Knowledge of Medicine and Method of Treatment in Tamil and Sanskrit Books (Post No.3535)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 11 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-17


Post No.3535



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural, has dealt with a lot of subjects including medicine. He says that one can live for long without disease if one controls his eating habits. he says 1.Eat when you are hungry 2.Eat when the food already eaten is digested. Very simple!

In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of Medical treatise in Sanskrit. Tiruvalluvar says:


Let a skilful doctor who knows medicine, the patient

2.the nature of disease

3.the season and then treat him (Kural 949)


He also adds, Medical treatment implies fourfold elements:




and the Nurse/ compounder (Kural 950)

Parimel azakar, the most  famous commentator of Tirukkural, explains the attributes thus of the four elements:

“The attributes of the patient are ability to disclose the symptoms, strength to endure pain, ability to pay and strict obedience to the directions of the physician;

those of the physican are intelligence and study, courage to handle every kind of disease, purity of thought, word and deeed, good luck;

those of medicine are efficacy to cure any disease, superior virtue on account of taste, power, strength and easy facility of being procured, and capacity to combine with other ingredients as well as food;

and those of the apothecary are kindness and consideration to the anxiety of the patient, purity of thought, word and deed, ability to compound drugs and common sense.


The above passage shows how much advanced we were in understanding the patient and the treatment.


It shows that the doctors of ancient India had a nurse or compounder for assistance. Westerners copied it from Indians.

The same concept of treatment is found in Sanskrit texts as well:

1.Knowledge of the Best Physician

Hetu — cause
Linga– Diagnosis
Rogaanaam apunarbhava — non recurrence of disease
Prasamana — cure
—Charaka Samhita 9-19

Hetau linge prasamanerogaanaam punarbhave
Njaanam chaturvidham yasya sa rajaarho bhisaktamah
Charaka 9-19


2.Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon

Sauryam– fearless ness
Aasukriyaa Lighthandedness
Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments
Asvedavepathu Absence of perspiration and trembling
Asammohah Absence of confusion

Sauryamaasukriyaa sastrataiksnyamasvedavepathu
Asammohasca vaidyasya sastrakarmani sasyate
–Susruta 5-10



Following quotes are from my October 2015 post:-


3.Vaidya Gunah – Qualities of a Physician

Srute paryavadaatatvam Bahuso drstakarmataa

Daakshyam Saucam iti jneya vaidye Guna chatustayam

–Charaka (sutra) 9-6

Srute paryavadaatatvam =Excellence in Medical Knowledge

Bahuso drstakarmataa = Extensive Practical Experience

Daakshyam = Skill

Saucam = Cleanliness

4.Physician’s Approach to Patients

Vaidya Vrtti

Maitri kaarunyamaarteshu sakye pritirupekshanam

Prakrutistheshu butesu vaidyavrttischaturvidhaa

–Charaka (sutra) 9-26

Maitri = Friendship

Kaarunya = compassion

Priti = Pleasure

Upekshanam = Sympathy




5.Fake Doctors (not to be honoured)

Apuujya Vaidyaah

Kucela: karkasa: stabhdho graamani svayamaagata:

Pancha vaidyaa na puujyante Dhanvantrisamaa api

Even if he is equal to Dhnavantri, the God of Medicine, don’t honour the following five physicians:

Kucela =Untidily dressed

Karkasa = Rough

Stabdha = Stubborn

Graamani = Pervert

Svayamaagata = One who visits on his own (uninvited)



Golden sayings in Ayurveda Books

india medical

Article No.1986

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date 10th July 2015

Time uploaded in London: 20-54

Charaka and Susruta were great Ayurvedic experts. Their books serve as the foundations of Ayurveda, the popular  Indian Medical System. Both of them wrote in Sanskrit and they lived at least 2300 years ago; but they have only written what is passed to them by their predecessors. Because of constant updating of Indian literature we take the latest date. Yet they stand unique in the world of medicine.

Both of them cover a lot of things in the field of medicine. It is amazing to see that even the burns are classified like we classify today as first degree, second degree and third degree burns. They talk about psychic treatments. Studying was stopped on New moon and Full moon days due to the bad effect of moon. They discuss pre-operative and post-operative care like modern day hospitals.

Let us look at some of the golden verses:

21  Pirmoji širdies operacija

1.Sastra  karma =Surgical Operation

Purva karma = Pre operative; Pradhaana = Operation; Pascaat = Post  operative

Trividhyam karma – Puurva karma, Pradhaanakarma, Paschaatkarmaeti tadvayaadhim pratyupadekshyaamah

–Susruta Sutara 5-3

2.Agnidagdham – Fiery Burns

Plustam = scorched; Durdagdham =Blistered; Samyakdagdham = Superficially burnt; Atidagdham = Deeply burnt

Plushtam durdagdham – Samyakdagdham   Atidagdham cheti chaturvidham Agnidagdham  -Susruta Sutra  12-16


3.Bad Effect of Moon- Cessation from Study= Anadhyayana Dina

Astami – eigth day of the fortnight; Amaavaasyaa –New Moon day; Caturdasai- Fourteenth day of the lunar fortnight; Purnima ardhadina – Half day on full moon day

No Veda Class or any study on the above days.

Ashtamii cha hyamaavaasyaa varjaniiyaa chaturdasii

Puurnimaardhadhinam yaavannishidhdham sarvakarmasu

–Vasisthadanurvedasamhita 30-11


4.Symptoms of Mild Poisoning =Alpavisa Chihnaani

Lohita (rajju)- reddish streak; Nila(rajju) – Bluish streak; Piita (rajju) – yellow streak; Sita (rajju) – whitish streak

Raajya salohitaa yatra niilaah piitaah sitaastatahaa

Vnjeyam raditam tattu njeyamalpavisham cha tat

–Susruta (kalp) 4-17

5.Branches of Ayurveda

Hetu; Laksana; Ausadha

Hetulingaushadhanjanam svastahsturaparayanam

Trisutram sasvatam punyam babudhe yam pitamahah

-charaka sutra 1-24

6.Esana= desire

Desire are of three types: Prana=life, Dhana= wealth; Paraloka = heavens

Trisa esanaah paryastavyaa bhavanti

Tadyathaa praanaisanaa dhanaisanaan paralokaisaneti

-charaka sutra 11-3

7.Ausadham – Therapy

Daiva vyapaasrayam = spiritual therapy

Yukti vyapaasrayam= therapy based on reasoning (physical properties)

Satvaavajaya = Psychic therapy

Trividhamausshadhamiti – daivavyapaasrayam

Yuktivyapaasrayam satvaavajayascha

-charaka sutra 11-54

8.Types of pysique/deha

Sthula = obese; Krsa= lean; Madhya= medium

Dehah sthula krso Madhya iti praagupadhishtah

9.Drugs according to Ayurveda

Dosprasamanam = alleviation of diseases

Dhatupraduusanam = vitiation of kapha, pitta and vaayu

Svasthavrttam = maintenance of positive health

Kinchitdhoshaprasamanam Kinchitdhoshapraduusanam

Svastavruttau matham kinchit trividham dravyamuchyate

Charka sutra 1-67

herb 2Medicinal-Plants-of-India---Amla-Emblica-officinalis

10.Source of Drugs

Jangama = From animals; Audbhida = From vegetables; Parthiva = From the earth

Tat punastrividham proktam jangamaudbhidapaarthivam

-Charaka Sutra 1-68

11.Balam = Strength

Sahajam = constitutional; Kaalajam = temporal;Yuktikrtam =acquired

Trividham baklamiti – sahajam kaalajam yuktikrtancha

Charaka sutra 11-36

12.Types of Diseases= Roga

Nija = Endogenos

Aagantu = Exogenous

Maanasa = Psychic

Trayo rogaa iti – nijaagantumaanasaah –Charaka sutra 11-45

13.Roga Ayatanaani = Causes for disease

Atiyoga = excessive utilisation; Ayoga = non utilisation; Mithyaayoga = wrong utilisation (of artha, karma, Kaala)

Arthaanaam karmanah kaalasya cha atiyoga – ayoga – mithyaayogaah

—Charaka sutra 11-37


14.Rogamaarga – Path of Disease

Saakhaa – Peripheral system; marmaasthisandhi – vital orgas, bones and joints; Kostha – Central system

Trayo rogamargaa iti – sakhaamamaarsthisandhayah koshtascha –Charaka sutra 11-48

15.Sariiradosasangraha = Pathogenic factors in the body

Vaayu =air/wind; Pitta = Fire/Bile; Kapha = water/Phlegm

Vaayuh pitam kapaschoktah saariirodosasangraha: —Charaka sutra 1-57