Hindu Gods in Zend Avesta (Parsi Scripture)- Part 1; Post No.10,639


Post No. 10,639

Date uploaded in London – –    7 FEBRUARY   2022         

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Zend Avesta is the religious scripture of Zoroastrian or Parsi (Paresee) religion. It is in Avestan language, sister language of Sanskrit. It was spoken in ancient Iran (Persia, Parasika)

Indra is praised in the Vedas as supreme god. But in the Avesta he is listed as a Deva. In their dictionary Deva is a derogatory term, that is a demon. This type of schism existed in all the religions. I showed it yesterday in my comments how the schism split all known religions, both Semitic and Oriental . Anti Indra remarks are in Vend.19.43.

Indra is second to Angro-mainyush (Ahriman) the arch fiend who is sometimes designated ‘Devaanaam Deva’, ‘Demon of Demons’ in Avesta. In Sanskrit it meant God of Gods, quite opposite.

The third Hindu deity they hated was Saurva Daevo. We know one of the names of Shiva is Sharva in the Yajur Veda. So it may be shiva.

Another reference is about Vedic Twins Nasatyas/ Asvins. They are referred to as Naonhaithya daevo. They are also demons in Parsee religion.

But there are some names who are praised in both Vedas and the Avesta.


They are called Yazatas or angels in the Zend Avesta. The most noticeable is Mithra, the Sanskrit form being Mitra. In the Vedic hymns he is always paired with Varuna, who is identified with the Greek god Uranos/ Uranus. In the Vedas we rarely see him alone. But there is one hymn, which Hindu Brahmins recite every day in their Sandhyavandana prayers,

Mitrasya……. Mitro janan yataathi prajanan………RV 3-59

Mitra alone is invoked in it,

“Mitra calls men to their work . Mitra is preserving earth and heaven; Mitra looks upon the nations always without shutting his eyes. To Mitra bring the offering with ghee.

“O Mitra that man who troubles himself to keep your order/ rule, O son of eternity (Aditi) shall have abundance. He, protected by you, shall neither be slain nor defeated; no distress befalls him, neither from near nor from far.”

In comparing these verses with the extracts given above from the Mihir Yasht, one may easily be convinced of the complete identity of the Vedic Mitra and the Persian Mithra .

Mihir Ysht in Zend Avesta has similar meaning. FromIndia it spread to Iran, Greece and Rome. In Rome it became a secret cult and degerated.

Mihir is used as boy’s name in many cultures and the meaning is MITRA of Vedas (Sun, Friend).



Another Vedic deity Aryaman, who is generally associated with Mitra and Varuna, RV.1-136-2, is at-once recognised in the angel Airyaman of the Zend Avesta.

Aryaman in both scriptures has double meaning,

  1. A friend, associate; in the Gathas it chiefly means a client
  2. The name of a deity or spirit who seems particularly to preside over marriages , on which occasions he is invoked both by the Hindus and the Parsis. He seems to be either another name of the sun , like Mitra, Savitri, Pushan etc. Or his constant associate and representative

In the Bhagavad Gita 10-29 he is mentioned as the head of the Pitaras, manes or ancestral spirits.



Bhaga, a Vedic deity, belonging to the same class as Mitra and Aryaman is also seen in the Zend Avesta. But the word is not used as a name of a deity but in the general sense of God, Destiny.

The word is used in Slavonic languages as god. Russian, polish use “bog” for god.

Russian Bog= Hindu Sanskrit Bhaga

Vedic god Bhaga was believed to be a deity, presiding over the fortune and destiny of men. Rigveda 7-41-2 says

“Let us invoke the victor in the morning, the strong Bhaga, son of Aditi ( imperishable, eternity) , who disposes all things. The poor and the sick, as well as the king pray to him , full of trust saying give us our portion

Bhaaga is a portion, used even by Tamils. Eg. bhaagap pirivinai, dividing property

Bhagavan is god who has six attributes in Hindu literature.

The adjective bhaga- bhakta, ordained by fate is found both in the Vedas and the Zend Avesta.



Aramati, a female spirit in the Vedas, meaning devotion, obedience

R V 7-1-6; 7-34-21

Meaning earth in R V 10-92-4/5 is identical with the archangel Armaiti in Zend Avesta. It has both meanings in the Avesta.

In the Vedas it is found rarely. She is called a virgin who comes with butter offerings in the morning and evening to Agni. She is a celestial woman brought by Agni



It is an epithet of several Vedic gods, such as Agni, Pushan, Brahnaspatoi. It is identical with Nairyosanha, the name of the angel in the Zend Avesta. , who serves Asura Mazda as a messenger. The meaning of the word is ‘one praised by men’ .

Vedic Agni has this epithet. He is the Messenger of Gods.



The Vedic god Vayu, is who first drinks Soma at the morning sacrifice. He is supposed to be roaming everywhere. Vayu is the only Vedic god found in the Zend Avesta without any change. He is seen in Gathas Yas.liii-6


Vritra Killer

Vritra ha, killer of Vritra a demon, one of the most frequent epithets of Indra in the Vedic books, is to be recognised in the angel Verethraghna ( see Behram Yasht.

Trita is another deity in Vedas who has this epithet

This Trita is identical to Thraeotana in the Iranian legends


Significance of No. 33

I have already written an article and posted here. it is both the Vedas and the Zend Avesta. 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 12 Adityas are in all Vedic scriptures. But the last two in the 33 differ.

In Aitareya Brahmana the last two are Prajapati and Vashatkara.

In the Satapata Brahmana they are Dhyava Prithvi, heaven and earth.

In another passage of the same work says Indra and Prajapati

In the Ramayana the last two are Ashvin twins .

In the Atharva Veda 10-7,13, 22,27 thirty three gods are said to be the limbs of Prajapati

In the Zend Avesta, the 33 are Ratus or chiefs instituted by Mazda for maintaining the best truths.

Source Book – The Parsis by Martin Haug (with my inputs)

To be continued………………………….

Tags-  Hindu Gods, in Zend Avesta, Parsee, Parsi, Religion, Zoroastrian



Post No. 10,627

Date uploaded in London – –    4 FEBRUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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It can now be proved even by geographical evidence, that Zoroastrians had been settled in India before they immigrated into Persia ………..

That the Zoroastrians and their ancestors started from India during the Vedic period  can be proved as distinctly as that the inhabitants of Massilia started from Greece.

Max Muler said it again in his lectures on the Science of Language …

The Zoroastrians were a colony from northern India . they had been together for a time with the people whose sacred songs have been preserved in the Veda. A schism took place, and the  Zoroastrians migrated westward to Arachosia and Persia .

Kanchi Parmacharya swamikal (1894-1994) also said that Zoroaster is  ‘Saurashtra’ (in Gujarat) and their scripture Zend Avesta is ‘Chandas’ Avesta (Please see my earlier articles on India- Iran connections)

Professors Bhagavat and Apte have in their ‘Key to interpret the Veda’, pointed out that there are references to the Persians and Parthians in the Rigveda  .

RV 1-105-8

sam maa tapanthi abhitah sapatnaariva parsavah

The Parshus ( Persians) harass me all round like cowives


RV 8-6-46

satamaham tirindire sahasram parsava dade radhaamsi yaadvaanaam

I wrested from the Yadva ( tribe)  one hundred cattle (in the province of ) Tirindira and one thousand cattle (in the province of ) Parshu .


RV 7-83-1

yuvaam naraa pasyamaanaasa  aapya praachaa gavyantah  pruthupasavo yayuh

Daasaa cha vrutraa hatamaaryaani  cha sudhaasamindraavarunaavasaavatahm

Oh you men, looking to you and your wealth the Pruthus and Parshus, fain for spoil, march forward. Oh Indra- Varuna, you smote and slew the Dasa and Aryan enemies, and helped Sudas with favour.

Prof.Ludwig also renders  ‘pruthuparsvah’  by Parthians and Persians.


According to PANINI 5-3-117, the words ‘paarsavah’ in the singular ‘parsavau’ in the dual and ‘parsavah’ in the plural, are taken as the name of a warrior tribe, the last of the three suggesting  the singular ‘parsu’

In the cuneiform inscriptions at Behitsan we have the countries Paarsah and Partava  which may be compared to Parsu and Pruthu in the Rigveda.


As has been shown by Dr Muir in his Sanskrit texts, the word Dasyu is used for men and not demons in the Aitareya Brahmana (7-18) and Manu Smrti (10-43), Mahabharata Shanti Parva (65-2429; 168-6293 and even some passages in the Rigveda (4-41-2, 6-14-3, 10-22-8).

He further says , “I have gone over the names of the Dasyus and Asuras mentioned in the Rigveda, with the view of discovering any of them  could be regarded as of Non-Aryan origin; but I have not observed any that appear of that character.

In the Manu Smrti, we were told (11-43/45) that the Kamboas, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas,  Pahlavas etc were  Dasyus. The Pahlavas were either Persians or Parthians, as several scholars have asserted. If then the Dasyus dwelt in India in the Vedic and Post Vedic times they probably included Pahlavas.



—- subham —

Tags – Persians, Zoroastrian, Origin,  Iran, in Rig Veda, Parsu, Pahlava, Parthian, Parsis

Is Iran, Saka Dwipa? Interesting Information on Sapta Parni and Zoroastrian Tree (Post.10,615)


Post No. 10,615

Date uploaded in London – –    31 JANUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

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Is Iran, Saka Dwipa? Interesting Information about Sapta Parni and Zoroastrian Cypress (Post.10,615)

Where is Saka Dwipa? Is it Seistan, now part of Iran and Afghanistan? How come the 900 BCE Assyrian Sacred Tree looks like Saptaparni/Seven Leaves Tree? Is there a similarity in Buddha’s Bodhi Tree and Zarathustra’s Cypress Tree? Why did Kalidasa’s books give importance to Sapta parni?

Let us find answers to these questions.

Mahabharata mentions a mighty Saka Tree in Saka Dwipa. Hindus divided the world into seven Dwipas,i.e seven regions surrounded by or divided by seas. They are Jambudwipa, Kusadwipa, Salmali Dwipa, Pushkaradwipa, Sakadwipa, Kraunchdwipa and Plaksha dwipa. Except Jambudwipa (India), all the locations are debatable.

Bhishma Parva (11-28) of Mahabharata says,

People of Saka dwipa adore the Saka tree and they worship Lord Shiva. Saka Dwipa is surrounded by sea. Though different types of trees are worshipped by all cultures, we don’t see any Shiva worship in Iran. When Zarathushtra/ Zoroaster founded the Parsi religion (Persia=Iran) he inculcated the Fire worship. Later the Magi or Magha priests introduced Sun and Mithra worship.

Cypress Tree

Like the Peepal or Bodhi tree became popular after Buddha’s enlightenment under it, Cypress tree also veneered by the Parsis because Zoroaster planted a Cypress tree. Now the tree in Yazd province of Iran is a cultural centre and a tourist attraction. Shah nama, a later work, refers to sacred cypress in Kashmir. A branch from the original tree in Iran was planted in Kashmir. We see such stories in Buddhism as well; Asoka sent the branches of Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka. Now the Cypress Tree in Iran is believed to be 4000 to 5000 years old. But Zoroastrian religion is not that ancient.

Seistan is an area in the border of Afghanistan and Iran. It is shared between the two countries. The ancient name of Seistan is Saka stana. Though it confirms one area of Iran was Saka stan at one time, one may not tell the date. Ancient peoples, groups moved slowly from one area to another. So, no one can pinpoint that this is the original Saka Sthana.

Sapta Parna or Alstonia scholaris is found in India. It is referred to in Sangam Tamil literature and earlier Kalidasa’s works. Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore founded the Visvabharati University where the graduates were given Saptaparni branches during convocation.

Sakuntala (Act 1-26) of Kalidasa refers to Sapta Parna (Seven Leaves) tree in Kanva Maharishi Ashram. A platform with raised seat was constructed round the tree. That means it is a sacred tree. In his Raghuvamsa Kavya he mentioned Sapta Parna in the 4th and 5th chapters. He says that the flowers of the Saptaparna Tree smelt like the rut of elephants. Immediately the elephants in Raghu’s army also were in rut.

In Sangam Tamil work Paripatal, we see it in the sacred mountain of Lord Muruga/Skanda in Tirupparankundram in Tamil Nadu.

The interesting thing about the Seven Leaf tree is we find such sacred Trees in Nimrud in Iraq around 900 BCE. Though we see some people worshipping it, literary details are lacking but the trees show seven leaves.

Vedic hymns refer to Red trees with Soma juice and 15 types of Soma juice. I guess that several plants were used for Soma juice or similar elixir. Even the Parsis use different plant as Soma in their ceremonies. In the Iraq sculptures we see plants similar to Soma filters in Indus valley seals. Saptaparni figures belong to 900 BCE.

Trees with seven leaves are found in other parts of the world too. Casava leaves are also in a bunch of seven. But we don’t find them sacred. Here the Nimrud sculpture can easily be compared with Sapta Parna of India. Both are projected as sacred trees.

Tree Worship

Tree worship is as ancient as Vedic or Indus Valley culture. Buddha chose an Asvatta Tree for meditation because it was considered sacred even before Buddha. We see Pippaladan (Mr Asvatta Tree) in the Upanishads. We see Ficus leaves in Indus seals too.

Vishnu Sahasranama Hymn named all the three Ficus Tree species as Vishnu’s names. Amazing thing about the three trees is botanically all belonged to Ficus species (Ficus Religiosa= Asvatta/peepal; Ficus Indica= Nyagrodha or Banyan tree and Ficus Udumbara- Udhumbara)

Rig Veda refers to the mighty Banyan Tree as Maha Vriksha. Throughout Tamil Sangam literature, Banyan (Vata Vrksha) is praised as a tree where god resides. Hindu god Dkashinamurthy sitting under the tree in meditative posture, is found in all South Indian Temples.

Kalidasa’s Meghaduta Kavya also talks about Trees surrounded by raised platforms. This shows that sacred trees are worshipped from Kanyakumari to Kashmir. ( In my earlier posts I Have given the details. Please see the links)


TAGS– Saptaparni, Zoroastrian, Cypress, Seven leaves, Saka Dwipa, Seistan, Saka


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Post No. 10,612

Date uploaded in London – –    30 JANUARY   2022         

Contact – swami_48@yahoo.com

Pictures are taken from various sources for spreading knowledge.

this is a non- commercial blog. Thanks for your great pictures.

tamilandvedas.com, swamiindology.blogspot.com

How many Gods are there in Hindu Religion? Ten years ago I published a post under ‘330 Million Gods’ (Matter given at the end)

33 is repeated in all the four Vedas of Hindus. But it is equally important in Buddhist and Zoroastrian religions. We know that Hinduism influenced them. When we compare the similarities between the ancient religion of Iran, also known as Parsi Religion or Zoroastrian religion, this is one of the points discussed by scholars of yester years.

Rig Veda, Buddhist and Avesta scriptures describe the Heaven as ‘the region of eternal light’. Vanaparva of Mahabharata also described the stars are nothing but holy souls. The Hindu belief is that holy souls become eternal stars.

Later Buddhist scriptures used the expression ‘heaven of 33 gods’ it is also found in Zoroastrian’s Avesta. More than half a dozen passages in the Rig Veda, the oldest book in the world, quote 33 gods. In some passages we see 33,330, 3309 etc. here is the list from 3 Vedas-

Rig Veda –

1-34-11; 1-45-2; 1-139-11;


8-28-1; 8-30-2; 8-39-9



Yajur Veda




Atharvana Veda

10-4-27; 10-7-13, 23


Later we see 33 gods in Brahmana books , Ramayana ,Mahabharata and the Puranas .

This was borrowed by the Buddha .

Who are 33 gods ?

Vasus 8

Adityas 12

Rudras 11




330 MILLION GODS (posted on August 5, 2012)

From London Newspaper’s Q and A column

How many gods and goddesses are there in the Hindu pantheon?

Depending on how you look at it, the Hindu pantheon may consist of one Supreme Being and 330 million gods. In ancient times, it was held that there were 330 million living beings, given rise to the idea of 330 million deities or gods.

Of course, this vast number of gods could not have been worshipped, since 330 million names could not have been designed for them. The number was simply used to give a symbolic expression to the fundamental Hindu doctrine that God lives in the hearts of all living beings.

The misunderstanding arises when people fail to grasp the symbolism of the Hindu pantheon. For just as a single force in space can be mathematically conceived as having various spatial components, the Supreme Being or God, the personal form of the Ultimate Reality, is conceived by Hindus as having various aspects.

A Hindu deity (god or goddess; note the small “g”) represents a particular aspect of the Supreme Being. For example, Saraswati represents learning and knowledge. So if a Hindu wants to pray for knowledge and understanding, he prays to Saraswati.

Just sunlight cannot have an existence independent of the sun itself, a Hindu deity does not have a separate and independent existence from the Supreme Being.

Thus, Hindu worship of deities is monotheistic polytheism and not simple polytheism.

-Marion Kinder, Manchester ( Daily Mail, Saturday, 3rd Feb. 2001; Answers to Correspondents)

Xxxx  subham xxxx

 Tags- Number 33, Avesta, Zoroastrian