RAT DOCTOR, RAT DETECTIVE AND RAT DRIVER (Post No.7207)

Compiled  BY London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 12  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-31

Post No. 7207

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Two interesting articles about rats have appeared in a London News magazine.

‘THE WEEK’ magazine published from Britain, has published a news item about rats driving small cars in its issue dated 9th November 2019

Rats are very cunning and clever. They learn new tricks quickly. A team at the University of Richmond in Virginia (USA) constructed a rat operated vehicle (ROV). The vehicle is just a plastic jar mounted on wheels. Three copper bars and an aluminium plate are used as seat and steering wheel. If they sit on an aluminium plate and touch the copper wires to complete the circuit they are given some rewards. Once they complete the circuit this way the car moves forward. Then they could steer with the help of three copper bars.

Two sets of rats are used. One set was housed in an  enriched environment with toys and exercise machines. Another set was raised in normal lab cages. The enriched rats learnt driving far more quickly than the rest, indicating stimulation in early life is beneficial to rodents as it is to humans.

Source -The Week, 9th November 2019

xxx

Rat Doctor and Rat Detective

In Africa rats are trained to detect land mines and diagnose tuberculosis (TB). A single trained rat can search over 2000 square feet of land for explosive mines in around 20 minutes. A human would take a week to do the same. This is done in Morogoro in Tanzania. (Lot of countries affected by wars have the land mine problem)

Lives are saved and the war torn countries will be a safer place to live because of these hero rats.  The rats we are talking about are African pouched rats growing up to three feet long. Apopo , an NGO founded in Belgium, has been using their extraordinary sense of smell to find explosives all over the world.

The rats have also been trained to detect tuberculosis, while many other applications, all based around smell, are being researched. They are astonishingly effective.  Over the past 20 years, rats have cleared 100,000 landmines giving back almost 2.5 million square miles of land to a million people who had previously lived in fear.

There are more than 50 species within the genus Rattus, but African giant rats – Cricetomys gambianus- would be best suited to this task. It takes nine months to train a rat to sniff the explosives in landmines. Rats have been used to detect TB since 2007. The rats have helped to halt more than 117,000 potential TB infections.  When somebody has TB their sputum (spit) contains compounds by a bacterial pathogen and these have an odour. Some doctors claim to be able to smell it on very ill patients, but it is recognisable to some animals – such as rats taught by Apopo- at an early stage. Rats can easily smell the harmful bacteria. When the rats find something harmful, they are trained to scratch the ground.

( a longer version of this article was published in the Telegraph magazine.)

Source – The Week dated 26 October 2019.

–subham–

HINDU’s 12 MEDICAL APPARATUSES (Post No.7193)

Compiled  by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 8  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 14-35

Post No. 7193

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

Ancient Hindus used  many apparatuses in their chemical, medical and alchemical experiments and preparations. If anyone looks at the ancient medical books they will come across these yantras or devices.

Somadeva explains the following in his Sanskrit work –

Dola Yantram ,Svedani Yantram ,Patina Yantram ,

Adhaspartana Yantram ,Dheki Yantram ,Valuka Yantram ,Lavana Yantram ,Nalika Yantram ,Bhudhara Yantram ,Tiryakpatana Yantram ,Vidhyadhara Yantram ,Dhupa Yantram .

Please see the attachments for full description of the 12 devices.

source book

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA (Post No.7189)

Written by London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 7  NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-36

Post No. 7189

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000

CHARAKA AND SUSRUTA were great Ayurvedic physicians who lived in India at least 2300 years ago. Hindus are very great editors and redactors and ‘up to date’ people. They kept on updating all their scriptures except the Vedas. No one dared to touch the Vedas. As a matter of fact they were not written until Muslims started destroying all Hindu institutions. Since Hindus updated everything in their hands, Marxists and White skinned half- baked scholars gave the latest date for al the books. For instance, if I add a   news item from London Times today, then they will dub the work as 7th November 2019. But Hindu scholars believe in the Kali Yuga calculation, Saka year calculation etc. I have given umpteen points to place Manu Smrti before Hammurabi.

Coming back to today’s topic Charaka and Susruta, scholars believe Charka Samhita is older than Susruta Samhita. These treatises passed through repeated recensions by later and more advanced workers.

According to the Chinese version of Tripitaka, a physician named Charaka was attached to the court of King Kanishka who reigned in the second century CE. But scholars point out that the appellation of Charaka occurs in Vedic literature as a patronymic name.

Differences

Charaka’s book is not as systematic as Susruta’s. He indulges in random and irrelevant discourses.

In the Charaka Samhita we find the author is fond of metaphysical disquisitions in preference to experiments and observations. The Susruta Samhita in this respect is far more scientific than the Charaka.

This shows that Charaka is more ancient, older than Susruta.

Again we find only Vedic gods and mantras in the Charaka treatise/ Samhita. He follows closely the authority of the Vedas. Between the Atharva Veda and that of the Charaka  there must have been several medical treatises , each reflecting the spirit and progress of the age.

Charaka himself records that he simply based his work on that of Agnivesha. At the time of Charaka  there existed at least six standard works by

Agnivesha,

Bhela,

Jatukarna,

Parasara,

Harita,

Ksharapani

Thus Charaka Samhita is not the first medical work. It represents rather a fairly developed state of the subject.

Replicas of Susruta’s Surgical Instruments (in London)

Medical conferences

There are chapters in the Charaka Samhita which suggests that it is a record of deliberations of a congress of medical experts. We already knew that Janaka organised big philosophical conferences where women scholars like Gargi attended. Emperor Asoka also organised very big Buddhist conferences. Hindus were the first to organise big conferences in the world.

Conference hints are in ‘Discourse on the Tastes’ in Charaka Samhita.

Charaka was a compiler like Vyasa of Mahabharata; we see lot of overlapping and repetitions and contradictions. Vyasa knew the danger of losing scriptures and Vedas . So he didn’t bother about repetitious but did compile the world’s largest literature. If one takes into account the puranas, Mahabharata and Vedas he compiled, one would understand the greatest work done by Vyasa.

In Charaka also we find overlap in their content. It appears to have gathered, sifted and brought into a definite form the information handed down from the preceding ages.

University Professor Agnivesha

Agnivesha, disciple of Atreya, was a university professor who lived 2600 years ago. During Buddha’s time he was teaching medicine at the University of Taxila (Thakshaseelam). It is written in the Buddhist Jataka story.

So we may safely conclude that Charaka belongs to the early Buddhist era or pre Buddhist period.  The information he provides regarding metals and metallic preparations, are of less advanced than those in the Arthasastra of Kautilya which was composed around 300 BCE.

Age of Susruta

Susruta’s terminology and technique in general do not differ much from those of the Charaka. Its style is dry, laconic and matter of the fact in contrast to the discursive and diffusive character of the Charaka Samhita.

Susruta aims at systematic classification; avoids unnecessary details. This indicates somewhat a later date of its composition. Modern recension is thoroughly redacted, recast and remodelled. Numerous passages agree verbatim with those found in the Charaka Samhita.

The Susruta is par excellence a treatise on surgery as the Charaka is on medicine proper.

In modern terms,

Charaka has M.D. qualification and Susruta has M.S qualification.

Susruta was disciple of Dhanvantri according to Buddhist Jataka and he was a teacher in the University of Kasi during Buddha’s time. He was a younger contemporary of Atreya so there cannot be a great interval between Charaka and Susruta.

They are repositories of accumulated knowledge of earlier periods dating back to the Vedic age.

–SUBHAM–

பாதரச மணி பையில் இருந்தால் விண்ணில் பறக்கலாம்! (Post No.7184)

mica

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com
Date: 6 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-17

Post No. 7184

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

mercury in thermometer

தாயுமானவர் பாடல் இதோ:–

கந்துக மதக் கரியை வசமா நடத்தலாம்;

கரடி வெம்புலி வாயையுங் கட்டலாம்;

ஒரு சிங்கம் முதுகின் மேற் கொள்ளலாம்;

கட்செவி எடுத்தாட்டலாம்

வெந்தழலின்  இரதம் வைத்தைந்து லோகத்தையும்

வேதித்து விற்றுண்ணலாம்;

வேறொருவர் காணாமல் உலத்துலாவரலாம்

விண்ணவரை ஏவல் கொள்ளலாம்;

சந்ததமும் இளமையோடிருக்கலாம்

மற்றொரு சரீரத்திலும் புகுதலாம்;

சலமேல் நடக்கலாம்; கனல் மேலிருக்கலாம்

தன்னிகரில் சித்தி பெறலாம்

சிந்தையை அடக்கியே சும்மா இருக்கின்ற திறமரிது.

நேற்று முன் தினம் எழுதிய ஆங்கிலக் கட்டுரையில் சம்ஸ்க்ருத மொழியில் உள்ள நீண்ட ரசாயன நூல் பட்டியலைக் கொடுத்துள்ளேன்.

Old articles n my blog———

வேதம் முதல் தாயுமானவர் வரை …



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/05/29 › வேதம்-…

  1.  

29 May 2018 – வேதம் முதல் தாயுமானவர் வரை அஷ்டமா சித்திகள்! அற்புத … தாயுமானவர் பாடிய அற்புத சக்திகள் பற்றிய பாடல் நாம் எல்லோரும் …

SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF SAINTS- FROM RIG VEDA …



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/05/29 › supernatural-…

  1.  

Translate this page

29 May 2018 – SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF SAINTS– FROM RIG VEDA TO THAYUMANAVAR (Post No.5057). Written by London Swaminathan. Date: 29 …

in the Rig Veda | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › in-the-rig-veda

  1.  

SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF SAINTS– FROM RIG VEDA TO … Though lot of saints in later ages have sung about the mystic powers of saints and seers in …

You’ve visited this page 2 times. Last visit: 13/01/18

Aladdin’s Magic Lamp and Tamil Saints | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2012/03/09 › aladdins-magi…

  1.  
  2.  

9 Mar 2012 – In the Forest of Naimisaranya , saints used to gather and listen to stories. … They are supposed to have supernatural powers. In Tamil literature …

Rare Pictures of Hindu Yogis, Saints, Aghoris, ascetics from a …



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2016/11/12 › rare-pictures-…

  1.  

12 Nov 2016 – Rare Pictures of Hindu Yogis, Saints, Aghoris, ascetics from a German book … SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF SAINTS– FROM RIG VEDA TO …

Miracles do Happen ! | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2012/09/01 › miracles-do-h…

  1.  

1 Sep 2012 – This gives an idea of the miracles done by Hindu saints, particularly … is one who attained Siddhi i.e. special psychic and supernatural powers, …

WHERE WERE THE HINDU SEERS AND SAINTS BORN …



https://tamilandvedas.com › 2018/04/27 › where-were-the-hindu-seers-and…

  1.  

27 Apr 2018 – Nayanmars- Most of the 63 Nayanmars, the Tamil Saivite saints were born in … FIVE WAYS OF GETTING SUPERNATURAL POWERS (Post …

—subham–

RARE CHEMISTRY/ ALCHEMY/ MEDICINE BOOKS OF ANCIENT INDIA (Post No.7178)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 4 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 16-37

Post No. 7178

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

INDUS-SARASVATI VALLEY


In almost every country the progress of chemistry can be traced to medicine and alchemy. Alchemy details the method of changing base metals into silver or gold. It describes the elixir of life and philosopher’s stone. In India religious worship and certain religious rites are also included in the study of Chemistry or Rasayana. Throughout the Rig Veda we see people praying for 100-year life span. To keep themselves fit, they drank the Soma rasa which gave them long and healthy life. Indian life in all its aspects, social, political and intellectual has always been  under the mighty sway of religion. Soma rasa, juice of Soma plant is described as an Amrita (ambrosia, elixir of life).

Magic (Electric) Light

The ‘Vasavadatta’ and the’ Dasakumara charita’ in the sixth century allude to the preparation of a mass of fixed or coagulated mercury, (Paradindadrab), ; of a chemical powder capable of producing deep sleep or stupor by its inhalation ( Yoga churna); of a chemically prepared wick for producing light without fire (Yogabartika) and of a powder which acts like an anaesthetic and paralyses sensor and motor nerves, (Stambana churnam.) These are in the above mentioned two books.

MERCURY IN THERMOMETER

(Mercury is Paatha rasam in Tamil)


KUBJIKATANTRA is a manuscript in the collection of Maharajah of Nepal. This was written in Gupta character and copied in the sixth century. In one place of this Tantra work, Lord Shiva himself speaks about the efficacy of mercury when it is ‘killed’/ treated six times. Transmutation of copper into gold with the help of mercury is also explained.

Tantrics believe that preservation of body is necessary to achieve liberation through certain rites and mercury will  make the body undecaying and immortal.

Nagarjuna, the great Buddhist philosopher and alchemist is credited with a work called RASA RATNAKARA. He is also the reputed author of KAKSHAPUTA TANTRA and AROGYAMANJARI. He was the redactor of Susruta Samhita. He lived in the second century CE. There are two dialogues, one between Salivahana (Sathavahana) and Nagarjuna, and the other between Ratnagosha and Mandavya.

Letter of Nagarjuna

One Friendly epistle of Nagarjuna to King Udyana is available in Chinese and Tibetan languages. The Sanskrit original is lost. Sathavahanas ruled Andhra region in the first two centuries of modern era. It looks like there were more than one Nagarjuna. Arabian scholar Alberuni wrote about one Nagarjuna of Daihak near Somnath, nearly a century earlier than his own time. He was a great expert in alchemy according to Alberuni. Rasa ratnakara might have been written by the second Nagarjuna. In the Durbar Library of Nepal there are two more works attributed to Nagarjuna. They are Yogasara and Yogasatak.

RASARNAVA is a Hindu Saiva Tantra work which describes mercury as of divine origin. This book has valuable information on chemistry. Mica has been described as the seed of Goddess Gouri. It says mercury can not only improve the quality of metals but also can make human body undecaying and imperishable.


RASAHRIDAYA is another book which talks about ‘Rasa Siddhas’. They got another body without quitting their own bodies .

Asmaga was a Buddhist monk of Gandhara who lived around 400 CE. He composed Yogachara Bhumisastra. He introduced Patanjali yoga principles into Buddhism.

During the reign of the Pala Dynasty, there were many masters of magic and ‘Mantra Vajracharyas’, who performed the most prodigious feats with the Siddhis they attained. Siddhis are of eight types with which one becomes Superman with supernatural powers .


Following Buddhist works are minor chemistry books:-


RASAHRIDAYA was written by Govindabhagavat around 11 th century at the request of king of Bhutan, Kirataland .


RASENDRACHUDAMANI of Somadeva compiled lot of information from early works. He has praised Nagarjuna and others.


RASAPRAKASA SUDHAKARA by Yasodhara is another important work of 12th century.


Metallurgy of Zinc is explained in RASA RATNA SAMUCHCHAYA.


RASAKALPA is part of Rudrayamala Tantra which describes metals and minerals and the methods to kill/ treat them.


About the gigantic voluminous encyclopaedic Tibetan Tanjur and Kanjur, a separate article is posted already.

Please see the attached list of Chemistry Books (In Sanskrit):–

ONE PAGE FROM EACH CHEMISTRY BOOK

—–SUBHAM——

சுமேரிய மருத்துவமும், அதர்வண வேத கால மருத்துவமும் (Post No.7168)

LAMASHTU DEMONESS

Research article written  by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 2 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 7-59 am

Post No. 7168

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

GULA WITH DOG

SUMMARY IN BULLET POINTS


Following are notable similarities between the Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Vedic India:–

1.They believed that diseases are caused by Gods and Evil spirits

2.They used magical spells to drive away the disease causing demons.

3.They wore talismans made up of animal, plant and inanimate objects to protect them from the demons or evil spirits

4.They worshiped Gods or Goddesses in charge of medicines.

5.They thought Gods who become angry send the diseases to earth to punish people.

6.Both the cultures did surgeries and had surgical instruments.

7.To some extent they used herbal medicines.

8.They had trained medicine men, magicians to cure diseases.

XXX

சுஸ்ருதர் உபயோகித்த கருவிகாளின் அச்சு (replicas) மாதிரிகள்

OLD ARTICLES IN THE BLOG  ON RELATED TOPICS

புத்தர் நோய் | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › புத்தர்-நோ…

21 Jun 2018 – புத்தரோ பௌத்தர்களோ மருத்துவ நூல்களை எழுதவில்லை ஆயினும் … புத்தர் குளித்தவுடன் அவருக்கு வெல்லப்பாகு கலந்த சுடு …

‎| ‎Must include: ‎கால

வேதத்தில் மூலிகைகள் | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › வேதத்தில்-…

16 Sep 2013 – மருத்துவம் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட விஷயங்களுக்கு சரகர், சுஸ்ருதர் போன்ற பெரியோர்கள் வடமொழியில் எழுதிய நூல்கள் வேத கால அறிவை …

மூளையில் | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › மூளையில்

18 Jun 2015 – King Bhoja In Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Post No 1939; Date: 18 June 2015. Written by London swaminathan. Uploaded from London at 8-57. தேரையர், ஜீவகன் ஆகிய இரண்டு பெரிய ..

சுஸ்ருதர் | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › சுஸ்ருதர்

24 Apr 2016 – 2900 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் இந்திய மருத்துவர் செய்த மூளை அறுவை சிகிச்சை … திரிபிடகம் என்பது புத்த மதத்தைச் சேர்ந்த ஒரு பெரும் அறிவுக் களஞ்சிய நூல் … பெரியோர்கள் வடமொழியில் எழுதிய நூல்கள் வேத கால அறிவை …

Brain Surgery | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › brain-surgery

1.      

17 Jun 2015 – Posts about Brain Surgery written by Tamil and Vedas. … Brain Surgery in Ancient India: Bhoja and Indus Valley … Jeevaka’s Eye Operation.

Upamanyu | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › upamanyu

1.      

25 Feb 2013 – Picture shows Kannappa Nayanar placing his foot on Shiva to mark the place for placing the second eyeJeevaka’s Eye Operation. There is a …

Sushruta instruments | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › sushruta-instruments

1.      

3 Feb 2018 – Sushruta was the Father of Surgery. He describes a lot of surgical instruments. On the basis of his description, model instruments were created.

Sushruta | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › sushruta

1.      

4 Feb 2018 – Sushruta who lived 2600 years ago in India is the Father of Surgery. He described over 100 medical instruments. He was famous for nose …

Charaka | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › charaka

1.      

In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of …. A lot of surgical instruments, surgeries like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery for …

Susruta | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › susruta

1.      

Posts about Susruta written by Tamil and Vedas. … Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon. Sauryam– … Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments

—-subham —-

MESOPOTAMIAN AND VEDIC MEDICINES! (Post No.7165)

Goddess Gula with her Dog
Gula

WRITTEN  by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 1 NOVEMBER 2019

Time  in London – 17-49

Post No. 7165

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

from Babylon in Berlin Museum

There are lot of similarities between the Mesopotamian and Vedic beliefs regarding diseases and medicines. Atharva Veda has more similarities than other Vedas with the Mesopotamian Cuneiform tablets. Only in Hindu religion God is called Doctor and Medicine (Bishak and Beshajam). After the Vedic period Hindus advanced with great speed. But Sumerian, Babylonian and Akkadian stopped growing. We see the same old belief prevailing in 6th and seventh century BCE in Babylonia. That was the time of Buddha, Mahavira, great physicians Susrutha and Charaka in India.

Following are notable similarities between the Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Vedic India:–

1.They believed that diseases are caused by Gods and Evil spirits

2.They used magical spells to drive away the disease causing demons.

3.They wore talismans made up of animal, plant and inanimate objects to protect them from the demons or evil spirits

4.They worshiped Gods or Goddesses in charge of medicines.

5.They thought Gods who become angry send the diseases to earth to punish people.

6.Both the cultures did surgeries and had surgical instruments.

7.To some extent they used herbal medicines.

8.They had trained medicine men, magicians to cure diseases.

There are dissimilarities as well.

First let us look at the Vedic literature.

Atharva Veda is dated around 1000 BCE or earlier. This Veda consists mostly of charms, spells, incantations, magic, sorcery, demonology and witchcraft. It deals also with plants and vegetable products as helpful agents in the treatment of diseases and for the prolongation of life.

In Atharva Veda we have even remedy for promoting the growth of hair (AV 6-163-1/2)

In the Atharva Veda the hymns for the cure of diseases and of possessions of demons are known as BHAISAJYANI, while those for prolongation of life and preservation of youth and health are known as AYUSHYANI.

It can be compared with the tasks of two types of medicine men ASU and AASIPUS in Mesopotamia.

Ritual healers or exorcists were called Aasipus and other healers were called Asus. They were highly respected during Neo Assyrian period (About 900- 612 BCE) . They were employed by kings along with astrologers, diviners and scholarly professionals.

Mesopotamian gods were short tempered and they signalled their displeasure by sending diseases. The Asipus were experts in reading them and they mediated between the victims and gods. The gods had the power to provide well being and plenty and bring about disaster if they so wished.

A catalogue from the first millennium BCE lists the texts expected to be mastered by a ritual healer. It features several series of incantations and rituals for healing and protection from various evils, handbooks on diagnostics and physiognomy, and medical remedies as well as descriptions of plants and stones used as therapeutic substances.

But the ‘Exorcist’s Manual’ as the catalogue is now called now, also registers various types of omens dealing with signs in heaven and on earth. The physicians performed basic surgeries

Hammurabi’s Law

According to Laws of Hammurabi (1800 BCE), the physicians also healed broken bones and performed eye surgery as well as veterinary care, for which he could charge a fee of ten shekels of silver, depending on the social status of the client.

The laws also specify the punishments (either financial or physical) that a physician could face if his interventions appeared to  injure or kill a patient.

India had great eye surgeons like Jeevaka during the time of Buddha. He charged a very high fee for surgeries Susruta is the first one to talk about artificial plastic nose. He lists lot of surgical instruments. Asvins of Vedic literature were experts in treating patients and providing them artificial limbs. Dhanvatri is the God of  Medicine in Hindu scriptures. A Tamil Pandya king was given an artificial hand and he was called ‘Pandya with a Golden hand’ 2000 years ago. These are just a few examples.

Charaka and Susruta, two great physicians, list the qualifications of physicians.

Mesopotamian Gods and Demons

While the ritual healers regarded the gods of wisdom and magic, Ea (Enki) and Marduk (Asalluhi) as their guardians, physicians especially  venerated the heling goddess Gula and her consort Damu.

Goddess Gula was known as ‘Great Physician of the Land’ and was portrayed as applying bandages to treat skin sores, operating with surgical instruments ,reciting incantations, and performing midwifery. She was often shown with a dog. Like Hindu Yama and Bhairava she was accompanied by a dog.

The cures for snake bites are similar to cures in the Atharva Veda. Mesopotamians feared Lamashtu, the baby snatching demoness. This type of belief is in India as well. Tamil Skanda Sashti Kavasam hymn mentioned the child devouring  demon. Tamils used white mustard seeds to drive away the demons from pregnant women and new born babies. Manasa Devi is worshipped in Bengal to get protection from snake bites.

Source Books:

Ancient Mesopotamia Speaks Yale University, 2019

History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India, P Ray, 1956

Brain Surgery | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › brain-surgery

  1.  

17 Jun 2015 – Posts about Brain Surgery written by Tamil and Vedas. … Brain Surgery in Ancient India: Bhoja and Indus Valley … Jeevaka’s Eye Operation.

Upamanyu | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › upamanyu

  1.  

25 Feb 2013 – Picture shows Kannappa Nayanar placing his foot on Shiva to mark the place for placing the second eyeJeevaka’s Eye Operation. There is a …

Sushruta instruments | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › sushruta-instruments

  1.  

Translate this page

3 Feb 2018 – Sushruta was the Father of Surgery. He describes a lot of surgical instruments. On the basis of his description, model instruments were created.

Sushruta | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › sushruta

  1.  

Translate this page

4 Feb 2018 – Sushruta who lived 2600 years ago in India is the Father of Surgery. He described over 100 medical instruments. He was famous for nose …

Charaka | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › charaka

  1.  

In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of …. A lot of surgical instruments, surgeries like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery for …

Susruta | Tamil and Vedas



https://tamilandvedas.com › tag › susruta

  1.  

Posts about Susruta written by Tamil and Vedas. … Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon. Sauryam– … Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments

—subham–

மாணவர்கள் அதிக மார்க் வாங்க வைட்டமின் மாத்திரை உதவுமா? (Post No.7162)

WRITTEN  by  London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 31 OCTOBER 2019

Time  in London – 18-35

Post No. 7162

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.


Vitamin Tablets  to Students 

1992ம் ஆண்டு நவம்பர் 8ம் தேதி நான் எழுதிய கட்டுரை மாணவர் அறிவு வளர வைட்டமின் (விட்டமின் என்றும் உச்சரிக்கலாம்) மாத்திரைகள் உதவுமா என்று பிரிட்டனில் நடந்த ஒரு சுவையான வழக்கு பற்றியதாகும்.

சுவையான வழக்கு இது. படியுங்கள்

London Swaminathan’s Articles in 1992 Dinamani

–subham–

84 KINDS OF WINE IN CHARAKA SAMHITA! (Post No.7155)

Compiled by  London Swaminathan

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 29 OCTOBER 2019

Time  in London – 19-24

Post No. 7155

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

CHARAKA and SUSHRUTA  lived at least 2300 years ago. Kautilya, author of Athasastra also lived 2300 years before our time. It is amazing that they described various types of fermented drinks.

Charaka lists nine sources of spirituous liquor or fermented drinks.  These are- cereals, fruits, roots, wood, flowers, stems/stalks, leaves, barks of plants and sugar -yielding canes. From these, the preparation of 84 different kinds of ‘asava’(wine) has been described.

The nine main classes of liquors from the nine sources, mentioned above, are named respectively as-

Dhania asava

Phalasava,

Mulasava

Sarasava,

Pushpasava,

Patrasava,

Kandasava,

Tvagasava,

Sarkasrasava

xxx

In Arthasastra

In a chapter defining the duties of the Superintendent of Liquor, Kautilya writes,

By employing such men as are acquainted with the manufacture of liquor and ferments 9kinva), the superintendent of liquor shall carry on liquor traffic not only in forts and county part (shops), but also in camps…………….

Illicit liquor destroyed

Various kinds of liquors described are-

Medaka

Prasanna

Asava

Arista

Maireya

Madhu

Medaka is prepared from the fermentation of rice;

Prasanna from the fermentation of flour with addition of spices and the fruits of Putraka (a species of tree in the country of Kamarup/Assam).

Asava is the liquor derived from the fermentation of sugar mixed with honey.

Jaggery mixed with powder of long and black pepper or with the powder of triphala (mixture of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia balerica, and Phyllanthus emblica), when fermented , forms Maireya.

Fermented grape juice is Madhu. The preparation of different kinds of arista for different diseases can be learnt from the physicians.

Kinva or ferment is prepared from boiled or unboiled paste of ‘masha’ (Phaseolus radiatus), rice and Morata (Alanium salvifolium) and the like.

The liquor that is manufactured from mango fruits may contain a greater proportion of mango essence or of spices. It is called maha sura when it contains sambhara (spices).

It is interesting to note that Kautilya writes that all  varieties of liquor other than that used for the king are taxable with 5 percent as toll. These include acid drinks prepared from fruits (phalamla) and spirit distilled from molasses (amla sidhu). But on the occasion of festivals, fairs (samaja) and pilgrimage it is permissible to manufacture liquor for four days (chaturahassaurikah) – liberty to drink liquor without limit

–subham–

இமயமலையில் புற்றுநோய்க்கு மருந்து (Post No.7136)

Written by LONDON SWAMINATHAN

swami_48@yahoo.com

Date: 25 OCTOBER 2019
British Summer Time uploaded in London – 7-22 AM


Post No. 7136

Pictures are taken from various sources; beware of copyright rules; don’t use them without permission; this is a non- commercial, educational blog; posted in swamiindology.blogspot.com and tamilandvedas.com simultaneously. Average hits per day for both the blogs 12,000.

நான் எழுதிய ‘இமயமலையில் புற்றுநோய்க்கு மருந்து’ என்ற கட்டுரை தினமணியில் உலகப் பலகணி -யின் கீழ் 1992-ம் ஆண்டு ஜூன் 14ம் தேதி வெளியானது. அத்துடன் ரஷியாவை அதிரவைத்த கொலை வழக்குகள், பாட்டில் படத்தின் விலை 21 லட்சம் டாலர் என்ற கட்டுரைகளும் வெளியாகின. முதலில் இமயமலையில் புற்று நோய்க்கு மருந்து என்பதைக் காண்போம்.

நான் எழுதிய செய்தி 1992-ல் வெளியானது. அதற்குப் பின்னர் 2011-ல் லண்டனில் வெளியான செய்தி அபாய மணி அடித்துள்ளது. இமயமலை மரங்களில் ‘டாக்ஸால்’ இருப்பதை அறிந்து அதை அதிகமாக அறுவடை செய்வதால் அந்த இனமே அழிந்து விடும் என்ற பேராபத்து ஏற்பட்டதாக லண்டன் கார்டியன் (The Guardian Newspaper, London) செய்தி வெளியிட்டது.

பின்னர் 2015-ல் டாபர் (Dabur) நிறுவனம் இதை ஆயுர்வேத முறையில் எடுத்துப் பயன்படுத்தப்போவதாக அறிவித்தது.

2002-ல் வெளியான மற்றொரு செய்தி ஆண் மரங்களில் 64 சதவிகிதம் அதிகம் ‘டாக்ஸால்’ கிடைப்பதாக ஆராய்ச்சியில் தெரிய வந்ததாகச் சொல்கிறது.

Thu 10 Nov 2011 

 Taxol, a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of cancer, was first found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolin). Photograph: National Cancer Institute/Corbis

A species of Himalayan yew treethat is used to produce Taxol, a chemotherapy drug to treat cancer, is being pushed to the brink of extinction by over-harvesting for medicinal use and collection for fuel, scientists warned on Thursday.

The medicinal tree, Taxus contorta, found in Afghanistan, India and Nepal, has seen its conservation status change from “vulnerable” to “endangered” on the IUCN’s annual “red list” of threatened species.

Taxol was discovered by a US National Cancer Institute programme in the late 1960s, isolated in the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia. All 11 species of yew have since been found to contain Taxol. “The harvesting of the bark kills the trees, but it is possible to extract Taxol from clippings, so harvesting, if properly controlled, can be less detrimental to the plants,” said Craig Hilton-Taylor, IUCN red list unit manager.

Xxx

Dabur, one of India’s largest Ayurvedic formulation manufacturers, has now ventured into modern pharmaceutical research and product development. Dabur recently announced that it had perfected a method to extract taxol — a potent drug used to treat ovarian and breast cancers — from the leaves of the Himalayan yew (Taxus baccata).

Says Anand Burman, director of research and development at Dabur, “We cannot compete with the big players in the synthetic pharmaceutical business, so we are limiting our efforts to what we know best — natural plant products and extracts.”

Xxxx

AGE AND SEX OF TREES DECIDE QUANTITY OF TAXOL

Taxol content in the bark of Taxus baccata trees growing in a homogenous (uniform) environment at Jageshwar, District Almora in Central Himalaya has been quantified. The average taxol concentration in the bark of sampled trees was 0.0558+/-0.008% (of dry wt.) and was about 64% higher for male plants (averaged across tree age) in comparison to female trees. Maximum taxol content was recorded in the bark samples collected from trees of >110 yrs age.

ANOVA indicates a significant difference in the taxol content of bark from trees of different ages, however, differences were not significant between sexes. Taxol was quantified by HPLC using a standard curve prepared with authentic taxol; the identification of bark taxol was confirmed by UV and mass spectrometry. The total taxol content of the bark of Taxus trees across an age series was found to range between 0.064 to 8.032 g/tree, and a tree of about 100 yrs age can yield 5.74 kg dry bark.

Xxxx SUBHAM XXX

Taxus contorta trees in the Himalayas