Post No.7798

Date uploaded in London – 8 April 2020   

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Six years ago. I wrote a research article about Brahmanabad in Pakistan (please see the link below for my old article). Now I have got more information about not only Brahmana country but also Shudra country. It is important that we do more research on it because it is close to Indus-Sarasvati Civilization sites.

Brahmanabad | Tamil and Vedas › tag › brahmanabad


23 Mar 2014 – Posts about Brahmanabad written by Tamil and Vedas. … Brahmanabad, now a ruined city in Pakistan, was once a flourishing city. It was the …

An important geographical term used by Panini is Janapada , which has both a state and cultural unit ,its culture counting more than its geography.,


It is mentioned in Panini’s sutra V-2-71 .

Patanjali definitely calls it a Janapada , ‘brahmanako nama janaadah’, II-298.

The significance of its name is brought out by Kasika , which describes it as the land of Brahmins who were ‘aayudhajiivins’ or followers of military art.


Their military traditions continued up to the time of

Alexander whose invasion they resisted with patriotic heroism (Plutarch , Alex.59).

The Greeks call them ‘Brachmanoi’ and locate them in the middle of Sind, (Arrian.VI.16) of which the capital is still Brahmanabad  (Cunningham, ancient geography, p.310.),

It may be noted that even Rajasekhara, 9th century CE, names ‘Brahmanavaha’ ( abode of Brahmanas) as one of the Janapadas of the west.  Muslim geographers called Brahmanabad as ‘bahmanwaa’ after this old tradition.

It may be noted that Patanjali mentions two formations e-braahmanaka and a-vrishalaka as names of countries ( I-301) corresponding to Saudrayana and Brahmanaka respectively

Saudrayana or the Shudra country is mentioned along with other names in the Gana Aishukaari IV-2-54 which denoted names of countries after their peoples, (vishayo dese)

Like the brahmanas, the sudraayanas ( Greek Sodrae) also are mentioned as having opposed Alexander. Cunningham treats the present Soda Rajputs of south east Sind around Umarkot as their descendants.

Diodorous couples the Sodrae with Massane as occupying the opposite banks of the Indus . Cunningham equates the Massane with the Mausarnaioi of Ptolemy, which name corresponds to the Masuurakarna of the Gana Patha II-4-49, IV-1-112.,

Source book  –

India as known to Panini , V S Agrawala , University of  Lucknow , 1953



“The country that the gods made between the two divine rivers the Sarasvati and the Drsadvati, is what they call the Brahmavarta , the land of Vedas.

Manu 2-17

The conduct of the four classes and intermediary classes in that country, handed down from one person to another person , is conduct of the good people.

Manu 2-18,

According to English tradition the South London pronunciation passed from one person to another is the correct pronunciation known as RP (received pronunciation). Manu also says whether you are a Shudra or Brahmana, as long as you are from Brahmavarta, what you do is right)

The field of the Kurus , the Matsyas , Pancalas and Surasenas constitute the country of Brahma rsi desa , the country of Priestley Sages , right next to the Brahmavarta” .

Manu 2-19


My comments

2700 years after Panini, still the town is called Brahmanabad (brahmnana+ janapada) in Pakistan maps. No one could erase the name of Brahmins!

But one must not jump to any conclusion because it was one among 30 other Janapadas mentioned by Panini. He starts from Kamboja, Gandhara (Kandhar in Afghanistan) and ends with Kalinga (Orissa) in between covering the mighty Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Salva etc..,

What happened to the Brahmin warriors who opposed Alexander? Are they all converted to Islam or they migrated to India?

Panini lived 2700 years ago. He never mentioned Buddha or Mahavira; but one must remember he wrote only grammatical rules running to just 35 pages, not history book.

Are there anyone now in India claiming that they were the descendants of Brahmanabad?

And why the two communities Brahmanas and Shudras established Janapadas in caste names? Does it mean all the other 28 or so Janapadas are from Kshatryia community?

Since Greeks have written about all these Janapadas and Mahabharata and Ramayana mentioned many Janapadas , we have to do more research.

Janapada mentioned a group of people following certain customs. When they moved to different parts of India or when they expanded their territory, the name covered more areas. So one must not use Puranas, because they were written later.

One source claims Brahmanabad was actually in Indus/Saraswati River basin civilization. Even today we find Saaraswat Brahmins in Western India. They migrated from Sarasvati River basin (Indus Valley Civilization) after a big drought in Sarasvati river basin. Now we know Sarasvati River started drying up before Mahabharata period.,

Panini’s Age:-

Kapisa , which is mentioned as a flourishing town by Panini, was destroyed by Cyrus I in the sixth century BCE, according to Pliny. This indicates that Panini lived before the Persian invasion.

Prakanva is one of the Janapadas mentioned by Panini . Herodotus mentioned it as Parikanoi, part of Darius’ empire. Panini mentioned that it was founded by Rishi Praskanva . it was located north of Kamboja. Panini never mentioned any foreigner like Cyrus or Darius. So he lived closer to Vedic period, may be even eighth century BCE, according to Goldstucker and others.


tags — Brahmin country, Sudra country, Brahmanabad , Panini

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