Indus Valley Snake Goddess


Post No. 11,049

Date uploaded in London – –    25 JUNE 2022         

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Dr T V Mahalingam of University of Madras has written an article titled ‘SOME NAGA DYNASTIES OF DECCAN’ in the Professor P.Sundaram Pillai Commemoration Volume, Saiva Siddhantha Publishing Society, Tirunelveli, 1957.

Following are some interesting points about the Nagas of South India from the volume: –

Nagas became powerful from sixth century AD ( CE). They enjoyed considerable political power between 10th and 12th centuries (CE).


The Sendrakas

Ruled Bombay and Mysore states- 5th, 6th, centuries- Feudatories of Kadampas and Chalukyas- Lineage of Bhujagendras.


The Senavaras

Jain family of Rulers- Kadur and Shimoga of Karnataka- 690 CE-  period of Aluva king Chitravahana and Vinayaditya- references up to 1128 CE available.

(My comments- One of the Tamil commentators name is Senavaraiyar. Was he a Naga??)


The Sindas

Deccan – 11,12,13th centuries- Tiger and deer emblems- Sindas of Bhagalkot: Nagavamsa founder Sinda Dharaneendra born at Ahichatra in the Sindhu/ Indus area. (Though it is in modern Uttar Pradesh, it was the capital of Northern Punjab; mentioned even in Mahabharata)

Sindas of Yelburga: 11,12, 13th centuries

Sindas of Belagavati: from Chitradurga and Shimoga areas of Karnataka

(Nagas may have come from Sindhu Desa / Indus Valley; Vedas have reference to snake queen; Indus has snake seals)


Nagas of Bastar

They are from Madhya Pradesh- born in Kashyapa gotra- Tiger emblem- Snake Flag- 1000 CE- Maasuni Desa.

(In Tamil Masunam means python)

(It is interesting to note that Duryodhana also had Snake Flag. His father’s name Dhritarashtra is also a Naga Name! any connection with Nagas??)


An article titled ‘NEMESIS AND SOME MAHABHARATA EPISODES’, M A Mehendale in Professor R N Dandekar volume , 1984, gives the details about Khandava Vana burning in the Adi Parvan of Mahabharata. Krishna and Arjuna burnt the Khandava Vana and only seven people escaped: Naga Taksaka, his son Asvasena, four young birds (sarngas). The forest was burning for six days. They did it for farming. It was a common practice of ancient rulers to burn forests to reclaim lands for farming and new buildings. Even Tamil Kings had the epithet’ Kadu Thiruththi Naadu Akkiya’ = Those who changed forests into living places.

Tribals are warned to vacate; but birds and animals died. Is it right or wrong is an ongoing debate. When new dams are built or new roads are laid in the elephant’s corridor/paths, lot of deaths happen. But those who go for it argue, we need it for development.

Four Sarnga Birds- The birds escaped from forest are not birds , but people with bird totem, according to some scholars. We have Jatayu (people with eagle emblem and Jambhavan (people with bear emblem in Ramayana)


Nagas in Rajatarangini of Kalhana of Kashmir

Kalhana narrates an interesting story of a Brahmin meeting two Naga beauties and marrying one of them. R S Pandit, who translated the work, adds the following in the foot note: Verses 201 to 279 of first chapter of Rajatrangini narrates the legend of Chandralekha- the lady of the crescent moon. Kalhana picks this out of many stories relating to the Nagas from the ancient folk lore of Kashmir.

The Nagas, the semi divine beings, are according to legend, the original inhabitants of Kashmir. Their dwelling places are the lakes, springs, pools of water. In the heavens they appear as clouds and rain torrents of water and cause hail storms. The word Naga survives this day in Kashmir in various place names and commonly used for a spring in the form of a doublet- Caima Naga- half Perssian and half Samskrta.

The 79 verses in Sanskrit confirm many things about Nagas found elsewhere. They live in water. They wear blue clothes. It is in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature as well. The slokas give the origin of Amarnath Yatra, where we see the natural formation of Shiva linga in ice.

Taksaka Naga

Taksaka Naga was the one escaped from Khandava Vana burning. Foot note for sloka 220 adds-

The Taksaka Naga is worshipped to this day. The sacred spring is at Zevan (Jayavana in Sanskrit) about five miles from Sri Nagar.

Sloka 267 refers to Amaranatha Yatra

Sloka 268 has the following foot note:

On the route of the pilgrimage to the Amaranatha on the mountain top there is a lake which according to legend is Susravas, it is called Sesanag now. The colour of the water is white. There is another lake popularly called Zamatur Nag- the Jaamaatr lake of Kalhana-  which means the lake of the son in law in Sanskrit.

My comments

Blue colour cloth is associated with the Nagas in Tamil and Sanskrit literature.

The name Kallada found in Tamil literature and Rajatarangini is a Naga name. He was also from Kashmir like Tirumular of Tirumantiram

Nagas were devotees of Lord Siva

They had the same names throughout India , mostly with CHITRA (painted figures); the reason being they had tattoos of snakes on their bodies (Oviyar Clan in Tamil).

They lived near water sources such as lakes, tanks and rivers and oceans.


Neela Nagan in Tamil literature

Sirupaanaatrup patai is a Sangam Tamil book, where Ay is praised a great philanthropist. Ay Andiran was a chieftain of the Western Ghats who was considered one of the Seven Last Philanthropists. He is praised thus because he donated the rare and valuable cloth given by Neela Nagan to Lord Shiva. He was praised sky high in Purananuru by the Brahmin poet Mudamosiyar.

The verses in Sangam literature also confirmed

Blue colour Nagan- Neela Nagan

They are famous for their beautiful clothes with flower designs.

They lived in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka 2000 years ago (I have already given the names of Nagas from Mahavamsa. They ruled parts of Sri Lanka 2200 years ago. Twenty ancient Tamil poets have Nagan suffix; Maruthan Ilanagan was the most famous of them)

Though Ay Andiran is praised as a Velir clan king, my research shows Ay Andiran is Ajendran. He married many women and all of them committed Sati when he died according to Purananuru. His wives wore Thaali (Mangala sutra) only because he donated everything he had to the poets and bards except that Mangala sutra. When he died, Indra loka played orchestra to welcome him according to Pura Nanuru, oldest book of Sangam Tamil corpus.

Andiran= Andrew= Ayndiran= Indra

Ay = Aja (used for Brahma, Siva and unconquerable king in Sanskrit. Aja was one of the Raghu Vamsa kings; forefather of Lord Rama)


Mani Nagan and other names are in Gatha Sapta Sati.

The names found for Snakes in Paramapatha Sopana Picture- Board game of South India are:-

Dhrtarashtra, Takshaka,, Karkodaka, Duryodana etc


Read also my articles:

Serpent Queen:Indus Valley to Sabarimalai – Tamil and Vedas › 2012/06/17 › serpent-quee…

17 Jun 2012 — The famous serpent queen figure is of a priestess holding two snakes in her two hands. The same motif is found throughout in India from Vedic …

Snakes and Snake Bites in Mahabharata! | Swami’s Indology Blog


10 Mar 2015 – The stories in Hindu scriptures are real life stories. They are not concocted. The best examples are stories of snake bites. From the story of Parikshit to down south Tamil stories of Periya Purana and Tiruvilaiyadal Purana, we hear about several deaths due to snake bites. In some stories gods or saints came ..

included the Olmec, the Mixtec, the Toltec, the Aztec, and the Maya.

snake miracle | Tamil and Vedas


 (for old articles go to sesha … Though there is no religion or culture without a snake in it, Hindus are the only community who worship snakes from the Vedic days until today. There are millions of … All the Hindu gods are linked with a snake in one way or another. All the .

Are Mayas, Indian Nagas? | Tamil and Vedas


28 Apr 2012 – Maya calendar begins on 11th August 3114 BC. Indiancalendar Kaliyuga begins in 3102 BC. But Hindu mythology is very clear about their existence long before Kali yuga. Kaliyuga is the last of the four yugas. But Mayas are silent about their existence before this date 3114 BC. The amazing co incidence …

Amazing Similarities between Mayas and Hindu Nagas | Tamil and ……/amazing-similarities-between-mayas-and-hindu-nagas/


28 Apr 2012 – Amazing Similarities between Mayas and Hindu NagasAmazing Similarities between Mayas and Hindu Nagas ( The first part of this article is Are Mayas, Indian Nagas?) 1. Strange co incidence: Kali Yuga 3102 BC and Maya Yuga beginning 3114 BC 2. Maya appearance:Maya people of Central America …

Naga Yakshi | Tamil and Vedas


We have Nagapanchami celebrations celebrated throughout India where live snakes are worshipped. Hindus respect Nature and Environment and use the natural resorces to the minimum. Snake Goddesses such as Manasa Devi and Naga Yakshi are worshipped in India. The Vedas has an authoress named as Serpent …

Gondwana | Tamil and Vedas


They celebrate Hindu festivals such as Dasara and Naga Panchami. Like any other village community they have their own stories for everything. They are well versed in arts and building. They have divided themselves into four different castes lie the four divisions of work in ancient Hindu society. They form the biggest tribe …

More articles about Manasa devi etc are in my blogs.


 Tags- Nagas, Neela Ngan, Ay Andiran, Blue cloth, Snake flag, Taksaka, Nagas in Rajatarangini, Kashmir, Kalladar

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