Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta (Parsi Scripture)- Part 1; Post No.10,639


Post No. 10,639

Date uploaded in London – –    7 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Zend Avesta is the religious scripture of Zoroastrian or Parsi (Paresee) religion. It is in Avestan language, sister language of Sanskrit. It was spoken in ancient Iran (Persia, Parasika)

Indra is praised in the Vedas as supreme god. But in the Avesta he is listed as a Deva. In their dictionary Deva is a derogatory term, that is a demon. This type of schism existed in all the religions. I showed it yesterday in my comments how the schism split all known religions, both Semitic and Oriental . Anti Indra remarks are in Vend.19.43.

Indra is second to Angro-mainyush (Ahriman) the arch fiend who is sometimes designated ‘Devaanaam Deva’, ‘Demon of Demons’ in Avesta. In Sanskrit it meant God of Gods, quite opposite.

The third Hindu deity they hated was Saurva Daevo. We know one of the names of Shiva is Sharva in the Yajur Veda. So it may be shiva.

Another reference is about Vedic Twins Nasatyas/ Asvins. They are referred to as Naonhaithya daevo. They are also demons in Parsee religion.

But there are some names who are praised in both Vedas and the Avesta.


They are called Yazatas or angels in the Zend Avesta. The most noticeable is Mithra, the Sanskrit form being Mitra. In the Vedic hymns he is always paired with Varuna, who is identified with the Greek god Uranos/ Uranus. In the Vedas we rarely see him alone. But there is one hymn, which Hindu Brahmins recite every day in their Sandhyavandana prayers,

Mitrasya……. Mitro janan yataathi prajanan………RV 3-59

Mitra alone is invoked in it,

“Mitra calls men to their work . Mitra is preserving earth and heaven; Mitra looks upon the nations always without shutting his eyes. To Mitra bring the offering with ghee.

“O Mitra that man who troubles himself to keep your order/ rule, O son of eternity (Aditi) shall have abundance. He, protected by you, shall neither be slain nor defeated; no distress befalls him, neither from near nor from far.”

In comparing these verses with the extracts given above from the Mihir Yasht, one may easily be convinced of the complete identity of the Vedic Mitra and the Persian Mithra .

Mihir Ysht in Zend Avesta has similar meaning. FromIndia it spread to Iran, Greece and Rome. In Rome it became a secret cult and degerated.

Mihir is used as boy’s name in many cultures and the meaning is MITRA of Vedas (Sun, Friend).



Another Vedic deity Aryaman, who is generally associated with Mitra and Varuna, RV.1-136-2, is at-once recognised in the angel Airyaman of the Zend Avesta.

Aryaman in both scriptures has double meaning,

  1. A friend, associate; in the Gathas it chiefly means a client
  2. The name of a deity or spirit who seems particularly to preside over marriages , on which occasions he is invoked both by the Hindus and the Parsis. He seems to be either another name of the sun , like Mitra, Savitri, Pushan etc. Or his constant associate and representative

In the Bhagavad Gita 10-29 he is mentioned as the head of the Pitaras, manes or ancestral spirits.



Bhaga, a Vedic deity, belonging to the same class as Mitra and Aryaman is also seen in the Zend Avesta. But the word is not used as a name of a deity but in the general sense of God, Destiny.

The word is used in Slavonic languages as god. Russian, polish use “bog” for god.

Russian Bog= Hindu Sanskrit Bhaga

Vedic god Bhaga was believed to be a deity, presiding over the fortune and destiny of men. Rigveda 7-41-2 says

“Let us invoke the victor in the morning, the strong Bhaga, son of Aditi ( imperishable, eternity) , who disposes all things. The poor and the sick, as well as the king pray to him , full of trust saying give us our portion

Bhaaga is a portion, used even by Tamils. Eg. bhaagap pirivinai, dividing property

Bhagavan is god who has six attributes in Hindu literature.

The adjective bhaga- bhakta, ordained by fate is found both in the Vedas and the Zend Avesta.



Aramati, a female spirit in the Vedas, meaning devotion, obedience

R V 7-1-6; 7-34-21

Meaning earth in R V 10-92-4/5 is identical with the archangel Armaiti in Zend Avesta. It has both meanings in the Avesta.

In the Vedas it is found rarely. She is called a virgin who comes with butter offerings in the morning and evening to Agni. She is a celestial woman brought by Agni



It is an epithet of several Vedic gods, such as Agni, Pushan, Brahnaspatoi. It is identical with Nairyosanha, the name of the angel in the Zend Avesta. , who serves Asura Mazda as a messenger. The meaning of the word is ‘one praised by men’ .

Vedic Agni has this epithet. He is the Messenger of Gods.



The Vedic god Vayu, is who first drinks Soma at the morning sacrifice. He is supposed to be roaming everywhere. Vayu is the only Vedic god found in the Zend Avesta without any change. He is seen in Gathas Yas.liii-6


Vritra Killer

Vritra ha, killer of Vritra a demon, one of the most frequent epithets of Indra in the Vedic books, is to be recognised in the angel Verethraghna ( see Behram Yasht.

Trita is another deity in Vedas who has this epithet

This Trita is identical to Thraeotana in the Iranian legends


Significance of No. 33

I have already written an article and posted here. it is both the Vedas and the Zend Avesta. 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas are in all Vedic scriptures. But the last two in the 33 differ.

In Aitareya Brahmana the last two are Prajapati and Vashatkara.

In the Satapata Brahmana they are Dhyava Prithvi, heaven and earth.

In another passage of the same work says Indra and Prajapati

In the Ramayana the last two are Ashvin twins .

In the Atharva Veda 10-7,13, 22,27 thirty three gods are said to be the limbs of Prajapati

In the Zend Avesta, the 33 are Ratus or chiefs instituted by Mazda for maintaining the best truths.

Source Book – The Parsis by Martin Haug (with my inputs)

To be continued………………………….

Tags-  Hindu Gods, in Zend Avesta, Parsee, Parsi, Religion, Zoroastrian