Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta-4 (Post No.10,647)


Post No. 10,647

Date uploaded in London – –    10 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta-4

What is Zend Avesta?

Zend Avesta – sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism, today practised by the Parsees. They comprise the Avesta , liturgical books for the priests, the Gathas, the discourses and revelations of Zoroaster and the Zend, commentary upon them

—Hutchinson Encyclopedia.

ZEND is Chandas (poetry, prosody)  GATHA is song  and these words are used in Sanskrit and other Indian languages from the days of Rigveda until this day.

Avestan is an ancient language, used only in the Zend Avesta. The book has many Sanskrit words.



Nabhanethista is the son of Manu, the hero of the Flood Story. Hindu scriptures say that Nethishta was the son of Manu and his son was Naabhaaga.

This Nabhanethista is seen in both the Zend Avesta and the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world.

Nabaa-nazdistais in Yasna 26-6/7 (of Zend Avesta)

His name is found both in the Rig Veda and the Yajur Veda and later Brahmana literature.

Naabaanedishta Maanava- RV 10-59, RV 10-61-62

Nabhanedishtha: Taittiriya Samhita: 3-9-1-4; Aitareya Brahmana 5-14-1-2


A.Kalyanaraman in his book Aryatarangini says,

“Nabah = Biblical Noah, Nedishta means literally next or nearest to Manu. Nabanethishta is Manu’s son according to Hindu scriptures. Sumerian story says that Naphistim is said to be descendant of Shamash (Sun) who was the first creation God.

Zoroastrian Avesta contains the same name Naba Nezdishtim, as that of an ancient prophet of the Asuras, who defied the Deva worshipers.

Mr. Kalyanaraman argues that the story of Floods has travelled to Sumer through commercial contacts and it was later used in the Bible.

B=V change is seen in all Asian languages (particularly in Bengal). B=V change is seen in 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature and earlier Persian literature. If we apply the B=V change to Biblical story of Floods, then we come to the name Nabha/Nova (noVa is naBa)

So Manu and Nabhanethishta story travelled all the way to Middle East from the Rig Veda. Rig Veda is considered older than all religious books in the world.

Mr Kalyanaraman in his book ‘Arya Tarangini’ adds more details:-

The Avesta copies almost exactly the Manu legend. The Ahura Mazda asks Yima to build a ‘vara’ or enclosure with the following words, “Thou shall bring the seeds of men and women,  the best on earth; also the seed of ever kind of cattle etc. two of every kind to be kept inexhaustible there”

The Manu legend records that Manu had a son called Nabha Nedhistim whom his father overlooked in the division of his properties, probably because of some reprehensible heterodoxy in the offspring. Nedhistim then took refuge with the family of Angirases, who solaced him with the gift of many cows, specially as a tribute to his poetic gifts.

Bhrugu and Angirases are connected with Fire Worship and associated with the magical rites in the Atharvana Veda. We have lot of similarities between the Zoroastrianism and Atharvana Veda ( it will be shown in another article).


Sumerian Connection

In the Epic of Gilgamesh we come across Ut Naphistim who is none else but Nabha Nedistim

Utnapishtim or Utanapishtim is a character in ancient Mesopotamian mythology. He is tasked by the god Enki to create a giant ship to be called Preserver of Life in preparation of a giant flood that would wipe out all life. The character appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Thus, the Story of Flood and Story of Manu’s son Nabha Nedistim confirmed the Hindu- Parsee connection. Even the Sumerian stories called him an ancestor of Gilgamesh. So it must be dated before 2500 BCE.


From my year 2015 article (Mystery of Rig Veda -Part 8)

Manava is the surname for all those born in the clan of Manu;following names are found in the Rig Veda:

Saaryaata Maanava RV 10-92

Cakshu Maanava 9-52, 9-106-4

Naabaanedishta Maanava- 10-59, 10-61-62

Manu AApasa – 9-5, 9-106-7

Manu Vaivasvata – 8-5, 8-27-31

Manu Samvrana 9-49, 9-101-10

Manyu Tapasa – 10-67, 10-83,84

Manyu Vaisstha 9-29, 9-97-10

Maanya Maitravaruna – 8-67

It looks like  naming children after older ancestors was very common in those days. That is why we find many Manu names in one and the same family)


Girls Name Pilu, Piloo

Pilu, Piloo, Piilu, Peelu —  is a popular Girl’s name. It is from the Atharva Veda.

Piilu is the name in Atharva Veda of a tree (Carrya arborea or Salvadora persica) on the fruits of which doves fed.

Piilumati is the intermediate heaven lying between the Udnvati (watery) and the Pra-dyauh (farthest heaven). It presumably means rich in Pilu.

In short , Pilu or Peelu is fruit.

1935 Ananda Vikatan Tamil dictionary also gives the meaning as a ‘Tree, Flower’ (pool in Hindi is also fower)

In Vedic literature we come across Pippalatan, Son of Vedic Rishi Dirgtamas. It will be Mr Ficus Religiosa in English, that is Mr Peepal or Peepul Tree.

In Indian languages, relatives use shortened nick names in families.

In Tamil , all names finish with U in homes.

Rama is Ramu

Soma is Somu

Subrhmanyan is Subbu

Meena is Meenu

Veena is Veenu

Shyamala or Chamundi is Shamu

In the same way Peepal is Peelu or Piplu

In short something to do with a tree or its fruit.

Pippal is fruit which became Apple in English (Extension of meaning in Linguistics)

What is it to do with Parsis?

We see Piloo among Parsis.

But in Persian language, they change Ph into F.

Parasika is Fars; Feroze is Pilu (F=P; R=L)

Feroze Gandhi- Husband of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi

Pirojsha – Industrialist

So Persian names with Fe is Pe.

We come across names with Fer….. Peel…..around the world.

Pilu is used even in Nordic language (Greenland) .

According to Wisdom library it has 23 meanings

Pilu, Pīlu: 23 definitions

Pīlu (पीलु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VIII.30.24) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Pīlu (पीलु) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Pīlu) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

Ayurveda (science of life)

Pilu [पीलू] in the Rajasthani language is the name of a plant identified with Salvadora oleoides Decne. from the Salvadoraceae (Salvadora) family. For the possible medicinal usage of pilu, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Pīlu (पीलु) refers to “Salvadora persica” and represents a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Mahābhārata Anuśāsanaparva 53.19 , and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—

Pīlu (पीलु) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Salvadora persica Linn. var. wightiana Verdc.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning pīlu] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Pīlu (पीलु) is the name in the Atharvaveda of a tree (Careya arborea or Salvadora persica) on the fruit of which doves fed.

India history and geography

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in India history glossary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pīlu.—(IE 8-3), Indian form of Arabic-Persian fīl, an ele- phant. Note: pīlu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in Marathi glossary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

piḷū (पिळू).—f R (Or pēḷū) A rude twist or roll with the hand of cocoanut-fibres or cotton.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

piḷū (पिळू).—f A rude twist or roll with the hand of cocoanut-fibres or cotton.

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pilu in Sanskrit glossary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pilu (पिलु).—See पीलु (pīlu).

Derivable forms: piluḥ (पिलुः).

— OR —

Pīlu (पीलु).—[pīl-u]

1) An arrow.

2) An atom; प्रत्यक्षं न पुनाति नापहरते पापानि पीलुच्छटा (pratyakṣaṃ na punāti nāpaharate pāpāni pīlucchaṭā) Viś. Guṇa.552.

3) An insect.

4) An elephant.

5) The stem of the palm.

6) A flower.

7) A group of palm trees; Mb.7.178.24.

8) A kind of tree.

9) A heap of bones.

1) The central part of the hand.

lu n. The fruit of the Pīlu tree.

Derivable forms: pīluḥ (पीलुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pīlu (पीलु).—name of a piśāca: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 18.5; piśāco pīlu-nāmataḥ (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 611.19 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pīlu (पीलु).—m.

(-luḥ) 1. The name of a tree, applied in some places to the Careya arborea, and in others to the Salvadora persica; it is very commonly assigned also to all exotic, and unknown trees. 2. An elephant. 3. An arrow. 4. A flower. 5. The blossom of the Saccharum sara. 6. An atom. 7. An insect. 8. The metacarpus, the central part of the hand. 9. The stem of the palm tree. E. pīl to stop, aff. u; also with kan added, pīluka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pilu (पिलु).—pīlu, m. A certain tree; cf. pailava.

(From Wisdom Library)

Xxxx Subham xxxxx

Tags- Pilu, Piloo, Nabha, Nova, Nedhishta, Manu, Son, Veda, Parsi,Hindu gods, Zend Avesta 

Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta (Parsi Scripture)- Part 1; Post No.10,639


Post No. 10,639

Date uploaded in London – –    7 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

Zend Avesta is the religious scripture of Zoroastrian or Parsi (Paresee) religion. It is in Avestan language, sister language of Sanskrit. It was spoken in ancient Iran (Persia, Parasika)

Indra is praised in the Vedas as supreme god. But in the Avesta he is listed as a Deva. In their dictionary Deva is a derogatory term, that is a demon. This type of schism existed in all the religions. I showed it yesterday in my comments how the schism split all known religions, both Semitic and Oriental . Anti Indra remarks are in Vend.19.43.

Indra is second to Angro-mainyush (Ahriman) the arch fiend who is sometimes designated ‘Devaanaam Deva’, ‘Demon of Demons’ in Avesta. In Sanskrit it meant God of Gods, quite opposite.

The third Hindu deity they hated was Saurva Daevo. We know one of the names of Shiva is Sharva in the Yajur Veda. So it may be shiva.

Another reference is about Vedic Twins Nasatyas/ Asvins. They are referred to as Naonhaithya daevo. They are also demons in Parsee religion.

But there are some names who are praised in both Vedas and the Avesta.


They are called Yazatas or angels in the Zend Avesta. The most noticeable is Mithra, the Sanskrit form being Mitra. In the Vedic hymns he is always paired with Varuna, who is identified with the Greek god Uranos/ Uranus. In the Vedas we rarely see him alone. But there is one hymn, which Hindu Brahmins recite every day in their Sandhyavandana prayers,

Mitrasya……. Mitro janan yataathi prajanan………RV 3-59

Mitra alone is invoked in it,

“Mitra calls men to their work . Mitra is preserving earth and heaven; Mitra looks upon the nations always without shutting his eyes. To Mitra bring the offering with ghee.

“O Mitra that man who troubles himself to keep your order/ rule, O son of eternity (Aditi) shall have abundance. He, protected by you, shall neither be slain nor defeated; no distress befalls him, neither from near nor from far.”

In comparing these verses with the extracts given above from the Mihir Yasht, one may easily be convinced of the complete identity of the Vedic Mitra and the Persian Mithra .

Mihir Ysht in Zend Avesta has similar meaning. FromIndia it spread to Iran, Greece and Rome. In Rome it became a secret cult and degerated.

Mihir is used as boy’s name in many cultures and the meaning is MITRA of Vedas (Sun, Friend).



Another Vedic deity Aryaman, who is generally associated with Mitra and Varuna, RV.1-136-2, is at-once recognised in the angel Airyaman of the Zend Avesta.

Aryaman in both scriptures has double meaning,

  1. A friend, associate; in the Gathas it chiefly means a client
  2. The name of a deity or spirit who seems particularly to preside over marriages , on which occasions he is invoked both by the Hindus and the Parsis. He seems to be either another name of the sun , like Mitra, Savitri, Pushan etc. Or his constant associate and representative

In the Bhagavad Gita 10-29 he is mentioned as the head of the Pitaras, manes or ancestral spirits.



Bhaga, a Vedic deity, belonging to the same class as Mitra and Aryaman is also seen in the Zend Avesta. But the word is not used as a name of a deity but in the general sense of God, Destiny.

The word is used in Slavonic languages as god. Russian, polish use “bog” for god.

Russian Bog= Hindu Sanskrit Bhaga

Vedic god Bhaga was believed to be a deity, presiding over the fortune and destiny of men. Rigveda 7-41-2 says

“Let us invoke the victor in the morning, the strong Bhaga, son of Aditi ( imperishable, eternity) , who disposes all things. The poor and the sick, as well as the king pray to him , full of trust saying give us our portion

Bhaaga is a portion, used even by Tamils. Eg. bhaagap pirivinai, dividing property

Bhagavan is god who has six attributes in Hindu literature.

The adjective bhaga- bhakta, ordained by fate is found both in the Vedas and the Zend Avesta.



Aramati, a female spirit in the Vedas, meaning devotion, obedience

R V 7-1-6; 7-34-21

Meaning earth in R V 10-92-4/5 is identical with the archangel Armaiti in Zend Avesta. It has both meanings in the Avesta.

In the Vedas it is found rarely. She is called a virgin who comes with butter offerings in the morning and evening to Agni. She is a celestial woman brought by Agni



It is an epithet of several Vedic gods, such as Agni, Pushan, Brahnaspatoi. It is identical with Nairyosanha, the name of the angel in the Zend Avesta. , who serves Asura Mazda as a messenger. The meaning of the word is ‘one praised by men’ .

Vedic Agni has this epithet. He is the Messenger of Gods.



The Vedic god Vayu, is who first drinks Soma at the morning sacrifice. He is supposed to be roaming everywhere. Vayu is the only Vedic god found in the Zend Avesta without any change. He is seen in Gathas Yas.liii-6


Vritra Killer

Vritra ha, killer of Vritra a demon, one of the most frequent epithets of Indra in the Vedic books, is to be recognised in the angel Verethraghna ( see Behram Yasht.

Trita is another deity in Vedas who has this epithet

This Trita is identical to Thraeotana in the Iranian legends


Significance of No. 33

I have already written an article and posted here. it is both the Vedas and the Zend Avesta. 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas are in all Vedic scriptures. But the last two in the 33 differ.

In Aitareya Brahmana the last two are Prajapati and Vashatkara.

In the Satapata Brahmana they are Dhyava Prithvi, heaven and earth.

In another passage of the same work says Indra and Prajapati

In the Ramayana the last two are Ashvin twins .

In the Atharva Veda 10-7,13, 22,27 thirty three gods are said to be the limbs of Prajapati

In the Zend Avesta, the 33 are Ratus or chiefs instituted by Mazda for maintaining the best truths.

Source Book – The Parsis by Martin Haug (with my inputs)

To be continued………………………….

Tags-  Hindu Gods, in Zend Avesta, Parsee, Parsi, Religion, Zoroastrian

Why did Hindu Gods lose their Heads? (Post No.4420)

Written by London Swaminathan 


Date: 21 NOVEMBER 2017


Time uploaded in London- 21–04



Post No. 4420

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.



Why did Lord Ganesh lose his head?

 Why did Lord Vishnu lose his head?

Why did Lord Brahma lose his head?

Why did Daksha lose his head?

Why did Bhrigu lose his head?

Daksha got goat’s head!

We have various versions of Daksha’s fire sacrifice in the Puranas and epics. In one of the versions Bhrigu loses his head. In another version Daksha himself lost his head. All this happened when he refused to invite Lord Siva for the sacrifice. Siva married Daksha’s daughter Sati.  Siva became angry and destroyed the Yaga. He decapitated Daksha and threw his head into fire. Later Siva was propitiated and he couldn’t find Daksha’s head. So he replaced it with that of a goat.

(We have goat headed figures in Indus valley civilisation)


Ganesh got Elephant’s Head

Ganesa is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles. There is a variety of legends accounting for his elephant’s head. When his mother Parvati proudly asked Saturn to look at him he looked at him. Immediately Ganesa’s head was burnt to ashes. Brahma told Parvati in her distress to replace the head with  whatever she finds in the first place. Since she found only an elephant’s head , it was fixed on Ganesa’s head.

Another story is that Ganesh was guarding the bath room door of Parvati. Siva was refused permission. In his rage he cut off the head . When Parvati felt sad, Siva replaced it with an elephant’s head just to pacify her.


Brahma lost his head for lying

Again there are different versions about Brahma losing his head. One point is common in all these stories. Brahma had five heads and Siva also had five heads. And Brahma lost one. When Parvati got confused and went near Brahma thinking it was Siva, Lord Siva became angry and cut off one of the five heads to avoid future confusion.


Another version is Siva decapitated one of the 5 heads of Brahma, because he spoke disrespect fully. Now Brahma has only four heads.


Another version is that he was looking at his daughter Satarupa with bad intention and his head was cut off as a punishment.


All these Head losing stories are symbolic. They were told to illustrate certain points.

Why did Vishnu lose his Head?

There is a strange story of Vishnu losing head in Satapata Brahmana:

Satapata Brahmana (SB) belongs to the White (Sukla) Yajur Veda (Vajasaneyi Samhita). It consists of 100 sections (sata+path) and so it is known as the Satapata Brahmana. This is the most important Brahmana (SB) because it deals with various fire sacrifices, both minor and major. Most of the stories told in the Brahmana re symbolic. One of the stories is about Vishnu and ants.

The 14th book contains a legend concerning a contention among the gods in which Vishnu came off victorious. So it is customary to say ‘Vishnu is the luckiest (Sreshta) of the gods’ or ‘Vishnu is the most excellent of the gods’. Vishnu has brought into prominence for the first time. Earlier the legend of his three strides was known. The three stride episode is mentioned in the Satapata Brahmana also. Later the Puranas shifted this to the Vamana (Trivikrama) Avatar.


When Indra came to know that Vishnu won, he struck off his (Vishnu’s)  head in jealousy, says the SB. There is another version :-


The gods sent forth ants to gnaw the bow string of Vishnu. They did it out of jealousy. When Vishnu was standing leaning on the bended bow they sent the ants. They thought once the ants cut off the string, the bow will strike on Vishnu and knock him down. The string snapped as expected and sprang upwards, severed his (Vishnu’s) head from the body. The same legend appears in Taittiriya Aranyaka as well.






Written by London Swaminathan


Date:20 October 2017


Time uploaded in London- 7-48 am



Post No. 4318

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.




In a lecture on missions delivered in the nave of Westminster Abbey on December 3, 1873, Max Muller declares that “Brahmanism as a religion cannot stand the light of the day. The worship of Shiva, of Vishnu and of other popular deities, is of the same, nay, in many cases of a more degraded and savage character than the worship of Jupiter, Apollo and Minerva; it belongs to a stratum of thought which is long buried beneath our feet; it may live on, like the lion and tiger, but the mere air of free thought  and civilised life will extinguish it……..

“It is true that there are millions of women, men and children in India who fall down before the stone images of Vishnu with his four hands, riding on a creature half bird, half man or sleeping on a serpent; who worship Shiva, a monster with three eyes, riding naked on a bull, with a necklace of skulls for his ornament. There are human beings who still believe in a god of War, Kartikeya, with six faces, riding on a peacock, and holding bow and arrow in his hands, and who invoke a god of Success, Ganesha with four hands and an elephant’s head, sitting on a rat. Nay, it is true that in the broad day light of the Nineteenth century, the figure of the goddess Kali carried through the streets of her own city, Calcutta, her wild dishevelled hair reaching to her feet, with a necklace of human heads, her tongue protruded from her mouth, her girdle stained with blood. all this true; but ask any Hindu who can read, write and think, whether these are the gods he believes in and he will smile at your credulity. How long this living death of national religion in India may last no one can tell.”


Sir Monier Williams says of Brahmanism: “Its policy being to check the development of intellect, and to keep the inferior castes in perpetual childhood, it encouraged an appetite for exaggeration more monstrous and more absurd than would be tolerate in the most extravagant European fairy tales. The more improbable the statement, the more childish delight it was calculated to awaken. Time is measured by millions of years; space by millions of miles; and if a battle is to be described, nothing is thought of unless millions of soldiers, elephants, and horses are brought into the field.”



Lord Macaulay similarly says, “The Brahminical mythology is so absurd that it necessarily debases every mind that receives it as truth”.


Source: The Gods of India, Rev. E. Osborn Martin, London, 1914




India- Iran Vedic Connection (Post No.3831)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 19 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 6-55 am


Post No. 3831


Pictures are taken from various sources; thanks.


contact; swami_48@yahoo.com 


In the first part titled “Who was Zoroaster? Why did Parses Return to India, I gave  20 points listed by Dattopant Thengadi and what Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) told us about Zoroaster (Please see at the end for the details)


Today I give below some interesting points discussed by Professor Herman Lommel:

1.It is a well known fact that old India and Iran have in common many related traditions, mythical conceptions, tales and legends. We need mention only such names as Soma, Mitra, Vrtrahan, Yama, Apam Napat, Vayu, Trita Aptya in order to recall the memory of those versed in these things a much debated domain of associations.

(all the above are in Rig Veda and Persian scriptures; I  add Usana Kavi, the great poet of Rig Veda and Varuna which are also found in Persian)


2.We see some other Vedic concepts in the teachings of Zarathushtra (Zoroaster). i.e. principall ythose in the Gathas. We can again suggest correlatives with a few catch words:

Rta in the Vedas= asa in Gathas

aramati = armaiti

Purandhi = Parendi

3.There is a systematic connection in the Zarathushtrian doctrine between Asa as a spiritual and heavenly power and FIRE as its earthly corporeal counterpart. And this has parallel I the Vedic religion in the relationship between Agni, the God of Fire and Rta.

Cinvat Bridge

4.The chief point to be discussed here is the Cinvat Bridge. Earth and heaven are separated by a space, empty except for the wind. In order to go from the earth to the heaven one must pass through this intermediate space. Only the soul is capable of such an act, so that except for special cases like that of Arda Vira, it must take place after death. So far these ideas are not Iranian singularities, but are rather widely spread. The old Indian views are at any rate very similar. The path by which  one can cross this empty space is the bridge. The wind will help the good people to go to heaven and the bad people will be made to fall into hell.


5.In the Rig Veda the bridge occurs only once (RV.9-41) as a figure of speech and not at a as a path into the other life. We find this conception however in the Yajur Veda. Kathakam 28-4: “By means of the midday pressing the gods entered into the world of heaven. Their steps and ladder were the ‘dakshinas’. If one offers dakshina, one crosses a bridge and enters the world of heaven.


This is found in Maitrayani Samhita (4-8-3), Taittiriya Samhita (6,5 3-3) and Satapata Brahmana (13-2-10-1).


Upanishads also (Brh14-7-2-27; Chando 8-4-1; Kathaka 3-2) talk about the bridge.


More often than to crossing of a bridge occur references to steps or rungs of a ladder which one must climb. The symbol of the bridge is used in a sense which corresponds to the philosophy of the Upanishads; one reaches the Brahman world through recognition of Atman and faithfulness to him.

  1. I search for the meaning in another direction. In the language of the Avesta for instance Apam Napat (Vedic God) means the crossing of the water. In the sense the crossing, the ford or the bridge over the water. Cinvat Bridge can therefore mean the crossing over that which is Cinvat.


7.When the soul arrives in the world beyond, the other souls come to meet it. Zarathushtra himself says so only with a reference to perdition (Y-49-11). Later it is told with reference to paradise. Strangely similar is the report in Kausitaki Upanishad, 1-3 of what Brahman says upon the arrival of a deceased person in that other world: “run to meet him through my glory he has attained to the ageless stream, truly he shall not grow old”.

8.According to Rig Veda (10-154-1) ghee among, other things is eaten in heaven which corresponds to the raoghna zaramaya, the spring butter (Had.N.2-18).



  1. In the same way we can compare with the sweet scent which blows from the southern quarters to the soul of the pious on the third morning after death (Had.N.2-18) – i.e. shortly before his arrival in the world beyond – the aggregable and beneficent winds which according to the Atharva Veda (18-2-21) the fathers and Yama waft toward the deceased (not the wind which blows them thither, as Whitney translates).


10.According to old Hindu belief the heavenly courtesans receive the deceased, while to the Zoroastrian his own Daena appears and the pleasures are spiritualised. That the Daena appears as a glorious damsel is in V.19.30 (but not in the Gathas).


11.I need mention only the well-known fact that the two dogs which accompany the Daena (V.19-33) and which guard the bridge (V.13-9) originate in the Hindu mythology.


12.I might also observe that the locality of the Cinvat Bridge and the sojourn of the souls, which are neither good nor bad, “in wind” remind us somewhat of the numerous references in India to the belief of the “self” (atman RV 10-16-3) or its vital breath or spirit goes to the wind when it dies.



13.Every reader of the Veda is acquainted with the references to the rain as semen engenders life on earth. This is very clearly expressed, but also embellished with the idea of metempsychosis, in the passage mentioned in the Kausitaki Upanishad (1-2). The moon lets the soul, which cannot answer its questions satisfactorily, turn to rain and fall upon the earth, from which animals are born. It is probably an earlier idea, at any rate it coincides more nearly with the Iranian. (according to Chandogya Upanishad 5-10-6 which says all plants originate in this way). Compare with this Bundahis (9-2).


I do not know whether the primitive natural science theory common to old Indians and Iranians that the plants spring from the rain-water, can be found by other peoples or not.


(Summary of the article “Some corresponding conceptions in old India and Iran” written by Prof.Herman Lommel in the Dr.Modi Memorial volume, published in 1930)


From my old article posted in 2013

“Why Did Parsees ‘Return’ to Gujarat?”


By London Swaminathan; Post No 759 dated 25th December 2013

Who was Zoroaster?


The date and the birth place of Zoroaster are not yet settled. He is placed between 6th and 10th centuries BC. Two interesting details point out that he was born in Saurashtra area in Gujarat. Kanchi Paramacharya (Shankaracharya) Swamikal said in one of his talks that Zoroaster was from Saurashtra. The reason for Parsees coming back to Gujarat after the persecution by Muslims in Iran also confirms they were from Gujarat. Kanchi Paramacharya Swamikal on Zoroaster Kanchi Shankaracharya in his talk in Chennai in 1932 says: “Now Parsees are worshipping Agni (fire). Their scripture is called Zend Avesta. It is Chando Avasta.Their Acharya (teacher) was Zoroaster. This is the distorted form of Saurashtrar. Their country was called Iran. This is the distorted form of Arya Desa.” Sri Shankaracharya repeated the same in a talk again on 17-11-1932.

There is another interesting story of Parsees migration into Gujarat when Yadhava Rana (Jadi Rana) was ruling. His date was not known. He might have ruled in 10th century. When the Parsees were persecuted by the Muslims in Iran, they came to India. Why did they come to Gujarat in India? Because it was their original home .There was an interesting meeting between the Parsee priests. When Yadhava Rana was informed about the new immigrants he came with a glass of milk. The milk was filled to the brim. He showed it to the priests to convey the message that the area was full and no place for the new people. The wise priests put some sugar into it meaning we won’t displace any of you, but mingle with your people like sugar in milk. To this day the Parsees kept their word. Their contribution to the development of India was great in all fields from Nuclear reactors to big Steel industries. They are a peace loving community.


I think Zoroaster was a rebel and went to another country to start a rival group. That justifies their scriptures calling Devas of India as Asuras and vice verse. But yet they did not differ on basic issues. They still praised Varuna and Mithra. I reproduce Dattopant Thengadi’s article below which gives a good comparison of Hinduism and Zoroastrianism:


Zend Avesta—A Neglected Hindu Scripture By D B Thengadi written on 22-2-67 (From his book The Perspective, page 32) “ The Vishva Hindu Parishad is trying to bring together Hindus all over the world on a common platform. Hence it is necessary and useful that a thorough research is conducted into our many neglected scriptures. If these scriptures continue to be neglected the blame lies squarely on our own shoulders. The scriptural text of our Parsi brethren- Zend Avesta—falls into this category. There searches made by Prof. Max Muller, Dr Hang, L.H.Mills, Sir William Jones and others throw on that scripture much light which reveals some important facts:


1.Zend Avesta is a corrupt form of Chhanda Avastha. 2.At least sixty percent of the words in Zend Avesta are of pure Sanskritic origin. 3.There is grammatic similarity in the language of the Vedas and the Avesta. 4.The corruption of Sanskrit words has followed a particular pattern.For example, Sanskritic ‘ta’ has changed into ‘tha’ in the Avesta; ‘swa’ into ‘sya’, ‘ha’ into ‘ja’ and ‘sa’ into ‘ha’. Even in Arabic, the Sanskrit ‘sa’ has becpme’ha’.


5.Aryamana in Sanskrit means both a ‘friend’ and ‘God’. In the Avesta also Airyamana means the same. In Sanskrit ‘Mitra’ has three meanings—Sun, Friend ad God Mithr in the Avesta also means the same three things. Gau has the same two meanings—cow and earth—in both the languages. 6.The Vedic and Avesta language are two forms of the same language. 7.Many prosodies of the Vedas such as Gayathri, Trishtup, Anustupha, Asuri, Ushati etc. are to be found in the Avesta. 8.The institution of Yajna, its different types and tools ae treated similarly in both. They give the same importance to Soma and Homa. 9.Both deal with the significance and worship of Agni (Fire). 10.Both refer to the importance of the Gau (cow) and Gomutra (Urine of the cow).


11.The Parsis are described as Arya and Aryatva is praised in the Avesta.

12.There is surprising similarity in the views of both about metaphysics, cosmology, the process of the evolution of the universe etc.

  1. The Thirty Three Gods in the Vedas resemble the Thirty Three Rathus in the Avesta. 14.The Avesta recognises the concepts of rebirth and Karma. 15.The Cow is considered as the representative of the entire society in the Avesta.



16.There is a reference to ancient metaphysics in the Avesta. 17.The Parsis also have the Sacred Thread ceremony. It is called Kushati. 18. The social order described in the Avesta is similar to Chaturvarnya. 19.The Brahmin is referred to as ‘athrva’, ‘atharvana’ and the Kshatriya as rathesto, ratheshta in the Avesta. 20.Dr. Hang concludes that Brahmins and Prsis are two different types of the same caste.



Against the background of all these facts, it is our duty to consider Zend Avesta as a neglected Hindu scripture and conduct proper research into it. (From the book THE PERSPECTIVE by D.B.Thengadi, 1971) Contact swami_48@yahoo.com; pictures are used from other websites; thanks. Pictures are taken from Wikipedia and other websites;thanks.