Post No. 8956

Date uploaded in London – –21 NOVEMBER 2020   

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Vedic Hindus were keen observers of the sky. They recorded all the 27+1 stars even before the world started writing in their languages. Some parts of old testament were written in 9th century BCE. Zend Avesta of Persians came around that time. Latin and Tamil literature came vey late, just 2000 years ago.

Hindus differentiated stars from the planets; stars twinkle and planets don’t. Stars maintain relative distance and remain static, but planets move. Mahabharata beautifully describe the stars as

Nakshatra means the one which does not move- says Mahabharata- na ksharati iti nakshatra-

Shanti parva 290-36.

Rig Veda says,

One of the sages went on observing  the sky day and night, says ,

The pure and alert king Varuna presents a heap in the bottomless sky above the world. The rays of light  placed inside dome come down though the source or base in above—Rig Veda  1-27-7

Atharva  Veda 13-12-17 and 20-47-14 state that

The stars run away with the night, just like the thieves, for the sun to see the world.

The suns are powerful than the moon and the earth is greater than the moon. The moon is kept in the lap of stars- RV 10-85-2 and  AV  14-1-2

Rig veda mentioned some stars out of 27 stars.

Agha-Magha and Arjuni ; Revati ; Punarvasu ; Chitra ;

Tishya .

The word

Nakshatra is used in the Rig Veda  at 1-5o-2; 10-68-11; 7-86-1

Taitriya Samhita of  Black  Yajur Veda 4-4-10  gives all the names of the stars. This means that they observed the path of moon and recorded everything even before other cultures started producing literature. Black  Yajur Veda  is dated before 1000 BCE.

Here is the list; the deity of the ‘nakshatra’ is given in the bracket-

Kritika –-Agni ,

Rohini – Prajapati ,

Mrgasirsa –Soma ,

Ardra – Rudra ,

Punarvasu- Aditi,

Tisya –  Brhaspati,

Aslesa – S arpa,

Magha- P itr

Purva Phalguni – Aryama,

Uttara Phalguni-  Bhaga,

Hasta – Savitr,

Chitra – Indra,

Svati – Vayu,

Vishaka – Indra , Agni

Anuradha – Mitra,

Jyeshta – Indra

Vichrti –  Pitr,

Purva Ashada-   Aapa,

Uttara ashada- V isve Devaah,

Srona –  Vishnu,

Svavista- Vasu,

Satabhisaja – Indra,

Purva prostapada –  Aja Ekapada ,

Uttara Prostapada –  Ahirbudhnya,

Revati-  Pusan,

Asvayujau-   Asvinau,

Apabharani-  Yama.

Knowing that moon, sun and earth are in one line they named new moon day as Amaa vasya;

Amaa means together and Vaasya means residing .


Here are some more details from our previous posts-  


  1. Ashwini –Alpha, Beta –Aries அஸ்வினி
    2) Bharani – No 28,29,41 Taurus பரணி
    3) Krittika – Pleiades கார்த்திகை
    4) Rohini – Aldebaran Hyades, Alpha, Theta, Gama, Delta and Epsilon Taurus ரோஹிணி
    5) Mrigashirsha – Lambda, Phi 1, Phi 2, Orion மிருகசீர்ஷம்
    6) Aardraa –Betelgeaux – Alpha Orion திரு ஆதிரை
    7) Punarvasu – Castor, Pollux with Procyon Alpha, Beta, Gemini-Alpha Canis Minor respectively புனர் பூசம்
    8) Pushya – Gama, Delta and Theta of Cancer பூசம்
    9) Ashlesha – Delta, Epsilon, Eta, Rho and Zeta Hydra ஆயில்யம்
    10) Maagha – Alpha, Ela, Gama, Zeta My and Epsilon Leonis மகம்
    11) Poorva Phalkuni – Delta and Theta Leo பூரம்
    12) Utra Phalkuni – Beta and 93 Leo உத்தரம்
    13) Hasta – Delta, Gama, Eta, Virgo ஹஸ்தம்
    14) Chitraa – Spica, Alpha Virgo சித்திரை
    15) Swaati – Arcturus – Alpha Bootes ஸ்வாதி
    16) Vishaakha – Alpha, Beta etc Libra விசாகம்
    17) Anuraadha – Beta, Delta, Pi –Scorpia அனுஷம்
    18) Jyestha – Antares Alpha, Sigma Tau Scorpio கேட்டை
    19) Mula – Scorpio, tail stars மூலம்
    20) Poorvaashadaa – Delta and Epsilon Sagittarius பூராடம்
    21) Uttaraashaada – Zeta and Omicron Sagittarius உத்திராடம்
    22) Shraavanaa – Altair – Alpha Aquila திரு ஓணம்
    23) Dhanishtha – Delphinus அவிட்டம்
    24) Shatabhisak – Lambda Aquarius சதயம்
    25) Poorva Bhaadrapada – Alpha and Beta Pegasus பூரட்டாதி
    26) Uttara Bhaadrapada – Gama Pagasus and Alpha Andromeda உத்திரட்டாதி
    27) Revathi – Zeta Piscum ரேவதி


Like we have Graha purusa and Vastu Purusa, Varahamihira gives us some information about Nakshatra Purusa:

The FEET of the stellar deity are represented by the star Mula

The LEGS by Rohini

The KNEES by Asvini

The THIGHS by two (Purva/Uttara) Asadas

The PRIVITIES by two Phalgunis (Purva/ Uttara)

The HIPS by Krittikas

The SIDES by Purva and Utthara) Bhadrapadas

The STOMACH by Revati

The BREAST by Anuradha

The BACK by Dhanista

The ARMS by Visakha

The HANDS by Hastha

The FINGERS by Punarvasu

The NAILS by Aslesa

The NECK by Jyeshata

The EARS by Sravana

The MOUTH by Pusya

The TEETH by Svati

LAUGHTER by Sathabishak

The NOSE by Magha

The EYES by Mrgasiras

The FOREHEAD by Chitra

The HEAD by Bharani and

The HAIR by Arudra

Hindus always describe Gods from Foot to Head and human beings from Head to Foot. It is seen in Sangam Tamil and more ancient Sanskrit literature.

12 signs of zodiac (12 Rasis) represent Kalapurusa (Time in the form of a Person). Likewise the 27 Nakshatras are distributed among the limbs of the Nakshatra purusa.




Vedic Seers knew earlier What Europeans “Discovered” later!

Compiled by London swaminathan

Article No.1839 Date:30 April 2015

Uploaded at London time: 21-36

If you go to any encyclopaedia they will mislead you by saying ‘this person discovered the earth was spherical’, ‘that person discovered earth is revolving sun’ etc. Those “frogs in the well” don’t know that all these are in the Vedas at least by 1700 BCE or even before that according to Hindu tradition.

There are lots of books about Vedic astronomy. German scholar Jacobi and Freedom Fighter Bala Ganagadara Tilak worked out the date of Rig Veda and arrived at the date 4500 BCE or before. They did this research independently without knowing each other. Until this day nobody disputed them on the basis of astronomy.

1.Astronomy was recognised as separate science in Vedic Age and it was called ‘Nakshatra Vidya’ (the science of stars). It is very interesting to note that Vedic Hindus were more interested in stars rather than planets. An astronomer was called ‘Nakshatra – Darsa (star observer) or ganaka (calculator). Tamils also used the Vedic word Gani(ka).

2.According to the Rig Veda (1 -115-1, 2-40-4 etc. the universe comprises ‘prithivi’/earth, ‘antariksa’/sky, literally meaning the region below the stars and div or ‘dyaus’/heaven.

3.Vedic Hindus knew very well that the earth was spherical RV 1-33-8 and was suspended in the mid air (4-55-3). The Satapatha Brahmana describes it ‘parimandala’ – globe or sphere.

4.There is evidence in the Rig Veda of the knowledge of rotation and annual revolution of the earth. It was known that these motions are caused by the sun. According to RV 6-58-1, the sun alone is the maker of the day and night, twilight, month, and year, and also the cause of the seasons (1-95-3).

The Aitareya Brahmana states that the sun never sets or rises , the setting or the rising of the sun are but changes of its course.

Mac donell and Keith refer to the view of Ludwig that the RV mentions the inclinations of the ecliptic with the equator ( 1-10-2) and the axis of the earth (10-86-4).

5.The course of the sun is divided into two halves, ‘uttarayana’ when the sun apparently goes northwards and the ‘dakshinaya’ when it goes southwards.

B G Tilak says that according to the Satapatha Brahmana (SB 2-1-3-1) the uttarayana begins from the vernal equinox. But it is clear from (KB 19-3) that those periods used to begin respectively from the winter and summer solstices.

The ecliptic is divided into twelve parts- the signs of the Zodiac which corresponds to the twelve months of the year.


6.The RV says that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun (9-71-9). The phases of the moon and their relation to the sun were fully understood.

The Rig Veda mentions 34 ribs of the horse (RV 1-161-18) and 34 lights. Ludwig and Zimmer think that these refer to the sun , the moon ,five planets and 27 Nakshatras. But Macdonell and Keith don’t support this view.

((Vedic horse has 34 ribs and European horses have 36 ribs is another interesting fact. This shows that the Vedic Hindus and their horses were of Indian origin; not imported from outside))

7.Taittiriyasamhita (TS 2-3-5-1) and Kathaka Samhita (KS 9-3) state that the moon is wedded to the nakshatras. Later when ‘Star Abhijit’ became the pole star it was counted as the 28th star. In the course of time ‘abhijit’ ceased to the polestar and the number again came to 27.

This fact throws another bomb shell on the Aryan Dravidian racist theory. In European cultures moon is a woman and they do not know about 27 stars. In Vedic culture moon is a male and 27 stars are his wives from Vedic days and Sangam Tamil literature also follows it. This is also another proof that there has been only one culture in India from time immemorial throughout the land which was the world’s largest country 2000 years ago.


8.Observations of several solar eclipses are mentioned in both the Rig Veda and the Atharva Veda (RV 5-40-9,  aAV 13-2-4, 13-12-36;SB 4-4-21

In the AV (19-9-10) the eclipse of the sun is  stated to be caused by ‘rahu’, the demon. At the time of the RV the cause of the solar eclipse was understood as the occultation of the sun by the moon.  Lunar eclipses are also mentioned.


9.In the Vedic Samhitas the seasons in a year are generally stated to be five- Vasanta (spring), Grisma (summer), Varsa (rains)Sarat (autumn) and Hemanta-Sisira (Winter). Then it was counted as six seasons. Tamils also followed the same six seasons. I have elsewhere written that threw a big bombshell on the Aryan Dravidian Racist theory. In western countries the seasons are four, but Tamils and their counterparts in the north followed a Six Season Climatic System from the Vedic days. This exploded the theory that Tamils/Dravidians had a different culture.

Vasanta (March- April) was the first of the seasons as well as the beginning of the year (TB 1-1-2-6; 3-10-4-1). In the Gita Lord Krishna says that among the months he was Margasirsa. Scholars think that at one time Margasirsa was the beginning of the year. This shws the antiquity of Indian Civilization. Since it spanned several thousands of years the system changed according to the star position. We see even the change of polestar.

10.The Taiitiriya Samhita (TS 6-1-5-1) and Aitareya Brahana (AB 1-7) speak of Aditi as the presidin deity of the Punarvasu star receiving the boon that all sacrifices begin with her and end with her. This clearly refers to the position of the vernal eqinox in the asterism Punarvasu. There is also evidence to show that the vernal equinox was once in the asterism Mrgasirsa from whence in course of time, it receded to Krittika (Pleiades). Thus knowledge of the precession of equinox existed in the Samhitas and Brahmanas.

11.Some scholars maintain that the Vedic seers also knew of the equation of time.


12.The sun’s annual and daily motions are described in Vedic hymns (RV 1-35-2). The RV (1-22-16) states: “Gods be gracious to us even from the place whence Vishnu strode through the seven regions of the earth.

Though the word ‘saptadhama’ often indicated the seven prosodies, it also means the seven regions representing the sky. It also denotes the seven places or paths of the sun in the course of its annual motion.


13.In the Rig Veda (RV 1-22-17), reference is made of Vishnu’s traversing the whole world in three strides. These strides are interpreted as the uttarayana and dakshinayana (two strides) and the daily motions (third stride). The expression encompasses the orbital as well as diurnal course of the sun.

(Personally I support the Vamana Avatara story said in this hymn. The other explanation is not convincing)

About the stars (nakshatras) there are more than 25 ages in the Vedic Index and the Atharva Veda. I will give the gist of those pages in a separate article.

  1. As I have been mentioning in my previous articles on the Vedas, all these details, put together, show that the Vedic civilization is unique, well advanced and progressive in thinking. Who else would have prayed for the welfare of the human beings, peace and unity in the last hymn of the Rig Veda?

Lokas Samasto Sukino Bhavantu!

27 STAR QUIZ (English & Tamil)

By London Swaminathan

If you answer 10 out of 14 correctly, you are a STAR!


1. Who is the husband of 27 Stars?

2. How many zodiac signs are there in the Zodiac?

3. What is the first and last star in the current list of 27 stars?

4. The star Vishaka is associated with two festivals in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka? Who are those two great people or god?

5. The great Chola King Raja Raja organised a big festival on his birthday 1000  years ago. What was his birth star?

6.  Keralites (Malayalees) celebrate their biggest annual festival on a famous star day. What is it?

7. Which Indian God was born under star Rohini?

8. What was the name of Balarama’s wife, a star name?

9. Who brought up Lord Skanda, the stars you can see them in the sky?

10. What star is associated with Lord Shiva?

11. A star is the symbol of chastity according to Sangam Tamil Literature and Hindu scriptures. What is the name of that star?

12. Name the star in the Southern Skies that bears the name of a great Rig Vedic Rishi?

13. According to Hindu scriptures, a small boy attained star hood and shines in the Northern Skies. Who was that boy?

13. What was Rama’s birth star according to Valmiki?

14. Give the Hindu name for Ursa Major or Dipper or The Great Bear constellation.



ANSWERS: 1) In Tamil and Sanskrit literature husband of stars is Moon. It is a simile used hundreds of times in Indian literature 2) Twelve: 27 stars are divided in to 12 signs 3) The current Hindu star list begins with Aswini and ends with Revathi 4) Vishaka: Lord Skanda and The Buddha 5) Sathayam (Sathabishak) 6) Onam 7) Krishna 8) Revathi 9) Krithika: six stars according to Hindus, seven sisters according to Greeks 10) Arudra 11)Arunthathy: a double star system in the Great Bear constellation 12) Agastya (Canopus) 13) Dhruva , Westerners call it Pole Star 14) Sapta Rishi Mandalam.


TAMIL QUESTIONS: 27 நட்சத்திர கேள்வி-பதில்

If you answer 14 out of 21 correctly, you are a STAR!

1)27 நட்சத்திரங்களில் முதல் நட்சத்திரம் எது? கடைசி நட்சத்திரம் எது?

2)சிவனுக்குகந்த நட்சத்திரம் எது?

3)நிலவின் முகம் தேய்ந்து பிறையாகக் காரணம் சந்திரன், 27 பெண்களில் ஒருத்திக்கு சாதகமாக நடந்துகொண்டான். அந்த ஒருத்தி பெயர் என்ன?

4)வைகாசி விசாக நட்சத்திரம் வரும் பவுர்ணமியில் எந்த இருவருக்கு பண்டிகைகள் கொண்டாடப் படுகின்றன?

5)மலையாளிகள் கொண்டாடும் முக்கியப் பண்டிகை எந்த நட்சத்திரத்துடன் தொடர்புடையது?

6)ராஜ ராஜ சோழன் தன் பிறந்த நட்சத்திரத்தன்று பெரியவிழா கொண்டாடினான். அந்த நட்சத்திரம் எது?

7)தவிட்டுப்பானை எல்லாம் தங்கம் தரும் நட்சத்திரம் எது?

8)அரசாளும்  நட்சத்திரம் எது?

9)முருகனை வளர்த்த 6 பெண்களின் பெயருடைய நட்சத்திரம் எது?

10)ரோஹினி நட்சத்திரத்தில் பிறந்த இந்துக் கடவுள் யார்?

11)ராமர் பிறந்த நட்சத்திரம் எது?

12)மான்  தலை என்று பெயர் உடைய நட்சத்திரம் எது?

13)பலராமனின் மனைவி பெயர் உடைய நட்சத்திரம் எது?

14)எந்த நட்சத்திரத்துடன் கூடிய பவுர்ணமியில் மதுரையில் பெரிய திருவிழா நடைபெறும்?

15)எந்த நட்சத்திர நாளில் பெய்யும் மழை சிப்பியின் வாயில் விழுந்து முத்து ஆகும்?

16)ஜெமினி எனப்படும் நட்சத்திரத் தொகுப்பிலுள்ள இரண்டு நட்சத்திரங்களின் பெயர் என்ன?

17)தென் வானத்தில் ஜொலிக்கும் ஒரு நட்சத்திரத்துக்கு எந்தப் பிரபல முனிவரின் பெயர் சூட்டப்பட்டது?

18)கற்புக்கு அணிகலனாகத் திகழும் நட்சத்திரத்தின் பெயர் என்ன?

19)புகழ்பெற்ற ஒரு சிறுவனின் பெயரையுடைய நட்சத்திரத்தின் பெயர் என்ன?

20. பெருங் கரடிக் கூட்டம் என்று மேலை நாட்டார் அழைக்கும் நட்சத்திரத் தொகுப்புக்கு இந்துக்கள் கொடுத்த பெயர் என்ன?

21. எந்த இரண்டு நட்சத்திரங்கள் மட்டும் “திரு” அடைமொழி உடையன?



விடைகள்: 1)முதல் நட்சத்திரம்-அஸ்வினி, கடைசி நட்சத்திரம்- ரேவதி 2)ஆருத்ரா/ திருவாதிரை 3) ரோஹிணி 4) முருகப் பெருமான், புத்தர் பெருமான் 5) திரு ஓணம் 6) சதயம் (சதய விழா) 7) தமிழ் பழமொழிகள்: அவிட்ட நட்சத்திரம் தவிட்டுப் பானை எல்லாம் தங்கம் 8) ஆண்மூலம் அரசாளும் 9) கார்த்திகை 10) கிருஷ்ணன் 11)புனர் பூசம் 12) மிருகசீர்ஷம் 13) ரேவதி 14)சித்திரா நட்சத்திர பவுர்ணமி 15) சுவாதி நட்சத்திரம் 16) பூசம், புனர்பூசம் 17) அகஸ்திய நட்சத்திரம் 18)அருந்ததி 19) துருவன் 20) சப்த ரிஷி மண்டலம் 21) திரு ஓணம் (விஷ்ணு), திரு ஆதிரை (சிவன்)