Emegir, Emesal of Sumer: Sanskrit, Prakrit of India!


Research Article by London swaminathan

Research Paper No 1616; Dated 1st February 2015

Sumerian language is the vernacular tongue of southern Babylonia until the end of third millennium BCE. The language died around 1650 BCE. We have clay tablets with cuneiform script from 3400 BCE. There were two varieties of Sumerian:  Emegir and Emesal.

Emegir is called men’s language and Emesal is called women’s language! It is very interesting to compare it with Sanskrit and Prakrit languages used in India. Like Sanskrit and Prakrit are two varieties of the same language Sumerians had two varieties.

Some examples:


En= Lord; Mr

Nin= Madam; Mrs, Miss



Umun = Lord

Gashna= Queen, Madam



There are 60,000 lines on clay tablets in Emegir dialect and another 60,000 lines may be in Emesal according to scholars in the field. Not all the materials are literature. Mostly we have bills, receipts and commercial transactions in Sumer. In India we have very few commercial materials in inscriptions or literature.

Emesal was used for certain religious literature, like Prakrit was used for Jain literature and Pali for Buddhist literature

Emesal was used by women like, Prakrit was used by women in Sanskrit dramas. In Sanskrit dramas women, comedians and village folk spoke Prakrit. Whereas the kings and government officials spoke Sanskrit. Sanskrit is like Emegir.

Indian languages are diglossic; spoken and written varieties are available. Even today in the Tamil and Hindi feature films, we have the heroes speaking posh, chaste language and the comedians and villagers using colloquial language, similar to Sanskrit and Prakrit or Emegir and Emesal.

In all the ancient languages like Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Tamil we have literature in the form of poetry. Prose came very late, may be 500 to 700 years later In Tamil. It took at least 500 years after the Sangam age.

But in Sanskrit, the foreign “scholars” put prose immediately after the Rig Veda, i.e. within a few hundred years. It can’t correct. We need to compare the development of poetry and prose in all the ancient languages. In India Prakrit (poetry) literature came at least 1500 years after Sanskrit literature. Sanskrit prose must have come very late. It will push back the date of the Rig Veda. Scholars now accept a date around 1700 BCE for the Rig Veda. More research will prove that B G Tilak and Herman Jacobi are right in assigning a date around 4000 BCE to the Rig Veda. It is very interesting to know that both arrived at the date independently on the basis of Vedic astronomy. So they can’t be wrong.

Another factor is that only Vedic people produced huge volume of quality literature even before Homer and Moses were born. This also proves that they must have composed or “heard” (Sruti) Vedas long before the dawn of civilization in other parts of the world.

music sumerian

Primitive men would not have spoken in poetic language. they would have used only prose to communicate. But it was poetry which can be easily memorised and passed on to posterity. Other things would have been forgotten. So Prakrit or spoken Tamil would have existed before Sanskrit or chaste Tamil. It is applicable to every language in the world. If we keep this point in mind and compare the development of other languages then we can arrive at a reasonable date for the Vedas and other Indian literature.

Another interesting point to compare is the availability of inscriptions and epigraphs in India. From Asokan times, we have lengthy Prakrit inscriptions. But in Tamil we have very short inscriptions in the same Brahmi script for a very long time. Why?

In Tamil, colloquial language is used in the early stage (inscriptions) and the literary style is used very late. That too very few lines around Asokan times! Why? But Rudradaman (130 CE) suddenly burst into pure Sanskrit in his Junagarh inscription. He made Sanskrit court language wrote poems in Sanskrit.

Conclusion: There was one dialect for men and royal personalities and another dialect for women and villagers in India and Sumer.

Poetry came first and prose came very late in most of the ancient languages. Foreign scholars dating of the Rig Veda and the Sanskrit prose materials is wrong.

If we compare the development of prose and poetry in ancient languages, it will lead us to proper assessment of literature and correct assignment of dates to them.

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