Written by London swaminathan


Date: 16 JULY 2018


Time uploaded in London – 17-39 (British Summer Time)


Post No. 5225


Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Wikipedia, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Pictures may be subject to copyright laws.







Women also do the ceremony every day, but without Mantra! (see 121)


Maximum -five for the Amavasya ceremony; even if you are rich you should not invite a crowd (see 125 and 126)


One Vedic scholar is eating is better than one million ignorant (see 131)




Blood cannot wash blood (see 132)

It reminds me of Shakespeare in Macbeth


Here’s the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, Oh, Oh! (act 5, Scene 1)—Shakespeare


Dead spirit swallows white hot spikes, spears and iron balls (see 133).

Blind cow in a stable- see 141

sowing seeds in barren soil – see 142

Extinguished like grass fire- see 168

perish like vessel of unburnt clay in water – see 179





SEE 134




SEE 146

It is a typical Hindu phrase- satisfying, benefitting Seven Generations.

Tamil Literature repeats it in several places. See Tamil Veda Tirukkural- 62, 126, 107 , 398, 538, 835

Raghuvamsam of Kalidasa 18-50

Bhagavad Gita 6-43

(Tamil poet Valluvar, Manu Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita and Kalidasa in Raghuvamsam speak about benefits in Seven Generations or next Births).




See 138






Manu gives a long list of people who should not be invited for Sraddha ceremony: It includes ascetics with matted hair, Temple Pujaris, astrologers, Physicians etc. See 150 to 168.

see also 180


This list shows that Brahmins and others were also fed in the Sraddha Ceremonies. Manu talks about Soma plant (also 180) seller in the prohibited list. That means in his days still Soma plants were available for sale.


The long list shows the condition of the society of his days. He even talks about trainers of sporting dogs (for dog fight?) falconers!





See 171 to 174










SEE 176 to 182


These should not be taken literally. The message is to avoid such people in Sraddha Ceremonies.


Here is the original Translation:–

  1. But the wife shall offer in the evening a portion of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without the recitation of sacred formulas; for that rite which is called the Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the evening.
  2. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer, month by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka.
  3. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes), and that must be carefully performed with the approved sorts of flesh mentioned below.


3-124. I will fully declare what and how many Brahmanas must be fed on that occasion, who must be avoided, and on what kinds of food they shall dine.

  1. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or one only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.
  2. A large company destroys these five advantages the respectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place and time, purity and the selection of virtuous Brahmana guests; he therefore shall not seek to entertain a large company.
  3. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice sacred to the manes and performed on the new-moon day; if a man is diligent in performing)that, the reward of the rite for the dead, which is performed according to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly.

3-128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward.

  1. Let him feed even one learned man at(the sacrifice to the gods, and one at the sacrifice to the manes; thus he will gain a rich reward, not if he entertains many who are unacquainted with the Veda.
  2. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote ancestors of a Brahmana who has studied an entire recension of the Veda; if descended from a virtuous race such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts consisting of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared to procure as great rewards as a guest atithi.



3-131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Riks, were to dine at a funeral sacrifice yet a single man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied with his entertainment, is worth them all as far as the production of spiritual merit is concerned.

  1. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with blood, cannot be cleansed with blood.
  2. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the gods or to the manes, so many red-hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death.



3-134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to the pursuit of knowledge, and others to the performance of austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda, and others to the performance of sacred rites.

  1. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge, but offerings to the gods, in accordance with the reason of the sacred law, to men of all the four above-mentioned classes.
  2. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the Angas,
  3. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one of the two; yet the other one is worthy of honour, because respect is due to the Veda which he has learned.



3-138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice; he may gain his affection by other valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend.

  1. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of gaining friends, reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifices.
  2. That meanest among twice-born men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice, loses heaven, because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship.

3-141. A gift of food by twice-born men, consumed with friends and relatives, is said to be offered to the Pisasas; it remains in this world alone like a blind cow in one stable.

3-142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas.

  1. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this life and after death.
  2. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a virtuous friend than an enemy, though the latter may be qualified by learning and so forth; for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after death.
  3. Let him take pains to feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda who has studied one entire recension of that Veda, or a follower of the Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans who likewise has completed the study of an entire recension.

3-146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, the ancestors of him who gives the feast, as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time.

  1. This is the chief rule to be followed in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes; know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule.


3-148. One may also entertain on such occasions one’s maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister’s son, a father-in-law, one’s teacher, a daughter’s son, a daughter’s husband, a cognate kinsman, one’s own officiating priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifices.

  1. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make too close inquiries regarding an invited Brahmana; but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine the qualities and parentage of the guest.



3-150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and manes.

  1. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student), one who has not studied the Veda, one afflicted with a skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice for a multitude of sacrificers.
  2. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping must be avoided at sacrifices offered to the gods and to the manes.
  3. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who opposes his teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred fire, and a usurer;
  4. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder, one who neglects the five great sacrifices, an enemy of the Brahmana race, an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger, and one who belongs to a company or corporation,
  5. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of studentship, one whose only or first wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remarried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife resides;
  6. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow,
  7. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage,
  8. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborned to perjury,
  9. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is afflicted with a disease in punishment of former crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller of substances used for flavouring food,
  10. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a brother’s widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his son,
  11. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, one afflicted with white leprosy, an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided.



3-162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of arms,

  1. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger, and he who plants trees (for money),
  2. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains his subsistence from Sudras, and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas,
  3. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch, one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by virtuous men,
  4. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead bodies, all these must be carefully avoided.
  5. A Brahmana who knows the sacred law should shun at sacrifices both (to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice-born men, whose conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy to sit in the company at a repast.

3-168. As a fire of dry grass is unable to consume the offerings and is quickly extinguished, even so is it with an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial food must not be given to him, since it would be offered in ashes.


3-169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company.

  1. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume the food eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other men not admissible into the company.
  2. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother, but the latter as a Parivitti.
  3. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother who marries before the elder, the female with whom such a marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the fifth, all fall into hell.
  4. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, though she be appointed to bear a child by him in accordance with the sacred law, must be known to be a Didhishupati.



3-174. Two kinds of sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; he who is born while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) after the husband’s death, a Golaka.

  1. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of other men, cause to the giver the loss of the rewards, both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given to them.
  2. The foolish giver of a funeral repast does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man, inadmissible into company, can look on while they are feeding.


3-177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver of the feast the loss of the reward for ninety guests, a one-eyed man for sixty, one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a terrible disease for a thousand.

  1. The giver of a Sraddha loses the reward, due for such a non-sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a guest who sacrifices for Sudras may touch during the meal with his limbs.

3-179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through covetousness a gift from such a man, he will quickly perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water.

  1. Food given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, that given to a physician pus and blood, but that presented to a temple-priest is lost, and that given to a usurer finds no place in the world of the gods.
  2. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not useful in this world and the next, and a present to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman resembles an oblation thrown into ashes.
  3. But the wise declare that the food which is offered to other unholy, inadmissible men, enumerated above, is turned into adipose secretions, blood, flesh, marrow, and bone.


to be continued……………….


Knowledge of Medicine and Method of Treatment in Tamil and Sanskrit Books (Post No.3535)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 11 January 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 21-17


Post No.3535



Pictures are taken from different sources; thanks.






Tiruvalluvar, author of Tirukkural, has dealt with a lot of subjects including medicine. He says that one can live for long without disease if one controls his eating habits. he says 1.Eat when you are hungry 2.Eat when the food already eaten is digested. Very simple!

In two of the couplets he agrees with Charaka and Susruta, the great authors of Medical treatise in Sanskrit. Tiruvalluvar says:


Let a skilful doctor who knows medicine, the patient

2.the nature of disease

3.the season and then treat him (Kural 949)


He also adds, Medical treatment implies fourfold elements:




and the Nurse/ compounder (Kural 950)

Parimel azakar, the most  famous commentator of Tirukkural, explains the attributes thus of the four elements:

“The attributes of the patient are ability to disclose the symptoms, strength to endure pain, ability to pay and strict obedience to the directions of the physician;

those of the physican are intelligence and study, courage to handle every kind of disease, purity of thought, word and deeed, good luck;

those of medicine are efficacy to cure any disease, superior virtue on account of taste, power, strength and easy facility of being procured, and capacity to combine with other ingredients as well as food;

and those of the apothecary are kindness and consideration to the anxiety of the patient, purity of thought, word and deed, ability to compound drugs and common sense.


The above passage shows how much advanced we were in understanding the patient and the treatment.


It shows that the doctors of ancient India had a nurse or compounder for assistance. Westerners copied it from Indians.

The same concept of treatment is found in Sanskrit texts as well:

1.Knowledge of the Best Physician

Hetu — cause
Linga– Diagnosis
Rogaanaam apunarbhava — non recurrence of disease
Prasamana — cure
—Charaka Samhita 9-19

Hetau linge prasamanerogaanaam punarbhave
Njaanam chaturvidham yasya sa rajaarho bhisaktamah
Charaka 9-19


2.Sastra Vaidya Gunah/Qualities of a surgeon

Sauryam– fearless ness
Aasukriyaa Lighthandedness
Sastraaiksnyam Well sharpened instruments
Asvedavepathu Absence of perspiration and trembling
Asammohah Absence of confusion

Sauryamaasukriyaa sastrataiksnyamasvedavepathu
Asammohasca vaidyasya sastrakarmani sasyate
–Susruta 5-10



Following quotes are from my October 2015 post:-


3.Vaidya Gunah – Qualities of a Physician

Srute paryavadaatatvam Bahuso drstakarmataa

Daakshyam Saucam iti jneya vaidye Guna chatustayam

–Charaka (sutra) 9-6

Srute paryavadaatatvam =Excellence in Medical Knowledge

Bahuso drstakarmataa = Extensive Practical Experience

Daakshyam = Skill

Saucam = Cleanliness

4.Physician’s Approach to Patients

Vaidya Vrtti

Maitri kaarunyamaarteshu sakye pritirupekshanam

Prakrutistheshu butesu vaidyavrttischaturvidhaa

–Charaka (sutra) 9-26

Maitri = Friendship

Kaarunya = compassion

Priti = Pleasure

Upekshanam = Sympathy




5.Fake Doctors (not to be honoured)

Apuujya Vaidyaah

Kucela: karkasa: stabhdho graamani svayamaagata:

Pancha vaidyaa na puujyante Dhanvantrisamaa api

Even if he is equal to Dhnavantri, the God of Medicine, don’t honour the following five physicians:

Kucela =Untidily dressed

Karkasa = Rough

Stabdha = Stubborn

Graamani = Pervert

Svayamaagata = One who visits on his own (uninvited)





Research Article No.1994

Written  by London swaminathan

Date 14th July 2015

Time uploaded in London: 19-43

“Judges shall discharge their duties objectively and impartially so that they may earn the trust and affection of people.” (Arthasastra 3-20-24)

“ A king who observes his duty of protecting his people justly and according to law will go to heaven, whereas one who does not protect them or inflicts unjust punishments will not.” (Arthasastra 3-1-41)

“It is the power of punishment alone, when exercised impartially in proportion to the guilt, and irrespective of whether the person punished is the king’s son or an enemy, that protects this world and the next.” (Arthasastra 3-1-42)

21  Pirmoji širdies operacija

Greek View

Lawyers = Robbers (Thief)

Doctors =  Yama Dharma (Executioner)

I gave fifteen interesting anecdotes about doctors and lawyers yesterday to illustrate the western view of these professionals. Diogenes, the Greek philosopher, who lived 2300 years ago, called the lawyer a thief and a physician an executioner. Today, even Indians say this. But 2000 years ago, Hindus, unlike Greeks, had very high respect for  these professions. Here are some quotes about the lawyers and physicians:-

Earlier in my posts I quoted  the Rudra (Yajur Veda) mantra where Lord Shiva is called a doctor (Bhishak). He is a doctor to our physical illness and mental illness.

Popular Sanskrit proverb says

Vaidye grhaste mriyate kathannu

Whence death when the doctor is at home?

But it is true that there are sayings against inexperienced doctors and doctors running late:–

Anubhava rahito vaidyo loke nihanti praaninah praanaan

An inexperienced physician snuffs out the life of the living

Siirse sarpah desaantare vaidyah

The serpent dangles over the head and the doctor is miles away

Both in Tamil and Sanskrit we have a proverb

Hatvaa nrnaam sahasram pascaat vaidyo bhavet siddhah

It is only after finishing off a thousand that a doctor becomes proficient.

The hidden meaning is that doctors too learn by mistakes.


Kautilya’s Arthashastra

India was the most civilized country and the richest country in the world  2000 years ago. I have given enough proof for these in my 1800 articles so far. In all the fields that we know of, India stood first, whether it is environmental science or consumer protection, etymology or grammar, aeronautical engineering or nuclear physics.

Kautilya (Chanakya), who lived 2300 years ago, wrote the first economic treatise. It gives a list of punishments and fines for all the mistakes or errors or blunders committed by various workers or professionals:

“Physicians shall inform the authorities before undertaking any treatment which may involve danger to the life of the patient. If, as a result of the treatment, the patient dies or physically deformed, the doctor shall be punished (Arthasastra 4-1-56)

Doctors not giving prior information about treatment involving danger to life with the consequence of physical deformity = same punishment as for causing similar injury”.

Only after patients sued the hospitals or the doctors claiming millions in damages, the consumer/patient protection rules came into Western countries. Nowadays they inform the patient about the risks involved in a treatment and then get the signature of the patient in a consent form. Kautilya thought about it 2300 years ago!

Because of these strict rules, the standard of physicians was very high. They were treated like angels.

“Any doctor who is called to a house to treat a severely wounded person or one suffering from unwholesome food or drink shall report the fact to the ‘gopa’ and the ‘sthanika’. If he does not report, he will be charged” – Arthasastra 2-36-10

Gopa and sthanika were like supervising officers.

judiciary 2


There are clear guidelines to judges about testimony of witnesses and punishments in 3-11 (Chanakya’s Arthasastra)

Manu says

“A king who wishes to hear legal cases should enter the court-room modestly with priests and counsellors who know how to counsel” (Manu smrti 8-1)

There are 18 causes of legal action. When the king could not sit in the court he must ask a priest to sit there with three judges.

A man who gives false evidence is an offender.

How to find an offender?

“The king or judge should discover the inner emotion of men from the outward signs, by their voice, colour, involuntary movements, and facial expressions, by their gaze and their gestures.

The inner mind and heart is grasped by facial expressions, involuntary movements, gait, gesture, speech, and changes in the eye and the mouth.” (Manu 8—25/26)

This shows that there was no lawyer in those days. But the ministers or judges used various methods to find the true criminal.

Chapter eight of Manu Smrti gives lot of information about the judicial procedures. They were very careful not to punish the innocent.

“Neither the king nor even one of his men should start a law suit himself, nor ever swallow up a case brought by anyone else.

Just as a hunter traces the track of a wild animal by the drops of blood, even so the king should trace the track of justice by inference.

When he is engaged in a legal proceeding, he should examine the truth, the object of the dispute, himself, the witnesses, the time and place, and the form of the case.”  (Manu. 8-44/46)