write a book on the marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies of “all nations of the universe”? this was in 1822, but the world has not much changed since then – at least in this respect.”