Knowledge of Medicine and Method of Treatment in Tamil and Sanskrit Books (Post No.3535)

Written by London swaminathan

 

Date: 11 January 2017

 

Time uploaded in London:- 21-17

 

Post No.3535

 

 

Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.

 

 

contact; swami_48@yahoo.com

 

 

Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural, has dealt with a lot of subjects including medicine. He says that one can live for long without disease if one controls his eating habits. he says 1.Eat when you are hungry 2.Eat when the food already eaten is digested. Very simple!

In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of Medical treatise in Sanskrit. Tiruvalluvar says:

 

Let a skilful doctor who knows medicine,

1.study the patient

2.the nature of disease

3.the season and then treat him (Kural 949)

 

He also adds, Medical treatment implies fourfold elements:

Patient

Doctor

Medicine

and the Nurse/ compounder (Kural 950)

Parimel azakar, the most  famous commentator of Tirukkural, explains the attributes thus of the four elements:

“The attributes of the patient are ability to disclose the symptoms, strength to endure pain, ability to pay and strict obedience to the directions of the physician;

those of the physican are intelligence and study, courage to handle every kind of disease, purity of thought, word and deeed, good luck;

those of medicine are efficacy to cure any disease, superior virtue on account of taste, power, strength and easy facility of being procured, and capacity to combine with other ingredients as well as food;

and those of the apothecary are kindness and consideration to the anxiety of the patient, purity of thought, word and deed, ability to compound drugs and common sense.

 

The above passage shows how much advanced we were in understanding the patient and the treatment.

 

It shows that the doctors of ancient India had a nurse or compounder for assistance. Westerners copied it from Indians.

The same concept of treatment is found in Sanskrit texts as well:

1.Knowledge of the Best Physician


Hetu — cause
Linga– Diagnosis
Rogaanaam apunarbhava — non recurrence of disease
Prasamana — cure
—Charaka Samhita 9-19

Hetau linge prasamanerogaanaam punarbhave
Njaanam chaturvidham yasya sa rajaarho bhisaktamah
Charaka 9-19

xxx


2.Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon

Sauryam– fearless ness
Aasukriyaa Lighthandedness
Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments
Asvedavepathu Absence of perspiration and trembling
Asammohah Absence of confusion

Sauryamaasukriyaa sastrataiksnyamasvedavepathu
Asammohasca vaidyasya sastrakarmani sasyate
–Susruta 5-10

Xxxxx

 

Following quotes are from my October 2015 post:-

 

3.Vaidya Gunah – Qualities of a Physician

Srute paryavadaatatvam Bahuso drstakarmataa

Daakshyam Saucam iti jneya vaidye Guna chatustayam

–Charaka (sutra) 9-6

Srute paryavadaatatvam =Excellence in Medical Knowledge

Bahuso drstakarmataa = Extensive Practical Experience

Daakshyam = Skill

Saucam = Cleanliness

4.Physician’s Approach to Patients

Vaidya Vrtti

Maitri kaarunyamaarteshu sakye pritirupekshanam

Prakrutistheshu butesu vaidyavrttischaturvidhaa

–Charaka (sutra) 9-26

Maitri = Friendship

Kaarunya = compassion

Priti = Pleasure

Upekshanam = Sympathy

 

xxxx

 

5.Fake Doctors (not to be honoured)

Apuujya Vaidyaah

Kucela: karkasa: stabhdho graamani svayamaagata:

Pancha vaidyaa na puujyante Dhanvantrisamaa api

Even if he is equal to Dhnavantri, the God of Medicine, don’t honour the following five physicians:

Kucela =Untidily dressed

Karkasa = Rough

Stabdha = Stubborn

Graamani = Pervert

Svayamaagata = One who visits on his own (uninvited)

 

–subham–

Walking Stick in Charaka Samhita!

stick2  stick3

Written by London swaminathan

Post No.2267

Date: 23 October 2015

Time uploaded in London:19-46

Thanks for the pictures.

Don’t use pictures. Don’t reblog for at least a week.

It is amazing that Charaka in his medical treatise deals with even Walking Sticks. If he has composed a sloka (couplet) on such matters, the Old Aged people must have been looked after very well 2000 years ago. Manu deals with ‘looking after’ old people in another sloka.

The ancients believed that an assembly (Sabha) is considered an assembly only when there are elderly people seated in it. We may compare it to the Rajya Sabha of India and House of Lords of Great Britain.

Here is the sloka on walking sticks:

Skalatah sampratishtanam satrunam cha nishudanam

Avashtambanamayushtam bayagnam dandadaranam

–Charaka Samhita 5-102

One who has the walking sticksgets the following five benefits:–

Skhalatah sampratisthaanam = Prevention from slipping

Satruunaam nisuudanam =  Attacking the enemy

Avastam-banam = Support

Aayusyam = Longevity

Bhayagnam = Averts fear.

Most of the old age people die after slipping and falling in the bath room. Probably the shock triggers fear, depression and several other things in addition to fracture. Knowing this Charaka has emphasised the use of walking sticks.

gandhi

Benefits of Serving Elders

Abhivadana silasya nityam vruddopasevinah

Chatvari thasya vardhante ayurvidya yaso balam

–Manu Smrti 2-121

One who serves the elderly people will get the following four benefits:

Ayuh = Longevity

Vidyaa = Knowledge

Yasas = Fame

Bala = Strength

–Subham-

Golden sayings in Ayurveda Books

india medical

Article No.1986

Compiled by London swaminathan

Date 10th July 2015

Time uploaded in London: 20-54

Charaka and Susruta were great Ayurvedic experts. Their books serve as the foundations of Ayurveda, the popular  Indian Medical System. Both of them wrote in Sanskrit and they lived at least 2300 years ago; but they have only written what is passed to them by their predecessors. Because of constant updating of Indian literature we take the latest date. Yet they stand unique in the world of medicine.

Both of them cover a lot of things in the field of medicine. It is amazing to see that even the burns are classified like we classify today as first degree, second degree and third degree burns. They talk about psychic treatments. Studying was stopped on New moon and Full moon days due to the bad effect of moon. They discuss pre-operative and post-operative care like modern day hospitals.

Let us look at some of the golden verses:

21  Pirmoji širdies operacija

1.Sastra  karma =Surgical Operation

Purva karma = Pre operative; Pradhaana = Operation; Pascaat = Post  operative

Trividhyam karma – Puurva karma, Pradhaanakarma, Paschaatkarmaeti tadvayaadhim pratyupadekshyaamah

–Susruta Sutara 5-3

2.Agnidagdham – Fiery Burns

Plustam = scorched; Durdagdham =Blistered; Samyakdagdham = Superficially burnt; Atidagdham = Deeply burnt

Plushtam durdagdham – Samyakdagdham   Atidagdham cheti chaturvidham Agnidagdham  -Susruta Sutra  12-16

fire

3.Bad Effect of Moon- Cessation from Study= Anadhyayana Dina

Astami – eigth day of the fortnight; Amaavaasyaa –New Moon day; Caturdasai- Fourteenth day of the lunar fortnight; Purnima ardhadina – Half day on full moon day

No Veda Class or any study on the above days.

Ashtamii cha hyamaavaasyaa varjaniiyaa chaturdasii

Puurnimaardhadhinam yaavannishidhdham sarvakarmasu

–Vasisthadanurvedasamhita 30-11

Moon-Postage-Stamps-37609

4.Symptoms of Mild Poisoning =Alpavisa Chihnaani

Lohita (rajju)- reddish streak; Nila(rajju) – Bluish streak; Piita (rajju) – yellow streak; Sita (rajju) – whitish streak

Raajya salohitaa yatra niilaah piitaah sitaastatahaa

Vnjeyam raditam tattu njeyamalpavisham cha tat

–Susruta (kalp) 4-17

5.Branches of Ayurveda

Hetu; Laksana; Ausadha

Hetulingaushadhanjanam svastahsturaparayanam

Trisutram sasvatam punyam babudhe yam pitamahah

-charaka sutra 1-24

6.Esana= desire

Desire are of three types: Prana=life, Dhana= wealth; Paraloka = heavens

Trisa esanaah paryastavyaa bhavanti

Tadyathaa praanaisanaa dhanaisanaan paralokaisaneti

-charaka sutra 11-3

7.Ausadham – Therapy

Daiva vyapaasrayam = spiritual therapy

Yukti vyapaasrayam= therapy based on reasoning (physical properties)

Satvaavajaya = Psychic therapy

Trividhamausshadhamiti – daivavyapaasrayam

Yuktivyapaasrayam satvaavajayascha

-charaka sutra 11-54

8.Types of pysique/deha

Sthula = obese; Krsa= lean; Madhya= medium

Dehah sthula krso Madhya iti praagupadhishtah

9.Drugs according to Ayurveda

Dosprasamanam = alleviation of diseases

Dhatupraduusanam = vitiation of kapha, pitta and vaayu

Svasthavrttam = maintenance of positive health

Kinchitdhoshaprasamanam Kinchitdhoshapraduusanam

Svastavruttau matham kinchit trividham dravyamuchyate

Charka sutra 1-67

herb 2Medicinal-Plants-of-India---Amla-Emblica-officinalis

10.Source of Drugs

Jangama = From animals; Audbhida = From vegetables; Parthiva = From the earth

Tat punastrividham proktam jangamaudbhidapaarthivam

-Charaka Sutra 1-68

11.Balam = Strength

Sahajam = constitutional; Kaalajam = temporal;Yuktikrtam =acquired

Trividham baklamiti – sahajam kaalajam yuktikrtancha

Charaka sutra 11-36

12.Types of Diseases= Roga

Nija = Endogenos

Aagantu = Exogenous

Maanasa = Psychic

Trayo rogaa iti – nijaagantumaanasaah –Charaka sutra 11-45

13.Roga Ayatanaani = Causes for disease

Atiyoga = excessive utilisation; Ayoga = non utilisation; Mithyaayoga = wrong utilisation (of artha, karma, Kaala)

Arthaanaam karmanah kaalasya cha atiyoga – ayoga – mithyaayogaah

—Charaka sutra 11-37

microscope

14.Rogamaarga – Path of Disease

Saakhaa – Peripheral system; marmaasthisandhi – vital orgas, bones and joints; Kostha – Central system

Trayo rogamargaa iti – sakhaamamaarsthisandhayah koshtascha –Charaka sutra 11-48

15.Sariiradosasangraha = Pathogenic factors in the body

Vaayu =air/wind; Pitta = Fire/Bile; Kapha = water/Phlegm

Vaayuh pitam kapaschoktah saariirodosasangraha: —Charaka sutra 1-57

Contact:–  swami_48@yahoo.com

How Did a Pandya King Get a Golden Hand?

By S Swaminathan

It is a well known fact that the Ancient Indians made tremendous advancements in the field of medical sciences. The Ayurveda and Siddha medical systems were widely practised for the benefit of the general public. Charaka and Susrutha wrote great treatises. A lot of surgical instruments, surgeries like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery for nose), hundreds of medicinal plants and thousands of medicines were listed by them. They were not only appreciated in India but reached western world through Arabic translations nearly one thousand years ago. The old medical books in Sanskrit and Tamil run in to several thousand pages.

Though Charaka, Susrutha,Vagbhata and Agastya are known to many even in the western world, one important surgery went unnoticed by many scholars. There is a very interesting story about a Pandya king in ancient Tamil literature. The king lived two thousand years ago is known from the Tamil epic Silappathikaram (Ref.Mathurai Kandam-Katturai Kaathai) dated around second century AD. A Pandya king was fitted with an artificial hand made of gold; he was known only as the Golden Handed Pandya. Nobody knows his real name even today. One more old Tamil book refer to this story (Ref. Pazamozi Naanuru).

The Story:

The story according to the epic runs like this: a Pandya king was going through the streets of Madurai (the second largest city of Tamil Nadu in South India) in disguise during the night. In the olden days kings used to visit their subjects and observe the general public in disguise to feel the pulse of the populace. Though the ancient Arthashastra of Kautilya speaks of kings employing spies for this purpose, the monarchy always wanted to know what the people feel about them or the country directly.(Every Hindu knew what Rama did to Sita just because a washer man raised some doubts about the purest woman Sitadevi). So much importance was given to the opinion of general public – absolute democracy!

When the Pandya king was passing by a house the lights were on at the dead of night and he heard a conversation. A brahimn by name Keeranthai was consoling his crying wife with these words, ”Darling, don’t worry too much about your safety and security. I am only going to be away for a very short period. Our great king is there to protect all the citizens. Nothing will go wrong in this just place”. As soon as the king heard this conversation he felt some big responsibility fell on his shoulders. So he increased his ward rounds and kept an eye on that house. Months passed. To his surprise he saw light again in the same house at the dead of night. He heard someone talking. In a hurry he mistook that person for a stranger and knocked at the door to scare away the stranger. Alas, it was not a stranger. It was her own husband Keeranthai himself who had just returned from his tour. When Keeranthai shouted back, the king realised his mistake.

One stupid mistake will make you to do more stupid things to hide the first one. It is human nature. So the king knocked at all the houses in the brahmin street and ran away to his palace. Next day a battalion of brahmins went to the palace and complained about what happened the previous night. The king, after patiently listening to their complaints, said to them that the ‘thief’ was already caught. All his ministers were surprised to hear his statement. The king did not stop there. He asked the opinion of the complainants what should be the punishment for that ‘thief’. Everyone shouted in chorus to follow the Hammurabi law: a hand for hand, an eye for an eye. The hand that knocked on the doors must be cut off. Before a second lapsed the king drew his sword and cut off the hand with which he had knocked on the doors the previous night. When he narrated the incident, the whole world praised his justice. The royal physicians rushed for his help and attached a gold hand to his arm. He came to be known as a Gold Hand Pandya in Tamil “Por Kai Pandyan”.

This is a story to elucidate the justice that was followed in ancient Tamil Nadu. No medical information was given about fixing the artificial limb but it didn’t surprised any Indian (please read my article Why do British Judges follow a TamilKing?) because they practised either the Ayurveda or the Siddha medical system.

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