Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta (Parsi Scripture)- Part 1; Post No.10,639


Post No. 10,639

Date uploaded in London – –    7 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Zend Avesta is the religious scripture of Zoroastrian or Parsi (Paresee) religion. It is in Avestan language, sister language of Sanskrit. It was spoken in ancient Iran (Persia, Parasika)

Indra is praised in the Vedas as supreme god. But in the Avesta he is listed as a Deva. In their dictionary Deva is a derogatory term, that is a demon. This type of schism existed in all the religions. I showed it yesterday in my comments how the schism split all known religions, both Semitic and Oriental . Anti Indra remarks are in Vend.19.43.

Indra is second to Angro-mainyush (Ahriman) the arch fiend who is sometimes designated ‘Devaanaam Deva’, ‘Demon of Demons’ in Avesta. In Sanskrit it meant God of Gods, quite opposite.

The third Hindu deity they hated was Saurva Daevo. We know one of the names of Shiva is Sharva in the Yajur Veda. So it may be shiva.

Another reference is about Vedic Twins Nasatyas/ Asvins. They are referred to as Naonhaithya daevo. They are also demons in Parsee religion.

But there are some names who are praised in both Vedas and the Avesta.


They are called Yazatas or angels in the Zend Avesta. The most noticeable is Mithra, the Sanskrit form being Mitra. In the Vedic hymns he is always paired with Varuna, who is identified with the Greek god Uranos/ Uranus. In the Vedas we rarely see him alone. But there is one hymn, which Hindu Brahmins recite every day in their Sandhyavandana prayers,

Mitrasya……. Mitro janan yataathi prajanan………RV 3-59

Mitra alone is invoked in it,

“Mitra calls men to their work . Mitra is preserving earth and heaven; Mitra looks upon the nations always without shutting his eyes. To Mitra bring the offering with ghee.

“O Mitra that man who troubles himself to keep your order/ rule, O son of eternity (Aditi) shall have abundance. He, protected by you, shall neither be slain nor defeated; no distress befalls him, neither from near nor from far.”

In comparing these verses with the extracts given above from the Mihir Yasht, one may easily be convinced of the complete identity of the Vedic Mitra and the Persian Mithra .

Mihir Ysht in Zend Avesta has similar meaning. FromIndia it spread to Iran, Greece and Rome. In Rome it became a secret cult and degerated.

Mihir is used as boy’s name in many cultures and the meaning is MITRA of Vedas (Sun, Friend).



Another Vedic deity Aryaman, who is generally associated with Mitra and Varuna, RV.1-136-2, is at-once recognised in the angel Airyaman of the Zend Avesta.

Aryaman in both scriptures has double meaning,

  1. A friend, associate; in the Gathas it chiefly means a client
  2. The name of a deity or spirit who seems particularly to preside over marriages , on which occasions he is invoked both by the Hindus and the Parsis. He seems to be either another name of the sun , like Mitra, Savitri, Pushan etc. Or his constant associate and representative

In the Bhagavad Gita 10-29 he is mentioned as the head of the Pitaras, manes or ancestral spirits.



Bhaga, a Vedic deity, belonging to the same class as Mitra and Aryaman is also seen in the Zend Avesta. But the word is not used as a name of a deity but in the general sense of God, Destiny.

The word is used in Slavonic languages as god. Russian, polish use “bog” for god.

Russian Bog= Hindu Sanskrit Bhaga

Vedic god Bhaga was believed to be a deity, presiding over the fortune and destiny of men. Rigveda 7-41-2 says

“Let us invoke the victor in the morning, the strong Bhaga, son of Aditi ( imperishable, eternity) , who disposes all things. The poor and the sick, as well as the king pray to him , full of trust saying give us our portion

Bhaaga is a portion, used even by Tamils. Eg. bhaagap pirivinai, dividing property

Bhagavan is god who has six attributes in Hindu literature.

The adjective bhaga- bhakta, ordained by fate is found both in the Vedas and the Zend Avesta.



Aramati, a female spirit in the Vedas, meaning devotion, obedience

R V 7-1-6; 7-34-21

Meaning earth in R V 10-92-4/5 is identical with the archangel Armaiti in Zend Avesta. It has both meanings in the Avesta.

In the Vedas it is found rarely. She is called a virgin who comes with butter offerings in the morning and evening to Agni. She is a celestial woman brought by Agni



It is an epithet of several Vedic gods, such as Agni, Pushan, Brahnaspatoi. It is identical with Nairyosanha, the name of the angel in the Zend Avesta. , who serves Asura Mazda as a messenger. The meaning of the word is ‘one praised by men’ .

Vedic Agni has this epithet. He is the Messenger of Gods.



The Vedic god Vayu, is who first drinks Soma at the morning sacrifice. He is supposed to be roaming everywhere. Vayu is the only Vedic god found in the Zend Avesta without any change. He is seen in Gathas Yas.liii-6


Vritra Killer

Vritra ha, killer of Vritra a demon, one of the most frequent epithets of Indra in the Vedic books, is to be recognised in the angel Verethraghna ( see Behram Yasht.

Trita is another deity in Vedas who has this epithet

This Trita is identical to Thraeotana in the Iranian legends


Significance of No. 33

I have already written an article and posted here. it is both the Vedas and the Zend Avesta. 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas are in all Vedic scriptures. But the last two in the 33 differ.

In Aitareya Brahmana the last two are Prajapati and Vashatkara.

In the Satapata Brahmana they are Dhyava Prithvi, heaven and earth.

In another passage of the same work says Indra and Prajapati

In the Ramayana the last two are Ashvin twins .

In the Atharva Veda 10-7,13, 22,27 thirty three gods are said to be the limbs of Prajapati

In the Zend Avesta, the 33 are Ratus or chiefs instituted by Mazda for maintaining the best truths.

Source Book – The Parsis by Martin Haug (with my inputs)

To be continued………………………….

Tags-  Hindu Gods, in Zend Avesta, Parsee, Parsi, Religion, Zoroastrian

India- Iran Vedic Connection (Post No.3831)

Written by London swaminathan


Date: 19 APRIL 2017


Time uploaded in London:- 6-55 am


Post No. 3831


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In the first part titled “Who was Zoroaster? Why did Parses Return to India, I gave  20 points listed by Dattopant Thengadi and what Kanchi Paramacharya (1894-1994) told us about Zoroaster (Please see at the end for the details)


Today I give below some interesting points discussed by Professor Herman Lommel:

1.It is a well known fact that old India and Iran have in common many related traditions, mythical conceptions, tales and legends. We need mention only such names as Soma, Mitra, Vrtrahan, Yama, Apam Napat, Vayu, Trita Aptya in order to recall the memory of those versed in these things a much debated domain of associations.

(all the above are in Rig Veda and Persian scriptures; I  add Usana Kavi, the great poet of Rig Veda and Varuna which are also found in Persian)


2.We see some other Vedic concepts in the teachings of Zarathushtra (Zoroaster). i.e. principall ythose in the Gathas. We can again suggest correlatives with a few catch words:

Rta in the Vedas= asa in Gathas

aramati = armaiti

Purandhi = Parendi

3.There is a systematic connection in the Zarathushtrian doctrine between Asa as a spiritual and heavenly power and FIRE as its earthly corporeal counterpart. And this has parallel I the Vedic religion in the relationship between Agni, the God of Fire and Rta.

Cinvat Bridge

4.The chief point to be discussed here is the Cinvat Bridge. Earth and heaven are separated by a space, empty except for the wind. In order to go from the earth to the heaven one must pass through this intermediate space. Only the soul is capable of such an act, so that except for special cases like that of Arda Vira, it must take place after death. So far these ideas are not Iranian singularities, but are rather widely spread. The old Indian views are at any rate very similar. The path by which  one can cross this empty space is the bridge. The wind will help the good people to go to heaven and the bad people will be made to fall into hell.


5.In the Rig Veda the bridge occurs only once (RV.9-41) as a figure of speech and not at a as a path into the other life. We find this conception however in the Yajur Veda. Kathakam 28-4: “By means of the midday pressing the gods entered into the world of heaven. Their steps and ladder were the ‘dakshinas’. If one offers dakshina, one crosses a bridge and enters the world of heaven.


This is found in Maitrayani Samhita (4-8-3), Taittiriya Samhita (6,5 3-3) and Satapata Brahmana (13-2-10-1).


Upanishads also (Brh14-7-2-27; Chando 8-4-1; Kathaka 3-2) talk about the bridge.


More often than to crossing of a bridge occur references to steps or rungs of a ladder which one must climb. The symbol of the bridge is used in a sense which corresponds to the philosophy of the Upanishads; one reaches the Brahman world through recognition of Atman and faithfulness to him.

  1. I search for the meaning in another direction. In the language of the Avesta for instance Apam Napat (Vedic God) means the crossing of the water. In the sense the crossing, the ford or the bridge over the water. Cinvat Bridge can therefore mean the crossing over that which is Cinvat.


7.When the soul arrives in the world beyond, the other souls come to meet it. Zarathushtra himself says so only with a reference to perdition (Y-49-11). Later it is told with reference to paradise. Strangely similar is the report in Kausitaki Upanishad, 1-3 of what Brahman says upon the arrival of a deceased person in that other world: “run to meet him through my glory he has attained to the ageless stream, truly he shall not grow old”.

8.According to Rig Veda (10-154-1) ghee among, other things is eaten in heaven which corresponds to the raoghna zaramaya, the spring butter (Had.N.2-18).



  1. In the same way we can compare with the sweet scent which blows from the southern quarters to the soul of the pious on the third morning after death (Had.N.2-18) – i.e. shortly before his arrival in the world beyond – the aggregable and beneficent winds which according to the Atharva Veda (18-2-21) the fathers and Yama waft toward the deceased (not the wind which blows them thither, as Whitney translates).


10.According to old Hindu belief the heavenly courtesans receive the deceased, while to the Zoroastrian his own Daena appears and the pleasures are spiritualised. That the Daena appears as a glorious damsel is in V.19.30 (but not in the Gathas).


11.I need mention only the well-known fact that the two dogs which accompany the Daena (V.19-33) and which guard the bridge (V.13-9) originate in the Hindu mythology.


12.I might also observe that the locality of the Cinvat Bridge and the sojourn of the souls, which are neither good nor bad, “in wind” remind us somewhat of the numerous references in India to the belief of the “self” (atman RV 10-16-3) or its vital breath or spirit goes to the wind when it dies.



13.Every reader of the Veda is acquainted with the references to the rain as semen engenders life on earth. This is very clearly expressed, but also embellished with the idea of metempsychosis, in the passage mentioned in the Kausitaki Upanishad (1-2). The moon lets the soul, which cannot answer its questions satisfactorily, turn to rain and fall upon the earth, from which animals are born. It is probably an earlier idea, at any rate it coincides more nearly with the Iranian. (according to Chandogya Upanishad 5-10-6 which says all plants originate in this way). Compare with this Bundahis (9-2).


I do not know whether the primitive natural science theory common to old Indians and Iranians that the plants spring from the rain-water, can be found by other peoples or not.


(Summary of the article “Some corresponding conceptions in old India and Iran” written by Prof.Herman Lommel in the Dr.Modi Memorial volume, published in 1930)


From my old article posted in 2013

“Why Did Parsees ‘Return’ to Gujarat?”


By London Swaminathan; Post No 759 dated 25th December 2013

Who was Zoroaster?


The date and the birth place of Zoroaster are not yet settled. He is placed between 6th and 10th centuries BC. Two interesting details point out that he was born in Saurashtra area in Gujarat. Kanchi Paramacharya (Shankaracharya) Swamikal said in one of his talks that Zoroaster was from Saurashtra. The reason for Parsees coming back to Gujarat after the persecution by Muslims in Iran also confirms they were from Gujarat. Kanchi Paramacharya Swamikal on Zoroaster Kanchi Shankaracharya in his talk in Chennai in 1932 says: “Now Parsees are worshipping Agni (fire). Their scripture is called Zend Avesta. It is Chando Avasta.Their Acharya (teacher) was Zoroaster. This is the distorted form of Saurashtrar. Their country was called Iran. This is the distorted form of Arya Desa.” Sri Shankaracharya repeated the same in a talk again on 17-11-1932.

There is another interesting story of Parsees migration into Gujarat when Yadhava Rana (Jadi Rana) was ruling. His date was not known. He might have ruled in 10th century. When the Parsees were persecuted by the Muslims in Iran, they came to India. Why did they come to Gujarat in India? Because it was their original home .There was an interesting meeting between the Parsee priests. When Yadhava Rana was informed about the new immigrants he came with a glass of milk. The milk was filled to the brim. He showed it to the priests to convey the message that the area was full and no place for the new people. The wise priests put some sugar into it meaning we won’t displace any of you, but mingle with your people like sugar in milk. To this day the Parsees kept their word. Their contribution to the development of India was great in all fields from Nuclear reactors to big Steel industries. They are a peace loving community.


I think Zoroaster was a rebel and went to another country to start a rival group. That justifies their scriptures calling Devas of India as Asuras and vice verse. But yet they did not differ on basic issues. They still praised Varuna and Mithra. I reproduce Dattopant Thengadi’s article below which gives a good comparison of Hinduism and Zoroastrianism:


Zend Avesta—A Neglected Hindu Scripture By D B Thengadi written on 22-2-67 (From his book The Perspective, page 32) “ The Vishva Hindu Parishad is trying to bring together Hindus all over the world on a common platform. Hence it is necessary and useful that a thorough research is conducted into our many neglected scriptures. If these scriptures continue to be neglected the blame lies squarely on our own shoulders. The scriptural text of our Parsi brethren- Zend Avesta—falls into this category. There searches made by Prof. Max Muller, Dr Hang, L.H.Mills, Sir William Jones and others throw on that scripture much light which reveals some important facts:


1.Zend Avesta is a corrupt form of Chhanda Avastha. 2.At least sixty percent of the words in Zend Avesta are of pure Sanskritic origin. 3.There is grammatic similarity in the language of the Vedas and the Avesta. 4.The corruption of Sanskrit words has followed a particular pattern.For example, Sanskritic ‘ta’ has changed into ‘tha’ in the Avesta; ‘swa’ into ‘sya’, ‘ha’ into ‘ja’ and ‘sa’ into ‘ha’. Even in Arabic, the Sanskrit ‘sa’ has becpme’ha’.


5.Aryamana in Sanskrit means both a ‘friend’ and ‘God’. In the Avesta also Airyamana means the same. In Sanskrit ‘Mitra’ has three meanings—Sun, Friend ad God Mithr in the Avesta also means the same three things. Gau has the same two meanings—cow and earth—in both the languages. 6.The Vedic and Avesta language are two forms of the same language. 7.Many prosodies of the Vedas such as Gayathri, Trishtup, Anustupha, Asuri, Ushati etc. are to be found in the Avesta. 8.The institution of Yajna, its different types and tools ae treated similarly in both. They give the same importance to Soma and Homa. 9.Both deal with the significance and worship of Agni (Fire). 10.Both refer to the importance of the Gau (cow) and Gomutra (Urine of the cow).


11.The Parsis are described as Arya and Aryatva is praised in the Avesta.

12.There is surprising similarity in the views of both about metaphysics, cosmology, the process of the evolution of the universe etc.

  1. The Thirty Three Gods in the Vedas resemble the Thirty Three Rathus in the Avesta. 14.The Avesta recognises the concepts of rebirth and Karma. 15.The Cow is considered as the representative of the entire society in the Avesta.



16.There is a reference to ancient metaphysics in the Avesta. 17.The Parsis also have the Sacred Thread ceremony. It is called Kushati. 18. The social order described in the Avesta is similar to Chaturvarnya. 19.The Brahmin is referred to as ‘athrva’, ‘atharvana’ and the Kshatriya as rathesto, ratheshta in the Avesta. 20.Dr. Hang concludes that Brahmins and Prsis are two different types of the same caste.



Against the background of all these facts, it is our duty to consider Zend Avesta as a neglected Hindu scripture and conduct proper research into it. (From the book THE PERSPECTIVE by D.B.Thengadi, 1971) Contact swami_48@yahoo.com; pictures are used from other websites; thanks. Pictures are taken from Wikipedia and other websites;thanks.