Nayan Tara Temple in Syria with Mysterious Foot Prints! (Post No.3799)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 8 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 13-47


Post No. 3799


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.




The latest book on The Hittite Civilization has new information on Hittites Gods. They ruled Parts of modern Syria and Turkey.

The very name of the country SYRIA comes for the Sanskrit word Surya. Sun God worship is the most popular in ancient Syria. Hittites who ruled for 400 years between 1600 BCE and 1200 BCE spoke old form of Sanskrit (Indo-European) and worshipped Sun God (Surya).


I have identified at least three Hindu Gods in the pantheon.

 Lion from the temple (wikipedia picture)


My research shows they worshiped

(1).  Twelve Adityas (12 forms of Surya)

(2).Goddess Nayanatara (Ayn Dara in Hittite language)

(3).Varuna (Tarunhas)

Linguistics show that some time the initial letters are dropped (Nayn Dara= Ayn Dara) and initial letters are changed (T=V; tarunhas=Varuna)


The oldest religious book Rig Veda has all the three gods and goddesses.


Nayanatara= Ayn Dara

Nayan Tara means Star of the eyes (iris). It is a popular Hindu name for girls. Nayantara saghal, novelist, related to Jawaharlal Nehru (India’s first prime minister) is one example. Nayan Tara got corrupted and became Ayn Dara in Syria. Hindus worship goddess in different forms. One of them is Eye of the Goddess; It is worshipped even now in the Naina Devi temple in Himachal Pradesh, India (Naina=Nayana=Eye)  . It is a very popular temple attracting thousands of devotees with EYE of the goddess as the main symbol. It is one of the 51 Shakti Kendras (51 Centres of Goddess Parvati).


Ayn Dara Temple near Aleppo in Syria

Ain Dara temple in Syria belongs to 1300 BCE. It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. It is similar to Solomon temple (Word Solomon is also Sanskrit word meaning Surya; Solar=Surya=Solomon=Sulaiman in Arabic).

Nayantara statues are available in Nepal.

As Hindus worship the same Goddess Durga with 51 different names in 51 Goddess temples on the Indian Sub Continent, Middle East people worshipped goddess as Ishtar, Ashtarte (to the Babylonians), Ashtoreth (to the Hebrews), Douga/Durga (in Tunis), Kathayee (in Carthage ) and several other names. If one reads the attributes of the gods, one wold find out that it is one and the same. (Douga and Carthage are place names – named after goddess).


In the Middle East there 3000 gods and goddesses like we find in Hinduism. For a Hindu, it is easy to understand. Same God Shiva is having 1000s of names around India and it is same with Lord Vishnu. Each one has got one special story in these places. For a layman, everything looks different. For a scholar, it is the same God with different names. It is same in the West Asia.

Nayana Devi (nainadevi) Temple in Himachal Pradesh.


There are some proofs to conclude that Ayn Dara was a Hindu temple.

1.Big Lion statues are excavated; lion is the vahana (mount) of Hindu Goddess Durga; even today all the temples take the goddess on lion statue during Hindu festivals in India.

  1. The second proof is the discovery of Massive Foot Prints in front of the temple. I have already explained the worship of foot prints and sandals in my two research articles (see below for the links).

3.One foot step goes into the temple; that is right foot; Hindus are supposed to put the right foot first into the house; newlywed Hindu brides must use her right foot when she comes into the house.

4.Hindus use Foot prints even today to show that god is coming into the house. All the Hindus draw the symbol of foot prints of Lord Krishna on the Birth day of Krishna (Janmashtami) from the gate up to the prayer room inside the house.

5.The whole region of Syria and Turkey were under Hindu rule for 1000 years under the Kassites, Hittites and Mitanni. The world has recognised Mitannian civilization as the Hindu Civilization because of the clay tablets showing Rig Vedic Gods and Sanskrit numbers and Sanskrit names Dasaratha (tushratta), Pratardhana, Sathya Sila =hattusa=hattusili

( Please read my article about Bogazkoy; it is available in all encyclopaedias.)

6.Hindu Girls were married to Egyptian Pharaohs (Please read Amarna letters, Dasaratha letters; Kikkuli’s horse manual;available in all encyclopaedias and in my articles)

7.Hindus have thousand names/Sahasranama for all the gods. Most famous are of Vishnu, Lalita and Shiva. Hittites also used the word THOUSAND GODS OF HATTI. Hittites were polytheists. (hatti=Hittite=Kshatri/ya).


Hittite religion is an amalgam of beliefs, cults and traditions drawn from different regions and cultures.

12 Adityas from Wikipedia; location Yazilikaya, Turkey


The main deity of the Hittite Kingdom was the Storm God TARHUNA. It is the Vedic God Varuna , changed as Taruna. He was considered king of all gods. He was a celestial God that brought storms and therefore thunder and lightning were his attributes. It looks similar to Vedic God INDRA. But even in India, when they need rains, they do Varuna Japa (Prayers to Varuna) and not to Indra. His consort was the Sun Goddess of Arinna. It is similar to Gayatri (Sun Goddess). Apart from these Gods, local and regional deities  joined the Hittite pantheon and new names and new stories were created.


Like Hindus, the Hittites considered the sun ,the moon and the stars as Gods. They believed in astrology, predictions and foecasts.


Dwadasa (12) Adityas at Yazilikaya

Dwadasa means Twelve; Aditya means Suns. The twelve Adityas represent 12 months of Sun’s orbit. They are Vedic deities. 12 Adityas were sculptured on huge rocks of Yazilikaya Rock Temple (Please see the picture).


My Old Articles:

Hindu Wonders in a Muslim Country!

Posted on 12 May 2012

Why Do Hindus Worship Shoes?

Posted on 15 August 2012

The Sandals- posted on 24 April 2013




Ghost busting-Hittite Style! (Post No.3784)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 3 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 10-26 am


Post No. 3784


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.





Who are Hittites?

Hittite civilization, one of the oldest and most splendid in the world lasted for approximately 450 years and  set its signatures to many firsts in history.


They were the rulers of Turkey (Anatolia) and Northern Syria from the second millennium BCE. They spoke an Indo-European language (close connection with Sanskrit). They ruled from Hattusa ( now known as Bogazkoy in Turkey). They over threw Babylonian Empire. They became very powerful between 1400-1200 BCE and successfully waged war with Egypt.

Like any ancient culture they believed in ghosts and exorcism. Their methods were very funny. They used mouse to get rid of the ghosts. But their spells are similar to the spells in Atharvana Veda.

A voluminous book released in December 2013 with the title HITTITES gives lot of interesting information.

Salient features of the Civilization:

1.Hundreds of clay tablets were discovered in the early part of 20th century. Their texts included an account of training horses and a prayer to the Sky God pleading for relief from a plague epidemic. (The oldest archaeological evidence for Sanskrit language and Vedic deities – 1400 BCE—were discovered here)


2.Once clay tablet referred to the practice of sibling marriage (brother-sister marriage) that was common in Egypt and adjacent regions was hated by the Hittites and they declared it should be punishable by death.


  1. On another tablet the king complains of his son who was ambitious to accede to the throne, “Can one who thinks only of himself in this way really love Hattusa? and proclaims a ne heir apparent, instructing him to “Rule the great men of the country with compassion”.

(Hattusa was the capital city. This reminds us of the Puranic King Venan, Bengal King Simhabahu, who founded an empire in Sri Lanka and the Manu Neeti Choza who killed his own son for violating the rules)


4.Yet another clay tablet includes the advice: “If you sense someone’s treachery consult the Pankus:, impying the existence of the kind of council and making he Hittites the oldest constitutional kingdom in the world.

(My comments: The Rig Veda has reference to such Sabhas and Samitis. if we take the age of Vedas as 4500 BCE, suggested by Herman Jacobi and B G Tilak, then Hindus are the first to have constitutional assembly; later they developed into Five people council and Eight People Council in classical Tamil period and Classical Sanskrit literature; but we don’t have archaeological evidence).



  1. The most important of all the clay tablets is that bearing history’s first written treaty, concluded between the Hittites and Egyptians after the Battle of Kadesh, which ended without a conclusive victory for either side. According to this text the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II and the Hittite King Hattusili III pledges to “maintain friendship, brotherhood and their great kingdoms’ against the common threat posed by the Kingdom of Assyria. From that time on the parties are to show mutual respect for the sovereignty of each, preserve amity between them for ever, and act in alliance against enemy attack. Prisoners and deserters were to be voluntarily and unconditionally returned without subjecting them to violent punishment, causing any tears to flow from their eyes, or taking revenge on their wives and children” This respect for human rights was the most significant characteristic distinguishing the Hittites from their neighbours in the Near East.”

(My comments: This treaty is wonderful indeed! This is the template now we use in all our International Treaties; but Hittites were not the first; Hindus were the first. Mahabharata and Ramayana have such treaties; Sangam Tamil Literature commentator Nacchinarkiniyar gives vital information about a Peace Treaty between the Sri Lankan King Ravana and a Tamil Pandya King. The treaty ‘signed; in front of Agni (Fire between Rama and Sugriva clearly says from this day onwards your enemy is my enemy and my friend is your friend as well; even in the same area Mitanni an kings made an agreement by quoting Rig Vedic deities; but once again we don’t have archaeological proof; but the Hittites had it).

Chasing the Ghost!

“A substantial body of Hittite magic rituals provides us with ample information on ceremonial rituals that served therapeutic and apotropaic purposes. These rituals were used to repel evil and remove impurity and they were performed at the client’s place. The ultimate cause of the client’s impurity could be demons, ghosts, witchcraft, slander, contact with impure substances, the transgression of taboos, or divine anger. The female expert that figures most prominently in the texts is called the ‘old woman’, while he best known male expert is the ‘diviner’.


Typical elements of Hittite magic rituals include a variety of symbolic actions and gestures. Evil and impurities were transferred to substitutes, such as figurines and animals. The substitutes could then be disposed of or driven away.


In one ritual, the evil affecting the patient is transferred on to a mouse: Tin is attached to the patient’s right hand and foot by means of a bowstring. The tin is then taken off and tied to the mouse with the bowstring. Then the performer of the ritual drives the mouse away and assigns it to two hostile demons that have to be soothed: “ I have taken away the evil from them. I have wrapped it around a mouse. Let this mouse carry it through the mountains, deep valleys, on long roads… Zarniza, Tarpatassa, you take it”.


This is one of the many types of rituals.





Hittite Mystery! Were they Hindus?

lion gate

Huge lions guard the gate at Hattusa (later it became Lion Throne/Simhasana)

Written by London swaminathan

Research article No.1923

Date :10th June 2015

Time uploaded in London: 21-10

Who are Hittites?

Scholars say that no one knew who were they and where from they came. Their monuments have been found in Bogazkoy (previously known as Hattusa; now called Bogazkale) in Turkey.

Where were they?

They ruled Turkey (Anatolia) and Northern Syria.

When did they rule?

We knew that they existed between 1800 BCE and 1200 BCE.

What language did they speak?

They spoke an Indo –European language to which Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and most of the European languages belong.

Were they Hindus?

Other than the Sanskrit connection there are lot of similarities between Hindus and Hittites.

I have listed them below.

Why did their rule come to an end 1200 BCE?

Hattusa (Bogazkoy) , their capital was razed to ground about 1200 BCE. The end was sudden and this has been largely attributed to “sea people” from the Mediterranean. Some disagree.

Hittites are known from Old Testament and clay tablets discovered in Turkey ( area ruled by Hittites). In 1906, Dr Hugo Winckler began excavation in Bogazkoy and found a Royal archive of 10,000 tablets. The tablets give a good picture of Hittite politics and society. Czech scholar B.Hrozny deciphered the script and wrote about it.  Hittite called their language NESILI.


Bogazkoy = Hattusa in Turkey

Similarities with the Hindus

1)They spoke a language related to Sanskrit. All scholars agree on it. And so they did not belong to Anatolia (Turkey).

2)They use the phrase 1000 Gods in their peace treaty and this is very common in Hindu scriptures. Decimal system was invented by the Hindus. Vedic god Indra is decribed as a man with 1000 testicles (so potent!) and his Vahra Aydha is 1000 pointed! Thousand here means “a lot”.

3.They signed a peace treaty with the Egyptians 3000 years ago. The signing of peace treaty is also a typical Hindu custom. We hear about the Peace Treaty between Ravana and a Pandya king in Tamil literature (Please read my earlier article on it) We knew about another peace treaty between Mitanni king Dasaratha and Egyptian king around 1400 BCE.

4.Hittite Treaty:–Treaty of Rea-masesha mai Amana, the great king, the king of the Land of Egypt, the valiant, with Hattusili, the great king of the Land of Hatti, his brother, for establishing good peace and good brotherhood worthy of great kingship between them for ever.

The treaty goes on to define the relationship between the two nations; to renounce aggression; to establish a defensive alliance; to guarantee, upon the death of either party, he succession of legitimate heir; and to provide for the extradition of fugitives. The treaty was carved on the wall of a great temple of Karnak and at the Ramesseum of Thebes (Egypt). One of the final passages calls upon the gods as witnesses to the good faith of the signatories (this is also typical Hindu custom):

“As for these words —— as for him who shall not keep them, a thousand gods of the land of Hatti together with a thousand gods of the land of Egypt, shall destroy his house, his land and his servants”

Rea- masesha mai Amana was the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II. (Again this name is Sanskrit Ramasesha) .The Hittite king’s name was Hattusili (in Sanskrit it is Sathyaseela; s=h in many languages)

5)Royal Marriages :Hittites survived by Royal marriages, diplomacy and heroic fights. They were superb fighters. Royal marriages mean marrying girls from neighbouring countries which is also typical Hindu custom: Dasaratha married a woman from Kekaya, Dhritarashtra married a woman from Gandhara/Kandahar, Rama married a woman from Videha etc (Kaikeyi, Gandhari, Vaidehi)

6)Hattusa was full of temples. They were worshipping Storm God (similar to Indra) and Sun Goddess (similar to Gayatri)

7)Buyukkale (Turkish word for Great Castle) occupies a rocky place in Eastern Hattusa, where the king resided. It had its own temple and two libraries, where thousands of cuneiform clay tablets have been found.

8)A tablet from one of the temple archives says, “The deity  has now been made as a statue in silver covered with gold in the shape of a bull standing on all fours”. The storm god sometimes was represented a s a bull and at other times was shown accompanied by two bulls that pulled his chariot. Indra is also represented as bull in the Vedas.

9)Hattusili III, who signed a peace treaty with Ramses II,gave his daughter to Ramses II in marriage. Hattusili’s (Sathyaseela) wife was Pudushepa (may be Padmashiva in Sanskrit). She was a Hurrian (Suryan; belongs to Surya Kula of Hindus)


Hindu Vahanas in Yazilikaya, Turkey

65 deities and Vahanas

10)Hindu Gods and goddesses have Vahanas (mounts or vehicles) until today. Hittites’ gods always ride vahanas. North west of Hattusa is  Yazilikaya which is described as the most impressive of all Hittite religious structures. Here on the wall, storm god and his consort Hepatu were shown. There are 65 deities on the walls of the rocks. There were big festivals and ceremonial processions with the King and the Queen along with festival sports such as races, wrestling, stone throwing contests and boxing.

Hindu Goddess Durga is described as riding a deer in Tamil epic Silappadikaram and Thevaram of Saivite saints (Kalaiyathurthi in Tamil). We could not see such statues nowadays in India. But in the Hittite world we see deer riding gods!

11)Like Hindus Hittites cremated the bodies. Scholars believe that one of the galleries in Yazilikaya contained the urn with the ash of Tudhaliya, son of Hattusili and Pudushepa. They have identified two figures by hieroglyphs. The larger is the God Sharruma, the smaller is Tudhaliya IV. The relief depicts Sharruma, son of Storm God of Heaven and the goddess Hepatu.

12)Among the Hittites, when a king died it was said that he became God, and the relief may represent a celebration of of Tudhaliya’s entrance in to the Hittite pantheon. Hindus believed that their king was god and in the heaven they were waiting to receive them. Sangam Tamil verse says that Indra was waiting to welcome Tamil chieftain Ay Andiran. Sanskrit literature has such references too.

13)Manu’s Law Code: Hittites had very strict law like Hindu Law book Manu Smriti. Disobedience to the king was one of the few offences punishable by death – not just the offender but of his family as well. A Tamil king who was praised as Manu Neeti (smrti) Choza crushed his own sun under the wheels of his chariot because he crushed to death a calf. And the cow itself came to his palace and rang the Calling/enquiry Bell.



Vedic Prayer

14)What we read in Hindu Atharva Veda is also in the Hittites: From the tablets we have precise descriptions of various rituals: to counteract sorcery, to end pestilence, to engage the help of protective demons, to patch family quarrels, even to cure impotence. One tablet contains words of Muwatalli, the king who fought at Kadesh, concerning what must be said to the gods “when things get too much for a man”.

15)Their prayer was similar to Vedic paryers; one of the Hittite prayer runs like this, “Hattian Storm God, my lord, ye gods, my lords! It is only too true that man is sinful. My father sinned and transgressed against the word of the Hattian Storm god, my lord. But I have not sinned in any respect. It is only too true, however the father’s sin falls upon the son. So my father’s sin has fallen upon me…. Take pity on me and drive the plague out of the Hatti land”. This echoes the Hindu prayers. This is the prayer of Mursili II, a king who ruled near the end of 14th Century BCE. On the annual sacred thread changing day (Upakarma) of the Hindu Brahmins, the priest recites a long list of sins (in fact an amazing list of sins done in seven generations) and begs for pardon.

16).Lion and Double Headed Eagle

Hittites monuments have huge lions carved at the entrance of the Place gate. They depict double headed eagle. Both of them figure in Hindu scriptures. Please see my articles Double headed Eagle: India –Sumeria connection (posted on 18 December 2011) and Vedic Lion around the world (posted on 9 November 2014) . I have dealt with them in detail.

17)Rings with emblems and seals: Ramayana says Dasaratha sent the coronation invitations to all kings of the land with eagle emblem engraved on the invitation. Sanskrit dramas like Sakuntalam, Mudra Rakshasam are based on rings with emblems. We have such rings and seals in Hittite world. Hittite craftsmen fashioned elaborate seals for stamping official and commercial documents and correspondence.  The five sided stone seal depicted religious scenes. The seal was hanging around the neck of the king. Hieroglyphs on the gold signet ring identify it as that of the son of a king. In India all such ancient rings were melted and made into new ornaments.

18).A goddess with disc shaped headdress sits on a throne holding an infant on her lap. We have such goddess in Hindu pantheon. Her name is Hariti. Hariti ma is worshiped in Swayambunath temple in Nepal. Neplaese Newars worship her Ajima. She is praised as the protector of children. A Hindu deity later taken by Buddhists went up to Japan. Chinese worship her as Kishimojin and Japanese worship her as Kariteimo (=Hariti Ma). She was said to be a child devouring demon and later converted by Buddha. Since Buddhism had no duties and Buddha never spoke about deity worship, all these must have gone from Hinduism.

19)Scholars have found several similarities between Greek mythology and Hittite mythology. This brings them closer to the Hindus because Greek mythology is nothing but the corrupted form Hindu mythology according to Max Muller and Edward pocoke.

20)Hittites were often attacked by Kaska people from the North. During the reign of Muwatalli, in the late 14th century BCE, Kaska ttacked Hattusa and set it ablaze. Muwatalli fled, taking his court and the Hittite cult gods with him. His son Uri-Teshub, returned to Hattusa and restored the city as Imperial capital.

21)Huge storage jars were discovered in the Great Temple complex, probably stored oil or grains. One of them had the capacity to store 3000 litres!


Yazilikaya sculptures on huge rocks

A.Kalyanaraman’s Research

22.A Kalyanaraman in his book Aryatarangini has done a very detailed research into West Asian Hindu Civilizations and found out all Sanskrit names behind the corrupted West Asian names. He was very reasonable in arriving at the names. I am very much convinced because even in London, Sri Lankan Tamils corrupt all Indian Sanskrit names. Kanaga Durga Temple is called Kanaka Turka and Ganesh is called Kanesh, Damayanti is called Tamayanti. We see such corruptions in Mauritius Hindu community because of French influence. In South East Asian countries all the Ramayana names are corrupted beyond recognition.Ravana became Rab and Dhanajaya became Tenemjya, Nara Uttama became Nordom Sihanuk. So Kalyana Raman is right in identifying the names with Sanskrit equivalents. Here is the list:

Hittite =Hatti= Kshatriya=Kheta (in Bible)

Hattusas =Sathwasa = My reading is Sathya vacha

(In Tamil we have Vay Mozi Kosar=Truthful Kosar and Athiyaman=Sathyavan=Sathyaputra in Asoka’s inscription)

Anittas = Anitha = son of Pitkhana

Hattusilis = Sathva sila = my reading is Sathyasila

Mursilis = murasila

Telepinus= Dilipa

Tudhaliya – Dugdalaya

Suppiluloma = he of the golden hair

Tusratha = Dasaratha

Aranawanda= Arna Bandha

double headed

Now that lot of Hittite tablets are translated and books published, we can compare these and find some supporting documents.

So far as Mitannis are concerned the Sanskrit names are crystal clear. So we have archaeological proof from 1400 BCE for kings with Sanskrit names and Sanskrit numbers in the Horse Training manual of Kikkuli in Turkey/Syria area.

Let us continue our research with Kassites in another article.

Pictures are used from Splendors of the Past, Published by National Geographic Society;thanks.